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LO S A N G E L E S 1920–1935 VO LU M E I I

SAM WATTERS Research by REBECCA GALE Research Consultant JIM LEWIS

AC A N T H U S P R E S S N E W Y O R K : 2 0 07

Published by Acanthus Press LLC 54 West 21st Street New York, New York 10010 Copyright Š 2007, Sam Watters

Every reasonable attempt has been made to identify the owners of copyright. Errors of omission will be corrected in subsequent printings of this work. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in any part (except by reviewers for the public press) without written permission from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Watters, Sam, 1954Houses of Los Angeles / by Sam Watters. p. cm. -- (Urban domestic architecture series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-926494-30-5 (v. 1 : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-926494-30-9 (v. 1 : alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978-0-926494-31-2 (v. 2 : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-926494-31-7 (v. 2 : alk. paper) 1. Architecture, Domestic-California--Los Angeles. 2. Los Angeles (Calif.)--Buildings, structures, etc. I. Title. NA7238.L6W38 2007 728.09794'94--dc22 2007013156

Book design by Maggie Hinders and Jeannine C. Ford

Printed in the China

To David and Eddie

. . .



Introduction • 9 P I C K FA I R , Beverly Hills • 26 W I L L I A M P. H A N S O N H O U S E , Flintridge • 40 L A M I N I AT U R A , Prospect Park • 50 C R E S T M O U N T, Moreno Highlands • 58 D I A S D O R A D O S , Beverly Hills • 64 L A C O L L I N A , Beverly Hills • 74 D R . J A M E S E A D S H OW H O U S E , Silver Lake • 84 T H E E N C H A N T E D H I L L , Beverly Hills • 88 C A S T I L LO D E L L AG O, Hollywoodland • 98 A RT H U R S . B E N T H O U S E , Bel-Air • 106 IL VESCOVO, Bel-Air • 114

H E N RY R . K E R N H O U S E , Holmby Hills • 122 I S I D O R E I S N E R H O U S E , Hancock Park • 130 R E E S E H . TAY LO R H O U S E , Oak Knoll ‘Marino’ • 140 M I LTO N E . G E T Z H O U S E , Beverly Hills • 150 H I L LTO P H O U S E , Pacific Palisades • 164 M RS . R I C H A R D B. F U D G E R H O U S E , Hancock Park • 172 L E ROY H . S TA N TO N H O U S E , Hancock Park • 182 SA M U E L- N OVA R RO H O U S E , Los Feliz • 188 M I R A M A R , Miramar Estates • 198 A RT H U R L E T TS J R . H O U S E , Holmby Hills • 208 V I L L A L E O N , Castellammare • 212 D R . WA LT E R C . S . KO E B I G H O U S E , South Pasadena • 220 G R E Y S TO N E , Beverly Hills • 224 G O R D O N B. K AU F M A N N H O U S E , Holmby Hills • 234 G R E E N AC R E S , Beverly Hills • 242 W I L L I A M R A N D O L P H H E A RS T A N D M A R I O N DAV I E S , Santa Monica • 256 G R AC E N I C H O LS O N H O U S E , Pasadena • 262 M E R R I T T H . A DA M S O N H O U S E S , Hancock Park and Malibu Ranch • 270 E A R L E C . A N T H O N Y H O U S E , Ivanhoe Hills • 278

L A C A SA D E R A N C H O LO S C E R R I TO S , Long Beach • 290 I RV I N G G . T H A L B E R G H O U S E , Santa Monica • 298 M A LC O L M M C N AG H T E N H O U S E , Holmby Hills • 306 DAV I D O. S E L Z N I C K H O U S E , Beverly Hills • 316 J O S E F VO N S T E R N B E R G H O U S E , North Los Angeles • 324 J AY PA L E Y H O U S E , Bel-Air • 330 C A SA E N C A N TA DA , Bel-Air • 340 Client and House • 356 Landscape Architects and Interior Decorators • 359 The Architects • 360 Notes • 369 Bibliography • 378 Photography Credits • 383 Index • 385



AUSTRIAN ARCHITECT Rudolph Schindler arrived in Los Angeles in 1920 after working in the Chicago office of Frank Lloyd Wright, he found a vibrant American city with an established tradition of accepting architectural innovation. Residential neighborhoods throughout the Southland revealed that since the 1880s, diverse ideas had taken hold—Shinglestyle houses, period revival buildings, Arts and Crafts bungalows based on regional and imported sources, and early interpretations of California’s Spanish colonial architecture appeared side by side on tree-lined streets. Landscape architecture was emerging as an essential discipline in the planning of large residential projects as both architects and their clients grappled with the region’s varied topography and came to understand that the residential garden in a temperate climate was an extension of the residential interior. The houses and gardens of turn-of-the-century neighborhoods had been designed by Los Angeles’ first generation of professionally trained architects. Their ideas, formulated as they responded to the climate and culture of a new city with a distinct colonial past, determined the course of Southland residential architecture for the next generation. The importance of site in defining a house’s orientation, the planning of gardens, and the application of new materials were among the concerns that California architects including Irving Gill, Greene & Greene, Myron Hunt, and Elmer Grey had addressed in houses they designed in the first decades of the new century. Schindler and his progresHEN

sive colleagues, side by side with a new generation of revivalist architects, continued to explore these concerns in ways that led to the establishment of Los Angeles’ famed modernist tradition and the development of the suburban ranch house.

