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Lauranto, St. Davids, 1901. Entrance hall


THE MAIN LINE C OUNTRY H OUSES

OF

P HILADELPHIA’ S S TORIED S UBURB, 1870 - 1930 

WILLIAM MORRISON INTRODUCTION

BY

MARK ALAN HEWITT, AIA EDITED

BY

MICHAEL C. KATHRENS

ACANTHUS PRESS N E W YO R K 2 0 0 2


Published by Acanthus Press Barry Cenower, Publisher 48 West 22nd Street New York, New York 10010 E-mail: books@Acanthuspress.com

Copyright Š 2002, William Alan Morrison Introduction, Copyright Š 2002, Mark Alan Hewitt

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Morrison, William Alan, 1947The Main Line : country houses of Philadelphia's storied suburb / William Alan Morrison ; introduction by Mark Alan Hewitt ; edited by Michael C. Kathrens. p. cm. -- (Great American suburbs) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-926494-21-X 1. Architecture, Domestic--Pennsylvania--Main Line. 2. Main Line (Pa.)--Buildings, structures, etc. I. Title. II. Series. NA7238.M257 M67 2002 728'37'0974811--dc21 2002000423

Book design by Maggie Hinders Printed in the USA


C ONTENTS Acknowledgments • [ ix ] Foreword • [ xi ] Remembering the Philadelphia Story, by Mark Alan Hewitt, AIA • The Main Line: Road Map to a State of Mind •

1872–1889

[1]

• [ 17 ]

C H E S WO L D, Haverford • [ 18 ] S TO N E L E I G H , Villanova • [ 20 ] WO OT TO N, Bryn Mawr • [ 22 ] M AY B R O O K , Wynnewood • [ 27 ] F OX H I L L FA R M , Bryn Mawr • [ 30 ] P E N C OY D, Bala • [ 32 ] C H E T W Y N D, Rosemont • [ 35 ] I N G E B O R G, Wynnewood • [ 38 ] FA RWO O D , Overbrook • [ 40 ] R AT H A L L A , Rosemont • [ 42 ]

1890–1899

• [ 45 ]

WO O D M O N T, Spring Mill • [ 46 ] BA R C L AY FA R M , Rosemont • [ 51 ] D U N M I N N I N G, Newtown Township • [ 53 ]

[v]

[ xiii ]


YO R K LY N N E , Overbrook • [ 55 ] L L A N E N G E N , Bala • [ 59 ]

1900–1909

• [ 63 ]

WO O D C R E S T, Radnor • [ 65 ] B O L I N G B R O K E , Radnor • [ 68 ] B E AU P R E , Rosemont • [ 72 ] L AU R A N TO , St. Davids • [ 76 ] P E N S H U R S T, Narberth • [ 79 ] C O L E B R O O K , Bryn Mawr • [ 85 ] L OW- WA L L S, Rosemont • [ 88 ] R AV E N S C L I F F, St. Davids • [ 90 ] W E LT V R E T E N, St. Davids • [ 94 ] G L E N C O E , Rosemont • [ 96 ] L O N G M E A D OW, Spring Mill • [ 99 ] T I M B E R L I N E , Radnor Township • [ 102 ] R A D N O R VA L L E Y FA R M , Ithan • [ 106 ] H I L L B R O O K H O U S E , Bryn Mawr • [ 109 ] C O L K E N N Y, Haverford • [ 113 ]

1910–1919

• [ 117 ]

F OX F I E L D S, Bryn Mawr • [ 119 ] A L L G AT E S, Haverford Township • [ 122 ] C A M P - WO O D S, Ithan • [ 130 ] A R D R O S S A N, Ithan • [ 134 ] L I T T L E F I E L D FA R M , Bryn Mawr • [ 139 ] R O C K R O S E , Radnor • [ 142 ] H A R D W I C K E , Ithan • [ 145 ]

[ vi ]


WA L M A R T H O N, St. Davids • [ 149 ] WO O D C R E S T L O D G E , St. Davids • [ 156 ] M O N T R O S E , Radnor • [ 159 ] B E L L A V I S TA , Villanova • [ 163 ] G L E N B R O O K , Haverford • [ 167 ] L AU R I E R , Bryn Mawr

• [ 170 ]

K N O L L B R O O K , Haverford • [ 173 ] C L A I R E M O N T, Villanova • [ 175 ]

1920–1930

• [ 179 ]

OA K W E L L , Villanova • [ 181 ] S U N N Y B R O O K , Villanova • [ 185 ] B L O O M F I E L D, Villanova • [ 189 ] S P R I N G H I L L FA R M , Haverford Township • [ 192 ] L AU N FA L , Ithan • [ 197 ] H I L L H O U S E , White Horse • [ 200 ] H I G H C L E R E , Villanova • [ 204 ] L A R O N D A , Bryn Mawr • [ 208 ] C A R R I N G TO N, Gladwyne • [ 215 ] B E T S F R E D, St. Davids • [ 218 ] C E D A R C R E S T, Gladwyne • [ 221 ]

APPENDICES Portfolio of houses 1882-1930 • [ 228 ] Architect’s Biographies • [ 236 ] Bibliography • [ 242 ] Index • [ 245 ] Photography Credits • [ 000 ]

[ vii ]


R OAD

T HE M AIN L INE : M AP TO A S TATE OF M IND

GJ E N G L I S H D U C H E S S (to visiting American debutante) And where are you from, my dear? D E B U TA N T E The Main Line, ma’am. ENGLISH DUCHESS That’s quite close to Philadelphia, is it not? D E B U TA N T E Oh, I don’t think so!

GJ

I

T I S U N L I K E LY

that you will find the Main Line on any map. Neither village nor town nor borough,

it is a large, amorphous region lying northwest of the city of Philadelphia with neither recognizable center nor agreed-upon boundaries. In its strictest sense, the term “Main Line” has nothing to do with

architecture or real estate, referring only to the principal east-west right-of-way of the former Pennsylvania Railroad and the dozen-and-a-half station stops along its 21-mile length between the Philadelphia city line and the village of Paoli. For us, though, “Main Line” will refer to the gently undulating landscape on either side of that railroad right-of-way and the distinguished, often elegant, and sometimes improbable, country houses that rose upon it between 1870 and 1930. Stretching over all or parts of seven separate townships in three separate counties, today’s Main Line is surrounded on all sides by faceless, suburban sprawl and industrial development. Yet, the region and its inhabitants have managed to remain detached from these baleful influences, separated not by wall or moat or any natural barrier but by their own highly developed and enduring sense of belonging to a place apart, a serene and eternal island of genteel stability in a sea of raucous, polyglot change. It has even been said that the Main Line is not so much a location as a state of mind, ruled by the patrician Article of Faith that “everyone here knows everyone else, or, if they don’t they never will.” This is pretty heady stuff for a place

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originally settled by itinerant Welsh yeomen whose first houses were mud caves dug out of the banks of the Schuylkill River. During the 61-year period covered by this book, the Main Line was transformed from a thinly populated district of small, marginally productive dairy farms, with mills along the major creeks, into one of the most widely-known upper-crust residential quarters in the nation, unsurpassed in either the beauty of its verdant countryside or the quiet dignity of its expensive houses. Its development as such was neither planned nor foreseen. The Pennsylvania Railroad, first to attempt development of the area, saw it as a possible summer resort of Victorian hotels and boarding houses, a haven from the punishing heat of nearby Philadelphia. When their effort faltered, the Railroad wielded its considerable influence to coax its senior executives, board of directors, and major suppliers to build country cottages and villas on land it sold to them. With the passage of time, these houses grew in both size and stature, resulting by the dawn of the 20th century in a seemingly inexhaustible array of vast and costly estates reaching far into the Pennsylvania countryside. Following World War I, the Main Line was transformed yet again, becoming a wealthy commuter suburb of large, comfortable houses whose owners increasingly felt less ties between themselves and the large, unruly city to the east. Conceived as a rural adjunct to Philadelphia in the 1880s and 1890s, the Main Line had become a complete alternative to it, the place where one lived and raised one’s family, the common home to one’s friends and associates. As the 20th century drew to a close, the Main Line became the site of one’s workplace as well. For many residents, Philadelphia has now become the adjunct to their suburban milieu; for still others, the city is a foreign and forbidding place to be avoided whenever possible.

“ W H E R E N AT U R E S M I L E S . . .” ORIGINALLY THE MAIN LINE was part of the so-called Welsh Tract, William Penn’s 1683 land grant of some 30,000 acres to seven companies of Welsh Quakers. Mindful that so large a grant to Celtic-speaking, independent-minded Welshmen might lead to a self-governing palatinate within his proprietary colony, Penn purposely divided the tract into non-contiguous sections in different counties, separated by other grants to English and Swedish settlers. Penn needn’t have gone to such lengths. The rocky, nutrient-poor soil of the Welsh Tract proved inhospitable to cultivation, arduous to plough, and meager in crop yield. Newer settlements in neighboring Chester and Lancaster counties quickly outstripped the Tract in agricultural output. Where agriculture didn’t succeed, mills did, and water power fostered paper, grain, saw, and powder mills as well as tanneries and gun manufacturies. During the Revolutionary War, the Tract was the scene of some minor skirmishes between American rebels and British troops bent on occupying Philadelphia. In late 1777 it was the area through which Washington’s army straggled after their bitter defeat at the Battle of Brandywine on their way to an equally bitter defeat at the Battle of Germantown. By the mid-19th century, the former Welsh Tract remained an under-populated region of small dairy farms, with cotton and woolen mills along the waterways. Along the busy Lancaster Turnpike, a number of taverns and inns catered to the traveling public. After 1836, the meandering, grade-level Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad offered two trains a day from rural Paoli to Broad Street, Philadelphia, traveling at a

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sedate seven-and-a-half miles per hour. By the end of the Civil War, Athensville, the largest settlement on the route, had grown to a few dozen households, three stores, and a hotel. But times were about to change.

