Page 1

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R ., a native of Greenwich, Connecticut, and a graduate of Yale University, moved to the Berkshires in 1962. As past chairman of the Lenox Historical Commission and the Tanglewood Council, and as a member of the Naumkeag committee, he has worked to preserve several of the houses described in this volume. He lives in Lenox, Massachusetts.

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER spent most of her childhood in Lenox, Massachusetts, in the house her grandparents bought in 1906. A graduate of Vassar College, she has worked for the New York State Historic Preservation Office in Albany and has since contributed to a number of exhibitions and publications, most recently Hawthorne’s Lenox (2008) and Architects in Albany (2010). She lives in Tyringham, Massachusetts with her husband George.

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE An Elegant Wilderness: Great Camps and Grand Lodges of the Adirondacks, 1855–1935 GLADYS MONTGOMERY 2011 Houses of the Hamptons, 1880–1930 GARY LAWRANCE AND ANNE SURCHIN 2007

Palm Beach Houses, 1900–1940 GARY LAWRANCE AND RICHARD MARCHAND 2013

1870 –1930 REVISED EDITION

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1870 –1930 R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . AND C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER The scenic hills of the Berkshires, with their beautiful lakes, clean air, and spectacular autumn foliage, have provided a

Bostonians since the 19th century. In Lenox and Stockbridge and surrounding communities, grand houses were built by the nation’s leading architects. Here the creators of America’s great fortunes communed, played, and cut deals. Too far from the cities to be considered suburban, the estates had the feeling of true country seats in the European manner. Illustrated with over 300 photographs and floor plans, Houses of the Berkshires, 1870–1930, surveys 37 of the great country houses, including Naumkeag, Wheatleigh, Tanglewood, Blantyre, and the Mount. The resort area’s pioneer visitors, in the 1840s, were intellectuals: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, the actress Fanny Kemble and the painter Thomas Cole, among others. Patrons soon followed, hiring the best

There are not many places in America that combine architecture, ambition, and nature in such abundance, but I cannot think of a combination of riches that is more American. —S AMUEL G. W HITE

architects from New York and Boston, along with some remarkably able local practitioners, to build magnificent “cottages” and elaborate gardens and greenhouses. This revised, expanded edition reflects new research since the original publication in 2006. With two additional chapters and almost two dozen new photographs, Houses of the Berkshires is an informative architectural history of the great American resort, an elegant photographic tour of some of the region’s most beautiful houses, and an unmatched chronicle of this distinctive social,

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HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

respite from urban living for wealthy New Yorkers and

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

FORTHCOMING Houses of Hawaii, 1850–1950 D ON H IBBARD 2013

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R .

AND

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

ACANTHUS PRESS

artistic, and literary colony and now vanished way of life.

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HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R ., a native of Greenwich, Connecticut, and a graduate of Yale University, moved to the Berkshires in 1962. As past chairman of the Lenox Historical Commission and the Tanglewood Council, and as a member of the Naumkeag committee, he has worked to preserve several of the houses described in this volume. He lives in Lenox, Massachusetts.

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER spent most of her childhood in Lenox, Massachusetts, in the house her grandparents bought in 1906. A graduate of Vassar College, she has worked for the New York State Historic Preservation Office in Albany and has since contributed to a number of exhibitions and publications, most recently Hawthorne’s Lenox (2008) and Architects in Albany (2010). She lives in Tyringham, Massachusetts with her husband George.

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE An Elegant Wilderness: Great Camps and Grand Lodges of the Adirondacks, 1855–1935 GLADYS MONTGOMERY 2011 Houses of the Hamptons, 1880–1930 GARY LAWRANCE AND ANNE SURCHIN 2007

Palm Beach Houses, 1900–1940 GARY LAWRANCE AND RICHARD MARCHAND 2013

1870 –1930 REVISED EDITION

PRINTED IN CHINA

1870 –1930 R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . AND C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER The scenic hills of the Berkshires, with their beautiful lakes, clean air, and spectacular autumn foliage, have provided a

Bostonians since the 19th century. In Lenox and Stockbridge and surrounding communities, grand houses were built by the nation’s leading architects. Here the creators of America’s great fortunes communed, played, and cut deals. Too far from the cities to be considered suburban, the estates had the feeling of true country seats in the European manner. Illustrated with over 300 photographs and floor plans, Houses of the Berkshires, 1870–1930, surveys 37 of the great country houses, including Naumkeag, Wheatleigh, Tanglewood, Blantyre, and the Mount. The resort area’s pioneer visitors, in the 1840s, were intellectuals: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, the actress Fanny Kemble and the painter Thomas Cole, among others. Patrons soon followed, hiring the best

There are not many places in America that combine architecture, ambition, and nature in such abundance, but I cannot think of a combination of riches that is more American. —S AMUEL G. W HITE

architects from New York and Boston, along with some remarkably able local practitioners, to build magnificent “cottages” and elaborate gardens and greenhouses. This revised, expanded edition reflects new research since the original publication in 2006. With two additional chapters and almost two dozen new photographs, Houses of the Berkshires is an informative architectural history of the great American resort, an elegant photographic tour of some of the region’s most beautiful houses, and an unmatched chronicle of this distinctive social,

FRONT COVER: LOGGIA AT WHEATLEIGH BACK COVER: NAUMKEAG

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

respite from urban living for wealthy New Yorkers and

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

FORTHCOMING Houses of Hawaii, 1850–1950 D ON H IBBARD 2013

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R .

AND

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

ACANTHUS PRESS

artistic, and literary colony and now vanished way of life.

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THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE



HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES 1870–1930


THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE



HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES 1870–1930 REVISED EDITION

RICHARD S. JACKSON JR. AND CORNELIA BROOKE GILDER FOREWORD BY SAMUEL G. WHITE

A CANTHUS P RESS NEW YORK : 2011


ACANTHUS PRESS, LLC 1133 BROADWAY, STE. 1229 NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10010 WWW.ACANTHUSPRESS.COM 212-414-0108

COPYRIGHT Š 2006, 2011, RICHARD S. JACKSON JR. AND CORNELIA BROOKE GILDER Every reasonable attempt has been made to identify the owners of copyright. Errors of omission will be corrected in subsequent printings of this work. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in any part (except by reviewers for the public press) without written permission from the publisher. Excerpts published with permission of the Houghton Library, Harvard University; Princeton University Library; Smith College Library; and Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jackson, Richard S., 1943Houses of the Berkshires : 1870-1930 / by Richard S. Jackson, Jr. and Cornelia Brooke Gilder. -- Rev. and expanded ed. p. cm. -- (Architecture of leisure) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-926494-82-4 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Country homes--Massachusetts--Berkshire Hills--History--19th century. 2. Country homes--Massachusetts--Berkshire Hills--History--20th century. I. Gilder, Cornelia Brooke. II. Title. NA7613.M4J23 2011 728'.37097441--dc22 2011000232

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NOTE TO THE REVISED EDITION



This expanded edition reflects new research since the original publication of 2006. Further names of architects have come to light, allowing us to remove the word “unknown” from several properties, including Tanglewood. We have also unearthed additional photographs, making it possible to upgrade the images in several chapters. Properties have changed hands, notably the longtime resort at Eastover, which is no longer operated by the descendants of George Bisacca. Inclusion of any house always rests on the availability of information and illustrations. We are fortunate to have found enough material on two significant properties that were not in the first edition: Brookside, in Great Barrington, and Cherry Hill in Stockbridge. Both have fascinating historical and architectural stories. We continue to explore and relish the history of our region, where we still live.We always welcome new information from our readers and ask that you kindly e-mail it to us at housesofberkshires@gmail.com. —Richard S. Jackson Jr. & Cornelia Brooke Gilder January 2011

[5]


CONTENTS



GUSTY GABLES

Foreword [ 9 ]

Residence of Mary de Peyster Carey

Acknowledgments [ 11 ]

[ 50 ]

Introduction [ 13 ]

ALLEN WINDEN Residence of Charles Lanier

TANGLEWOOD

and Sarah Egleston Lanier

Residence of William Aspinwall Tappan

[ 54 ]

and Caroline Sturgis Tappan [ 26 ]

COLDBROOK Residence of John S. Barnes and Susan Hayes Barnes

BONNIE BRAE

[ 60 ]

Residence of Henry Ivison and Sarah B. Ivison [ 32 ]

MERRYWOOD Residence of Charles Bullard

WINDYSIDE

[ 66 ]

Residence of Richard Cranch Greenleaf and Adeline Stone Greenleaf

SUNNYRIDGE

[ 39 ]

Residence of George Winthrop Folsom and Frances Fuller Folsom

OAKWOOD

[ 71 ]

Residence of Samuel Gray Ward and Anna Barker Ward [ 44 ]

THE HOMESTEAD Residence of Charles Follen McKim and Julia Amory Appleton McKim [ 77 ]

[6]


NAUMKEAG

WHEATLEIGH

Residence of Joseph Hodges Choate

Residence of Henry Harvey Cook and Mary McCay Cook,

and Caroline Dutcher Choate

Carlos de Heredia and Georgie Cook de Heredia

[ 82 ]

[ 135 ]

DEEPDENE

WYNDHURST

Residence of Francis Parker Kinnicutt

Residence of John Sloane and Adela Berry Sloane

and Eleanora Kissel Kinnicutt

[ 144 ]

[ 91 ] SHADOW BROOK ELM COURT

Residence of Anson Phelps Stokes

Residence of William Douglas Sloane

and Helen Louisa Phelps Stokes

and Emily Vanderbilt Sloane

[ 151 ]

[ 97 ] LAKESIDE KELLOGG TERRACE

Residence of Charles Astor Bristed

Residence of Mary Frances Sherwood Hopkins

and Mary Rosa Donnelly Bristed

[ 105 ]

[ 161 ]

ERSKINE PARK

CHERRY HILL

Residence of George Westinghouse

Residence of Dr. Charles McBurney

and Marguerite Erskine Walker Westinghouse

and Margaret Weston McBurney

[ 112 ]

[ 168 ]

BELVOIR TERRACE

BELLEFONTAINE

Residence of Morris Ketchum Jesup

Residence of Giraud Foster and Jean Van Nest Foster

and Maria De Witt Jesup

[ 174 ]

[ 120 ] CHESTERWOOD VENTFORT HALL

Residence of Daniel Chester French

Residence of George Hale Morgan

and Mary Adams French

and Sarah Spencer Morgan

[ 185 ]

[ 127 ]

[7]


THE MOUNT

GROTON PLACE

Residence of Edward Robbins Wharton

Residence of Grenville Lindall Winthrop

and Edith Newbold Jones Wharton

[ 242 ]

[ 194 ] BROOKHURST VALLEYHEAD

Residence of Newbold Morris

Residence of J. Frederic Schenck

and Helen Schermerhorn Kingsland Morris

and Mary Louisa Stone Schenck

[ 246 ]

[ 204 ] HIGH LAWN BLANTYRE

Residence of William Bradhurst Osgood Field

Residence of Robert Warden Paterson

and Lila Vanderbilt Sloane Field

and Marie Louise Fahys Paterson

[ 258 ]

[ 209 ] EASTOVER OVERLEE

Residence of Harris Fahnstock

Residence of Samuel Frothingham

and Mabel Metcalf Fahnstock

and Elinor Meyer Frothingham

[ 264 ]

[ 217 ] ASHINTULLY PINE NEEDLES

Residence of Robb de Peyster Tytus

Residence of George Baty Blake

and Grace Seeley Henop Tytus

and Margaret Hunnewell Blake

[ 269 ]

[ 224 ] STONOVER SPRING LAWN

Residence of Mary and Gertrude Parsons

Residence of John Ernest Alexandre

[ 277 ]

and Helen Webb Alexandre [ 229 ]

Portfolio of Houses [ 285 ]

BROOKSIDE

Architects’ Biographies [ 292 ]

Residence of William Hall Walker

Notes [ 299 ]

and Carrie Jones Walker

Bibliography [ 311 ]

[ 236 ]

Index [ 315 ] Photo Credits [ 323 ]

[8]


FOREWORD



original builders for an earlier, presumably better, time and place. In assessing these houses in terms of artistic accomplishment, it is important to consider the way they are integrated into the landscape. Their designers conceived and developed them in relation to a landscape of valleys, hills, and lakes. That context influenced the site planning, site circulation, and planting of each property in its entirety, as well as the siting, massing, orientation, and even the architectural images of the manor houses themselves. The biggest estates are elaborate compositions involving formal and informal gardens, terracing and natural slopes, open space and forest, and multiple outbuildings. Greenhouses, barns, silos, and stables (later to be converted to garages) were sited and designed to reflect a dynamic relationship between buildings and nature in which architecture actively engages the landscape. Porches, balconies, and terraces animate the massing and simultaneously exploit and evoke distant views. Enriched ornament animates building facades. Wings inflect in response to the infinite wilderness. Yet for all of their eccentric individual characteristics, these manor houses are subordinate to the Berkshires, the real spectacle in this equation and one of America’s most beautiful natural landscapes. The buildings are worthy architectural documents, both in themselves and as descendents of Andrea Palladio’s villas published in the Quattro Libri. They were planned and designed to solve the problem of private living on a substantial public scale, and they reconcile program with