THE CITY The discovery of oil at Signal Hill near Long Beach in 1921, the expansion of the aeronautics industry, and the rise of Hollywood spurred a decade of astounding growth, from 1920 until the stock market crash in 1929. Between 1922 and 1928, 34 unincorporated areas and 5 cities merged with Los Angeles, and the city’s population expanded by almost 115 percent, from 576,673 people in 1920 to 1,238,048—across 440 square miles—in 1930. A real-estate boom dwarfing earlier periods of land development followed the arrival of thousands of easterners and midwesterners, who came to California by car across the national highway system then being developed and standardized. Promoting the opportunity for all new arrivals to own houses of their own, developments proliferated throughout the 1920s. In 1923 alone, 25,000 one- and two-family houses were constructed. Beginning in 1901, Henry E. Huntington had embarked on his Pacific Electric Railway network, which created a major transit system for the city of Los Angeles. Its trolley cars sped at 55 miles per hour




from one end of Los Angeles County to another. In the 1920s, the railway went into decline as Angelenos converted to automobile travel, and the automobile companies bought up existing public-transportation lines across America only to put them out of business. When car registration increased five and a half times between 1919 and 1929, major traffic jams developed downtown and along major routes. City officials urged the development of a fixed-transit system, and planners promoted the construction of paved roads to outlying areas. The city expanded the urban infrastructure throughout the 1920s, with real-estate developers providing land for roads to lure the affluent to areas still no more than open ranch lands without water and electricity.

By the 1930s, Los Angeles had become a city with suburban single-family neighborhoods accessed by major thoroughfares—including Olympic, Santa Monica, Sepulveda, Sunset, Vermont, and Western— crisscrossing one another to support business and shopping areas across the expanded horizontal, lowdensity metropolis. In 1941 the Regional Planning Commission adopted a master plan for a Metropolitan Parkway System, but it was not until after 1960 that this system was complete and Los Angeles had its highspeed freeway network. The most famous of Los Angeles’ major roadways was Wilshire Boulevard. In the 1890s, a rich Harvardeducated socialist named Henry Gaylord Wilshire (1861–1927) envisioned an avenue connecting down-

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town to the seaside town of Santa Monica, fulfilling the potential of a city with mountain-to-ocean topography. At first Wilshire was a residential street for some of the city’s most influential and wealthy business owners, including Harrison Gray Otis, editor of the Los Angeles Times, and his immediate neighbor, the editor of the Los Angeles Express, Edwin T. Earl, who built houses in the late 1890s.1 As pressure for shopping areas serving new communities west of downtown increased, the Wilshire area was zoned for mixed use. In the 1920s, real-estate salesman Alvah W. “A. W.” Ross (1878–1967) created a commercial district along Wilshire between La Brea and Fairfax avenues known after 1928 as “the Miracle Mile.” By the late 1930s, Wilshire Boulevard was lined with commercial establishments, including the Myron

Hunt–designed Ambassador Hotel, which had opened in 1921. The 10-story Art Deco Bullock’s Wilshire department store, by John and Donald B. Parkinson, was completed in 1929, with its main entrance innovatively sited at the rear of the building opposite a parking lot to attract the new mobile shopper. Traffic along Wilshire Boulevard soared, and by February 1928, the Los Angeles Times reported that the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue was the busiest corner in America.2 To address this traffic problem, a series of improvements was implemented: basic street illumination in 1928, white striping to indicate traffic lanes in 1929, and synchronized streetlights in 1930. When the roadway was finally complete in 1934 with the construction of a causeway across Westlake

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Park, Wilshire stretched uninterrupted 15.5 miles from downtown to the ocean. More than any of the city’s other roads, this grand avenue was a self-contained shopping and residential thoroughfare that gave form to the 19th-century idea of the linear city linking two established urban centers at either end.3 Since the beginning of the 20th century, private gated developments like Chester Place, Fremont Place, and Berkeley Square had appealed to the rich in Los Angeles. With the completion of major roadways to the ocean and the increase in automobile ownership, communities such as the Pacific Palisades and Palos Verdes Estates in the 1920s became viable as residential outposts more than 20 miles from the Los Angeles business district. Beginning in 1923, oil millionaire Alphonzo E. Bell (1875–1947) alone developed more than 23,000 acres of land northwest of Los Angeles for wealthy buyers seeking refuge from the older, more congested downtown neighborhoods. Bell’s largest and most prominent development was Bel-Air, located just west of Beverly Hills along Beverly Boulevard, a road renamed Sunset in 1934 to promote the image “Sunset to the Sea.” His first Bel-Air allotment, opened in 1922, offered 128 lots on undeveloped hillsides. On over 1,700 acres in the semi-arid landscape of the Santa Monica Mountains, Bell built water and sewage pipes, installed underground electric and telephone lines, and planted thousands of trees along winding streets traversing the hilly terrain. Reflecting a national trend toward converting large turn-of-the-century estates to suburban developments, Bel-Air’s sales brochure touted, “What Montecito is to Santa Barbara . . . what Tuxedo is to the city of New York . . . BEL-AIR will be to Los Angeles, meeting the ideal conception of what the exclusive suburban home should afford.”4 Although accessible from major roads, Bel-Air was conceived as a purely residential community whose setting on early rancho land would not be spoiled by the noise and crime that came with civic and commercial

development. “A comprehensive plan of restrictions for the protection of its residents” controlled who could buy and build and live behind Bel-Air’s gates. As the community matured, a design committee, including architects Roland E. Coate and Gordon B. Kaufmann, was formed to assure that building plans preserved the “architectural harmony” of the community. Without insisting on Mediterranean architecture, the committee’s guidelines encouraged designs that suggested California’s revered Spanish origins. The developers did not want Bel-Air to become “lost in a maze of transplanted European architecture of every type” and urged new house builders to consider the “climatic conditions obtaining in Southern California, our Bel-Air topography and their family requirements.” The design restrictions included low masses, horizontal lines, pitched roofs, and unobtrusive and harmonious colors.5 With a gated entrance at Beverly Boulevard, a private country club, and miles of horseback-riding trails through the mountains, Bel-Air continued the region’s ongoing attachment to its Spanish past by nurturing the illusion of a sheltered, suburban ranch life for wealthy owners. The promise of a better life—a house and garden within commuting distance to work—was held out to new arrivals as they drove into the city from the dusty central plains or stepped off a Santa Fe railcar at the Moorish style La Grande Station at Second Street, but some lives were inevitably better than others. Neighborhoods throughout the city and new developments continued a long-standing Los Angeles tradition of selling houses with deed covenants preventing African Americans, Asians, and Jews not just from owning houses, but from living in them, except as servants. These covenants remained enforceable until 1948, when the United States Supreme Court ruled in Shelley v. Kraemer that such restrictions were a form of racial discrimination. With the population continuing to grow and the region remaining a national agricultural leader in the

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production of oranges, walnuts, vegetables, livestock, and dairy products, Los Angeles weathered the Depression relatively intact. The film industry continued to prosper and expand as Hollywood produced escapist fantasies that enthralled a nation devastated by failed businesses and unemployment. By the end of the 1930s, oil, shipping, tourism, immigration, the airplane industry, and motion pictures brought vitality back to Los Angeles. But as had begun to happen in the 1880s, the region’s agricultural landscape disappeared as orchards and farmlands gave way to subdivisions in the San Fernando and San Gabriel valleys.