T H E VA L H A L L A Good Philadelphia children are taught to pray for the Republican Party, the Girard Trust and the Pennsylvania Railroad. —N ATHANIEL B URT THE TERM MAIN LINE

ORIGINATED

from the name of the 1828 government-sponsored act, the Pennsylvania

State Main Line of Public Works, mandating a direct transportation link between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Capital of the nation and the center of its commerce and finance at the dawn of the century, by 1825 Philadelphia had been reduced to the status of near-backwater by the removal of the federal government to Washington and the opening to settlement of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys. Cut off from the riches of the expanding west by the wall of the Allegheny Mountains, the city stood and watched as the Erie Canal to the north and the National Road to the south drained away its wealth and power. New York City had already surpassed Philadelphia in both trade and population, and Baltimore was gaining fast upon its heels. Being a politically inspired attempt to provide something for everyone, the Main Line of Public Works cobbled together the two existing rail lines between Philadelphia and Harrisburg with the four extant canal routes along the Susquehanna, Juniata, Conemaugh, and Allegheny rivers. State financed and constructed portage links hauled specially designed combination railcar-canal boats over the several Allegheny ridges by rope and across the intervening valleys by horse. “Cumbersome” would be a charitable word for this system. With its sundry changes from rail to canal to rope line to horse, the 300-mile trip between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh took four days to complete. During the winter months, snowblocked mountain passes and frozen canals rendered the route unusable. Flooding was a problem in the spring, failures of the portage mechanisms a year-round problem. The $18 million Main Line of Public Works incurred an operating debt of $40 million, while freight traffic on the Erie Canal grew tenfold and the recently established Baltimore & Ohio Railroad stretched west along the Potomac River as far as Cumberland, Maryland. In 1845, the Baltimore & Ohio petitioned the State of Pennsylvania for the right to extend its line to Pittsburgh. The magnitude of the interests at stake upon the results of action or supineness at this crisis . . . can be disregarded by none who have anything to gain by the prosperity of our city, or to lose by its impoverishment . . . it is not less certain that without the wise and vigorous exertions to which so many considerations urge us, all those interested will be greatly, if not fatally, perilled. —1845

HANDBILL CALLING FOR A THROUGH

RAIL LINE

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Bryn Mawr Station, ca. 1875 At an emergency meeting held in Philadelphia on December 10, 1845, leading members of the city’s government, business, and financial communities committed themselves to the creation of a privately owned, through-rail line between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Legislation was quickly introduced at Harrisburg and, on April 13, 1846, an act was signed by the governor creating the Pennsylvania Railroad. Under brilliant Chief Engineer John Edgar Thomson, rail lines were constructed simultaneously westward from Harrisburg and eastward from Pittsburgh. In 1852 a through rail system between the two cities had been completed, entirely eliminating the old canal links. Five years later the Pennsylvania Railroad purchased the entire Main Line of Public Works from the state, including the old Philadelphia & Columbia line, and by 1858 the cumbersome portage links had also become a thing of the past. The through rail line between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh was now a reality, allowing passengers and freight to travel between the two cities in less than 13 hours. During the late 1860s and 1870s, with burgeoning profits from its Civil War traffic, the mighty Pennsylvania Railroad continued its relentless expansion: westward to Chicago, Indianapolis, and St. Louis; north into New York State and the shores of Lake Erie; south to Washington, D.C., Cincinnati, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky; and east to the New Jersey coast and the banks of the Hudson River across from New York City. Philadelphia-made goods now shipped easily to markets in the most populous regions of the country. The city’s manufacturing and industrial base showed unprecedented growth, and it produced a diverse array of commercial and consumer goods, from Disston saws and Baldwin locomotives to Stetson hats and Whitman’s chocolates. In the production of coal, iron, textiles, and leather goods, the city had few peers.

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The “Valhalla” of all Philadelphia enterprise, the Pennsylvania Railroad grew to become the nation’s largest and most powerful rail network. While it never re-established Philadelphia at the forefront of all American cities, the Pennsylvania Railroad was certainly the foundation and lifeline of the city’s late 19thcentury prosperity. Held in almost religious reverence by government and private citizen alike, its Board of Directors was virtually a pantheon of the city’s business leadership and its lobbyists a de facto branch of the state’s government. For more than 50 years, the Pennsylvania legislature and the courts denied nothing to the Pennsylvania Railroad that was deemed necessary to foster and maintain its massive power and influence.

G R E E N E C O U N T RY TOW N E S CONSIDERING

THE CENTRAL ROLE

the Pennsylvania Railroad played in establishing the Main Line’s resi-

dential character, it is interesting just how incidental real estate development was to its purposes for entering the district. Having gained control of the meandering, grade-level Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad, the Pennsylvania Railroad immediately began to replace it with a straighter, double-tracked right-of-way without the steep inclines, multitude of curves, and treacherous grade crossings of the older line. Large, contiguous parcels of farmland were purchased north of the Lancaster Turnpike between the new Pennsylvania Railroad station at West Philadelphia and the tiny village of Whitehall, now Bryn Mawr, 10 miles distant in Lower Merion Township. Work on the new section continued throughout the Civil War and was completed in 1866, leaving sizable portions of the Railroad’s land purchases unused and unoccupied. The Railroad’s decision to attempt resort development of this land was thus borne primarily out of engineering requirements and a crying need to dispose of extraneous real estate. Wide Montgomery Avenue was built parallel to the new right-of-way and the 250-room Keystone Hotel was erected adjacent to it in 1871. Secondary roads were laid out off the avenue at Haverford and Bryn Mawr was created under the supervision of Pennsylvania Railroad Vice President Alexander J. Cassatt, who would serve as the Lower Merion Township Road Supervisor for nearly two decades. Building lots were staked out along the new roads and were offered to private owners who would agree to the Railroad’s stipulations regarding the nature and cost of the houses to be erected thereon: not less than $8000 on the avenue and not less than $5000 in the lanes. The Pennsylvania Railroad instructed purchasers of the lots that they must build “homes of more than ordinary architectural interest.” Old Maids Never Wed And Have Babies. —S CHOOLGIRL

MNEMONIC

As it built stations along the new right-of-way, the Pennsylvania Railroad also decreed names for the small communities along its route: prosaic Athensville and Eagle Tavern became euphonious Ardmore and Devon; churlish Morgan’s Corners emerged as genteel Radnor. Recognition was given to the old farmsteads through which the new line passed at Wynnewood, Bryn Mawr, Rosemont, and Strafford, but oftentimes Main Line nomenclature seems to have been strictly a matter of the whim of some anonymous Pennsylvania Railroad vice president.

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Bryn Mawr Hotel, ca. 1906 The number of station stops between Philadelphia and the village of Paoli was also increased from seven to 17, giving rise to the schoolgirl’s mnemonic device above as a means for remembering the order of stops between the city and Bryn Mawr: Overbrook, Merion, Narberth, Wynnewood, Ardmore, Haverford, and Bryn Mawr. The moppet brigade similarly bowdlerized the remaining 10 stations—Rosemont, Villanova, Radnor, St. David’s, Wayne, Strafford, Devon, Berwyn, Daylesford, and Paoli—with a memory device that defeated its purpose by being impossible to remember. The Pennsylvania Railroad’s campaign to promote the Main Line as an elite and salubrious summer resort was less than a complete triumph. The area could boast of few traditional resort attractions beyond fresh air. No mountain lakes, mineral springs, nor cool ocean breezes graced the old Welsh Tract, and even the most obtuse of tourists was not unaware that the very railroad that brought him to Bryn Mawr or Devon could just as easily have transported him to the Poconos or the New Jersey shore. In 1890, after the Keystone Hotel burned to the ground, the railroad commissioned Frank Furness to build the grand Bryn Mawr Hotel. A mere six years later, the building was being leased to a girl’s boarding school. Real estate development took a more opportune course. Aided in no small part by the Pennsylvania Railroad’s insistence that its officers and board of directors show their support for the venture, the region was rife with the country houses of assorted railroad vice presidents, business managers, and passenger and freight agents by the mid-1870s. Companies doing large amounts of business with the Railroad quickly followed. Burnham, Williams & Company, parent of Baldwin Locomotive, purchased some 500 acres south of Rosemont station; coal dealers Charles Berwind and Israel Morris obtained large tracts in Wynnewood and Villanova; iron founder Charles Wheeler completed one of Bryn Mawr’s first country houses, Pembroke, in 1869. Manufacturers of gauges and meters, rail car and tender builders, lawyers, bankers, and financiers, all with some connection to the Pennsylvania Railroad, bought farms and built houses along the route of the Main Line.

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Merion Cricket Club, ca. 1905 Other developers joined the building effort. Edward R. Price established the village of Elm, subsequently the Borough of Narberth, on his 100-acre farm. Investors Anthony J. Drexel and George W. Childs purchasing the failed Presbyterian community of Louella in 1880, and with builders Wendell & Smith transformed it into the town of Wayne. Social clubs sprang up, adding to the Main Line’s amenities—the Merion Cricket Club was founded in Ardmore in 1865, the Radnor Hunt Club opened on the Clyde Estate in 1883, followed by the Bryn Mawr Polo Club and the Philadelphia Country Club at Bala. Golf clubs followed at Bala in 1890, Haverford in 1895, St. Davids in 1897, and Overbrook in 1900. In conservative, slow-to-act Philadelphia, such rapid and widespread development was not the norm. Alone among Philadelphia institutions, the Pennsylvania Railroad enjoyed the immense esteem and influence necessary to insure the success of such an enterprise. Let every house be placed in the middle of its platt so there may be ground on each side, for gardens or orchards or fields, that it may be a Greene Country Towne, and always wholesome. —W ILLIAM P ENN In truth, though, the Main Line possessed an unwitting ally in the city of Philadelphia. Frigid and sootcovered in winter, sweltering and filthy in summer, it was also beset by the twin plagues of poor sanitation and a corrupt municipal government. Its streets were littered with garbage and animal offal, its rivers noxious and polluted. The air was foul and unhealthy. Attempts at reform were crushed in the gears of the city’s entrenched Republican political machine. Philadelphia had strayed far afield from the “greene country towne” that was the vision of founder William Penn. Even Rittenhouse Square, sacred precinct of the city’s oldest and most venerable families, was but a short

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distance from the warren of iron foundries, slaughterhouses, coal yards, railroad sidings, and rotting wharves that comprised the Schuylkill dockside. The ideal of “a great towne,” with houses set amidst “gardens or orchards or fields” was not much in evidence among the brownstone rows of Spruce Street. Just a few miles away, however, the rolling hills of Lower Merion and Radnor offered these rural charms in abundance. The migration of a large portion of an entire economic class from crowded cities to safe and serene suburbs was one of the great social phenomena of 20th-century America. In Philadelphia, this movement commenced earlier than it did elsewhere and the process was both more sweeping and complete.