THE HISTORY of the American country house between the Civil War and World War I reflects a number of factors that are social and artistic in origin but which in the aggregate can be expressed in terms of an economic equation. On the “demand” side we have the rise of a moneyed leisure class with escalating cultural ambitions and a taste for artifacts bearing a European provenance, and on the “supply” side we see the establishment of architecture as a respectable American profession, with its farm system in a small number of famous offices and its finishing school at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The intersection of ambitious clients with versatile architects achieved a significant physical presence in a number of cities and resorts, and particularly in one small corner of Massachusetts. Within a few hundred square miles comprising Lenox and Stockbridge, the best architects from New York and Boston, plus some remarkably able local practitioners, invented a unique and uniquely American landscape of great country houses. Many of those houses are still there for us to enjoy, although we are not always certain how to appreciate them. If it is difficult to imagine living in a dwelling based on (and not much smaller than) Henry VIII’s Hampton Court, it is easier to approach these structures as cultural artifacts. Even the casual observer can draw perfectly valid conclusions about the structure and activities of modern society in the Gilded Age, including its reluctance to fully embrace, at least in its choice of architectural styles, the modern itself. The preponderance of English medieval prototypes betrays powerful nostalgia on the part of the

[9]


HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

wonderful as the main houses. Wilson’s attractive farm structures at Shadow Brook were carefully calibrated to support the hierarchical primacy of the main house, and they have survived. In addition to plenty of evidence of good architectural manners, there are some powerful examples of great architectural design. A tour around the Stockbridge Bowl features Belvoir Terrace’s muscular porch, Wheatleigh’s lyrical friezes, and, in Windyside’s Music Room, a cyclopean, hallucinogenic, and thoroughly unforgettable fireplace. There are not many places in America that combine architecture, ambition, and nature in such abundance, but I cannot think of a combination of riches that is more American. —Samuel G. White

image, function with spirit, and glamour with domesticity. An architect today might question Helen Stokes’ need for 17 public rooms on the ground floor of Shadow Brook, but we must salute her architect, H. Neill Wilson of Pittsfield, for making it all seem natural. The variety and fluency of styles were further manifestations of the architects’ skill. Both the interiors and exterior of Hoppin & Koen’s Eastover are literate adaptations of James River plantation houses, themselves an adaptation of the work of Christopher Wren. Robert H. Robertson’s Blantyre is convincingly medieval in detail even if thoroughly modern in arrangement. For a while, area clients’ enthusiasm extended to the modern in image, as well, and the Berkshires were an important breeding ground for Charles McKim’s explorations of the Shingle style. The service buildings were just as

[ 10 ]


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



Jonathan Harding and Russell Flinchum of the library at the Century Association. Richard Guy Wilson, Keith Morgan, Pauline Metcalf, Catha Rambusch, John L. Brooke, Sam and Elizabeth White all gave us general aid and encouragement. Locally the late Scott Marshall, Tjasa Sprague, Kevin Sprague, Jonas and Betsy Dovydenas, and Nancy Marasco of the Lenox Historical Society found us rare pictures and shared their expertise. For their help and material on specific houses: Daphne Brooks Prout, William Higgins, Bridget Carr of the Boston Symphony Orchestra Archives (Tanglewood), Margaret Parsons Brown, Arthur Dutil (Bonnie Brae), Dr. Roger Snow (Windyside), Dr. Gray Thoron (Oakwood), Carl Sprague, (Gusty Gables), Diana Lanier Smith, Dorothy Wingett Sears, Tom Parker (Allen Winden), Cynthia S. Martin (Coldbrook), Jeff Winslow, Sally Bell (Merrywood), Joseph Bigelow III, the late George Bigelow, the late Florence Voohrees Fish, Alida Fish, Susan Hockaday Jones (Sunnyridge), Thomas Hayes, Nancy Meyer Hovey (The Homestead), Will Garrison of the Trustees of Reservations (Naumkeag), Michael Kinnicutt, Maisie Houghton, Susan Crater, Dede Duffin Swindlehurst and Sandra Chow (Deepdene), Rachel Hammond Breck, Bob and Sonya Berle, Lila Wilde Berle, Stephen E. Novak, archivist of Augustus C. Long Health Sciences Library at Columbia University, May Callas (Elm Court) David Rutstein, Bernard Drew, Marlene Drew, director of the Mason Library (Kellogg Terrace), Ellen and Chelsea Pollen, George Westinghouse IV (Erskine Park), Bryce

GATHERING the information in this book involved the help of a great many people—scholars, staff members of numerous institutions, descendants of families who built or worked in the houses. The following people formed an essential chain of kindnesses, which we wish to acknowledge. Judy Conklin Peters, longtime librarian at the Lenox Library participated in the research process in countless ways. We are also grateful to her successors at the reference desk of the Lenox Library Association, Amy Lafave and Adrienne Wesson as well as director Denis Lesieur. Another generous local institution, The Berkshire Eagle, opened to us its superb archives through features editor Charles Bonenti, photo editor Ben Garver and librarian Grace McMahon. We thank Georgia Massucco and her staff at the Lee Library Association, the wonderful team at the Local History Department of the Berkshire Athenaeum, Barbara Allen of the Historical Collection of the Stockbridge Library Association, Norma Purdy, librarian of the Berkshire Historical Society at Arrowhead, and Burd Schlessinger at the Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College. Important discoveries beyond the Berkshires were made with the help of Janice Chadbourne of the Fine Arts Department of the Boston Public Library, Janet Parks and Julie Tozer of the Avery Architectural Library’s Drawing and Archives at Columbia, Carrie McDade of the Environmental Design Archives at the University of California, Berkeley, Mike Dosch of the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site in Brookline, MA, Lorna Condon of Historic New England (formerly SPNEA) and

[ 11 ]


HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

With the sharp eye of an outsider, Elizabeth Miles Montgomery, John Mesick, Louisa Gilder and Vivi Mannuzza read some or all of the manuscript at various stages giving us invaluable suggestions. Technical crises were averted by James H. Brooke, Richard, Mellie, and Nannina Gilder. In the production of the book: copy editor Angela Buckley for her ability to wring clarity out of the most awkward of our phrases, Polly Franchini for her cheerful collaboration as she laid out the pages, William Morrison for his deep knowledge of architectural periodicals, Richard Marchand for going beyond producing beautiful floor plans and providing a trove of useful material, and Barry Cenower, publisher of Acanthus Press for conceiving this volume and shepherding it to completion. To the many others who helped, whose names are omitted through inadvertence or lack of space, equal thanks and apologies. This volume was made possible by many contributions. We remember the eyewitnesses, participants at the center of the life described here, who imparted so much of it to us over the years, particularly the late Grace Bristed Jackson, Symphorosa Bristed Livermore and Louisa Ludlow Brooke. We owe special thanks and dedicate this book to our most important editors, by turns solicitous and stern, Linda Wesselman Jackson and George Gilder.

Hill, Nancy Goldberg (Belvoir Terrace), Joan Olshansky (Ventfort Hall), Amy Sloane Vance (Wyndhurst), Mary Stokes Waller (Shadow Brook), Hans and Kate Morris, Gerard McBurney, and Nick and Clover Swann (Cherry Hill), Jane Foster (Bellefontaine), Wanda Styka, archivist and Linda Wesselman Jackson, curator (Chesterwood), Erica Donnis, curator of The Mount, Katherine Fausset of the Edith Wharton Literary Estate (The Mount), the late Kathleen Channing and her nieces and nephew Julia Channing Bell, Aleid and Will Channing (Valleyhead), Ann Fitzpatrick Brown and Jennifer Atkinson (Blantyre), Donald Frothingham, Penny Goodkind, Samuel Frothingham Manning, Marion Manning, Peter Lopenzina (Overlee), Jennie Butler (Pine Needles), Michael Huxley, Marjorie Pearson (Spring Lawn), John Trevor, Stephan Wolohojian of the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard, David Brooke, Edward Kirby (Groton Place), Helen Morris Scorsese, Kinney and Linda Frelinghuysen and the staff of the Frelinghuysen/Morris Museum (Brookhurst), Gary T. Leveille, Bernard A. Drew, Jonathan Lev, Louis Bordman, and Oliver Palma (Brookside), John O. Field, (High Lawn), Dorothy Bisacca Winsor (Eastover), Katharine McLennan, Holly McLennan Ketron (Ashintully), Helen Suzette Alsop, Derek Ostragard, Marcie Brown (Stonover) and Mason Harding, Mary Maclean, Mosette Broderick, Celia Kittredge, Fred Harwood, and Katharine Glass Hayes (Portfolio), Tyler Resch and Taya S. Dixon contributed to the architects biographies.

—Richard S. Jackson Jr. and Cornelia Brooke Gilder

[ 12 ]


INTRODUCTION



air. Tenants who rented the separate cottages offered by many American resort hotels became known as “cottagers,” a name that stuck long after the cottagers were building their own palatial residences in the Berkshires. The first urban transplants to create a country estate here were Samuel Gray Ward (1817–1907) and his wife, Anna. His father represented Barings Bank in Boston. Although rich, the Wards were also much-admired younger members of Ralph Waldo Emerson’s transcendentalist circle in Concord. Ward published poetry and essays on landscape. His Harvard friend Willie Sedgwick’s charming parents lived in Lenox. Charles and Elizabeth Sedgwick gathered at their dinner table intellectual leaders of the era such as Reverend William Ellery Channing, actress Fanny Kemble, and painter Thomas Cole. Charles’ sister, novelist Catharine Sedgwick, cooked and skillfully steered the conversation. This was an unpretentious, highly intellectual community that the Wards wanted to join. They chose a spectacular site overlooking Lake Mahkeenac in 1844, and they hired Richard Upjohn, who was then building Trinity Church in New York, to create Highwood, a center for a year-round country life. Ward returned reluctantly to banking in Boston in 1850 and built a seaside house in Newport that was later bought by Edith Wharton. The Wards’ pioneering role in Berkshire resort architecture was not finished, however. In 1876 they hired Charles McKim to design a graceful Shingle style house, Oakwood, across the lake from Highwood. The Anson Phelps Stokes acquired the Oakwood property in the 1890s and built the huge Shadow Brook,

SOMETIME in the 20th century, the Berkshires became plural. In the beginning, and through the era described in this book, the area was known as Berkshire, in the manner of an English county, though pronounced “Burkshire” rather than “Barkshire.” Because the Hudson and the Connecticut rivers, which functioned as prime highways of colonial America, flowed north and south, this westernmost county of Massachusetts was not settled by Europeans until well into the 18th century. The first east–west road was cut by General Henry Knox’s troops in order to haul cannon captured at Ticonderoga to defend Boston at the outset of the Revolution. Until the middle of the 19th century, with the exception of the excitement of Shays’ Rebellion, this area of rocky farms, weather-beaten villages, and small local industries was both insular and peaceful. Then these scenic hills were discovered by the world outside. “The Lenox and Stockbridge region is Berkshire in its best dress suit and evening gown,” reported the 1939 WPA guide The Berkshire Hills.1 These two bucolic and historic villages became fashionable, first among artists and writers and their enlightened patrons, and then with the full tide of pleasure-seeking 19th-century plutocracy. Lenox and Stockbridge meant Berkshire to (capital “S”) Society, and only two of the estates in this volume were located outside their boundaries. All the properties described contributed socially and architecturally to the creation of this important American resort that was often called “the inland Newport.” Hotels like the Curtis in Lenox and the Red Lion Inn in Stockbridge drew early visitors in search of clear country

[ 13 ]


HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

Lake Mahkeenac, as seen from Shadow Brook

As will become evident in the pages that follow, from the outset of the genteel invasion from New York City and, to a lesser degree, Boston, the nation’s most prestigious architects had a hand in fostering the Berkshires as a resort. The era of the area’s ascendancy, from the Civil War to World War I, can be roughly divided into three architectural periods. Necessarily overlapping, and mirroring the nationwide universe of sophisticated architects and patrons, they could be labeled the Age of Nativist Adaptations (1840–80), the Age of Transitional Eclecticism (1880–1900), and the Age of Archeological Correctness (1900–20). If indeed the architecture and the estates, though wonderful and varied, were not unique, why did people from New York and Boston come to the Berkshires? In the late 19th century it was still possible to acquire vast domains in the suburbs. The Rockefellers’ 3,500-acre property in Westchester County was and is an anomaly, but Jay Gould’s

which was at the time the largest house in America.2 The McKim structure’s ignominious fate was to be converted into stables. It later burned. Such profligacy lay in the future. Until the 1870s, most Berkshire country houses were modest wooden structures, usually in the Stick or Second Empire styles. There were exceptions. Linwood, the multigabled stone Gothic Revival house of New York lawyer Charles E. Butler (1818–97), was built in 1859 when he married Susan Sedgwick (1828–83), a niece of the Wards’ friends. It was probably designed by Calvert Vaux, as an almost identical design appears in Vaux’s 1857 book Villas and Cottages. The Dormers, the only Berkshire country house to be designed by its owner, is an 1868 diminutive brick chateau by Richard T. Auchmuty Jr. A Civil War colonel who had been a partner in the New York architectural firm of James Renwick, he came to Lenox after his marriage to New York heiress Ellen Schermerhorn.