THE HOUSES Throughout the 1920s, Angelenos continued to build eclectic houses derived from French, English, and Dutch sources. Like their counterparts across America, a new generation of California architects trained in the historical canon turned away from literal interpretations of period houses and became skilled at blending elements from diverse architectural traditions to create abstract, coherent designs suitable to contemporary living. The dominant style of Los Angeles houses in the 1920s was the Mediterranean Revival. To a generation of newly arrived citizens, the style, associated with Los Angeles’ self-created image as the American Riviera, provided a comforting link to an ancient past. By drawing inspiration from the southern European tradition of flower-filled patios, shaded loggias, and courtyards, California architects could develop what architect Reginald D. Johnson called “the true California style,” appropriate to the state’s climate and way of life.6 For some, the city’s indigenous Hispanic architecture that had inspired the turn-of-the-century Mission Revival was tainted by California’s ethnic past. Writing for the Allied Architects of Los Angeles, a professional organization, architect H. Harwood Hewitt explained that

California’s beginnings were “sordid, its settlers . . . Indians, half breeds, negroes, conscripts, and undesirables.” Architects needed to reach “behind” this history to Spain and Italy to discover a world of “chivalry, adventure, and beauty,” a world promoted by businesses and real-estate developers throughout the period.7 Rejecting the clutter and ornamentation of 19th century buildings, architects and critics praised the simplicity of the Mediterranean house whose smooth stucco walls and simple massing provided unadorned backdrops to the region’s varied colorful landscape and open tranquil interiors insulated from summer heat. Stucco exteriors of Beaux-Arts Italianate houses of the 1910s had been painted white or left a natural concrete grey. By the 1920s exterior walls were tinted warm shades of pink and yellow to create an authentic Mediterranean house based on Italian villas. One of the earliest houses to imitate the sun-bleached walls of Southern Europe was the 1920 Villa Alegre in San Marino, designed for John Henry Meyer by Marston & Van Pelt. “[The walls] may be described as pink, though through variation it becomes at times an ochre and Naples yellow . . . ” wrote Prentice Duell in 1922. “Color was the one thing most needed in the architecture of Southern California.”8 By the 1920s, many of Los Angeles’ prominent traditional architects had been educated in American and French institutions whose curricula were based on Beaux-Arts academicism that emphasized the primacy of proportion, the need for easy circulation, pleasing and practical window and door openings, and surface details derived from historical models. While addressing these concerns, interior floor plans of the California revivalist house tended to reflect the overall style of the house architecture, with symmetrical, central hall plans in Mediterranean and Georgian houses and asymmetrical, irregular room configurations in medieval manors. Whether traditional or modern, the interior plans of upper-middle-and upper-class

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houses in Los Angeles throughout the 1930s were arranged for households maintained by live-in servants. The interior design of Los Angeles’ revival houses through the 1910s had continued the eclectic decorative traditions of the 19th century. Reflecting the historicism of period house design of the 1920s, independent decorators created revival interiors informed by a knowledge of design history. Photo picture books featuring European and American historical interiors

and exteriors became required sources for decorators, architects, and their clients. Building suppliers, including the preeminent Gladding, McBean & Co. and Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, offered catalogs with an array of Italian fireplace mantels, English bricks and Yorkshire shingles, Spanish and Moorish interior and exterior tiles, and materials needed to make a residential interior and exterior stylistically consistent. Edgar Cheesewright (1880–1957), John B. Holtzclaw

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(1870–1942), and other designers opened studios that offered one-stop shopping to the Los Angeles house owner by providing professional design advice and by selling reproduction and period furnishings. Department stores including Barker Brothers and the Broadway employed interior decorators who assisted clients with their interior-design decisions and sold them furnishings displayed in model rooms. Both inside and outside, houses of the 1920s and 1930s were affected by the rise of Hollywood and media images.9 By 1929, over 20 million Americans

saw a movie every week. For the wealthy, private projection rooms became an expected domestic amenity. Since the 19th century, Californians had been susceptible to the romanticism inherent in imported architecture, but as historian Merry Ovnick has suggested, after seeing the hyperdramatic sets of early silent films, with their fairy-tale towers and Iberian courtyards, the Los Angeles moviegoer expected heightened visual drama at home.10 Throughout the region, exaggerated architectural details and tour de force decorative flourishes—

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crenellated towers, double-story entry halls with balconies and sweeping staircases, massive beamed rooms, and Olympic-size pools—provided immediate theatrical effects. In the case of large properties, dramatic historical themes, such as the authentic California rancho, the princely Italian palazzo, and the estate of the landed English squire, provided unwritten scripts for architects and interior decorators, some of whom were in fact movie set designers. By building these dream residences, house owners acquired romantic life narratives that defined who they were, or who they imagined themselves to be, in Los Angeles’ diverse society. From the architectural history of Los Angeles beginning in 1885 emerges the story of a city in search of a past to inform its future. As a modern city that accommodated a dramatic thousandfold increase in population from 1880 to 1930, Los Angeles consistently absorbed the architecturally new, both in building technology and in the ideas developed within and outside the city. Architectural modernity arrived in the form of the historically derived Art Deco movement and the antihistorical International style. As progressive as Frank Lloyd Wright and Richard Neutra were in defining a new residential architecture in the Southland, they, too, did not escape entirely the romance of the Southwest, and integrated aspects of pre-Columbian and pueblo architecture into their earliest designs. The work of the first modernist architects and their disciples came to dominate Los Angeles’ residential design in the 1940s and their reputations eclipsed those of the city’s prominent revivalist architects from the 1920s and 1930s: Roland E. Coate, Reginald D. Johnson, Gordon B. Kaufmann, and Wallace Neff. Innovations in glass, steel, concrete, and new building materials permitted the execution of progressive architectural projects and made all houses more resistant to the fires that plagued neighborhoods in the 19th