FOREVER ENGLAND C O N T R A RY

TO THE POPULAR MYTHMAKING

of novels and plays, the residents of the 19th century

Main Line were not all descendants of the signers of the Declaration of Independence or fellow passengers with William Penn on the good ship Welcome. The first generation of country house builders was primarily mercantile—industrialists and merchants made prosperous by the era’s robust manufacturing economy. Some were native to Philadelphia, but many others were refugees from small farming communities in the Pennsylvania interior, drawn to the city by its wealth and opportunity. A few hailed from abroad, mainly from Ireland or Germany. Industrial wealth abounded in the production of iron and coal, the manufacture of textiles and carpeting, the distilling of whiskey and the brewing of beer, the refining of sugar, and the tanning of leather. The Main Line mansions erected by these 19th-century capitalists were concrete expressions of their success and achievement. Whether they were founders of fortunes or heirs to them, first generation immigrants or scions of established families, those who built country estates along the 21-mile length of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s Main Line uniformly subscribed to the great paradigm of English country life and the ordered, comfortable existence of the English landed gentry. The proper Main Liner had his suits made on London’s Saville Row. He played whist at his city club and cricket in the country. He raised thoroughbred horses and rode to hounds in spring and fall. He sent his children to Eastern boarding schools modeled after Eton or Harrow, or occasionally to the English schools themselves He smiled over cartoons in Punch, trusted his travels to Thomas Cook, and entertained family and friends at his home over heavy meals boiled or roasted to the point of extinction. Aside from the notable dust-ups of 1776 and 1812, Philadelphia’s admiration and emulation of all things English had been constant since the city’s founding. William Penn established the pattern early with his numerous manor grants to family members, fellow colonists, and the Society of Friends. Quaker Meetings corresponded regularly with their counterparts in Britain, often maintaining closer contact with their religious brethren overseas than with their immediate, non-Quaker neighbors. The Pennsylvania Railroad owed a great deal of its financing to British banks. Proud of its colonial role as “second largest city in the British Empire,” Philadelphia continued to resemble its English counterparts, the great industrial centers of Birmingham, Manchester, and Leeds. Dedicated to manufacturing and industry, Philadelphia’s rivers were lined with factories, its streets with row upon row of workers’ housing, its institutions fostered and

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maintained by the generosity of mercantile capitalists. In many ways, the city could have easily passed as the setting for Charles Dickens’ novel, Hard Times. The diligent hand makes rich. —O LD Q UAKER

ADAGE

Though measured and soft-spoken, Philadelphia’s enduring Quaker heritage also cast a long shadow across the city and its developing suburbs. The strong Quaker virtues of prudence, simplicity, and consensus are found in abundance in the architecture and planning of the Main Line. Houses may be large, but their appearance tends towards the natural and the understated. There are few instances of the extravagant Beaux-Arts showplaces associated with Newport or Long Island. The architects for the minority of aspirants to the palatial are usually not from Philadelphia. One had to go outside the region to escape the constraints of its character. Also in keeping with the region’s Quaker inheritance is the curious manner in which so many Main Line houses had evolved over decades of time. A plain 18th-century farmhouse grew in stages to three or four times its original size. A Victorian-era summer cottage sprouted wings in all directions to become a stately Elizabethan manor or grand French chateau. Like a child’s sandcastle, an unremarkable stucco house would transmogrify through the building of additions on all sides, with a new formal courtyard at its entrance and extensive terraced gardens to its rear. Seldom, it appears, did owners simply tear down and build anew; they enlarged and elaborated as the means and needs arose. The twin themes of dedicated Anglophilia and devotion to Quaker plain are evident in the residential architecture of the Main Line throughout its development, but it is more pronounced after the dawn of the 20th century. Prior to that, different, contrary, and quite unexpected influences were also much to be found in the city’s architecture, which is a tale unto itself.

BARBARIANS

AND

GENTLEMEN

Architecture in Philadelphia is notoriously an affair of extremes. —T HE A RCHITECTURAL R ECORD (1904) AS

CAPITAL AND LARGEST CITY

of the early American Republic, Philadelphia was home to many of the

nation’s most prominent architectural designers. The English-born Benjamin Henry Latrobe made his home in the city as did French émigrés Pierre Charles L’Enfant and Stephen Hallet. Latrobe’s two talented pupils, William Strickland and Robert Mills, served their apprenticeships and designed their first buildings in Philadelphia, as did Strickland’s protégé, Thomas Ustick Walter. The Greek Revival, which filled the young nation with temple-fronted banks and court houses, and girded countless southern plantation houses with rows of Doric and Ionic columns, had its origins in Philadelphia, introduced by Latrobe and perpetuated by Strickland and Mills. Yet, each of these talented designers ultimately left the city in search

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of greater opportunity, most notably to the new capital city of Washington, D.C., where Latrobe, Hallet, and Walter gave form to the Capitol building, and Mills to the Treasury and Patent Office buildings as well as the Washington Monument. Strickland would move on to Tennessee, Mills to Baltimore and Charleston. The economic decline of Philadelphia in the canal-building period reached its nadir following the panic of 1837, providing little need for new buildings or grand designs. The ante-bellum 1840s and 1850s witnessed Philadelphia designers John Notman and Samuel Sloan garnering some national attention. Notman was noted for his ecclesiastical work and the handsome Italianate country villas he erected in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Sloan gained notoriety through the wide circulation of his Carpenter’s Gothic cottage designs seen in the self-published The Model Architect and later in The Architectural Review, America’s first architectural periodical. Despite notable successes in the competitions for Philadelphia’s Academy of Music and Cathedral of Saints Peter & Paul, the highly capable Napoleon LeBrun, a pupil of Thomas Ustick Walter, saw few prospects in the city as the Cathedral neared completion, and like so many before and since, decamped for New York. At the Civil War’s conclusion, with the Pennsylvania Railroad prosperous and expanding, Philadelphia was well positioned to take full part in the burgeoning industrial growth of the late 19th century. By 1880 the city’s population had more than doubled from the pre-war level and would triple by 1900. Factories and row houses spread over the farm fields of South, West, and North Philadelphia, while the center city rebuilt itself. Its commercial core migrated from the Delaware waterfront of Colonial times to the environs of the new City Hall rising at Broad and Market Streets. It is the work of an Artist. —F RANK L LOYD W RIGHT, U NIVERSITY

OF

ON VIEWING THE

P ENNSYLVANIA L IBRARY

The dominant character in Philadelphia’s architecture during the Victorian era was the brilliant and iconoclastic Frank Furness. Originally from Boston, he was a member of a respected Philadelphia family and a former pupil of Richard Morris Hunt in New York City. Furness returned to Philadelphia in 1866 after extensive service in the Civil War and a brief sojourn in Paris. Uncompromising in his originality, impervious to the dictates of fad or fashion, and imbued with devotion to the idea of a new, thoroughly American style of architecture, he had no use for historicism or conventional notions of order and correctness. The many banks, office buildings, and city residences he produced in the 1870s and 1880s were filled with vivid polychromy, wild exaggerations of form and scale, and the unexpected juxtaposition of Gothic and Classic details. His many railroad stations, designed for all three rail lines serving Philadelphia—the Pennsylvania, Reading, and Baltimore & Ohio—indicate the wide scope of his practice as well as his keen abilities as a planner. The best of Furness’ buildings displayed a raw and dynamic vitality that commanded one’s attention without asking for approval. He continued to take his own highly personal approach to architecture well into the 1890s and early 1900s, becoming the inspirational figure of a small but prolific coterie of Philadelphia Victorians who made prodigious use of his design vocabulary without displaying any of his artistry or talent. His influence was also felt by several of the architects whose work appears in the pages that follow. Edward Hazelhurst, John Stewardson, Louis Baker, Charles

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Willing, and George Howe were just a few of the Philadelphia designers who acquired their first professional experience in the Furness office. Furness’ career can be said to have reached its pinnacle in the five years between his 1888 University of Pennsylvania Library and the massive terminal and office building addition he designer for the Broad Street Station in 1892-1893. Afterwards, both Furness and his imitators would collide headlong with the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago and the firm establishment of academic classicism as the only proper style for American building. As the 1890s progressed, Philadelphia’s Victorian commercial architecture was increasingly excoriated by critics for its violence and pretentiousness and its complete lack of “taste and discipline.” Furness and his followers were vilified for promulgating “an architectural reign of terror” along the city’s streets. The Architectural Record, most influential of the new professional design journals that championed Classicism, made frequent sport of Philadelphia’s Victorian buildings in an ongoing feature entitled “Architectural Aberrations.” In the same publication, the fastidious Boston architect and critic Ralph Adams Cram, while acknowledging Furness’ attempt at originality and personal expression, characterized his buildings as deformed, “hare-lipped,” and “club-footed,” examples of “the very worst taste ever recorded in art.” If one desires to hunt the truly wild and erratic, or to find the most extraordinary juxtapositions of the good with the bad, it is not to St. Louis or Kansas City or Oshkosh one should go. One cannot be so successful anywhere as in Philadelphia. —T HE A RCHITECTURAL R ECORD (1904) Cram and his cohorts at The Architectural Record had intended their dismissal of Furness and the Victorians to be an introduction to highly favorable appraisals of the very different work being done by a younger generation of Philadelphia architects, the academically-trained Wilson Eyre, Frank Miles Day, and Cope & Stewardson. Ironically, what registered with the reading public was the wholesale condemnation by the Record of their “Furnissic Revolt” (sic). The popular press chimed in eagerly with its own mordant chorus of critical calumny, branding Philadelphia’s Victorian buildings as “horrific” and their designers “barbarians.” Writer Lincoln Steffens went so far as to place blame for Philadelphia’s notoriously foul and corrupt politics on the design of its scandal-ridden French Empire City Hall. Such large-scale censure was an embarrassment to Philadelphia’s conservative business establishment. When it came time for them to build, many of the city’s most respected institutions sought an architect outside of Philadelphia. The Reading Railroad chose New Yorker Francis Kimball for its new Market Street Terminal; John Wanamaker chose Chicago’s Daniel Burnham for his giant center city store. New York’s McKim, Mead & White received the dual plums of the Girard Trust and Franklin National Bank buildings. In the unkindest cut of all, under new President Alexander J. Cassatt, the mighty Pennsylvania Railroad ended its long and exclusive relation with Furness, commissioning McKim, Mead & White and Daniel Burnham to design the new Pennsylvania Railroad stations at New York, Washington and Pittsburgh. The Pennsylvania Railroad never relented; as late as 1930, they chose Burnham’s successors, the Chicago firm of Graham, Anderson, Probst & White, to design Philadelphia’s own 30th Street & Suburban Stations.