[ 14 ]


INTRODUCTION

Charles Astor Bristed family

the city made Lenox or Stockbridge feel more like the real country. The area was certainly a resort, in the sense that similar people flocked together there for recreation. Too far from the cities to be considered suburban, the estates had the feeling of true country seats in the European manner. For the early “rusticators,” and for families like the Charles Astor Bristeds of Lakeside, who were reared in Europe, they served as primary homesteads. For urban commuters they provided psychic homesteads. We tend to forget how easily and often people of means traveled at the turn of the 20th century. Though psychologically distant, Lenox and Stockbridge were an easy daytrip by train from New York. Boarding the Fall River Line boat on Friday night in New York and arriving rested near Newport the next morning, and overnighting on the return trip from Sunday night to Monday, made weekends in Rhode Island easy. Sleeping cars made it possible for Dr. Seward Webb (he was president of the Wagner Palace Car Company) to travel routinely to his distant kingdom in Shelburne, Vermont, for the day. Train travel was so much more pleasant than being stuck in today’s traffic on the Long Island Expressway. All it took was the discipline and

Lyndhurst nearby had 500 acres, and the Whitelaw Reids’ Ophir Hall had 1,000. Long Island was full of large estates where foxes were hunted and money-losing farm complexes sent eggs to the owners’ town houses. To begin with, the Berkshire Hills, in addition to their clear mountain air—a prized 19th-century curative—were beautiful. The scenery was the initial draw for Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Fanny Kemble, and also for their patrons, like Samuel Gray Ward. Long after ballrooms and footmen had displaced this sort of artistic vanguard from Newport, the Berkshires maintained the vaguely creative aura established by the Sedgwicks. Edith Wharton, arriving in Lenox years later, was, after all, merely moving from one resort full of cousins and peers to another, but she thought that she was escaping from the “watering place trivialities” of Newport to a place where she could get on with her writing. Looking for a simple country life, many of the early arrivals came year-round. Even as the estates got grander and Society made them more seasonal, architectural farm groups and faux agriculture were more prevalent in the Berkshires than in suburban estates. The very distance from

[ 15 ]


HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

Croquet at Shadow Brook

miles on toboggans from Trinity Episcopal Church in Lenox to St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Stockbridge. Miss Rosamond Dixey of Boston steered the first toboggan, which went at times over fences buried deep in five feet of snow. The party slid over the estates of George H. Morgan, Charles Lanier, William D. Sloane, Samuel Frothingham, Mrs. George Westinghouse and Charles S. Mellen.” 3 A year later, in her 1911 memoirs Recollections Grave and Gay, Mrs. Burton Harrison wrote, “Our annual delight was the journey to Lenox, where we early contracted the habit of going in summer-time, and settling down there for three months. . . . It is hard to say which is the most beautiful season at Lenox, the early summer . . . or in autumn.”4 A resort needs a high season, a time when the fashionable choose to visit. Although its country seat role encompassed all seasons, Berkshire played its resort role in the autumn. The spectacular foliage was the main draw. The annual September Tub Parade, when the cottagers

organization to adhere to schedules and to remember to alert a chauffeur for each end of the journey. Trans-Atlantic traffic was an extension of this process. Dr. Henry P. Jaques of Home Farm, who like the Bristeds shuttled often between Europe and his family seat in Lenox, became a close friend of the White Star Line’s Captain Smith. (But fortunately he was too late to book passage on the captain’s last voyage. Mrs. Giraud Foster of Bellefontaine convinced her husband to delay their return home, and so they too missed the Titanic.) When, amid the annual frenzy of travel by the members of Society, was the Berkshire season? People who had their primary country residences here often came and went all year long. The Anson Phelps Stokes had huge house parties at Shadow Brook over Christmas and New Year’s. “SOCIETY COASTS SIX MILES,” reported The New York Times in February 1910: “For the first time at Lenox a party of Boston and New York society people slid this afternoon six

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INTRODUCTION

Left: Joseph H. Choate; right: Giraud Foster

caused a similar change in the Berkshires, backed by greater climatic logic. One of them was Miss Rosamond Dixey (the pilot of the lead toboggan in the New York Times article cited earlier). She grew up to inherit the 1860s estate that her grandparents had built next to that of their close friends the Samuel Gray Wards. It was called Tanglewood. Rosamond Dixey Brooks and her aunt, Mary Aspinwall Tappan, gave the place in 1937 to the Boston Symphony Orchestra, which operates a music festival there in July and August. Tanglewood and Highwood, the Ward place, both straddle the town line between Lenox and Stockbridge. They have always been considered Lenox estates, as have Shadow Brook, Lakeside, Wheatleigh, and some others that are partially or totally within the township of Stockbridge. Because the two villages are not near the center of the two townships, the Lenox post office is much closer to a large swath of northern Stockbridge. The historic difference between the two towns during the golden resort age had not to do with geography, but with culture. As Stockbridge’s Joseph H. Choate of Naumkeag famously put it, “In Lenox, people are estimated. In Stockbridge they are esteemed.” Mrs. Burton Harrison wrote of the evolution of Lenox’s culture:

rolled down Lenox’s main street in carriages bedecked with flowers from their greenhouses, is often described as marking the end of the summer season. In truth, it marked the beginning of fall, the high season. “Mr. and Mrs. Charles Astor Bristed are among the cottagers who are at the sea shore. They are spending a few weeks at Newport, but will return to Lakeside for the autumn season,” reported Lenox Life in August 1901. The Bristeds owned a house in Newport. The Morris K. Jesups of Belvoir Terrace had a house in Bar Harbor. The Stokes summered at their island camp in the Adirondacks. In August, the Giraud Fosters followed fashion by visiting Mrs. Foster’s sister, who had a palace in Newport desiged by Carrère & Hastings, returning the hospitality in the autumn at Bellefontaine, their own Carrère & Hastings house, in Lenox. Each got a taste of the other’s high season. There was a great deal of travel between resorts, particularly in summer. Summer is a perfectly pleasant season in the Berkshires, with its highland air. The foliage is still a potent draw, but since World War II, the high Berkshire season, at least for tourists, has shifted to the summer. Just as Gerald and Sara Murphy of the Villa America at Cap d’Antibes alone moved the high season of the French Riviera from spring to summer in the 1920s, two people

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HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

Lenox Horse Show

with costly horses, farmyards with stock bearing pedigrees sometimes longer than that of the owner; the dinner-hour moved on to eight o’clock, and lastly came house-partys, “weekends,” and the eternal honk and reek of the motorcar.5

When we first went to Lenox, the lovely hill village had not parted with its old-time characteristics of unpretending hospitality. The people who met there, summer after summer, were of the cultured and refined class of American society, knowing each other intimately, and satisfied to exchange simple entertainments in their pretty picturesque homes. . . . I lived there long enough to see a mighty change. The rural hill-sides and pastures, bought up at fabulous prices, were made the sites of modern villas, most of them handsome and in good taste. The villas were succeeded by little palaces, some repeating the facades and gardens of royal dwellings abroad. Instead of the trim maid-servants appearing in caps and aprons to open doors, one was confronted by lackeys in livery lounging in the halls. Caviare and mousse aux truffes supplanted muffins and waffles. Worth and Callot gowns, cut low and worn with abundant jewels, took the place of dainty muslins made by a little day dressmaker. Stables were filled

One of the first “automobilists” was Courtlandt Field Bishop, whose noisy machine so frightened the horses propelling his more traditional neighbors that the town of Lenox passed an ordinance, aimed at him alone, requiring a five-mile-per-hour speed limit and the use of a flagman when he passed a carriage. In a very different era, Bishop’s daughter, Beatrice Bishop Berle, looked back in her 1983 memoirs and saw from the distance of years the same kind of silly excess in the Lenox of her parents’ day as Joseph Choate had seen from the distance of Stockbridge. Telling of riding with her grandmother and the coachman to deliver fruit from the Bishop greenhouse, she wrote, “There was no need to take peaches to the neighbor across

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INTRODUCTION

the road, since Mrs. Sloan [sic] had a greenhouse of her own, larger than Grand-mere’s, and so did the owners of a ridiculous reproduction of Versailles at the end of an alley of poplars between Stockbridge and Lenox.”6 Of course, such grand European adaptations were not unique to the Berkshires. The house of which Mrs. Berle spoke so disparagingly was the Fosters’ place, Bellefontaine, whose owners, as noted, visited Mrs. Foster’s sister’s equally splendid and derivative palace by the same architects in Newport. Reflecting the constant summer travel between resorts, Adele Sloane, the daughter of Mrs. Berle’s neighbors, wrote in a typical diary entry on July 40, 1893: “I have been home [at Elm Court, Lenox] just a week, and tomorrow I go away again, this time to be gone almost five weeks—first to Bar Harbor, then to Newport, then to Beverly. I am crazy to get to Bar Harbor again. I love the place and everything about it.”7 Bar Harbor had a lot in common with Lenox. After Newport, they were the two other most fashionable resorts of the 1870–1920 golden age. Newport was, in manners and customs, very much a seaside extension of New York City. No more in Newport than in New York would an attractive and popular young lady like Adele Sloane be allowed to spend time with her many beaux without the presence of a chaperone. In Lenox and Bar Harbor this requirement was waived for most activities. Did the more bucolic settings and the spectacular scenery make the difference? Adele Sloane wrote in her diary in Lenox, “Yesterday I rode twentytwo miles with Jay [James Burden, who later became her husband], one of the most beautiful rides up here . . . across the top of Washington Mountain. It was on top of there that we saw the storm blowing up. . . . We were at least twelve miles from home, and there was no place for shelter. . . . Jay made me put on his coat, although I protested as long as I could, and he rode in his thin shirt sleeves, and in five minutes was soaked through. From that time we rode home at a good fast canter, never pulling in the horses up hill or down.”8 Such an adventure, of the kind routinely recounted in Lenox, would in Newport have marked her as being as fast as the horses.

Anson Phelps Stokes in court dress

There were other parallels between Lenox and Bar Harbor at the turn of the 20th century. Just as grand Lenox abutted simpler Stockbridge, loftier Bar Harbor shared Mount Desert Island in Maine with the resorts of Northeast Harbor and Seal Harbor, which were inhabited by an outdoorsy mixture of jolly Philadelphia Quakers and coldroast Boston professors. These two resorts continued to prosper after the precipitous social decline of Bar Harbor into a tourist town after World War I. The Bar Harbor Reading Room did not survive the 1920s, and the 1947 fire, which destroyed so many of the large summer houses, including the one built by Morris K. Jesup of Belvoir Terrace in Lenox, was merely the coup de grâce. The glory days of big-house Lenox petered out also after World War I, although three of the grandest places,

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HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

Fox hunt at Overlee

society today. The only difference is that Lenox, having had so many larger houses, has seen a number of its estates become cultural or educational institutions. Often the same places have undergone multiple adaptive reuses as the smaller nonprofit institutions that initially took them over passed them on to fancy resort hotels, in a way closing the circle of luxury. Lenox and Stockbridge have merged and become a part of a larger entity, the Berkshires, still attracting secondhome owners from the city. Yet recently a gentleman remembered his surprise that as late as the 1950s he had needed to introduce to each other two ladies, one a Schenck/Channing from Lenox, the other a Cabot/Sedgwick from Stockbridge, and each a leading grande dame in her own domain, who had never met. The memoirs of Frederick Vanderbilt Field, whose family occupied High Lawn in 1909, give an excellent

Giraud Foster’s Bellefontaine, Emily Vanderbilt Sloane’s Elm Court, and Georgie de Heredia’s Wheatleigh, were active households into the 1940s, their robust builders outliving both their spouses and their era. There was not the same sort of sharp, wholesale decline as that experienced by Bar Harbor. After 1920, Lenox and Stockbridge, which had never really been that starkly different anyway, simply settled down as a society of comfortable old-timers and were no longer as much of a magnet for flashy new monuments and new money, which did continue to besiege Newport and other rising seaside venues such as the Hamptons and Martha’s Vineyard. Today on Mount Desert Island, Northeast Harbor, and Seal Harbor exist as an almost seamless society, with a very separate Bar Harbor functioning as a tourist center. Lenox and Stockbridge, with Tanglewood concertgoers and other tourists swirling in their midst, are an even more seamless

[ 20 ]


INTRODUCTION

Christmas house party at Shadow Brook

priate underling. There would be so many for lunch and dinner. Guests would be arriving at either the Stockbridge or Hillsdale station and a car should meet them. Master Freddy would be playing tennis at the Blakes at three and should be picked up again at fivethirty. My mother herself wanted to go to England Brothers in Pittsfield for shopping and, on the return, should be left off at her mother’s, and she would walk home from there. After dropping her off, the chauffeur should pick up a basket of fruit at the Elm Court greenhouses. Another car could meanwhile take Mr. Field and three guests to the Stockbridge golf club and wait to bring them home. Mr. and Mrs. So-and so would be coming from New York for the weekend, and Elizabeth should be told to prepare the large guest room. My mother had left a small package with Rose, her maid, which should be delivered to

description of the workings of a great Lenox house of the later period. A large Delano & Aldrich Georgian manor with 13 bedrooms and 8 bathrooms for family and guests, it was a gift to Mr. and Mrs. W. B. O. Field from her parents, the William D. Sloanes of Elm Court. He wrote, “While we children were small, fifteen domestics lived and worked in the house. Two chauffeurs lived in the garage . . . but they ate in the big house. As a result, the total for meals was a minimum of twenty-three, and if we had guests, as we often did, the count went even higher.”9 Field described his mother’s daily meeting with the butler, Charles Harris: Right after Mama’s breakfast, the two met in the great marble hall that bisected the house lengthwise. Their agenda was the day’s events for the household, which Charles would then pass on to the appro-