and early 20th centuries. Although an ample supply of servants maintained large houses and their gardens before the 1929 stock market crash, time-saving devices reflecting the American embrace of progress and efficiency became popular with Californian homeowners. Roll-up window screens, in-wall vacuum cleaners, private elevators, dishwashers, refrigerators, heating systems, indoor and outdoor electric lighting, and automatic water sprinklers came on the market in the first quarter of the century and brought a new level of convenience to Los Angeles households. With the crash, some wealthy residents abandoned houses they had finished just two or three years before, while others, particularly members of the rich Hollywood movie community, continued to commission established architects. Throughout America, the psychological impact of the economic crisis manifested itself in a renewed investigation of 18th-century American Colonial architecture. Similarly, California’s own mid-19th-century two-story Monterey house built of modest materials and open to the outdoors appealed to a new generation of Californians seeking a casual way of living. “I would make a plea for simplicity,” wrote architect Roland E. Coate in 1932. “Witness what a few years have done to some of our fussy architecture in California, and what a hundred years or so has done to some of our old homes. They have grown in dignity and charm, not because of their age but because of their basic simplicity and the simplicity of setting.”11 Architects adapted the Monterey house and the singlestory California ranch house to modern life, applying a range of colonial details that could transform a simple adobe house into a Spanish hacienda or a New Orleans–style city house with a cantilevered wroughtiron balcony. The single-story ranch houses of Coate and others in the 1920s became the basis for the suburban California ranch house of the 1940s and 1950s designed by Cliff May (1908–1989) and William W. Wurster (1895–1973).12

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Los Angeles architects, including Gordon B. Kaufmann, Sumner M. Spaulding, and others who had designed Mediterranean Revival houses, responded to the demand for a new American house by blending eastern, mid-Atlantic, and southern colonial elements into houses that evoked the spirit of the American past without being archaeologically specific. Their designs incorporating low-scale volumes and modern elements in traditional materials provided a bridge between the historicism of the first two decades and the advanced works of modernism. With the rise in maintenance costs and the end of a servant class, commissions for lavish residential projects declined at the end of the 1930s and the era of the large estate house came to an end. The loss of work in the 1930s motivated established Los Angeles architects to participate in national competitions for single-family or model houses, contests that had begun in the 1920s during that period’s housing boom. Roland E. Coate, H. Roy Kelley, F. H. Palmer Sabin (1892–1956), Ralph C. Flewelling (1894–1975), and

others won medals for designs submitted to The House Beautiful, Architectural Forum, and national and regional housing organizations. Shelter exhibitions promoted new building materials and the work of regional architects in both modern and traditional styles. By 1940, Los Angeles architects were focusing on the war effort in work for both private corporations and the federal government, which funded public housing projects for the first time since World War I.

T H E GA R D E N S The advent of landscape schools at the end of the 19th century produced a generation of trained landscape designers. Before coming to California to benefit from the land-development boom of the 1920s, these young designers apprenticed in established offices in the East and Midwest, often with the Boston firm founded by the father of American landscape design, Frederick Law Olmsted. These new arrivals, exposed to American and

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European estate gardens, introduced to private and public Los Angeles gardens new concepts of site, outdoor living space, color, and plant selection. They brought order to the vast array of plant material that had been cultivated by 19th-century California nurseries and plant collectors entranced by the possibility that almost anything could grow in California’s Edenic climate. Unlike the preceding generation of plantsmen, for whom plants, not design, determined the overall planning of estate gardens, landscape architects of the 1920s—including such pioneering figures as Florence Yoch (1890–1972) and Lucille Council (1898–1964), William Huntsman-Trout (1889–1974), and Ralph Dalton Cornell (1890–1972)—sought not only regional specimens, but imported species that could adapt to Los Angeles’ microclimates and fulfill designs

based largely on Italian and Spanish models. Nurseries and horticulturists searched the world for regions with climates similar to California’s and imported seeds and plants from France, Germany, South Africa, Australia, and Asia. Prominent nurseries supplied and installed trees, shrubs, and flowers, and offered full landscape design services as well. Working with affluent clients and established landscape designers, nursery staff members such as Raymond Elwin Page (1895–1992) and Benjamin Morton Purdy (1888–1964), both with the Beverly Hills Nursery, emerged as independent landscape designers who were not formally trained but had learned their craft through practice and observation. California garden design followed house architecture. English Tudor manors were surrounded by lawns and stone terraces with herbaceous plantings, and

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Italian villas opened to landscapes of walkways and water features on axis with first-floor rooms. Some landscape architects took a literal approach to European precedents, whereas others formulated looser interpretations that emphasized an overall effect. California gardens were admired for their color and varied outdoor spaces. Swimming pools, tennis courts, barbeque pavilions, and horse rinks were integrated into estate plans, with ornamental flower beds, vine-covered pergolas, and reflecting pools visible and accessible from the main residential living spaces. Garden perimeters were treated with more picturesque effects and included orchards, avocado groves, and olive trees, ironically evoking a romantic agrarian past being lost as new houses were built on farmlands. Although the idea of the outdoor living space seamlessly joined to interior rooms became a determining concept in postwar residential architecture, in the 1920s and early 1930s, as historian David C. Streatfield has noted, Angelenos luxuriated in the out-of-doors from the shaded safety of covered patios, verandas, and porches. They were only beginning to experience, as Florence Yoch wrote in 1929, “the enjoyment of tranquility and repose in the open air, carried to a point of fine art in older countries.”13 The Depression changed the practices of many Los Angeles landscape architects. The city’s earliest designers, Wilbur David Cook Jr. (1869–1938) and George Gibbs (1878–1950), went to work for the National Park and U.S. Forestry Services. Florence Yoch, Raymond E. Page, and Edward Huntsman-Trout continued to design residential gardens but had fewer clients. Gardens in the 1930s reflected the rise of modernism with simplified historical elements and the introduction of rounded, natural forms. Estates ranging from two to five acres continued to include the luxuries associated with yearround outdoor life—swimming pools, tennis courts, patios, and large spaces for entertaining—but their plans were modest compared to gardens of a decade earlier.