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... a residence caught his eye like a flower by the roadside . . . something fresh and fair. —L OUIS S ULLIVAN, T HE AUTOBIOGRAPHY

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Although Frank Furness designed a number of residences in the Philadelphia suburbs, his practice was primarily an urban one. On the Main Line, Furness’ houses are greatly outnumbered by the Scottish baronial and Shingle style adaptations of his former partner, George Hewitt, by the wildly eclectic work of architect Theophilus P. Chandler, Jr., and by the somber stone creations of Quaker Addison Hutton. Both Chandler and Hutton were Main Line residents, who often were acquainted socially with their clients through common memberships in the same club or religious organization. A product of Harvard and the Atelier Vaudremer in Paris, Boston-born Theophilus P. Chandler, Jr. had family ties in Philadelphia when he established an office there in 1872. His marriage to a member of Wilmington’s DuPont family further served to strengthen his role as an architect to Philadelphia’s social elite. A somewhat eccentric designer with a penchant for towers, turrets, and prominent porte-cocheres— not to mention his unique stair windows, whose bases stagger upwards with the line of the steps—Chandler’s office served as a proving ground for many later prominent Philadelphia architects, such as Walter Cope, Edward Hazelhurst, Charles Barton Keen, Charles Klauder, Arthur Meigs and Walter Mellor, George B. Page, and John Stewardson. A committed advocate of the profession, Chandler served 11 years as president of the Philadelphia chapter of the American Institute of Architects and was a founder and first director of the Department of Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. Both Chandler and Hutton seemed to prefer working with the vernacular Pennsylvania granite and Wissahickon schist, much of it of local origin. Along the Main Line, the 1880s and 1890s was truly a stone age, with large gray mansions proliferating on the hilltops between Overbrook and Paoli. As the new century began, however, the broad excoriation of Philadelphia’s Victorian architecture produced much the same level of discomfort among Main Liners that it had with their city counterparts. Several clients chose to go outside Philadelphia in search of an architect. The prominent Drexel family favored the Boston firm of Peabody & Stearns with a half dozen residential commissions. Highly esteemed New York designer Charles Adams Platt garnered four country houses in Radnor alone. Formal classicist John Russell Pope and Florida’s exotic Addison Mizner contributed to the Main Line landscape. That younger generation of Philadelphia architects whom Ralph Adams Cram had sought to praise also garnered opportunities previously reserved for their now discredited elders. The most influential of these was the gifted artist and designer, Wilson Eyre. Descended from an old Philadelphia family, Wilson Eyre was born in 1858 in Florence, Italy, to which his ailing father had immigrated in order to avoid the harsh Pennsylvania winters. The younger Eyre first came to the United States at age 11, attending schools at Newport, Rhode Island, and Lenoxville, Quebec, Canada. He spent one year in the architectural program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before apprenticing with James Peacock Sims in Philadelphia at age 19. Five years later, Sims’ sudden death left Eyre in charge of the practice. An able watercolorist and planner, Eyre’s distinctive and highly picturesque approach to residential work was derived equally from the contemporary English Arts & Crafts style of such architects as Phillip Webb and C.F.A.Voysey and the Pennsylvania colonial vernacular. A founder of both the T-Square Club of

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Philadelphia in 1883 and the magazine House and Garden in 1904, Eyre’s unique and much admired country houses were widely publicized in architectural exhibitions and professional journals, bringing him additional clients in Long Island and New England. From 1901–1915 Eyre maintained offices in both Philadelphia and New York to service his growing practice. In 1911, with architect Gilbert McIlvaine, he established a partnership that continued into the 1930s. In 1917 Eyre & McIlvaine received the first gold medal awarded by the Philadelphia chapter of the American Institute of Architects. An acknowledged leader in the field of Philadelphia residential architecture in the first years of the 20th century, Wilson Eyre’s designs were instrumental in dispelling the curse of the Philadelphia Victorians and helped establish the so-called Philadelphia School of residential design of the pre-Depression years. His contemporaries Cope & Stewardson and Frank Miles Day successfully adapted their academic eclecticism to the country mansion, and a generation of younger architects, including Walter Mellor and Arthur Meigs, R. B. Okie, and Edmund Gilchrist, all followed the path Eyre had trod for design of the large country house. Thoroughly trained in the Beaux-Arts method, these architects combined Anglo-French vernacular styles with Pennsylvania colonial traditions to create an enduring and cohesive approach to residential architecture. The same critical establishment that had made anathema of Furness and the Victorians now all but beatified the younger men for their “exquisite taste,” “delicate sensibility,” and “pre-eminent refinement.” The clients of the 1920s were seldom involved in the rough-and-tumble manufacturing arena of the first Main Line estate owners. Instead, they tended to be investment bankers, stockbrokers, lawyers, or trust officials. In Philadelphia, as the emphasis passed from the production of wealth to its preservation, clients turned away from designs that loudly proclaimed their wealth toward designs that whispered it in tones of tasteful understatement. Battered by the critical abuse heaped upon Philadelphia for its experiments in Victorian originality, the city’s architects eagerly complied with their clients’ desire for something low-keyed and European. Entire sections of the Main Line began to resemble the English Cotswolds or Norman farming country, interrupted here and there by the occasional Tuscan villa or casa Española. Discredited and forgotten, Frank Furness died after a long illness in 1912. Though they may have thoroughly rejected his approach to design, the Philadelphia architects who succeeded him never quite escaped his commitment to originality or his insistence that the architect must be fundamentally a creative artist. If there is such a thing as a Philadelphia school of design or a Philadelphia approach to architecture, either in 1901 or 2001, its progenitor was the crusty, uncompromising Frank Furness.

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View from Rosemont Station, ca. 1905

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I N 1 9 3 0 , beyond the built-up residential corridor adjacent to the railroad, much of the Main Line remained open countryside, predominantly rural in character despite its proximity to the nation’s then third largest city. Like the vanished farms of the Welsh tract, that Main Line is now largely a thing of the past. The construction hiatus caused by the Depression and World War II ended in the boom years of the 1950s, and development intensified in the red-hot 1980s. Beyond the village of Devon, what 25 years ago had been largely horse and hunt country, is now the domain of myriad strip malls, multi-screen cinemas, and everadvancing hordes of “Luxury Executive Estates,” each on their very own half-acre, replete with media room, built-in Jacuzzi, and four-car garage. First proposed in 1932, the Schuylkill Expressway was completed between Fairmount Park and the King of Prussia interchange of the Pennsylvania Turnpike in 1954, stimulating residential construction along its

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12-mile length. The long-announced Blue Route, part of the Interstate Highway System, followed two decades later, slashing its way through much of Radnor’s choicest estate country and opened up more acreage to widespread development. Commuter trains still run between Paoli and Philadelphia, but are now operated by a public agency known as SEPTA. The once-mighty Pennsylvania Railroad, Valhalla of Philadelphia commerce, came to its Götterdämmerung in 1968. In Upper Merion Township, the quaint crossroads of King of Prussia, with its venerable colonial inn and musty antique shops, became the site of a mammoth industrial park, high-rise hotels, and apartment buildings. Sprawling over hundreds of former farmland acres, the King of Prussia Plaza and Court is billed as “America’s second largest shopping mall”—surrounded presumably by America’s second largest parking lot. U.S. Highway 202, once a roundabout scenic route to Wilmington and the Brandywine country, has become home to countless corporate centers and office complexes. The 21st-century Main Liner, happily ensconced in his McMansion but a few miles from his state-of-the-art Great Valley work place, has no need to venture into Philadelphia for shopping, entertainment, or employment. The awkward union of city and suburb has come to a separation that appears both absolute and final. Surveying the traffic jams, fast food outlets, and chain stores of Lancaster Avenue, the casual visitor to today’s Main Line may well wonder at its reputation for pastoral beauty and social cachet. Yet, a mile to either side of the Avenue, are vestiges of the old order, sometimes existing as private houses, others transformed into schools, colleges, convents, or retirement communities. Shorn of their acreage and surrounded by the villas and town houses of “Buckingham Forest Chase Estates,” more than a few houses survive as private residences, adding a surprisingly expansive note to their cookie-cutter dominated environs. Increasingly sensitive to the loss of open spaces and venerable landmarks, township planners have moved to preserve some large properties as public parks or sites offering community amenities. Yesterday’s white elephant is seen in a new light, now viewed as a sacrosanct and inviolate part of the Main Line’s heritage. Still a bit wistful perhaps about its English tweed and coach-and-four past, the Main Line nevertheless gamely soldiers on. Cricket, anyone?

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L AURANTO

GIJ St. Davids, 1901

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the Italian-Renaissance-

styled Lauranto stood atop a bluff overlooking Little Darby Creek from 1901 until the early 1980s.

Designed by Peabody & Stearns, Lauranto was the home of Drexel grandchild, sportsman Craig Biddle, and his wife, the former Laura Whelan. Following the death of their mother in 1883, four-year old Craig Biddle and his brother Livingston were raised as wards of George W. Childs Drexel of Wootton. Under the terms of Anthony J. Drexel’s will, each of the Biddle brothers would receive a million dollars upon reaching age 21. The lavishly decorated Lauranto, with 113 acres landscaped by the Olmsted Brothers, was a wedding gift to Craig Biddle from his Drexel guardians, a similar gift being made to Livingston Biddle upon his marriage. Lauranto’s interiors were furnished largely with European purchases, including antique marble mantelpieces, classic statuary, and Aubusson tapestries from dealers in Rome and Florence. The vaulted,

Garden elevation

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Dining room

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Stable two-story hall, with Palladian arched windows overlooking the valley, occupied the center of the house with reception, dining, library and sitting rooms arrayed on either side. A champion polo and tennis player, with a penchant for lavish entertaining and investing in Broadway musicals, Craig Biddle quickly ran through his inheritance and was compelled to sell Lauranto in 1911 to banker-broker Archibald Barklie. Renamed Inver House, the property was sold again in 1936 to Simon Neuman, President of Publicker Industries. By the 1970s Inver House was owned by the Roach Brothers real estate firm, which announced plans to adapt the property for use as a retirement community. This scheme came to naught, however, and 10 years later, house and stable had been replaced by a large complex of luxury town houses. Only the entrance gates and a stretch of abandoned driveway remain as relics of the once-lavish Lauranto.