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W H E AT L E I G H 1893 

Residence of Henry Harvey Cook and Mary McCay Cook; Carlos de Heredia and Georgie Cook de Heredia

Front facade

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W H E AT L E I G H

Lake facade

LAKE MAHKEENAC, at the northern border of Stockbridge near Lenox village, stood in for Lake Como at the lower edge of a vast lawn leading up to Wheatleigh, the 1893 Italian villa designed by Peabody & Stearns for railroad financier H. H. Cook. The Wheatleigh design process provides a perfect example of the easy mutability of historical styles. Robert Swain Peabody (1845–1917) was the firm’s principal designing partner. (John G. Stearns Jr. was primarily an engineer.) Peabody wrote in 1893, “Slight tentative sketches in various styles were made when this house was first talked of, but all interested agreed that the broad surfaces and horizontal lines found in an Italian villa were

best suited to the beautiful rolling country and the shores of the lake where the house was to be placed. The first sketch in this character was suggested by hurried note made from a railroad station in Italy of a certain hillside villa. The first sketch thus produced was scarcely departed from, and the executed work closely resembles it.”1 In 1902, nine years after its construction, The American Architect and Building News published five sketches for Wheatleigh offering similar courtyard plans with outer coatings ranging from French chateau to Scottish baronial to Italian villa, like the final choice. This approach was hardly unique. Richard M. Hunt gave the Cornelius Vanderbilts a rendering of a huge French chateau before they

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Robert Peabody’s stylistic options

settled on a Genoese palace for their Newport house, The Breakers (1895). Wheatleigh is built of buff-colored Roman brick ornamented by lighter-colored terra-cotta. The facade facing the lake and mountain view is pure symmetry. The twostory central block is flanked by twin smaller wings connected by hyphens from which protrude two identical columned pavilions linked by a broad terrace. The main entrance on the other side is directly across a circular drive and courtyard from gateposts flanking an opening in a high circular wall. This facade is not symmetrical, but the solid service wing on the right is balanced by a smaller yet more ornamental columned pavilion ending in

a summerhouse. The effect is similar to that of the entrance facade of McKim, Mead & White’s Commodore William Edgar house of 1884 in Newport, another important transitional design in the move from the Free style to historicism, in that case Colonial Revival, notable for balance in lieu of symmetry and also built of narrow Roman brick. One enters Wheatleigh under a huge glass-and-iron canopy reminiscent of a Hector Guimard cover for a Paris Metro station. The wide central hall into which one steps is big enough to function as a living and stair hall, but the main floor is a strict reflection of the classical axes Peabody studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. A corridor bisects the main hall and connects the principal rooms,

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W H E AT L E I G H

Entrance hall

which also originally connected enfilade along the view facade. On one side of the hall was a long living room, and on the other were the library and the dining room. The main gatehouse is of the same brick, and the other outbuildings repeat the architectural motifs in wood. Henry Harvey Cook (1822–1905), one of eight children of a banker and judge from Bath, New York, married a local girl, Mary McCay, and became a successful merchant and bank president in Bath. In 1875 he moved to New York City, where he prospered in the arcane alchemy of railroad finance, which so often provided a portal to the 19th-

century plutocracy. He was a director of several railroads, including the Union Pacific, and of three New York banks. Cook built a large marble house at the corner of 78th Street and Fifth Avenue, later the site of Horace Trumbauer’s James B. Duke house. Eventually he acquired the entire block between Fifth and Madison avenues and 78th and 79th streets. As he profitably sold lots, he put a height restriction on the block, which holds today, providing a historical integrity to that piece of the city.2 The Cooks had four daughters, one of whom inherited Wheatleigh, which may even have been intended from

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W H E AT L E I G H

Living room

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Dining room

the first as an eventual present to her. The New York Times reported Thursday, February 5, 1891, on the previous day’s wedding at 1 East 78th Street of Miss Georgie Bruce Cook to Signor Carlos Manuel de Heredia of Paris, France. The groom was originally from Cuba, presumably of an old Spanish family, as other publications sporadically referred to him as Count de Heredia. The sometime countess, however, was known socially as Mrs. de Heredia. Why were they married by the rector of St. Thomas Church at home on a Wednesday (albeit in front of a fashionable crowd of friends including the Frederick

Vanderbilts)? Perhaps the answer lies in the fact that she maintained her lifelong Episcopaliansim and he his Catholicism. At her death, Mrs. de Heredia left money to both the Episcopal and Roman Catholic churches in Lenox, the latter in memory of her husband. On May 24, 1893, the Valley Gleaner reported, “Mr. H. H. Cook is occupying the Bacon cottage for the season. His daughter, the Countess de Heredia and her husband are with him. Mr. Peabody of the firm of Peabody & Stearns of Boston has been here this week, talking over plans for Mr. Cook’s new cottage on the hilltop

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W H E AT L E I G H

Loggia

overlooking Stockbridge Bowl [the other name for Lake Mahkeenac]. Ground is already broken, and the work will be pushed to completion.” Peabody’s diary for May 2 records, “Meet H. H. Cook and Bishop [general contractor] arrange contract” and for May 4 states, “Meeting with Cook regarding interior finish of main house.”3 The young couple was in on the planning of Wheatleigh from the beginning. Robert Peabody’s diary for December 30, 1892, reads, “Studied plans with Mr. and Mrs. Heredia [sic] at Cook house. Cook Away. Mr. Olmsted on hand with plans.”4

Frederick Law Olmsted did plan the grounds. He presented several schemes for formal gardens, which were eventually placed to the south, leading on to more natural landscape features. H. H. Cook died in 1905, three years after his wife. Mrs. de Heredia inherited the estate. Her husband died in 1918, and she was an active and popular member of Lenox society during her long widowhood, moving with the season between Wheatleigh and 110 East 70th Street in New York. She was an active churchwoman, and Trinity Church conducted a weekly Sunday-night vespers service

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W H E AT L E I G H

Top: site plan; above: grain harvest

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W H E AT L E I G H

Water tower

in the Wheatleigh gardens during the warmer months from 1921 until wartime gasoline restrictions ended the tradition in 1943. She was one of the founders of the Berkshire Symphonic Festival, the forerunner of Tanglewood. When she died on December 12, 1946, leaving legacies to several long-term estate employees, Mrs. de Heredia was one of the last links to the grand world of her Lenox youth. She had no children and left Wheatleigh to two nieces, who sold the property. It was briefly used by the Boston

Symphony to house students for the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood. Wheatleigh then became an inn under various owners. Today the three gatehouses are privately owned. The carriage and farm barns have been turned into condominiums. Much of the land has been subdivided and developed. The main house of Wheatleigh has recently been buffed into a particularly luxurious hotel, where guests are housed and fed in a manner approaching that to which Mr. Cook and the de Heredias were accustomed.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY



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BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARCHIVED MATERIALS

PERIODICALS

Bowditch Family Papers, Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts.

American Architect American Architect and Building News

Codman Papers, Historic New England, SPNEA Library and Archives, Boston, Massachusetts.

Architectural Record Architectural Review

Farrand Papers, Environmental Design Archives, University of California, Berkeley.

Berkshire Eagle

Fletcher Steele Papers. Library of Congress

Berkshire Resort Topics

Helfman-Seaver family papers, Berkshire County Historical Society, Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

Boston Globe Century Magazine

Historical Collection, Stockbridge Library Association.

Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians

Local History Department, Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

Lee Gleaner and Advocate, later published as Valley Gleaner and Berkshire Gleaner

Morgan Family Papers, Princeton University Library, Manuscripts, Archives and Special Collections.

Lenox Life

Olmsted Archives, FLO National Historic Site, National Park Service, Brookline, Massachusetts.

New York Times

New York Architect

Olmsted Papers, Library of Congress.

New York Tribune

Peabody & Stearns Papers, Fine Arts Department, Boston Public Library.

Pittsfield Sun

Reference Department, Lenox Library Association.

Town and Country

Springfield Republican

Sturgis-Tappan Papers, Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts. Tappan Papers, Houghton Library, Harvard. Tytus Diary, 1904–8. The Trustees of Reservations. Upjohn Papers, New York Public Library. Ward Papers, Houghton Library, Harvard.

[ 314 ]


INDEX



Page numbers in italics indicate illustrations A A Backward Glance, 197 Abraham Lincoln, 186 Adams & Warren, 292 Adams, Lewis Greenleaf, 292 Adams, William, 132, 218, 221, 292 Addams, Charles, 33 Adirondack Mountains, 17, 118, 157, 293 Adirondack sanitarium, 274 Afternoon Garden, Naumkeag, 90 Ages of Transitional Eclecticism, Nativist Adaptations, and Archeological Correctness, 14 Aldrich, Chester Holmes, 294 Aldrich, William T., 292–293 Alexandre Fleet, 230 Alexandre, Anna Remsen, 53, 230 Alexandre, Civilise, 230 Alexandre, Helen Lispenard Webb, 229–230, 234–235 Alexandre, John Ernest, 96, 229–230, 234–235, Allen, Francis R., 169, 297 Allen Winden, 54–59, 61, 67, 68, 207, 293, 296, 298 Altaraz School, 241 Amenhotep III, 270, 274 American Abstract Artists, 257 American Academy in Rome, 294 American Book Company, 34 American Embassy, Paris, 255 American Estates and Gardens, 184 American Free Style, 121, 137, 153, 211 American Gardens, 295 American Institute for Economic Research, 291 American Jersey Cattle Club, 298 American Museum of Natural History, 125

American Renaissance of Architecture, 79 American Revolution, 13 Ananda Hall, 291, 294 André, Edouard François, 295 Aosta, Duke of, 165 Appleton, Alice, 218 Appleton, Julia Amory, 48, 51, 77–81, 86 Architecture School, Columbia University, 294 Armstrong, David Maitland, 218, 292 Armstrong, Edward Maitland, 218, 292 Armstrong, Noel, 292 Arnold Arboretum, 134, 294, 295 Art Deco and Moderne Style, 90 Arts and Crafts Style, 103, 225, 278, 292 Asheville, North Carolina, 100, 152 Ashintully, 201, 228, 265, 269–276, 295 Aspinwall Hotel, 297 Aspinwall Woods, 206 Aston Magna, 291 Astor, Caroline Schermerhorn, 23, 24, 250 Astor, John Jacob, 164 Atatürk, Kemal, 270 Atlantic Monthly, 298 Auchmuty, Richard T. (Jr.), 14, 286, 294, 295, 296 Austen Riggs Center, 171-2, 288, 294 Avalon School, 223 B Bacon, Elizabeth Stone, 42, 206, 287 Bacon, Henry, 187–189, 292 Bacon, William, 42, 287 Bald Head, 55 Bar Harbor Reading Room, 19, 23 Bar Harbor, Maine, 19, 20, 126 Barings Bank, 13 Barings Bank, London, 45 Barnard College, 96

[ 315 ]

Barnes, Charlotte, 64, 65 Barnes, Cornelia, 64 Barnes, Edith, 64 Barnes, James, 64, 65, Barnes, John Sanford, 60, 62, 64, 65 Barnes, Susan Hayes, 60, 61, 64 Barnes, Susie (daughter of Susan), 62 Barnum Museum, 297 Barrett, Nathan, 88, 287, 297 Barrington School for Girls, 111 Bartlett, Truman H., 41 Bascom Lodge, 297 Bayard Cutting Arboretum, 294 Beacon Hill, 79, 148 Beaupre, 289 Beaux Arts Style, 187, 230, 232, 233, 243, 251, 260, 295 Beck Brothers, 207 Beck, Elizabeth, 287 Beckwith, Leonard Forbes, 288 Beckwithsaw, 288 Beecher’s Hill, 61 Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 145 Bellefontaine, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 174–184, 243, 267, 293, 295 Belton House, 201 Belvoir Terrace, 10, 17, 19, 56, 120–126, 152, 216, 293, 297 Benjamin, Asher, 79 Bennington Monument, 297 Berkshire Art Association, 295 Berkshire Country Day School, 159 Berkshire County Savings Bank, 297 Berkshire Eagle, 234 Berkshire Gleaner, 42, 153 Berkshire Hunt, 220, 222 Berkshire Hunt and Country Club, 65, 96, 126,150, 216, 271 Berkshire Museum, 295