With its meteoric rise from Spanish colonial outpost to megalopolis, its reputation for being obsessed with health, youth, and transient celebrity, and its decades of new development, Los Angeles has been defined from its early modern beginings as the city of the new, a place where the past has never been allowed to encumber a shining future. Architectural historians in the 1940s reflected and contributed to this reputation by defining the history of Los Angeles house architecture as one of progress and the inevitable ascendancy of modernism, rather than considering the more complex dynamic of continuity and exchange that has in fact determined the evolution of Los Angeles residential design. Although at times with resistance, prominent revivalist architects in the 1920s and 1930s appreciated the evolving realities of the casual California life and adapted modernist ideas to traditional forms. Reginald D. Johnson, the architect of patrician revivalist houses, designed for himself a modernist house in 1947, and Wallace Neff, another practitioner of Mediterranean and Spanish Colonial designs, explored prefabricated housing. Modernism offered revivalist architects new ways to understand traditional forms and to make their work reflect an evolving, contemporary aesthetic. Upon the completion of the Times-Mirror building in 1935, an observer remarked to its revivalist architect, Gordon B. Kaufmann, “Why, Gordon, you’ve made it modern.” Kaufmann’s response was, “I wish I’d made it more modern.”14 Working side-by-side for demanding clients, with projects reaching completion at the same time in the same neighborhoods, modernist architects and their historicist colleagues addressed the challenge to develop an architecture that provided not just solutions to modern life, but considered the persistent, 30-year-old question, “What is a California House”? In 1968, David Gebhard, in line with earlier historian Sheldon Cheney, observed that though the massing and interior

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plans of the Spanish Revival and early modern houses were radically different, the simplicity of detail and basic form achieved by revivalist architects as a result of limited materials were hallmarks of early modernist projects. It was a short “visual leap” from the Spanish Revival to modernism, wrote Gebhard. “Ironically, the modern movement found its ‘historic’ roots not in the distant past but in the very tradition against which it was supposedly battling.”15 Though this interpretation simplifies the complexities associated with modernism’s political origins and the symbolic differences between the handmade of traditional architecture and the high technology of the International style, it began an essential dialogue in which California regionalist architecture and modernism co-exist as they did in California in the 1920s and 1930s. 16 Like the other houses in the Acanthus Urban Domestic Architecture series, the residences in these volumes were designed for the rich, in this case for

Angelenos who located to Southern California for myriad reasons and built a city that has become socially open and experimental. It has been the fate of traditional houses to be tagged by the rhetoric of modernism as regressive and class-based, even though progressive houses themselves have often depended on wealthy clients for their realization. The historian William Alexander McClung has referred to the lively and sympathetic writings on traditional architecture by Alson Clark, David Gebhard, and others as the “lightening of the high modernist burden and the lifting of the obligation to disapprove of rich people’s tastes in building.”17 To expand an understanding of wealthy people’s houses is to open up and continue the dialogue between the past and present that was at the center of architectural discourse embodied by houses built from 1885 to 1935. Within the limits of photograph availability, the houses selected for these volumes reflect Los Angeles’ diverse and eccentric architectural history. Numerous

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landmark Los Angeles houses have deeply influenced the development of residential design and architectural writing for generations, most particularly the Robert R. Blacker and David B. Gamble houses (1907–9) by Greene & Greene in Pasadena, the West Hollywood Rudolph Schindler house (1922), and Richard Neutra’s Philip Lovell house (1929) in Los Feliz.18 Because such justly famous and extensively published residences have already been thoroughly examined, these volumes explore other work by their influential architects. An exception has been the inclusion of Irving Gill’s Walter L. Dodge house, whose demise is exemplary of Southern California’s ambiguous relation to the new, and serves as a stark reminder of Los Angeles’ tenuous appreciation of its architecture pioneers.

The fate of Los Angeles architecture has been determined by changes in taste, the materialism of Los Angeles house owners, and the region’s quixotic planning, which has allowed land to become a speculative commodity open to the most profitable venture. In the wake of these forces, houses whose designs contributed to the evolution of American architecture and to Los Angeles’ intellectual and artistic life have been demolished, sometimes for progress and sometimes for financial gain. Historic houses mirroring the city’s diversity and pluralism need to be protected and cared for regardless of their underlying land value, to assure that a living, visible architectural history informs a creative future.

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D R . J A M E S E A D S H OW H O U S E S I LV E R L A K E RU D O L P H S C H I N D L E R , 1 9 2 5


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L O S A N G E L E S in the 1920s was a city of the new—new citizens living in new houses participating in the creation of a modern city unified by automobile travel—it is not surprising that advanced ideas in architecture found a sympathetic, if superficial, reception. One of the city’s earliest and most influential modern architects was the Austrian émigré Rudolph Schindler, who is now noted for his experimental approach to design and wide-ranging ideas that expanded beyond the parameters of the International style embraced by fellow Austrian Richard Neutra. The Dr. James Eads How residence was one of Schindler’s landmark 1920s houses influenced by the de Stijl movement and the Viennese modernist architect Adolf Loos (1870–1933). Contemporary materials and engineering allowed Schindler to develop a personal sculptural approach to the design of the How house and to address his client’s practical needs through a series of interlocking forms whose arrangement was not predetermined by conventional floor plans. S

Foremost in the planning of the How house was its steep hillside site that straddled a ridge in the Silver Lake district northwest of Los Angeles, with views to the San Gabriel Mountains and to downtown. A concrete base, formed over several days using Schindler’s “cast-slab” system, visually anchored the seemingly weightless upper structure made of glass, concrete, and redwood. The house incorporated a living room, dining room, library, and master bedroom on three levels with furniture by the architect. Schindler’s 1929 written profile of the How house reflected the architect’s search for a new design vocabulary and a dialogue with the past; he explained that the seams left between each concrete course “were as characteristic of the modern slab wall as the pilaster was of the traditional masonry structure.”1 Just as revivalist architects used geometric landscape plans to relate house to site, so, too, did Schindler. With Richard Neutra as landscape architect, Schindler concerned himself with integrating the architectural forms of the How structure into the hillside.