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P ENSHURST

GIJ Narberth, 1902

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undoubtedly Penshurst, the 571-acre property of Percival Roberts, Jr., descendant of John Roberts of

Pencoyd and owner-proprietor of the Pencoyd Iron Works at Bala. An archeologically correct Elizabethan manor house designed by architects Peabody & Stearns, Penshurst’s chief glory was not the 70-room mansion, but its spectacular setting. It sat on the crest of a hill overlooking a magnificent formal garden with multiple stairways, terraces, watercourses, and reflecting pools cascading down the hillside to a circular fountain court and triple-arched garden gate. Son of one of the founders of Pencoyd Iron, Percival Roberts, Jr., greatly increased his personal wealth through his 1901 agreement to join the newly-formed United States Steel Corporation. Serving as president of the renamed Ambridge Division and as a member of U.S. Steel’s board of directors, Roberts combined 10 separate tracts of land adjacent to his farm near Narberth to create the largest private property in Lower Merion Township.

Front elevation

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Entrance gate with courtyard Construction of Penshurst began in 1901 and was largely completed three years later. Public roads running through the estate were closed or relocated, a dozen or more buildings were demolished, and the Olmsted Brothers were brought in to reconfigure the vast landscape. Members of the Peabody & Stearns firm traveled to England to study Elizabethan prototypes and obtain period artifacts for the new house Surrounding three sides of a walled forecourt, the red brick and limestone house faced north across a broad lawn towards the estate’s five-story water tower. Within, a wide entrance corridor flanked by a fireplace and a double-range staircase stretched the length of the central block. Archways to either side of the fireplace led to the vaulted great hall, where three double-height windows faced out over the terraced hillside. West of the great hall were the dining room, the morning room, and the service wing. To its east were the Georgianstyle drawing room, the Jacobean library, and the billiard room. Paneling, fireplace overmantels, brass and crystal chandeliers, and entire plaster ceilings were brought over from England for incorporation into the new house, the decoration of which was overseen by the Boston firm of Irving & Casson. The adjacent gardens were divided into four terrace levels, the last sloping gently for 200 feet down to the fountain court and gateway on Conshohocken State Road. East of the house lay another, walled garden

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Great hall and an extensive greenhouse complex. In addition to its own water supply, Penshurst maintained an electrical plant, chapel, stables, and a large dairy complex housing Roberts’ imported herd of prize Ayrshire cattle. As president of U.S. Steel’s Ambridge Division, Percival Roberts was not only Lower Merion Township’s largest single landowner but its largest private employer as well. Relations between the Township and its leading taxpayer were often less than cordial. The milk produced by the Penshurst Ayrshires, though produced under strict sanitary conditions, was not pasteurized. Lower Merion health officials visited Penshurst’s lord and master with a series of spot inspections and fined him for sanitary violations during the 1920s. In 1939 Lower Merion Township announced plans to build a trash incinerating plant on land directly adjacent to the Penshurst estate. Angered by what he saw as yet another venal act by the Township and dismayed by the spiraling cost of the estate’s upkeep, Roberts had the main house demolished and its contents sold at auction. The Penshurst gardens endured as an overgrown but evocative ruin until the mid-1970s when the site was bulldozed and regraded for residential development. Only the triple-arched garden gate and a handful of outbuildings remain as a hint of Penhurst’s vanished splendors.

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Salon or reception room

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First floor plan

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L A R ONDA

GIJ Bryn Mawr, 1928

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T U D O R S and suburban ranch houses of northern Bryn Mawr, the

Castilian Gothic La Ronda comes as a bit of a shock. The pale pink casa grande, with its bold towers

and ranks of stained glass windows, was the last great mansion designed by Addison Mizner, the legendary Florida architect of Palm Beach and Boca Raton. La Ronda was commissioned by Percival E. Foerderer, president of the Foerderer Vici Kid leather works. Already the owner of a large Mediterranean-style residence in Merion, in 1925 he purchased the 250-acre Bryn Mawr estate of former U. S. Attorney General Wayne McVeigh. Mizner demolished the 1882 McVeigh residence by Theophilus P. Chandler, Jr., and completed the 51-room La Ronda in 1928. Outbuildings included a combination gatehouse, garage, and servants’ quarters building at the entrance to the estate as well as a separate caretaker’s cottage.

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West elevation

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Accepting the harsh reality of Pennsylvania winters, Mizner eschewed the patio-centered plans of his Florida residences in favor of the fortress-like castles of Aragon and Castille. Facing a three-sided walled courtyard, La Ronda is covered in smooth stucco with reconstructed stone trim and a roof of red barrel tile. Within, a small entrance vestibule leads to the two-story, rib-vaulted great hall finished in coral from Mizner’s Florida Keys stone quarry. Three double-height, pointed-arch windows overlook the sheltered patio and a cruciform-shaped pool on the lawn terrace. Set in an alcove at the great hall’s east end, the main stairs lead to a second-floor balcony connecting La Ronda’s east and west wings. Two bedrooms and the master suite are accessed from the west end via an encaged hanging stair. Three additional bedrooms are located in the east wing, along with a nursery and servants’ quarters. A separate circular stair tower leads to the third floor observation room in the larger of the two towers; the smaller tower houses a children’s playroom and sleeping porch. On the ground floor west of the great hall are the library, an enclosed loggia, and a 28 by 36 foot sunken living room dominated by a massive carved stone, hooded fireplace. The floor of the living room is of dark hardwood surrounded on four sides by polished, patterned tile. Windows were purposely left undraped, permitting a full display of the leaded stained glass and gothic stone tracery. East of the great hall are the dining room and the service wing. Beneath a richly coffered ceiling, copied from a Spanish original in the Al Cal Henares, the single-plank dining room table expanded to seat 24 people. Wall coverings in the dining room were based on a pattern found in Italy’s Davanzati Palace. All woodwork, fixtures, and decorations at La Ronda, as well as most of its furnishings, were created at Mizner’s Florida workshop. The estate grounds, including a walled garden with a fountain adjacent to the dining room, were the work of landscape architect Louis A. Adams. Percival Foerderer retired as president of the family leather works in 1936, and the factory closed a year later. Following Foerderer’s death in 1969, La Ronda went through a series of owners, including Villanova University, which briefly considered its use as a conference center. Several builder-developers were attracted by its large acreage. The original 250-acre estate has been subdivided and developed with single-family houses and a 90-acre tract established as Lower Merion’s first planned residential development. The three Mizner-designed buildings remain private residences, unexpected relics of the Jazz Age amidst the Quaker tranquility of Bryn Mawr.

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I NDEX

Abington (PA), 63 Academy of Music, 10 Academy of Notre Dame de Namur, 199 Academy of the Sacred Heart, 111 Acme Markets, 98, 114 Acme Tea Company, 114 Adams, Louis A. (landscape architect), 211 Agnes Irwin School for Girls, 52 Alan Wood Iron & Steel Company, 46, 68 Alavoine, Lucien (decorator), 191 Al Can Henares, 211 Allegheny Mountains, 3 Allegheny River, 3 Allgates, 122-129 Alta-Vista, 170 Althorpe, 185 Ambridge Division (U. S. Steel Company), 79, 81, 164 America (USA), 42, 117, 118, 135, 218 American Architecture of Today, The, 179 American Institute of Architects (AIA), 12, 13 American Red Cross, Philadelphia Chapter, 108 Arader, W. Graham, 184 Aragon and Castille, 211 “Architectural Aberrations”, 11 Architectural Record, The. 9, 11 Architectural Review, The, 10 Arden (DE), 55 Ardmore (PA), 5, 6, 7, 177 Ardmore Station (PRR) Ardrossan, 134-138 Armenian Church of Sts. Sahag & Mesrob, 228 Ashhurst family, 40 Ashhurst, Richard L., 40, 41 Astor, William Waldorf, 66 Atelier Vaudremer (Paris), 12 Athensville (PA), 3, 5 Atlantic City (NJ), 41, 164, 199 Atlantic (Ocean), 117 Aubusson tapestries, 76 Avonwood Court, 229 Ayrshire cattle, 82, 135 Baily, William L, (architect), 235 Baily & Truscott (architects), 39

Baker, Louis C. (architect), 10, 33 Bala (PA),7, 17, 32, 33, 55, 59, 79 Bala-Cynwyd Shopping Center, 59 Baldwin Locomotive Works, 4, 6, 17, 35, 36, 104 Ballytore, 175, 228 Baltimore (MD), 3, 10 Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 3, 10 Barbizon School (of painting), 29 Barclay Building, 33 Barclay Farm, 45, 51-52, 106,189, 191 Barclay Hotel, 171 Barklie, Archibald, 78 Barry, Philip (playwright), 135 Battle of Brandywine, 2 Battle of Germantown, 2 Beaupre, 72-75 Bella-Vista, 163-166 Belmont Avenue, 59 Belrose Lane, 94 Benjamin Franklin Parkway (Philadelphia), 199 Bertron, Griscom & Company, 224 Berwick Road, 58 Berwind, Charles, 6 Berwyn (PA), 6, 18 Betsfred, 218-220 Biddle, Craig, 76 Biddle, Livingston L., 76, 233 Birmingham (England), 8 Bissell & Sinkler (architects), 218, 232 Blabon, Edwin L., 139, 140 Blabon, George W.,109, 139 Blabon, Walter D., 109, 111, 139 Bloomfield, 189-191 Blue Route (see Interstate 476) Boca Raton (FL), 208 Boca Raton Club, 199 Bodine, Samuel T., 20, 181 Bodine, William W., 181, 184 Bolingbroke, 68-71 Boone, Pat, 177 Boone Hall, 177 Boston (MA), 10, 11, 12,20, 23, 45, 81, 181 Box Hill, 233 Boyd, D. Knickerbacker (architect) 63, 149, 152 Brandywine (region), 15 Britain (country), 8 British Empire, 8