INDEX

Berkshire Music Center, 143 Berkshire Resort Topics, 24, 43, 93, 95, 126, 211 Berkshire Symphonic Festival, 143 Berkshires, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 23, 24 Berle, Beatrice Bishop, 18–19 Berle, Robert, 104 Berry, Walter, 202 Bicentennial Elm, 38 Bigelow, Annie, 295 Bigelow, George, 73 Bigelow, Henry Forbes, 226, 292–293 Bigelow, William, 295 Biltmore, 100, 152 Birnbaum, Martin, 245 Bisacca, George, 268 Bishop, Amy Bend, 291 Bishop, Cortlandt Field, 18, 291, 294 Bishop, Florence Field, 287 Blair, Walter D., 175 Blake Steps, Pine Needles, 226 Blake, George Baty, 224–226, 228 Blake, Margaret Hunnewell, 224–226, 228 Blakeman, Birdseye and Anna, 287 Blantyre, 10, 126, 150, 209–216, 220, 297 Block Island, 110 Blue Steps, Naumkeag, 89, 90 Bonnie Brae, 32–38 Bonnie Brier, 288 Bonsal, Roscoe and Mary, 134 Boston Globe, 271 Boston Harbor, 90 Boston Lying-In Hospital, 81 Boston Symphony Orchestra, 17, 27, 30, 143, 285, 290 Boston University, 245 Boston University Tanglewood Institute, 285 Boulton, Margaret, 38 Bowditch, Ernest W., 55, 62, 122, 125, 152–153, 286, 288, 293, 298 Braem, Emily, 286 Braem, Henri, 40, 42, 286 Breakers, The, 100, 137, 293, 296 Brett & Hall, 226, 293 Brett, Franklin, 293 Brick House, 159 Brinckerhoff, Alfred, 298 Bristed, Charles Astor, 15, 15, 17, 23, 161–162, 164–167 Bristed, Charles Astor (the first), 164 Bristed, Grace Ashburner Sedgwick, 17, 164, 165–166 Bristed, Mary Rosa Donnelly, 161, 165 Bristed, Symphorosa, 165–166 Brite & Bacon, 292

Brite, James, 292 British Pacific Properties, 293 Brookhurst (first version), 296 Brookhurst, 200, 246–257, 265, 272, 296 Brooks, Rosamond Dixey, 16, 17, 30 Brookside, 236-41, 298 Brown, Elliott, 271 Brown, William Adams, 121 Buckingham, Kate, Clarence, and Lucy Maud, 290 Bull, Lenges, 284 Bullard, Charles, 66–68 Bullard, Louisa Norton, 67 Bullard, William S., 67, 285 Bulova Watch, 215 Burden, Adele, 260 Burden, Joseph W., 62, 288 Burke, John, 263 Burnett & Hopkins, 259, 263, 293 Burnett, Edward, 293 Butler, Charles E., 14, 86, 285 Butler, Evarts & Southmayd, 83 Butler, Susan Sedgwick, 285 Butler, Virginia, 289 C Cabot, Margaret Blake, 228 California Institute of Technology, 294 Cambridge University, 164 Camp Sagamore, 118 Canton Library, 292 Canyon Ranch, 184 Cap d’Antibes, France, 17 Capability Brown, 293 Cape Morris Jesup, 125 Carey, Mary de Peyster, Jr., 50–53 Carey, Mary de Peyster, Sr., 50–53 Carnegie, Andrew, 159–160 Carolus-Duran, Charles-Emile, 149 Carpenter, J. E. R., 175 Carrère & Hastings, 17, 175, 238, 239, 243, 285, 289, 293 Carrère, John Merven, 238, Cary, Kate, 64 Central Pacific Railroad, 109 Central Park, 267, 296, 298 Chamberlin & Whidden, 292 Channing, Aleid Schenck, 208 Channing, Rev. William Ellery, 13 Charles Lanier dahlia, 57 Cherry Hill, 168-173, 297 Chesterwood, 185–193, 188, 244, 292, 294 Chateaux Frontenac, 296 Chicago, Illinois, 145

[ 316 ]

Chinese Garden, Naumkeag, 90 Choate, Caroline Dutcher, 82, 83, 86, 87 Choate, Joseph Hodges, 17, 18, 22, 37, 61, 82, 83, 86, 87, 96 Choate, Mabel, 86, 88, 90 Choate, Rufus, 83 Civil War, 45–46, 294 Clarke, Adelaide Knox, 289 Clarke, William H., 290 Clarkson, Banyer and Helen, 290 Cleveland, Frances, 48, 129 Clifford, James, 152 Clover Croft, 288, 295 Coaching Club of New York, 267 Cobb, Carolyn, 53 Codman, Ogden, Jr., 76, 195, 200, 201, 202, 247, 286 Codman, Richard, 56, 103, 104 Coldbrook, 60–65, 68, 103, 126, 149, 150, 216, 293, 296 Cole, Howard, 126, 150, 216 Cole, Thomas, 13 Colgate University, 295 Colonial Revival Style, 47, 53, 63, 67–68, 79, 87, 92, 117–118, 137, 162, 165, 189, 205, 207, 294, 296, 297 Colonial Theatre, 297 Columbia Law School, 250 Columbia School of Architecture, 292 Columbia University, 81, 251, 294 Comstock, Anthony, 125 Concord, Massachusetts, 186 Congregational Church, 296 Connecticut River, 13 Consolidation Period Style, 107 Cook, Henry Harvey, 23, 135–136, 138, 140–141 Cook, Mary McCay, 135, 138 Cook, Wilbur David, 293 Coonley, Mr. and Mrs. Prentice L., 291 Copeland & Cleveland, 285 Corcoran Gallery, Washington, DC, 296 Corsair Club, 57 Court of Honor, 187 Court of St. James’s, 86 Craigie House, 170 Cram & Ferguson, 126 Cram, Ralph Adams, 126 Crane, Winthrop Murray, Jr., 292 Cranwell, 65 Cranwell Resort, 65 Cranwell School, 150 Cranwell, Edward, 150 Cresson, Margaret French, 187, 193


INDEX

Crocker, Charles, 109 Cropsey, Charles, 296 Crowninshield, Frederic, 24, 290 Crowninshield, Helen Suzette Fairbanks, 290 Curtis Hotel, 13, 55, 205 Curtis, Joseph, 286 Cutting, William Bayard, 294 D Dahlgren, Eric, 81 Dawson, James Frederick, 104, 293 de Choiseul-Praslin, duc, 34 de Forest, Rev. Jusserand, 223 de Gersdorff, George, 290 de Heredia, Carlos, 135, 140–141 de Heredia, Georgie Cook, 20, 135, 140–141, 143 de Wolfe, Elsie, 195 Deepdene, 24, 42, 91–96, 295 Delano & Aldrich, 21, 76, 103–104, 118, 134, 259–261, 263, 278, 279, 281, 282, 288, 291, 294 Delano, William Adams, 294 Dinard, France, 75 Dingley, 159 Dixey, Ellen Tappan, 28, 30 Dixey, Richard, 30 Dixey, Rosamond, 16, 17, 30 Dome, The, 225 Dormers, The, 14, 286 Dorr, George B., 211, 214 Downing, Emma, 215 Duffin, Dennis, 96 Dumbarton Oaks, 294 Duncan School for Boys, 268 E Eames, Emma, 42 Eastman, George, 238 Eastman Kodak, 238 Eastover, 10, 264–268, 272, 294, 295 Eaton, Ethel, 292 Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 9, 137, 175, 298 Eden Hill, 285 Eden Hill (second house), 289 Edgar, William, 137 Edgecombe, 52, 286, 293, 287 Edison, Thomas, 113, 237 Edith Wharton Restoration, 203 Eisner Camp, 289 Eliot, Charles, 147 Elm Court, 19–21, 23, 61, 65, 73, 79, 97–104, 129, 149, 259, 293, 294, 296, 298 Elms, The, 285

Emerald Necklace, Boston, 296 Emerson, Margaret, 117, 134, 291, 294, 291 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 13, 28, 45, 48 Emerson, William Ralph, 40, 294 Emmet, Lydia Field, 289 Empires of Light, 114 Endicott, William C., 48 England, 83 English Renaissance, 148 Erskine Park, 112–119, Ethan Frome, 195 Ethelwyn, 286 Ethelwynde (second house), 291 Etiquette, 24 Evarts, Southmayd & Choate, 83 Evarts, William M., 83 Eyre, Wilson, 289 F F. L. Ames Gate Lodge, 121 Fahnestock & Company, 267 Fahnestock, Harris, 264–265, 267, 268, 294 Fahnestock, Mabel Metcalf, 264–265, 267, 268 Fairlawn, 286 Fall River Line, 15 Farrand, Beatrix Cadwalader Jones, 104, 202, 247, 265, 267, 291, 294 Farrand, Max, 294 Fathers, Marian, 38, 285, 289 Fehmer, Carl, 40, 294 Fernbrook, 289 Ferree, Barr, 184 Field, David Dudley, 34, 38, 86, 169, 285 Field, Frederick Vanderbilt, 20–21, 262 Field, Henriette Desportes, 34 Field, Lila Vanderbilt Sloane, 21, 103–104, 258–259, 294 Field, Marjorie, 263 Field, Mary, 285 Field, Rev. Henry, 34 Field, Stephen, 37 Field, William Bradhurst Osgood, 21, 258–259, 262–263, 294 First National Bank of New York, 267 Fitz Gibbon, Constantine, 73, 74 Fitzpatrick family, 216 Flick, R. J., 59 Florham, 247 Foley, Sonya, 104 Folly Farm, 291, 294 Folsom, Frances Fuller, 71, 72, 76, 218, 291 Folsom, George Winthrop, 71, 72, 81, 294 Folsom, Georgette, 72, 74, 75

[ 317 ]

Folsom, Helen, 75 Folsom, Marguerite, 72 Folsom, Maud, 294 Forbes sisters, 40 Ford, Henry, 113 Foster, Andrew, 180 Foster, Giraud, 17, 17, 20, 22, 23, 174, 176, 180 Foster, Giraud Van Nest, 180, 184 Foster, Jean Van Nest, 16, 174, 180 Foxhollow School, 118 Free style, 202, 211 Freer, Charles, 291 Frelinghuysen Cottage, 297 Frelinghuysen House, 287 Frelinghuysen, Matilda Griswold, 287 French Riviera, 17 French, Daniel Chester, 76, 185–189, 193, 244, 292 French, Henry Flagg, 186 French, Margaret, 187, 193 French, Mary Adams, 185, 187, 193 French, Prentiss, 290 Frothingham, Elinor Meyer, 217–218, 220–221 Frothingham, Helen, 220, 221 Frothingham, Samuel, 16, 68, 208, 217–218, 220–221, 223 Frothingham, Samuel, Jr., 221 Fuller, Margaret, 45 Furness, Clementina, 52, 286 G Gabriel, Ange-Jacques, 175 Gambrill, Mrs. Richard, 184 Garrett, Edmund, 241 Gates, Bill, 113 Gayler, Julius F., 244 Geiffert, Alfred, Jr., 298 General Electric (Corp.), 237-8 Gericke, Wilhelm, 30 Gibson, Grinling, 267 Gibson, Robert W., 288 Gilded Age, 9, 28, 223 Gilded Age Lenox, 45, 296 Gilmore, Charles, 257 Gilmore, Clinton, 96 Glad Hill, 220 Gleaner and Advocate, 33 Glendale, Ohio, 298 Glen Eyre, 115 Goddard Chapel, Tufts University, 297 Godkin, Edwin L., 53 Gorman, Frank, 284


INDEX

Gould, Jay, 14–15 Grace Church, New York, 296 Grafton Hall, Williams College, 295 Grand Cascapedia River, 215 Grand Hotel, Rome, 59 Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, 293 Great Barrington, 83, 107, 109, 110, 289 Great Barrington Savings Bank, 297 Great Depression, 166, 172 Greenleaf, Adeline Emma Stone, 39–40, 206, 294, 296 Greenleaf, Alice, 292 Greenleaf, Richard Cranch, 39–40, 42–43, 96, 208, 218, 294, 297 Griffith, D. W., 216 Grille Room (Lenox Club), 43 Griswold, William, 150 Groton School, 38 Groton Place, 242–245, 293 Guimard, Hector, 137 Gusty Gables, 50–53, 295 H Hague, The, 73 Haight, Charles Coolidge, 72, 76, 294 Haight, Constance, 72 Haight, Coolidge, 76 Haight, Marguerite Folsom, 72 Haight, Sidney Coolidge, 72, 291 Hall, George Duffield, 293 Hampton Court, 9 Hampton, J. R., 150 Hancock House, 148 Harding & Seaver, 81, 226, 290, 294–295 Harding, George C., 205, 206, 289, 295 Harney, George Edward, 285 Harris, Charles, 21 Harrison, Mrs. Burton, 16, 17–18 Harvard University, 81, 90, 134, 208, 228, 245, 268, 295 Hastings, Thomas, 176, 243, 244, 293 Hatfield House, 211 Haven, George G., 287 Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 15, 29 Hawthorne, Sophia Peabody, 29 Herter Brothers, 109, 293 Higginson, George, 30 Higginson, Henry Lee, 30 High Lawn, 21, 104, 258–263, 278, 293, 294 Highlawn Farm, 263 Highwood, 13, 285 Hillcrest Educational Center, 223, 289 Hillhome, 290