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The horizontal redwood siding was painted a transparent gray-green, the concrete left its natural gray, and the inside tinted warm shades of tan and yellow—“All colors taken from foliage and bark of eucalyptus trees,” wrote Schindler.2 By incorporating an existing stand of eucalyptus into the architectural recesses of the house and introducing a grassy berm at the wall along the street side, Schindler and Neutra enhanced the interplay between the natural and machine-made, between the organic, rolling forms of the hillside and the architectonic, rotating volumes of the house. Modern architecture required clients willing to spend money on experimental construction techniques and to live in houses that would elicit controversy. James Eads How (1870–1930) was in his way as revolutionary as his architect. A Harvard graduate and the grandson of the legendary American engineer James Buchanan Eads, who built the Mississippi River jetties and bridges, How, like Schindler, was a dedicated

socialist. In 1899, How tried to give his inherited fortune to the mayor of St. Louis, having decided to work as a day laborer while founding the Brotherhood of Daily Life, a nondenominational monastic order. He supported the Industrial Workers of the World and was cofounder of the Hobo College in Chicago. How left the basement of his Silver Lake house open for visiting hobos, who climbed up the hill from the railroad yards east of Los Angeles. In the week of How’s death, transient laborers across America paid tribute to the “Hobo King” at flophouses, water tanks, and boxcars. How divorced his wife, Ingeborg Jensen How (1894–1968), in 1928 and upon his death left the house to Holger Carl How (1917–58), his wife’s son by an earlier marriage whom How had adopted. Ingeborg continued to use the house as her residence until it was purchased in 1960 by John W. Payne. Today the house is privately owned and has been restored with attention to its original plan and finishes.3

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H E TALENTED and beautiful screenwriter Frances

Marion (1888–1973) and her movie-cowboy husband Frederick “Fred” Clifton Thomson (1890–1928) were living in the Wilshire district near downtown when they decided to build what Marion described in her autobiography as “a different type of house than the conventional ones we lived in.” What Marion had in mind was becoming by 1925 her generation’s conventional house—the Spanish Revival hacienda. “Fred and I, both born in California and steeped in its romantic traditions, planned to copy one

of those old adobes built by the Spaniards in the early days,” wrote Marion. She wanted “a restful garden in the heart of the house, called a ‘patio,’ . . . filled with gaily painted furniture and ceramic flower pots.”1 The Los Angeles Examiner reported that when Marion and her husband approached Thomson’s staunch Protestant college classmate Alphonzo E. Bell about land, Bell turned the couple away, responding, “I am sorry you became an actor, Fred, but I’ve made it a law—not one acre of my land is to be sold to actors or Jews,” groups considered synonymous at the time.2

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By 1921, the couple acquired four acres on a hill north of Sunset Boulevard in Benedict Canyon for $1,500, but they later added another 20 for $90,000 to accommodate their expanded requirements. These included a mahogany-floored stable for Thomson’s costar, the stallion Silver King. The couple hired an architect with whom they shared Marion’s sketches of Spanish mission buildings made while filming a Mary Pickford movie in Monterey. When the architect left for an extended stay in Mexico, he recommended as his replacement the young Wallace Neff. At first the property was leveled and a steep driveway carved around the hill to provide access to the

stables and a service building. A waterfall was cut into the hillside to provide cooling through evaporation for the horses when they worked in the estate’s riding rink. The ridgeline was landscaped with pines, fruit trees, and shrubs supplied by Paul Joseph Howard (1884–1966), who came from a family of noted Los Angeles nurserymen. For the main house, Neff designed what Marion described as “the largest house on the highest hill in Beverly Hills.”3 With a four-car garage, an aviary, and a tennis court, the fantastical Andalusian-style farmhouse had Neff ’s signature elliptical arches inside and out, roof ornaments, minarets, and two patios. One was at the end

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of the driveway that passed through an archway in the service quarters and the other was framed by a rose garden planted between the living room and pool. Above the entrance door, a humorous coat of arms described by historian Alson Clark as “a roll of film rampant over a horse’s head and . . . emblazoned with a horseshoe for the good luck needed in Hollywood” expressed the whimsical approach of Marion and Thomson to their modern-day pueblo, whose siting preserved the natural ridgeline of the suburban hill.4 The Spanish Revival interiors with white plaster walls and stained-cedar trim were furnished by the

Cheesewright Studios and George S. Hunt. In a wing aligned with the entrance-patio fountain, the living room had window doors on axis with the formal rose garden and pool and an open view facing east to the mountains. A basement contained a ballroom, and the bedrooms and a study for Frances Marion were on the second floor. Marion began her career in 1911 working for William Randolph Hearst’s San Francisco Examiner at $15 a week and went on to make $2,000 a week as his screenwriter. She authored many of the scripts that made Mary Pickford “America’s sweetheart” and wrote

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two of Hollywood’s greatest hit films of 1925, Stella Dallas and Dark Angel. In her fast and witty way, Marion marked her ascent as Hearst’s professional colleague by naming her Beverly Hills rancho The Enchanted Hill, the English equivalent of the name Hearst had given his San Simeon estate, “La Cuesta Encantada.”5 Life was good for the Thomsons, with morning mountain horseback riding and frequent visits to their celebrity neighbor Rudolph Valentino, who lived on a peak just below their property in his Spanish Revival house, Falcon Lair. Then on a December evening in 1928, while Marion and Thomson were

admiring the “twinkling lights of Christmas trees in Beverly Hills,” Marion noticed Thomson limping after stepping on a rusty nail. He shrugged off her concern, but by Christmas Day he was dead from tetanus after a misdiagnosis.6 Bereft at her husband’s death, Thomson sold The Enchanted Hill for $540,000 in 1929 to Texas oil millionaire William “Lejeune” Barnes, who later lost his fortune and sold the house after World War II to Paul Kollsman, inventor of the airplane barometric altimeter. Kollsman died in 1982, and the estate, with an additional 100 acres, was sold to a software billionaire in 1997 for

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$20 million. Although presented with the unique opportunity to preserve one of Los Angeles’ few remaining intact Mediterranean Revival estates by one of the city’s acclaimed architects, the new owner chose to demolish

Frances Marion and Fred Thomson’s hacienda in 2000 and to build a massive 55,000-square–foot architecturally eclectic palace visible for miles.