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Broad Street Station (Philadelphia), 11 Broadway musicals, 78 Brockie & Hastings (architects), 85, 90, 93, 185 Brookline, Massachusett, 21, 101 Brown, John A., Jr., 53, 54 Brown, Samuel B., 228 Brown Brothers & Company, 54, 99 Bryn Mawr (PA), 5, 6, 17, 30, 45, 63, 74, 85, 109, 111, 119, 120, 139, 170, 208, 211, 212, 228, 230, 231, 233, 234 Bryn Mawr Avenue, 30, 31, 109 Bryn Mawr College, 85, 231 Bryn Mawr Horse Show, 119 Bryn Mawr Hospital, 104, 184 Bryn Mawr Hotel, 6 Bryn Mawr Polo Club, 7 Bryn Mawr Station (PRR), 4 Buckingham, Duke of, 23 “Buckingham Forest Chase Estates”, 15 Burlington (VT), 36 Burnham, Daniel (architect), 11 Burnham, Williams & Company, 6, 35, 36 Buttonbrook, 71 C. Schmidt & Sons (brewery), 94 Cabrini College, 67 Camp Discharge, 46 Camp-Woods, 130-133 Campbell Soup Company, 67, 91, 226 Canal Coal Company, 90 Car-Alan, 230 Carlhien, Andre (decorator), 135 Carrington, 215-217 Carstairs, J. Hazeltine, 192, 196 Carstairs, McCall & Company, 196 Carter-Hawley-Hale Corp., 226 Cassatt (investment firm), 74 Cassatt, Alexander Johnston, 5, 11,18, 19, 74, 117 Cassatt, Eliza (Stewart), 19 Cassatt, J. Gardner, 232 Cassatt, Mary, 74 Cassatt, Robert Kelso, 74 Cathedral of Sts. Peter & Paul (Philadelphia), 10 Cedar Crest, 221-226 Chamounix Road, 94


I

Chandler, Theophilus P.,Jr. (architect), 12, 30, 38, 53, 54, 63, 99, 197, 208, 228, 235 Chanticleer, 232 Chanticleer Foundation, 232 Chantonnay, 215, 217 Chapman & Fraser (architects), 19 Charleston (SC), 10 Chester (PA), 39 Chester County (PA), 2 Chestnut Hill (PA), 63 Cheswold, 18-19 Chetwynd, 35-37 Chetwynd Apartments, 36 Chicago (IL), 4, 11, 130, 131 Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, 108 Childrens Seashore House, 164 Childs, George W., 7, 22 Childs-Drexel estate (Wootton), 22, 109 Churches of Christ, 177 Cincinnati (OH), 4 City Avenue, 33, 40, 55, 59, 111 Civil War, 4, 5, 10, 45 Clairemont, 175-178 Clark, Herbert L(incoln), 145, 146 Clyde Estate (Ithan, PA), 7 Clifford, Esther H. R., 144 Clifford, Henry, 144 Cliveden (Germantown), 158 Clothier, Isaac H., 177, 228 Clothier, Isaac H., Jr., 175, 185, 188 Clothier, Morris L., 175, 177 Colebrook, 85-87 Colkenny, 113-116 Colket, Tristram C., 171 Colket, Tristram C., II, 234 Colonial Trust Company, 55 Colonial Village (development), 179 Colton, Sabin W(oolworth), 99 Columbian Exposition, 11 Commercial Trust Company, 120 Conemaugh (River), 3 Conestoga Road, 51 Congoleum Corporation, 111, 140 Connecticut, 91 Conshohocken (PA), 46 Conshohocken State Road, 32, 79, 81, 99 Consolidated Railroads of Cuba, 217 Continental Army, 130 Converse, John H., 35, 36 Coopertown Road, 122, 125 Cope & Stewardson (architects), 11, 13, 63, 74, 85, 106, 235 Cope, Walter, 12 Cornell, John W. (builder), 145 Coxe, Alexander B., 227 Cram, Ralph Adams (architect/writer), 11, 12 Cramp, Theodore M., 232 Crawford Farm, 99 Cret, Paul Phillipe (architect), 197, 199 Crum Creek Farm, 232 Cumberland, Maryland, 3 Curtis Institute of Music, 23 Curtiss-Wright (Company), 104

N D E X

Darby, George G. B., 232 Darby Creek, 54 Davanzati Palace, 211 Davis, Alexander J. (architect), 53 Davis, Izora (Hunter), 114 Davis, J. Leslie, 114 Dawber, Guy (architect), 96 Day, Frank Miles (architect), 11, 13, 20, 63, 233 Daylesford (PA), 6, 232 Decker, Martin, 33 Declaration of Independence, 18, 96 Deilwydd, 232 Delano, Eugene, 99 Delaware-Chester county line, 65 Delaware River, 10, 39 DeMoss, Arthur S., 171 DeMoss Foundation, 171 Dempwolf, J. A., & Sons (architects), 232 Depression, (Great), 13, 14, 101, 125, 146, 179 Devereux School, 54 Devon (PA), 5, 6, 14, 17, 45, 53, 63, 200, 229, 231 Dewing, Ruggles & Mills, 158 Dickens, Charles, 9 Dickey, John M. (architect), 21 Disston (company), 4 Disston, Mary (Roberts), 164 Dolan, Thomas, 171 D’Olier, Franklin, 233 D’Olier Residence, 233 Dolobran, 117, 224, 228 Dorrance, John T., 67, 226 Dorrance, John T., Jr., 226 Drexel, Anthony J., 7, 22, 66, 76 Drexel, George W. Childs, 23, 24, 76 Drexel & Company (bank), 17, 63, 66, 117, 118, 125, 161 Drexel family, 12, 23, 74, 76 Duhring, Okie & Ziegler (architects), 63, 68, 109, 111, 139,236 Dundale, 229 Dunminning, 53-54 DuPont family, 12 Durham, Walter (architect), 19, 237 Durham & Irvine (architects), 13, 85, 179, 234 E. W. Clark & Company (bank), 63, 99, 146 Eagle Tavern (PA), 5 Eastern Baptist Theological Seminary, 154 Eastern College,154 Easttown Township (PA), 200 Eddystone Manufacturing Company, 39, 197 Edgell, G. H., 179, 180 Edward B. Smith (broker), 167 Elkins, Morris & Company (broker), 167 Elkins Park (PA), 72 Ellis, Rudolph, 30, 117, 119, 120 Ellis, William S., 119, 120 Elm (PA), 7 Eltonwood, 234 Ely, Elizabeth Geist, 146 Ely,Van Horn, 146 England & Bryan (company), 152

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England & Walton Company, 154 Enterprise Transit Company, 85 Episcopal Academy, 58, 184 Era of Willful Blindness, 117 Erie Canal, 3 Eton (school), 8 Europe, 102, 145 European Allies, 118 Evans, Allen (architect), 33, 189 Everett & Mead (architects), 20 Expositions, San Diego & San Francisco (1915), 163 Eyre, Wilson (architect), 11, 12, 40, 63, 88, 119, 122, 159, 161, 167, 236 Eyre & McIlvaine (architects), 13, 125, 163, 185, 233, 234, 236 F. P. Ristine & Company, 220 Fairlawn, 231 Fairmount Park, 14, 22 Fairmount Park Art Association, 104, 108 Farwood, 40-41 Father Divine, 49 Fidelity Trust Company, 30, 85, 117 Field & Medary (architects), 59 Fielding, Mantle (architect), 229, 230 Fifth Avenue (NYC), 42 Finnell, Samuel C. First City Troop, 106 First National Bank of Philadelphia, 44 Florida, 12, 196, 199, 208, 211 Florida Keys, 211 Foerderer, Percival E., 208, 211 Foerderer Vici Kid (company), 208 Fox Creek Farm, 200 Fox Fields, 119-121, 122 Fox-Hill, 232 Fox Hill Farm, 30-31, 117 Franklin, (Benjamin), 17 Franklin National Bank (Philadelphia), 11 Fraser, John (architect), 229 Friends Central School, 229 Furness, Frank (architect), 6, 10,11, 12, 13, 18, 45, 63 Furness, Evans & Company (architects), 18, 33, 228, 229, 236 Furness & Hewitt (architects), 18 Gallatin, Albert E., 189 Garrett, William E., Jr., 163 Gates, Horatio, 125 Geist, Clarence H., 146, 197, 199 George, Henry, 55 Germantown (PA), 106 Germantown Savings Bank Building, 59 Germany, 8 Gibson, Henry C., 27, 29, 44 Gibson, Mary, 29 Gibsonton Distilleries, 44 Gilchrist, Edmund B.(architect), 13, 179, 221 Gillingham (estate), 175, 185, 204 Gilmore, John Odgers, 55, 58 Girard Trust Company, 1, 11, 54, 104, 171, 177 Githens, Alfred (landscape architect),


I

125 Gladwyne (PA), 99, 215, 221, 226 Glenbrook, 167-169 Glencoe, 96-98 Glenmede, 231 Godfrey, Lincoln, 197 Godfrey House, 197 Godfrey Road (Ithan), 199 Government of Japan, Honorary Consul of the, 108 Grace Hall (Cabrini College), 67 Graham, Anderson, Probst & White (architects), 11 Graham, George S., 231 Grange, The, 40 Great Valley (PA), 15 Greber, Jacques, 199 Green Hill Farm, 229 “Greene Country Towne”, 7 Grey Craig, 231 Griscom, Clement A., 117, 224, 228 Griscom, Rodman E., Jr., 221, 224 Gropius, Walter (architect), 180 Guggenheim (copper interests), 104 Gulph Creek, 142, 156, 159 Haas, Otto, 21 Hallet, Stephen (architect), 9 Happy Creek Farm, 142, 229 Har Zion Temple, 161 Hard Times, 9 Hardwicke, 145-148 Harrison, Charles C., 142, 229 Harrison, Mertz & Emlen (landscape architects), 71 Harriton, 85 Harrow (school), 8 Hart, William B., 71 Harvard College, 12, 179 Haverford (PA), 5, 6, 7, 18, 74, 113, 117, 122, 167, 173, 192, 226, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234 Haverford Township(PA), 122, 167, 192 Haverford Township School District, 125 Hazelhurst & Huckel (architects), 42 Hazelhurst, Edward (architect), 10, 12 Hecksher, Ledyard, 68 Hecksher, Lucretia (Hart), 71 Heddon, E.J. (builder), 179 Herter, Albert (muralist), 152 Hewitt, G. W. & W. D. (architects), 27, 51, 52, 63, 170, 237 Hewitt, George (architect), 12 Heyl, George A., 229 Highclere, 204-207 Hillaire, 229 Hillbrook House, 109-112, 139 Hillhouse, 200-203 Hillsover, 197 Holt Hill, 230 Horticultural Society of Pennsylvania, 104, 171 Howe & Lescaze (architects), 131 Howe, George (architect), 11 Hudson River Tunnel (PRR), 4, 18, 63 Hunt, Richard Morris (architect), 10, 42