Hiss & Weekes, 290 Holmwood, 291 Home Farm, 16, 206, 289, 294 Home Insurance Company, 111 Homestead, The, 15, 73, 76, 77–81, 86, 93, 107, 158, 218, 295, 296 Hooper, Alice Mason, 292 Hopkins, Alfred, 293 Hopkins, Mark, 108, 109 Hopkins, Mary Frances Sherwood, 83, 105, 108, 109–110, 291 Hopkins, Rev. Samuel, 108 Hopkins, Timothy, 110, 291 Hopper, Edward, 33 Hoppin & Koen, 10, 270, 295 Hoppin, Bayard Cushing, 234–235 Hoppin, Francis L. V., 200, 201, 247, 265, 268, 271, 295 Housatonic River, 172 Hoving, Walter, 38 Hudson River, 13 Hunnewell Medal, 245 Hunt, Richard M., 136 Huntington, Collis P., 108 Huss, John, 133, 287 Hyde Park on the Hudson, 100 Hyde, Georgette Gerard-Varet, 268 I Iasigi, Amy Gore, 288, 295 Immaculate Heart of Mary Seminary, 184 Indian Rock, 169 Inness, George, 45 Interlaken, 287, 298 International Prison Conference, 293 International Railroad Company, 61 Interpreters’ Corps, 166 Isaac Bell House, 52, 53 Ivison, Henry, 32, 34, 37 Ivison, Sarah B., 32, 34, 37 J Jackson, Mrs. C. D., 167 Jacobean Revival Style, 128 James B. Duke House, 138 James Clifford & Sons, 211 James, Henry, 27, 45, 287 Jaques, Caroline Ware, 206, 289 Jaques, Eustace, 206, 208 Jaques, Henry P., 16, 64, 206, 289 Jekyll Island Club, 57 Jekyll Island, Georgia, 215 Jesup Hall, Williams College, 297 Jesup, Maria DeWitt, 120, 121, 125–6, 297

[ 318 ]

Jesup, Morris Ketchum, 17, 19, 23, 56, 62, 81, 96, 120, 121–122, 125–126, 297 John Dewey Academy, 111 John the Baptist, 75–76 Johnson, John D., 287 Jones, Beatrix Cadwalader, 104, 202, 247, 265, 267, 294 Jonnes, Jill, 114 Joseph Eisner Camp Institute for Living Judaism, 241 K Kellog, Morris, 259 Kellogg Terrace, 83, 105–111, 113, 295 Kemble Inn, 287 Kemble, Fanny, 13, 15 Kennedy, Jacqueline, 95 Kerensky, Aleksandr, 270, 281 Kimball Farms Nursing Care Center, 286 King, David, 292 King, Frederick Rhinelander, 257 King, Maud Gwendolyn, 292 King, Moses, 176 Kingsland, Ambrose, 248, 250, 287 Kingsland, George L., 255 Kingsland, Katherine Aspinwall, 287, 296 Kingsland, Marion, 255, 255 Kinnicutt, Eleanora Kissel, 91, 95–96 Kinnicutt, Francis Parker, 42, 43, 91, 92, 95–96 Kissel, Gustav, 96 Kneeland, Adele, 286 Koen, Terrence A., 295 Konkapot Brook, 290 Koussevitzky, Serge, 30, 290 Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health, 160 Krofta, Milos and Maria, 53 Kykuit, 294 L La Guardia Airport, 294 Lake Como, 136 Lake Mahkeenac, 13, 14, 136, 141, 162 Lake Wales Land Company, 293 Lakeside, 15, 17, 22, 151, 152, 161–167, 298 Land’s End, 200 Lanier, Charles, 16, 54, 57, 59, 205, 296 Lanier, Elizabeth, 205 Lanier, Sarah Egleston, 54, 57 Laos, 38 Lathrop Hall, Colgate, 295 Laurel Lake, 63, 115, 218 Leavitt, David, 237 Le Notre, 293


INDEX

Ledyard, Mr. and Mrs. Theodore, 290 Lee, Sarah Starr, 286 Léger, Fernand, 257 Lehr, Harry, 23 Lennox Community Center, 295 Lenox Athenaeum, 291 Lenox Golf Club, 23, 40, 43, 61, 81, 92, 96, 176, 206, 284, 324 Lenox Cricket Club, 23 Lenox Garden Club, 65, 88, 223 Lenox Horse Show, 18, 271 Lenox Horse Show Association, 176 Lenox Library, 53, 176 Lenox Life, 17, 24 Lenox Mountain, 281 Lenox Savings Bank, 216 Lenox Town Hall, 295 Lenox, Massachusetts, 9, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24 Leonard Beckwith House, 298 Leupp, Francis, 115 Lewis, R. W. B., 195, 197 Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, 293 Library of Congress, 296 Lily Pond, 55 Lincoln Memorial, 188 Lincolnshire, England, 201 Lindeberg, H. T., 290 Lindsley, Halstead and Emily Bacon, 291 Linwood, 14, 285 Littell, Emlen T., 294 Livermore, Mrs. George K., 167 Livingstone, David, 215 Livingstone, Mr. and Mrs. Edward McEvers, 288 London, England, 96 Longfellow, A. W., 288 Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 170 Longwood, 298 Loomis, Stanley, 286 Lorillard, Pierre, 296 Louis XIII, 176 Lowell University, 297 Lowell, Guy, 230, 233, 288, 295 Loyal Publication Society, 47 Lusitania, 134 Luxor, Egypt, 270 Lydig, David and Hannah Minturn, 288 Lyndhurst, 15 M M. K. Jesup & Company, 122 M. W. Kellog Company, 259 MacDonald, Dwight, 255

Mad Hatter, 228 Mahaiwe Theatre, 297 Mahkeenac Boating Club, 176 Majestic Theatre, 297 Malawi, 210, 215 Manhattan State Hospital for the Insane, 96 Manning, Helen Frothingham, 294 Marble House, 100 Marquand Collection, 211 Mary Hopkins Hotel, 109 Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst, 293 Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 245 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 186, 297 McAllister, Ward, 23, 24 McBurney, Alice, 171 McBurney, Dr. Charles Heber, 168-171 McBurney, Henry, 171-2 McBurney, Margaret, 168 McConnachie, Alexander, 28 McElfatrick, J.B., 297 McKay, Donald, 180 McKim, Charles Follen, 10, 14, 45, 47, 48, 49, 52, 67, 73, 77–81, 86, 93, 158, 286, 294, 295, 296 McKim, James, 45–46 McKim, Julia Amory Appleton, 45, 51, 77–81, 86 McKim, Mead & White, 51, 56, 107, 109, 137, 189, 287, 295 McKinley, William, 149, 171, 298 McLennan, John Stewart, 272, 274 McNeil Brothers, 129 Mead, William Rutherford, 247, 295 Mellen, Charles S., 16 Melville, Herman, 15 Memphis, TN, 298 Mendes, Henry de Sola, 216 Merrywood, 66–70, 93, 296, 289 Metcalf Hall, Tufts University, 297 Metcalf, Louis, 289 Methuen, Massachusetts, 110 Metropolitan Club, 251 Metropolitan Opera, 167 Meyer, George, 218, 221 Meyer, Heloise, 220, 223 Mission House, 297 Modern Colonial Style, 51 Moksha Foundation, 118, 291 Monthly Club, Lee’s, 271 Monument Mountain, 169, 225 Morgan, George Hale, 16, 127–129, 132–133 Morgan, J. Pierpont, 57, 96, 100, 128

[ 319 ]

Morgan, Junius Spencer, 128, 133 Morgan, Sarah Spencer, 127–129, 132–133 Morris, Augustus Newbold, 250, 255 Morris, Estelle “Suzy” Frelinghuysen, 172, 255, 257 Morris, George L. K., 172, 250–251, 255, 255, 257 Morris, Helen Schermerhorn Kingsland, 246–248, 251, 255, 255 Morris, Lewis, 250 Morris, Newbold, 23, 246–8, 250–251, 255 Morris, Stephen V. C., 255, 255, 257 Morris, William, 57 Morrisania, 250 Mount Desert Island, Maine, 19, 20 Mount, The, 90, 96, 118, 189, 194–203, 228, 239, 247, 262, 265, 267, 271, 281, 294, 295 Mount Greylock, 297 Murphy, Gerald and Sara, 17 Murray Hill, New York, 57 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 295 Museum of the Gilded Age, 134 “Mutiny in the Berkshires,” 257 N Nantucket, 274 National Federation of Music Clubs, 30 National Trust for Historic Preservation, 193 Naumkeag, 17, 22, 37, 82–90, 107, 295, 297 Needham Town Hall, 292 Negresco Hotel, 166 Nemours, 298 Nestledown, 206 New York Chamber of Commerce, 125 New York City Council, 255 New York City Opera Company, 257 New York City, New York, 16, 19, 158, 197 New York County Courthouse, 295 New York Dahlia Show, 57 New York Harbor, 230 New York Public Library, 42nd Street, 293 New York State Penitentiary at Wallkill, 293 New York Stock Exchange, 218 Newport Reading Room, 23 Newport, Rhode Island, 19, 20, 100, 137, 145, 298 Nile River, 96 Nob Hill, 109 Norman Rockwell Museum, 285 North Easton, Massachusetts, 121 Northeast Harbor, Maine, 19, 20 Norton, Connecticut, 159 Norton, Louisa, 67


INDEX

Notable New Yorkers, 176 Nunnery, The, 289 O O’Brien, Dootie, 165 Oakey, Alexander, 286 Oakwood, 13, 44–49, 51, 79, 158, 295 Ogden Farm, 298 Oglesby, Woodson, 216 Oheka, 298 Old Colonial Style, 79 Old Friends, 228 Old Lyme, Connecticut, 70 Oliver Ames House, 294 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 56, 79, 99, 100, 102, 104, 122, 141, 293, 296, 298 Olympics, 208 Ophir Hall, 15 Orchard, The, 298 Oronoque Condominium Association, 287 Osceola, 288, 297 Overlee, 20, 20, 68, 132, 217–223, 281, 292, Overloch, 292 P Palladio, Andrea, 9 Pan American Exposition, 171 Panic of 1907, 114 Paris, France, 255 Parish, Sister, 95 Park Square, Pittsfield, 297 Parker, Carl, 104 Parsons, Adelaide, 38 Parsons, Harriet, 37 Parsons, Henry I., 37 Parsons, Herbert, 281 Parsons, James Anson, 37 Parsons, James Graham, 37–38 Parsons, James Graham, Jr., 38 Parsons, John E., 24, 40, 81, 86, 126, 278 Parsons, Katherine Ivison, 37 Parsons, Margaret Boulton, 38 Parsons, Mary and Gertrude, 76, 277, 278, 281, 284 Paterson, Anne Warden, 215 Paterson, Downing & Company, 215 Paterson, James, 214–215 Paterson, Marie Louise Fahys, 209, 214, 215 Paterson, Robert Warden, 209, 211, 214, 215 Patriarch’s Ball, 24 Patterson, Augusta Owen, 260, 278, 279 Peabody & Stearns, 55, 58, 62, 67, 70, 73, 99, 136, 140, 145, 285

Peabody, Robert Swain, 55, 56, 57, 62, 63, 67, 68, 70, 93, 99, 102, 103, 136, 137, 140–141, 145, 147, 205, 296 Peary Arctic Club, 125 Pembroke House, 134 Pennoyer, Peter, 261 Pentecost, George, 298 Pershing, General, 251 Peter Rabbit, 228 Petit Trianon, 175 Philippine Mission, 268 Phillips Academy, 295 Piccirilli Brothers, 188 Pierre Hotel, 255 Pilgrim’s Progress, 24 Pine Needles, 224–228, 292–293 Pipet, Ernest, 165 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 115 Pittsfield High School, 295 Pittsfield Sun, 53, 80 Platt, Charles, 291, 293 Pleasant Valley Bird Sanctuary, 223, 281 Plumsted, 218 Poplars, The, 220 Post, Emily Price, 24, 296 Post, George B., 286, 297 Post, Tom, 80 Potter, Edward T., 297 Potter, William A., 297 Powers & Sons, 287 Price, Bruce, 24, 92, 296 Prince George, Canada, 293 Princeton, 125, 294 Procter, Thomas, 214 Prospect Hill, 33, 83 Prospect Park, Brooklyn, 296 Pruyn, Robert C., 292, 293 Q Quakers, 19 Quattro Libri, 9 R Rand, Ellen Emmet, 180 Rathbone, John, 145 Rathbun, Charles T., 297 Rattlesnake Mountain, 67, 225 Recollections Grave and Gay, 16 Red Lion Inn, 13, 216, 298 Redwood, 286 Reid, Whitelaw, 15 Renwick, James, 14, 247, 287, 294, 296, 324, Renwick, William Whetten, 296 Reynolds, James, 270

[ 320 ]