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S A N F E R NA N D O VA L L E Y is made up of vast lowlands surrounded by mountains northwest of downtown Los Angeles. In the 18th century, the entire valley belonged to the San Fernando Rey de España mission and surrounding ranchos. With the secularization of the missions in the 1830s, the land was divided among private owners, and in the 1870s and 1880s, Germanborn John B. Lankershim and his son-in-law Isaac Newton Van Nuys cultivated 60,000 acres of wheat in the area. At the turn of the century, real-estate developers platted numerous towns in the valley, including Zelzah, whose biblical name meant “watering place in the desert.” Renamed North Los Angeles in 1933 and then Northridge in 1938, this district is 29 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. Known as the horse capital of the valley, Northridge rapidly became a bedroom HE

community when California State University established a campus there in the 1950s. The German émigré director who discovered Marlene Dietrich, Josef von Sternberg (1894–1969) was looking for an outpost away from Hollywood when he acquired 30 acres in North Los Angeles. Von Sternberg recalled: “I selected a distant meadow in the midst of an empty landscape, barren and forlorn, to make a retreat for myself, my books, and my collection of modern art. It was to be constructed of steel and glass, inside and outside, and while it was going up I planted a thousand trees . . . I chose a comparatively unknown (at the time) architect to carry out my ideas of what a house should be.”1 That architect was Richard Neutra, the designer of the landmark steel-and-glass 1929 Lovell Health

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House in Los Feliz. Skilled at client development, Neutra stayed in touch with von Sternberg for six years before being commissioned in 1934 to design the director’s house, offering to consult on the purchase of a suitable lot to win von Sternberg’s confidence. “I am very grateful to you for having been so interested in my problem of finding another residence,” wrote von Sternberg from Paramount Publix Corporation in 1932. “Were it not for the fact that I dislike creating anything permanent in this part of the world I should have asked you long ago to build something for me.”2 Neutra, who arrived in Los Angeles in 1925, was an internationalist for whom the future in architecture was about the rejection of historical precedent and the adherence to function as the guide to building plans, with constructed forms expressed directly through the

application of new materials and technology. Although he was known for conducting long interviews with clients to determine their preferences, Neutra’s solutions to the plans of his residential projects proved remarkably similar. He carefully balanced living-room and bedroom volumes, and emphasized the relationship between spaces. He established easy, open flow from room to room and from house to garden. Neutra recalled that he set out to build houses “with the inside and outside fused.” With glass walls and indooroutdoor floor surfaces, he radically altered traditional distinctions between interior and exterior spaces.3 The streamlined von Sternberg house was at once intellectually rigorous—in its experimental use of loadbearing walls and exterior steel panels painted with aluminum paint—and hedonistic, in its technologically

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advanced amenities. Unusual for Neutra were the 1½story living room with a second-floor master bedroom, a mirrored bathroom overlooking the estate, and a rooftop marshland with reptiles and plant life watered by “artificial rain.” 4 Polaroid glass walls that turned opaque at the push of a button precluded the need for curtains. The first- and second-floor areas were connected by an interior stairway that wrapped around a spindle wall, with lighting at the top providing indirect illumination. A plate-glass wall at the north side of the staircase permitted a view of von Sternberg’s collection of rare

books, housed in aluminum and plate-glass bookcases on the south side of the stair. East of the living room were a studio, a kitchen, and a service area that included a garage for von Sternberg’s Rolls-Royce and a room for his dogs. Neutra’s interpretation of the outdoor garden room was an enclosed living-room patio paved with the same black terrazzo as the interior and surrounded by an eight-foot-high steel wall with a semicircular end. The house was surrounded on three sides by a moat, which was at once a protective barrier and

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a modern garden water element. Neutra recounted, in a style both ironic and hyperbolic, that the moat had been electrified and by flipping a switch installed above the owner’s night table, any intruder would be electrocuted. “The idea was that while the producer . . . was sleeping late in the morning, his Persian chauffeur would, before breakfast, remove from the moat any bodies accumulated during the night so that they would not pollute the air when the sun rose in the hot climate.”5 To the north of the house were 20 acres and to the south 10 more, all level land with views to the surrounding mountains. Neutra landscaped the estate with eucalyptus trees along the road on the west side

leading to the property entrance and laid out the swimming pool, tennis courts, gardens, and fruit orchards in relation to the house plan. The army used von Sternberg’s residence as a mock bombing target in World War II, owing to its shiplike form. “Later I sold the house and grounds for what the tennis court cost to build,” he recalled in 1965. “The house reflected me too much. Ideal environment and isolation were not for me.”6 Author Ayn Rand was one of the succeeding owners before a developer purchased the land and house in 1971. He promptly demolished Neutra’s building that year to make way for a condominium development.

. . .