N D E X

Hunter, Thomas P., 113, 114 Hutchinson, Joseph Baldwin, 234 Hutchinson Residence, 234 Hutton, Addison (architect), 12, 63, 175, 228, 229, 237 Independence Hall, 158 Indian Summer, 117 Indianapolis (IN), 4 Ingeborg, 38-39 Insurance Company of North America, 96, 171 International Mercantile Marine (IMM), 117 International Navigation (company), 85 Interstate 476 (Mid-County Expressway; “Blue Route”), 15, 104, 108, 125 Inver House, 78 Ireland, 8, 42 Irvine, James (builder), Irving & Casson (decorators), 81 Islamic Cultural Center, 177 Ithan (PA), 106, 130, 134, 145, 146, 197 J. A. Dempwolf & Sons (architects) Janney-Montgomery-Scott (Company), 135 Japan (Honorary Consul), 108 Jay Cooke (& Company), 17 Jazz Age, 211 Jenkintown (PA), 177 John Stewardson Traveling Scholarship, 96 John Wyeth & Brother (company), 88 Johnson, John G.(attorney), 119 Johnson, Lindley (architect), 173, 231 Juniata (river), 3 Juniper Hall, 94 Kansas City (MO), 11 Keen & Mead (architects), 230 Keen, Charles Barton (architect), 12, 63, 156, 170, 230, 232, 237 Kelso, 232 Kelty, 58 Keystone (Bryn Mawr) Hotel, 5, 6 Kimball, Francis (architect), 11 King of Prussia (PA), 14 King of Prussia Road, 66 King of Prussia (Shopping Mall), 15 King, Guy (architect), 20 Klauder, Charles (architect), 12 Knollbrook, 173-174 Kuhn, C. Hartman, 170, 171, 231 Kuhn Prize, 171 La Ronda, 208-214 Lafayette Road, 99 Lake Erie, 4 La Lanne, Frank D., 170 Lancaster County, 2 Lancaster Turnpike, 36, 51 Lancaster, Osbert (cartoonist), 218 Laredo, Texas, 90 Latrobe, Benjamin H. (architect), 9 Launfal, 197-199 Lauranto, frontispiece, 72, 76-78, 90

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Laurier, 170-172 Leavitt, Charles (landscape architect) LeBoutillier, Roberts LeBrun, Napoleon (architect), 10 LeCorbusier (architect), 180 Leeds (England), 8 Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company, 161 Lehigh Valley coal fields, 99 L’Enfant, Pierre Charles (architect), 9 Lenoxville, Quebec, 12 Lesley, Robert W., 231, 234 Lesselyn, 234 Lesselyn Court, 231 Lewis, Francis A. III, 233 Lewis Residence, 233 Lindeberg, Harrie T. (architect), 91 Linden, 125 Linlithgow, 232 Little Darby Creek, 76, 90 Littlefield Farm, 139-141 Llanengen, 59-61 Lloyd family, 127 Lloyd, H. Gates, Jr., 125 Lloyd, Horatio Gates, 122, 125 Locust Street (Philadelphia), 58 Locust Walk (Univ. of Penna.), 218 Long Island (NY), 9, 13, 72, 91 Longmeadow, 99-101 Louella (PA), 7 Louisville (KY), 4 Low-Walls, 88-89, 122 Lower Merion Township (PA), 5, 8, 17, 18, 46, 55, 58, 79, 82, 211 Lukens Steel Company, 217 Lutyens, Edwin (architect), 134 Lycoming Mining Company, 85 Lynedoch, 39 McArthur, John (architect), 23 McFadden & Brother (company), 52, 106 McFadden, Barclay, 52 McFadden, George H., 51, 52, 106, 189, 191 McFadden, George, Jr., 189, 191 McFadden, J. Franklin, 106 McIlvaine, J. Gilbert (architect), 13, 119, 161 McKean, Thomas, Jr., 96 McKeon, John C., 233 McKim, Mead & White, 11 Mc Neal, J. Hector, 49 McVeigh, Wayne, 208 Mack Truck (company), 104 Magaziner & Potter (architects), 173, 174 Main Line of Public Works, Pennsylvania State, 3, 4 Manchester (England), 8 Manhattan (Island), 63 Marshall, F. Warren, 234 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 12 Mather, Charles E., 229 Maybrook, 27-29, 44 Meadow Creek, 22, 23, 109, 170 Meadow Lodge, 230 Mecke, J. Howard (developer), 179 Mellor & Meigs (architects), 63, 167, 169, 237


I

Mellor, Meigs & Howe (architects), 237 Melmark School, 233 Mercer, Henry Chapman, 152 Merion (PA), 6, 45, 58, 88, 208 Merion Cricket Club, 6, 17, 167 Merion Golf Club, 192 Merion Golf Manor, 179 Merrie England, 72 Mexico, war with, 99 Midvale Steel (company),104 Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (architect), 180 Mill-Brook Farm, 230 Mills, Paul Denckla, 156, 158 Mills, Robert (architect), 9 Minton tile, 27 Mississippi (valley), 3 Mizner, Addison (architect), 12, 199, 208, 211 Model Architect, The, 10 Montgomery-Scott family, 138 Montgomery, Charlotte, 135 Montgomery, Grenville Dodge, 215, 217 Montgomery, Robert L., 134, 135 Montgomery, Robert L., Jr., 135 Montgomery & Company, 135 Montgomery Avenue, 5, 18, 113, 204 Montrose, 159-162 Moore & Sinnott Company, 44 Morgan Guaranty (company), 226 Morgan, J. P.(& Company), 118 Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, 184 Morgan’s Corners (PA), 5 Morris Casper Wistar, 167 Morris, Helen Cuyler, 167 Morris, Israel, 146 Morris, Israel W. 229 Morris, Theodore H., 229 Morris Avenue, 18 Narberth (PA), 6, 7, 17, 79, 179 National Historic Landmark, 49 National Register (of Historic Places), 44 National Road, 3 Nawbeek, 227 Nesfield, W. Eden (architect) Neuman, Simon, 78 New England, 13, 45, 63 New Jersey, 4, 6, 45, 196 New York (City), 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 91, 102, 158, 192 New York (State), 4 Newbold, F. Eugene, 200 Newport (RI), 9, 12, 42, 72 Newton, Ernest (architect), 96, 134 Newtown Square (PA), 53 Newtown Township (PA), 53 Northeastern Christian Junior College, 177 Notman, John (architect), 10 Oakley, Violet (artist), 27 Oakwell, 181-184 Oatlands, 231 Ohio (valley), 3 Okie, R. B. (architect), 13, 52, 68, 71, 179 Olmstead Brothers (landscape archi-

N D E X

tects), 21, 76, 81, 101, 145 Ord, John (architect), 23, 163 Oshkosh (WI), 11 Overbrook (PA), 6, 7, 12, 17, 40, 58, 63, 111, 229 Overbrook Farms, 47 Overbrook Golf Club, 146 Overbrook Hills (development), 179 Oxford & Cambridge (universities), 218 Page, George Bispham (architect), 12, 96, 227, 230, 238 Palm Beach (FL), 208 Panama Street (Philadelphia), 200 Panic of 1893, 45 Paoli (PA) 1, 6, 12, 15, 45, 227 Paris (France), 10 Park, William, 114 Patterson, James Whiting, 231 Paul. A. J. Drexel, 67, 233 Paul, Ellen Drexel, 67, 156 Paul, James W., Jr., 65, 66, 67, 156 Paul, Oglesby (landscape architect), 30, 66, 159 Paul, Paul & Ford (landscape architects), 185 Peabody & Stearns (architects). 12, 23, 45, 76, 79, 80, 233, 238 Peace Mission Church, 49 Pembroke, 6, 228 Pencoyd (Farm), 32-34, 59, 79 Pencoyd Iron Works, 79, 164 Penn Mutual Life (Insurance Co.), 104 Penn Valley, 179 Penn, William, 2, 7, 8 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 29 Pennsylvania Department of Highways, 114 Pennsylvania, Horticultural Society of, 104 Pennsylvania Hospital (Philadelphia) Pennsylvania legislature, 5 Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), 1-11, 15, 17, 18, 20, 33, 35, 36, 45, 59, 63, 74, 117 Pennsylvania State Bar Association, 203 Pennsylvania Station (NYC), 11, 18 Pennsylvania Turnpike, 14 Penrose, Boies, 203 Penshurst, 62, 79-84, 164 Pepper, George Wharton, 200, 203 Pepper, George Wharton, Jr. (architect), 200, 203 Pepper Hamilton & Scheetz, 203 Perry, Shaw & Hepburn (architects), 181 Pew Charitable Trusts, 174 Pew, J(ohn) Howard, 173, 174 Pew, Walter C., 217 Philadelphia & Columbia Railroad, 2, 4, 5 Philadelphia Bar Association, 203 Philadelphia City Hall, 10, 11, 23 Philadelphia Country Club, 7, 47, 215 Philadelphia Museum of Art, 144 Philadelphia National Bank, 177