Richardson, Henry Hobson, 121, 295 Riggs, Austen, 171 Rimmer, William, 186 Rinn, John Philip, 41, 296 Riverbrook School, 290 Riverside Farm, 290 Robertson, Robert Henderson, 10, 210-1, 297 Rock Lawn, 42 Rockefeller family, 294 Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich, 294 Rocklawn, 206, 287 Rockwood Academy, 223 Rocky Mountains, Canadian, 261 Rome, Italy, 221 Roosevelt Hospital, NY, 170 Rose Garden, Naumkeag, 90 Rotch & Tilden, 121, 126, 132, 287, 288, 297 Rotch Traveling Scholarship, 292, 295, 297 Rotch, Arthur, 53, 121, 132, 133, 297 Rotch, Edith, 53 Rough Point, 145 Round Mountain, 271 Rowland family, 110 Rudell Manufacturing Company, 126 Rundell, Dorothy Lilian (Mrs. Henry McBurney), 172 Rundell, Lionel, 172 Ryan, Thomas Fortune, 109–110 S Saint-Gaudens, Augustus, 187 Salem State College, 297 Samaritan Home for the Aged, 96 San Francisco, California, 109 Sanders readers, 34 Sanderson, George, 257 Sands Point, 279 Sands, Katherine Buckley, 51, 53 Santanoni, 293 Santayana, George, 47–48 Saranac Lake, 274 Sargent, Charles Sprague, 294 Schenck, Aleid, 208 Schenck, Frederic, 204–208 Schenck, Frederic, Jr., 208 Schenck, Henry De Bois, 115 Schenck, Mary Louisa Stone, 204–208 Schermerhorn, Ellen, 14, 286 Schermerhorn, J. Egmont, 43 Schiff, Mortimer, 293 School of Mines, Columbia University, 294 Schuyler, Montgomery, 210 Schwartz, Edna, 126 Scribner’s, 297


INDEX

Scully, Vincent, 79–80 Seal Harbor, Maine, 19, 20 Searles Castle, 107 Searles, Edward F., 107, 109, 110 Seattle Arboretum, 293 Seaver, Henry, 59, 291, 294–295 Second Empire Style, 14, 33, 145 Sedgwick, Catharine, 13 Sedgwick, Charles and Elizabeth, 13 Sedgwick, Grace Ashburner, 164 Sedgwick, Susan, 14 Sedgwick, William Ellery and Constance Brevoort, 285 Sedgwick, Willie, 13 Selkirk, Alexander, Jr., 116 Seranak, 290, 294 Seven Hills Inn and Restaurant, 290 Shadow Brook, 10, 13, 14, 16, 16, 17, 21, 22, 49, 81, 129, 151–160, 162, 166, 293, 298 Shadowbrook, 16, 21 Shakespeare & Company, 203, 235 Shattuck, Albert, 203 Shattuck, Elizabeth, 296 Shattuck, William B., 247, 296 Shaw & Hunnewell, 286 Shaw, S. Parkman and Gertrude Bramwell, 286 Shelburne, 211 Sheldon, George William, 73, 79, 102 Shepard, John, 126 Shields, Thomas, 289 Shingle Style, 10, 13, 45, 47, 51, 79, 87, 121, 153, 202, 211, 220 Shipton Court, 24, 290 Shotter, Spencer P., 159 Skylands, 241, 298 Sims, Henry, 297 Skibo Castle, 160 Sloane Maternity Hospital, 103 Sloane, Adela Berry, 144–145, 147–149 Sloane, Adele, 19, 64 Sloane, Emily Vanderbilt, 20, 97, 99, 103–104, 293 Sloane, Evelyn, 149, 150 Sloane, John, 144–145, 147–150 Sloane, William Douglas, 16, 21, 97, 103, 263, 293 Smith, Elizur, 72, 263 Social Register, 257 Society for the Suppression of Vice, 125 South Lawn, Naumkeag, 90 Southmayd Farm, 286 Southmayd, Charles F., 86, 286

Spanish-American War, 250, 292 Spencer, Mr. and Mrs. Edwards, 290 “Spirit of Life,” 191 Spring Lawn, 53, 229–235, 287, 295 St. Ann’s Catholic Church, 24, 234 St. Bartholomew’s Church, 296 St. Joseph’s Hall, 65 St. Patrick’s Cathedral, New York, 296 St. Paul & Pacific, 61 St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, 16, 295 St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church, 296 St. Thomas’s Church, 140 Standard Oil, 83 Stanford, Leland, 109 Stanley Electric Works, 237 Stanley, Lila Wetmore, 237 Stanley, William, Jr., 113, 237 State House, 96 State Lunacy Commission, 96 Staten Island, New York, 158 Stearns, John Goddard, Jr., 62, 136, 296 Steele, Fletcher, 88, 90, 286, 297 Stephenson & Crane, 288 Stephenson, Robert, 289 Stevens Institute of Technology, 259 Stewart, A.T., 83 Stick Style, 14, 27, 40 Stockbridge Bowl, 10, 27, 55, 67, 73, 140–141 Stockbridge Golf Club, 171-2 Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 9, 13, 15, 17, 20, 24, 166 Stockholm, Sweden, 208 Stokes, Anson Phelps, 13, 16, 17, 19, 22, 24, 48–49, 64, 81, 96, 151, 152, 156–159, 170 Stokes, Anson Phelps, Jr., 22, 153, 159 Stokes, Helen Louisa Phelps, 10, 48–49, 81, 151, 152, 156–158 Stokes, Isaac Newton Phelps, 49, 159 Stonover, 24, 76, 86, 126, 260, 276–284, 284, 294 Strawberry Hill, 289 Street Cleaning Department, New York City, 95 Sturgis, Florence, 53 Sturgis, John Hubbard, 27 Subsection on Enemy Resources, 251 Sunnycroft, 287 Sunnyridge, 68, 71–76, 218, 291, 294 Swann House, 288 Swann, Mary Potter, 172 Swann, John and Lillian Butler, 288 Swann, John Butler, 172, 257

[ 321 ]

Sweden, 38, 208 Symphony Hall, Boston’s, 30 T Tanglewood, 17, 20, 26–31, 143, 220, 285 Tanglewood Tales, 29 Tappan, Caroline Sturgis, 26–30, 48 Tappan, Mary Aspinwall, 17, 48 Tappan, William Aspinwall, 26, 28–30 Tavern Club, Boston, 233 Taylor, H. A. C., 189 Teak Room, Pine Needles, 226 Terre Haute, Indiana, 293 The American Architect, 67 The American Architect and Building News, 136, 149, 225 The Bostonians, 27 The Century, 45 The Decoration of Houses, 195, 201, 202 The Evening Post, 56 The House of the Seven Gables, 30, 286 The Minute Man, 186 The Nation, 47, 53 The New York Times, 108, 113, 140, 162, 176, 206, 234, 250, 292 “The Parsons’ Woods,” 283, 284 The Republic, 187 The Star Papers, 145 The Upper Ten Thousand, 164 Thistlewood, 288, 293, 297 Thoron, Louise, 48 Tiffany, Louis C., 293 Tilden, George T., 297 Tilden, Samuel, 83 Titanic, 16, 184 Town and Country, 22, 156, 257 Trevor, Mary T., 245 Trinity Episcopal Church, 13, 16, 24, 80, 141, 176, 208, 223, 230, 251, 259, 294, 295, 296 Trudeau, Dr., 274 Trustees of Reservations, 90, 276 Tub Parades, 17, 53 Tufts University, 297 Turnure, Elizabeth Lanier, 205, 289 Turnure, George, 205, 289 Tuxedo Park, 24, 293, 296 Tweed Ring, 83 Tweedledee, 228 Twombly, Hamilton and Florence Vanderbilt, 247 Tyringham, 274, 290 Tyringham Town Hall, 271 Tytus, Grace Seeley Henop, 269–271, 275


INDEX

Tytus, Mildred, 275 Tytus, Robb de Peyster, 228, 269–271, 274, 275, 276 U Underledge, 288 Union Pacific, 83, 138 United Nations, 268 United States Information Agency, 255 University of Chicago, 294 University of Illinois, 292 University of Massachusetts, 38 University of Massachusetts Amherst, 293 Upjohn, Richard, 13, 29, 45, 285 Uplands, 294 V Valley Gleaner, 116, 129, 140 Valleyhead, 204–208, 294 Van Anda, Carr, 203 van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold, 47 Vance, Joseph McArthur, 169, 297 Vanderbilt, Alfred Gwynne, 118, 134, 294 Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 83, 99 Vanderbilt, Frederick, 145, 293 Vanderbilt, George W., 152, 293 Vanderbilt, Gertrude, 64 Vanderbilt, Margaret Emerson, 134, 291, 294 Vanderbilt, William H., 99 Vanity Fair, 167 Vassar College, Main Building, 296 Vaughn, Henry, 110 Vaux, Calvert, 14, 285, 296 Vent Fort, 129 Ventfort Hall, 127–134, 220, 297 Ventfort Hall Association, 134 Venturi, Robert, 80 Vernon Court, 184 Versailles, 176 “View from the Porch,” 30 Villa America, 17 Villa Virginia, 290, 298 Village Improvement Society, 53 Village View, 287, 296, 324 Villas and Cottages, 14 Vitale, Brinkerhoff & Geiffert, 290, 298 Vitale, Ferruccio, 241, 298 von Lengerke Meyer, George, 80 von Schönberg, Baron, 48 Voorhees, Clark, 68, 70 Voorhees, Maud Folsom, 68, 70 Voysey, C. F. A., 270

W W. & J. Sloane & Company, 99, 145, 147 Wadsworth, Philip, 292 Wagner Palace Car Company, 15 Walconah Park, Pittsfield, 297 Walker, Arthur T., 111 Walker, Carrie Jones, 236, 239 Walker, Gertrude D., 241 Walker, William Hall, 236, 238, 241 Wall Street, 218 Walter & Wilson, 298 Walters, Johnny, 96 War Department, U.S., 293 Ward Line, 295 Ward, Anna Barker, 13, 17, 28, 44–45, 47–48, 285 Ward, John Quincy Adams, 186 Ward, Samuel Gray, 13, 15, 17, 28, 44–45, 47–48 Ware & Van Brunt, 296 Ware, William Robert, 297 Waring’s White Wings, 298 Waring, George E., 95, 100–101 Waring, George E., Jr., 298 Warren, Charles Peck, 292 Washington Park Arboretum, 293 Washington, DC, 115, 186 Webb, W. Seward, 15, 211 Weeks, Harry, 288 West College, 295 West Shore Railroad, 57 Westbrook, 294 Westinghouse, George, 23, 112–117, 237-8, 263 Westinghouse, George, Jr., 117 Westinghouse, Marguerite Erskine Walker, 16, 112, 115–117 Wetherell, George H., 292 Wharton, Edith Newbold Jones, 13, 15, 23, 53, 65, 76, 92, 96, 118, 194–195, 197, 200, 201, 203, 239, 244, 247, 262, 281 Wharton, Edward Robbins, 23, 92, 96, 194, 197, 200, 203 Wheatleigh, 10, 17, 20, 135–143, 296 Whistler, Florence, 218 “White City,” 187 White House, 95, 294 White Star Line, 16 White, Emily Vanderbilt Sloane, 20, 97, 99, 103–104, 293, 290–291 White, Henry D., 104 White, Stanford, 53, 80, 86, 107, 295

[ 322 ]

Whiteman Cup, 228 Whitney, Flora Payne, 48, 129 Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt, 261 Whitney, Harry Payne, 96 Whitney, William C., 48, 96, 129 Whittenham, James, 232 Wilcox, David, 237 Wilde, H. George, 263 Williams College, 295, 297 Williams, William, 34 Wilson, Henry Neill, 10, 81, 152, 153, 162, 287, 288, 298 Wilson, James Keys, 298 Wilson, Richard Guy, 47, 107 Winden Hill, 59 Windham, New Hampshire, 110 Windsor Mountain, 245 Windyside, 10, 39–43, 206, 294, 296 Wingett, Alfred H., 57 Winslow & Bigelow, 225 Winslow, Walter T., 292 Winter Palace, 294 Winthrop Square, 294 Winthrop, Grenville Lindall, 23, 81, 242–245, 285 Winthrop, Kate, 245 Withers, Frederick, 285 Wolfe, David, 287 Wonder Book, 30 Woodbury & Leighton, 148 Woodside, 260 Woodward, S. Walter, 289 World War I, 166, 228, 250 World’s Columbian Exposition, 145, 187, 292, 296 Wren, Christopher, 10, 201 Wyndhurst, 65, 126, 129, 144–150, 216, 296 Wyantenuck, 297 Y Yale University, 164, 270, 294 Yankee Network, 126 Yokun, 67, 70


PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS

INTRODUCTION: 14, 19 Mary Stokes Waller; 15, 18, 20, 22. Lakeside archives;17 left.The Trustees of Reservations; 17 right. Jane Foster; 16,21,23 Lenox Library Association TANGLEWOOD: 26 28-29, 31 Daphne Brooks Prout; photographer, Richard C. Dixey; 27 Katharine Glass Hayes; photographer, Katharine Aspinwall Kingsland; 30 Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College BONNIE BRAE: 32-38 Margaret Parsons Brown WINDYSIDE: 39 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 40 J.B. Beers, History of Berkshire County (1885); 41 J. Pickering Putnam, The Open Fireplace (1886); 42 American Architect and Building News, Jan. 31,1945; 43 Jonas Dovydenas OAKWOOD: 44 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 45-7 The Century Magazine, May 1886; 49 Country Life in America, October 1902 GUSTY GABLES: 50 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886): 51-52 Lenox Library Association ALLEN WINDEN: 54 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 55 Lenox Historical Society; photographer, Alfred Holmes Lewis; 56 Lenox Library Association; 57, 58, top and bottom, Peabody & Stearns Papers, Boston Public Library COLDBROOK: 60 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 61-64, Cynthia Martin; photographer, Edwin Hale Lincoln MERRYWOOD: 66 The Berkshire Eagle; 67-69 Peabody & Stearns Papers, Boston Public Library; 70 Peabody, “Georgian Houses of New England” published in The Georgian Period, vol. 11 edited by Ware (1901) SUNNYRIDGE: 71 & 74-5 Susan Hockaday Jones; photographer, George Folsom; 72 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 73 Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia THE HOMESTEAD: 77 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 78 American Architect and Building News, November 16, 1901 ; 79 left and right, Olmsted Archives; 80 Lenox Library Association; 81 George Sheldon, Artistic Homes (1886-7) NAUMKEAG: 82 The Berkshire Eagle; 83 Margaret Parsons Brown; 84-90 The Trustees of Reservations

BELVOIR TERRACE:120-125 Nancy Goldberg VENTFORT HALL: 127 129 Lenox Library Association; 128 The Berkshire Eagle; 130 Ventfort Hall Association; photographer, Benjamin Rogers; 131, 133 Lenox Library Association; photographer, Benjamin Rogers; 132 Alexander Perry Morgan WHEATLEIGH: 135,136,138-141,142 bottom Lenox Library Association; 137, 142 top American Architect & Building News, April 5, 1902; 143 The Berkshire Eagle WYNDHURST: 144 Lenox Library Association; photographer, Benjamin Rogers; 145-6 Lenox Library Association; photographer, T. E. Marr; 147 The Berkshire Eagle; 148 Mary Parker Verchot; 149 Olmsted Archives SHADOW BROOK: 151 The Berkshire Eagle; 152,154160 Lenox Library Association, photographer Edwin Hale Lincoln, 153 Mary Stokes Waller LAKESIDE: 161,162,163,167 Lakeside archives; 164,165,166 Lenox Library Association CHERRY HILL: 168 Hans Morris; 169, 170, 171, 173 Kevin Sprague; 172 Gerard McBurney; sketch by Lionel Rundall BELLEFONTAINE: 174, 181 Lenox Library Association; 175 -180,182,184 Jane Foster CHESTERWOOD: 186,187,188,189, 190 (photo by Ron Blunt), 191, 192 courtesy Chesterwood, a National Trust Historic Site; 185, 193 The Berkshire Eagle THE MOUNT: 194, 197 The Mount, Lenox; photographer David Dashiell; 195 The Mount; 196-200 Daphne Brooks Prout, photographer Richard C. Dixey; 201,202 the Estate of Edith Wharton (held at the Beinecke Library, Yale University) VALLEYHEAD: 204, 206-2 Channing Family Collection; 205 Peabody & Stearns Papers, Boston Public Library BLANTYRE: 209-216 Lenox Library Association, photographer Edwin Hale Lincoln

DEEPDENE: 91-95 Michael Kinnicutt

OVERLEE: 217-221 Architectural Record, January 1907; 222 top and 223 Penny Goodkind

ELM COURT: 97 E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 98 top and bottom, p 99-102 Lenox Library Association; photographer, Edwin Hale Lincoln; 103 Olmsted Archives

PINE NEEDLES: 224 American Architect and Building News, April 21, 1906: 226 Jennie Butler, photographer George Baty Blake; 225,227,228 Jonas Dovydenas

KELLOGG TERRACE:105 Lakeside archives; 106 top, 107111 Barrington House, Berkshire, Massachusetts, (1895) etchings by Mr. B. Krieger;106 bottom, p.111 David Rutstein

SPRING LAWN: 229-5, 233-8 Lenox Library Association; photographer, T. E. Marr; 232, 235 Architectural Review, Feb. 1906

ERSKINE PARK: 112-119 Lenox Library Association, photographer Edwin Hale Lincoln

BROOKSIDE: all WWW.BERKSHIREARCHIVE.COM

[ 323 ]

GROTON PLACE: 242-244 Lenox Library Association; photographer, Everett Hale Lincoln; 245 Cornelia B. Gilder; photographer, James B. Ludlow BROOKHURST: 246, 248-255, 257 Helen Morris Scorsese; 247 E.A. Morley Lenox (1886); 256 top & bottom The Frelinghuysen/Morris Museum HIGH LAWN: 258-259 Patterson, American Homes of Today (1924); 260 and 263 John O. Field; 261-50 Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia EASTOVER: 264, 265, 266, 268 Dorothy Winsor; 267 Environmental Design Archives, University of California, Berkeley ASHINTULLY: 269- 275 - Katharine W. McLennan; 276 The New York Architect, July 1911 STONOVER: 277, 279-9, 283 top Helen Suzette Alsop; 278, 283 bottom, 284 Jonas and Betsy Dovydenas; 282 Architectural Record, October 1921 PORTFOLIO: 285 top left John Mason Harding; photographer, Gen. Horace Harding; 285 top right E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 285 bottom left & right Historical Collection, Stockbridge Library Association; 286 top right, middle left, bottom left The Berkshire Eagle; 286 top left, middle right E.A.Morley, Lenox (1886); 286 bottom right Cornelia B. Gilder; 287 top left Margaret Parsons Brown; 287 top right, Katharine Glass Hayes, photographer Katharine Aspinwall Kingsland; 287 middle left, bottom right Lenox Library Association; 287 middle right, bottom left Mary Parker Verchot; 288 top left Warner ed. Picturesque Berkshire: South (1898); 288 top right, middle left & right The Berkshire Eagle; 288 bottom left Cornelia B. Gilder; 288 bottom right American Architect & Building News, Jan 28, 1899; 289 top left Historical Collection, Stockbridge Library Association; 289 top right, middle left Lenox Library Association; 289 middle right Richard Marchand; 289 bottom left Richard S. Jackson Jr.; bottom right The Berkshire Eagle; 290, top left, Tyringham Historical Commission; 290 top right Lenox Library Association; 290 middle left Country Estates executed by The Elliott Brown Co. Inc (c.1914); 290 middle right The Berkshire Eagle; 290 bottom left Architectural Record, Oct. 1920; 290 bottom right Domestic Architecture of H.T. Lindeberg (1940), reprinted by Acanthus Press; 291 top left Richard Cheek; 291 top right, Foxhollow School Archives, The Mount; 291 middle left Environmental Design Archives, University of California, Berkeley; middle right, bottom left The Berkshire Eagle; 291 bottom right Frederick Harwood JAMES RENWICK: 324, Lenox Library Association Floor plans by Richard Marchand appear on pages: 48, 59, 65, 69, 81, 104, 126, 134, 150, 203, 222, and 276.


The elderly, revered New York architect, James Renwick (in the center seat), is surrounded by members of the Lenox Club on the club’s porch in 1885. Renwick had two country houses—the first Brookhurst and Village View—under construction in Lenox that year.

[ 324 ]


HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R ., a native of Greenwich, Connecticut, and a graduate of Yale University, moved to the Berkshires in 1962. As past chairman of the Lenox Historical Commission and the Tanglewood Council, and as a member of the Naumkeag committee, he has worked to preserve several of the houses described in this volume. He lives in Lenox, Massachusetts.

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER spent most of her childhood in Lenox, Massachusetts, in the house her grandparents bought in 1906. A graduate of Vassar College, she has worked for the New York State Historic Preservation Office in Albany and has since contributed to a number of exhibitions and publications, most recently Hawthorne’s Lenox (2008) and Architects in Albany (2010). She lives in Tyringham, Massachusetts with her husband George.

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE An Elegant Wilderness: Great Camps and Grand Lodges of the Adirondacks, 1855–1935 GLADYS MONTGOMERY 2011 Houses of the Hamptons, 1880–1930 GARY LAWRANCE AND ANNE SURCHIN 2007

Palm Beach Houses, 1900–1940 GARY LAWRANCE AND RICHARD MARCHAND 2013

1870 –1930 REVISED EDITION

PRINTED IN CHINA

1870 –1930 R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . AND C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER The scenic hills of the Berkshires, with their beautiful lakes, clean air, and spectacular autumn foliage, have provided a

Bostonians since the 19th century. In Lenox and Stockbridge and surrounding communities, grand houses were built by the nation’s leading architects. Here the creators of America’s great fortunes communed, played, and cut deals. Too far from the cities to be considered suburban, the estates had the feeling of true country seats in the European manner. Illustrated with over 300 photographs and floor plans, Houses of the Berkshires, 1870–1930, surveys 37 of the great country houses, including Naumkeag, Wheatleigh, Tanglewood, Blantyre, and the Mount. The resort area’s pioneer visitors, in the 1840s, were intellectuals: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, the actress Fanny Kemble and the painter Thomas Cole, among others. Patrons soon followed, hiring the best

There are not many places in America that combine architecture, ambition, and nature in such abundance, but I cannot think of a combination of riches that is more American. —S AMUEL G. W HITE

architects from New York and Boston, along with some remarkably able local practitioners, to build magnificent “cottages” and elaborate gardens and greenhouses. This revised, expanded edition reflects new research since the original publication in 2006. With two additional chapters and almost two dozen new photographs, Houses of the Berkshires is an informative architectural history of the great American resort, an elegant photographic tour of some of the region’s most beautiful houses, and an unmatched chronicle of this distinctive social,

FRONT COVER: LOGGIA AT WHEATLEIGH BACK COVER: NAUMKEAG

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

respite from urban living for wealthy New Yorkers and

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

FORTHCOMING Houses of Hawaii, 1850–1950 D ON H IBBARD 2013

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R .

AND

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

ACANTHUS PRESS

artistic, and literary colony and now vanished way of life.

WWW. ACANTHUSPRESS . COM


HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R ., a native of Greenwich, Connecticut, and a graduate of Yale University, moved to the Berkshires in 1962. As past chairman of the Lenox Historical Commission and the Tanglewood Council, and as a member of the Naumkeag committee, he has worked to preserve several of the houses described in this volume. He lives in Lenox, Massachusetts.

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER spent most of her childhood in Lenox, Massachusetts, in the house her grandparents bought in 1906. A graduate of Vassar College, she has worked for the New York State Historic Preservation Office in Albany and has since contributed to a number of exhibitions and publications, most recently Hawthorne’s Lenox (2008) and Architects in Albany (2010). She lives in Tyringham, Massachusetts with her husband George.

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE An Elegant Wilderness: Great Camps and Grand Lodges of the Adirondacks, 1855–1935 GLADYS MONTGOMERY 2011 Houses of the Hamptons, 1880–1930 GARY LAWRANCE AND ANNE SURCHIN 2007

Palm Beach Houses, 1900–1940 GARY LAWRANCE AND RICHARD MARCHAND 2013

1870 –1930 REVISED EDITION

PRINTED IN CHINA

1870 –1930 R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . AND C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER The scenic hills of the Berkshires, with their beautiful lakes, clean air, and spectacular autumn foliage, have provided a

Bostonians since the 19th century. In Lenox and Stockbridge and surrounding communities, grand houses were built by the nation’s leading architects. Here the creators of America’s great fortunes communed, played, and cut deals. Too far from the cities to be considered suburban, the estates had the feeling of true country seats in the European manner. Illustrated with over 300 photographs and floor plans, Houses of the Berkshires, 1870–1930, surveys 37 of the great country houses, including Naumkeag, Wheatleigh, Tanglewood, Blantyre, and the Mount. The resort area’s pioneer visitors, in the 1840s, were intellectuals: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, the actress Fanny Kemble and the painter Thomas Cole, among others. Patrons soon followed, hiring the best

There are not many places in America that combine architecture, ambition, and nature in such abundance, but I cannot think of a combination of riches that is more American. —S AMUEL G. W HITE

architects from New York and Boston, along with some remarkably able local practitioners, to build magnificent “cottages” and elaborate gardens and greenhouses. This revised, expanded edition reflects new research since the original publication in 2006. With two additional chapters and almost two dozen new photographs, Houses of the Berkshires is an informative architectural history of the great American resort, an elegant photographic tour of some of the region’s most beautiful houses, and an unmatched chronicle of this distinctive social,

FRONT COVER: LOGGIA AT WHEATLEIGH BACK COVER: NAUMKEAG

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

respite from urban living for wealthy New Yorkers and

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R . C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

FORTHCOMING Houses of Hawaii, 1850–1950 D ON H IBBARD 2013

HOUSES OF THE BERKSHIRES

THE ARCHITECTURE OF LEISURE

R ICHARD S. J ACKSON J R .

AND

C ORNELIA B ROOKE G ILDER

ACANTHUS PRESS

artistic, and literary colony and now vanished way of life.

WWW. ACANTHUSPRESS . COM

Houses of the Berkshires 1870-1930  

This revised edition of the award-winning volume Houses of the Berkshires, 1870–1930, (2006) chronicles the distinctive social and literary...

Houses of the Berkshires 1870-1930  

This revised edition of the award-winning volume Houses of the Berkshires, 1870–1930, (2006) chronicles the distinctive social and literary...