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Philadelphia Orchestra, 171 Philadelphia Saving Fund Society (PSFS), 130, 131 Philadelphia Stock Exchange, 146, 220 Philadelphia Story, The (play), 135 Philadelphia Suburban Water Company, 199 Pittsburgh (PA), 3, 4, 11 Platt, Charles Adams (architect), 12, 102, 145, 233, 238 Plaza Hotel (NY), 164 Plumb, Fayette R., 229 Pocono (Mountains), 6 Pope, John Russell (architect), 12, 192 Portledge, 232 Poth, Harry A., 94 Potomac River, 3 Potter, William Woodburn (architect), 174 Potts, Francis L(anier), 85 Pottstown (PA), 85 Pregny, 189 Presbyterian Children’s Village, 98 Presbyterian Church, 98 Presbyterian Hospital (Philadelphia) Press The (newspaper), 161 Price, Benjamin D. (architect) Price, Edward (developer), 7 Price, Frank (architect), 46, 47 Price, Walter F. (architect), 23, 170 Price, William L. (architect), 45, 46, 47, 49, 55, 58, 230, 231, 238 Princeton University, 85, 218, 226 Progressive Era, 117 Prohibition, 44, 196 Proverbs, 47 Public Ledger (newspaper, 22, 23 Public Ledger Building, 23 Publicker Industries, 78 Puerto Rico Gas & Coke Company, 220 Punch (magazine), 8 Quadrangle Retirement Community Radnor (PA), 5, 6, 45, 65, 67, 68, 142, 144, 159, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234 Radnor Hunt Club, 7, 17, 109, 119 Radnor Township (PA), 8, 12, 30, 51, 90, 102, 104, 119, 120, 130, 134, 170, 230 Radnor Valley Country Club, 108 Radnor Valley Farm, 106-108 Rathalla, 42-44, 72 Ravenscliff, 90-93 Reading Railroad, 10, 11, 44, 96 Reading Terminal (Philadelphia), 11 Redstone, 229 Reed, Alan H., 230 Regina Mundi Priory, 231 Register, Albert, 173 Register, I. Layton, 173 Republican Party, 3, 203 Revolutionary War, 125, 130 Riley, Lewis A., 161 Riley, Margaret (Townsend), 159, 161 Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railroad, 90 Ristine & Conklin (company), 220


I

Ristine, Frederick P., 218, 220 Rittenhouse Square (Philadelphia), 7, 23, 53, 63, 170 Roach Brothers (realtors), 78 Robert H. Foerderer Company Roberts family, 32, 33 Roberts Road (Villanova), 96, 109 Roberts, G. Brinton, 59 Roberts, George Brooke, 33, 59 Roberts, John, 32, 79 Roberts, Percival, Jr., 79, 164 Roberts, Peter Williamson, 163, 164 Roberts, Thomas Williams, 33 Robinson, Dwight, 158 Robinson, Samuel, 98 Rock Rose, 142-144 Rohm & Haas (Company), 21 Rome (Italy), 76 Rose Lane (Haverford), Rose Valley (PA), 55 Rosemont (PA) 5, 6, 35, 36, 42, 44, 45, 51, 52, 72, 74, 88, 96, 98 Rosemont College for Women , 44 Rosemont Presbyterian Village, 74 Rosemont Station, 14 Rosengarten, Adolph G., 232 Rostrevor, 228 Roughwood, 88 Rowland, Edward K., 142, 144 Rowland, Esther Harrison, 142 St. Aloysius Academy for Boys, 24 St. Davids (PA), 6, 7, 22, 76, 90, 93, 94, 149, 152, 154, 156, 218, 220, 229, 230 St. Davids Church, 91, 152 St. Davids Golf Club, 67 St. Louis (MO), 4, 11 St. Lukes’ School, 156, 158 St. Martin’s Church (Radnor), 71 Saks Fifth Avenue (store), 33 Samuel Freeman (& Company), 24 Saville Row (London), 8 Saxman, Edwin F., 232 Sayen, William Henry, 230 Schmidt, Edward A., 94 Schmidt, Frederick, 94 Schuykill Expressway (Interstate 76), 14, 226 Schuykill River, 2, 32, 46, 85 Scott, Hope Montgomery, 135 Scott, William M., 232 Seaview Golf Club (NJ), 199 Seeburger & Rabinold (architects), 58, 179 Sellers, Horace Wells (architect), 99, 125, 232, 239 SEPTA (Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority), 15 Shaw, Howard VanDoren (architect), 130, 131 Sheffield, Walter (landscape architect), 220 Simpson, W. Percy, 39

N D E X

Simpson, William P, Jr. 38, 39. Sims, Henry A. (architect), 18 Sims, James Peacock (architect), 12 Sinnott, Joseph F., 42, 44 Sisters of the Holy Child, 44 Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, 24 Sisters of the Sacred Heart, 67 Sloan-Blabon Linoleum Company, 140 Slocum, S. Gifford (architect), 229 Smith, Edmund, 20 Smith, W. Hinckle, 104 Smith, Mrs. Wycoff (Potts), 85 Soapstone Farm, 224 Society of Friends, 8 Somersby, 146 Sorrel Horse Tavern, 51 Southeastern Pennsylvania, 102 Spain, 23 Spanish American War, 108 Spring Hill Farm, 192-196 Spring Mill (Gladwyne PA), 46, 49, 99, 215 Spruce Street (Philadelphia), 8 Steffens, Lincoln (writer), 11 Stetson (Company), 4 Stewardson & Page (architects), 74 Stewardson, John (architect), 10, 12 Stewart, J. Plunkett, 19 Stewart Distilling Company, 196 Stewart, Robert, 229 “Stockbroker’s Tudor”, 218 Stoneleigh, 20-21, 181 Stotesbury, Edward, 125 Strafford (PA), 5, 6 Strafford Farms (development), 179 Strawbridge & Clothier’s (department store), 177, 188 Strawbridge, Robert E., 230 Strickland, William (architect), 9 Suburban Station (Philadelphia), 11 Suelena, 99 Sullivan, James F., 231 Sun Oil Company, 161, 173, 174 Sunbrook Conference Center, 161 Sunnybrook, 185-188 Susquehanna (river), 3 T-Square Club (Philadelphia), 12 Tanivul, 220 Taylor, John M., 204, 207 Taylor & Company, 204 Tennessee, 10 Thayer, John B., 117 Third National Bank, 59 30th Street Station (Philadelphia), 11 Thomas Cook (company), 8 Thomson, J. Edgar, 4 Thornhedge, 94 Tilden & Register (architects), 233 Tilden, Register & Pepper (architects), 179, 200, 234, 239 Timberline, 102-105

[ 249 ]

Titanic (Steamship), 117 Townsend, John Barnes, 159, 161 Trans-Siberian Railroad, 36 Tredyffrin Township (PA), 51 Trianons, 72 Trumbauer, Horace (architect), 45, 63, 65, 66, 113, 134, 135, 154, 170, 175, 185, 188, 189, 191, 231, 239 Tucson (AZ), 224 Union Pacific Railroad, 217 United Gas Improvement Company (UGI), 20, 184, 199 United States Attorney General, 208 United States Capitol (building), 10 United State Patent Office (building), 10 United States Senator, 203 United States Steel Corporation (U.S.Steel), 79, 82, 85, 164 United States Treasury (building), 10 University (of Pennsylvania) Museum, 104 University of Pennsylvania, 10, 11, 12, 96, 104, 142, 152, 177 University of Vermont, 36 Up-Home, 234 Upper Main Line YMCA, 232 Upper Merion Township (PA), 15 Valhalla, 3, 5, 94 Valley Forge Military Academy, 158 Vare (political machine), 203 Vaux, Henry P., Mrs., 232 Villa d’Estes, 71 Villanova (PA), 6, 20, 163, 175, 181, 185, 189, 204, 229, 232, 234 Villanova University, 211, 229 Voysey, C.F.A. (architect), 12 WCAU Broadcasting Studios, 33 Wadsworth, Reginald J. (architect), 218 Wainwright, F. King, 230 Waldheim, 230 Wallace & Warner (architects), 159, 179, 215, 233, 239 Walmarthon, 149-155 Walter, Thomas U. (architect), 9, 10 Walton, Charles S., 149, 152, 154 Walton, Martha England, 154 Wanamaker, John, 11 Washington (DC), 3, 4, 11 Washington Monument (DC), 10 Washington, George, 130 Waterford (crystal), 91, 158 Waterloo Road, Devon Watson & Huckle (architects) Wayne (PA), 6, 7, 17, 22, 152, 179, 230, 232 Wayne Estate (development), 47,


A

154, 179 Wayne Title & Trust (company), 220 Wayne, William (architect), 21, 181 Webb, Phillip (architect), 12 Weirwood, 230 Welcome (ship), 8 Welsh Tract, 2, 6, 14 Weltvreten, 94-95 Wendell & Smith (builders), 7 West & Company, 217 West Chester (PA), 24, 135 West End Trust Company, 59 Westview, 233 Wheeler, Charles, 228 Whelan, Laura (Biddle), 76 White Horse (PA), 200, 233 White Star Line, 117 White, Allom & Company (decorators), 135 Whitehall (PA), 5 Whitman (company), 4 Willcox, James M., 130, 131 Williams, David E., 59 Williamson, T. Roney (architect), 229 Willing, Charles, 11 Willing, Sims & Talbutt (architects), 125 Wilmington (DE), 12, 15 Wilson, Woodrow, 117 Wilson Brothers (architects/engineers), 20, 36, 63, 239 Windrim, John T(orrey) (architect), 94, 231, 240 Wood, Alan, Jr., 46 Wood, Howard, 46 Wood, Richard G., 47 Wood, William W. Woodcrest, xi, 65-67, 156, 226 Woodcrest Lodge, 156-158 Woodleigh, 233 Woodmont, 46-50, 72 Woods, The, 231 Wootton, 22-26, 76, 109 World War I (the Great War), 2, 33, 39, 63, 108, 117, 118, 119, 175, 179, 180 World War II, 14, 85, 101, 226 Wright, Charlotte Dorrance, 91 Wright, Frank Lloyd (architect), 10 Wright, William Coxe, 91 Wright, William T(ownsend), 90, 91, 93 Wyck (Germantown), 106 Wyeth, Maxwell, 88 Wynnewood (PA), 5, 6, 27, 29, 38, 228, 233

R C H I T E C T S

’ B

I O G R A P H I E S

Yorkston, 163 Zantzinger, Borie & Medary (architects), 59, 63, 142, 189, 232, 240 Ziegler, Carl (architect), 204 Zoological Gardens (of Philadelphia), 22

Yarnall, Charlton, 230, 233 Yellin, Samuel (ironworker), 27, 125, 152 Yorklynne, 55-58

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The Main Line: Country Houses of Philadelphia's Storied Suburb