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J AY PA L E Y H O U S E BEL-AIR P AU L R . W I L L I A M S , 1 9 3 6


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D E P R E S S I O N affected architects and builders throughout America, but Hollywood kept residential architects Roland E. Coate, Wallace Neff, and Paul Williams consistently busy. Among Williams’ 36 house commissions between 1932 and 1935 were ones for William S. Paley and his uncle Jacob “Jay” Paley (1885–1960), both received in 1934. In 1929, with a fortune made from a family cigar business, Jay Paley invested in a Philadelphia radio broadcasting company managed by his nephew. This failing business became the Columbia Broadcasting System, CBS. An investor in movie production, racehorses, and real estate, Paley and his celebrity partners acquired in 1938 a Victorian resort in the Sierra Nevada and hired Paul R. Williams and Gordon B. Kaufmann to design the Arrowhead Springs Hotel, which became popular with Los Angeles celebrities in the 1940s. HE

Williams established his reputation as a residential architect with the Colonial Revival E. L. Cord house, Cordhaven. He continued his success with the Paley residence, considered at the time to be English Georgian. As David Gebhard wrote, “Williams had an adroit ability to maneuver beaux-arts formalism within different architectural styles . . . Although his residential designs of the thirties were quite classical in their organization, the symmetry was always parried by nonformal elements, and his historical styles always had a modernist flavor.”1 In plan, the Paley house was a modified traditional H shape, but in its plain surfaces, low-to-the-ground profile, and thin detailing, the house was modern. Similarly, the interior rooms, decorated by Harriet R. Shellenberger, incorporated both traditional Georgian elements and moderne furniture. The first-floor rooms were arranged off a central hall that ran east-west across

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the house and included a music room, a library, a living room with a two-story curved porch, and a dining room facing south to a tennis pavilion. At the east side of the house, a circular breakfast room looked out to a fountain and topiary arcade through which the mountains and surrounding suburban development were visible. The Paleys’ bedroom suites occupied the second floor. Williams and Edward Huntsman-Trout landscaped the almost six acres in a simplified, formal style and incorporated moderne decorative elements. Close to the house, parterres incorporating water features were aligned with the interior plan and extended the firstfloor rooms into the garden. The overall property was

organized along a 700-foot axis running gradually downhill from the entry court to the tennis house and terminating with a water rill and a gate at the road. Off axis on a terrace above the house were garden buildings and an orchard. The turn-of-the century combination of pleasure garden and residential farm was unusual at this time, when house owners were reducing the cost of garden maintenance. The house was reached by a curved driveway that passed between an orange orchard and the garden buildings and terminated at an entry court bordered by a one-story garage wing with an archway to a service court. At the center of the court was a stylized oval

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baroque pavement design inset by local masons with red-colored aggregate. The counterpoint to this entry feature was an oval swimming pool lined with yellow, turquoise, and azure blue tiles depicting signs of the zodiac. At each end of the pool were white-sand beach areas for sunbathing. The roof of the tennis house was finished with what their manufacturer described as “handmade shingle tile in a light blue,” created to harmonize with the pool and to unify the white, blue, and green palette of both the natural and manufactured elements.2 Huntsman-Trout found a specimen rubber tree in Pasadena and moved it on rollers to the Bel-Air

estate, where it was planted east of the dining room as a counterbalance to the living-room porch.3 After Paley acquired his land in 1935, construction of the house began in the fall of that year and was completed in 1936. Paley and his wife, Lillian (1893–1954), lived there until their deaths, after which, in 1961, the furnishings were sent to public auction and the estate sold for $475,000. Although the subdivision of surrounding land has reduced the property’s size and the rubber tree has been removed, the forecourt, house, pool, tennis court, and cabana remain, with gardens as originally planned, but with new plantings.

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ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN Allen, Herbert. “It Can Happen Here: A Classical Scholar Learns a Modern Language.” The Architect and Engineer 129 (May 1937). [Gordon B. Kaufmann] Andree, Herbert William. John Byers: Domestic Architecture in Southern California, 1919–1960. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1971. Belloli, Jay, et al. Johnson, Kaufmann, Coate: Partners in the California Style. Claremont, Calif.: Scripps College, 1992. Boesinger, Willy. Richard Neutra: Buildings and Projects. Zurich: Editions Girsberger, 1951. Boutelle, Sara Holmes. Julia Morgan, Architect. New York: Abbeville Press, 1995. Bricker, Lauren Weiss. The Residential Architecture of Roland B.Coate. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1982. Brownfield, Marion. “Dias Dorados.” Sunset Magazine 53 (August 1924). [Thomas H. Ince] Bruner, Mrs. E. L. “The Third Annual Exhibit of Landscape Architecture and Garden Sculpture, Los Angeles.” The Architect and Engineer 86 (August 1926). Bryant, Lynn Marie. “Edward Huntsman-Trout, Landscape Architect.” Society of Architectural Historians Southern California Chapter Review 2 (Winter 1983). ———. Huntsman-Trout: Landscape Architect. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1982. Cardwell, Kenneth H. Bernard Maybeck: Artisan, Architect, Artist. Santa Monica, Calif.: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1996. Clark, Alson. “The ‘Californian’ Architecture of Gordon B. Kaufmann.” Society of Architectural Historians Southern California Chapter Review 1 (Summer 1982). ——— et al. Wallace Neff, 1895–1982: The Romance of Regional Architecture. San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1989. Clark, Robert Judson, and Thomas S. Hines. Los Angeles Transfer: Architecture in Southern California, 1880–1980. Los Angeles:

William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, Los Angeles, 1983. Coate, Roland E. “Capturing Some of California’s Romance.” California Southland 7 (May 1925). ———. “The Early California House: Blending Colonial and California Forms.” California Arts & Architecture 35 (March 1929). ———. “The Lasting Qualities: Fundamental Features in the Creation of a Satisfactory Dwelling.” California Arts & Architecture 41 (April 1932). Cook, Wilbur David, Jr., Charles Hall, and Ralph Cornell. Projects Designed Since the Year 1906 by: Wilbur David Cook, Jr.; Cook & Hall; Cook, Hall & Cornell, No date. Unpublished office inventory of design projects by the firms. Charles E. Young Research Library, Department of Special Collections. Ralph Cornell Collection, 1411, Box 64. Cornell, Ralph. Half a Century as a Southern California Landscape Architect. Interview by James V. Mink, Enid H. Douglass, and Richard K. Nystrom. 1967. Oral History Program, University of California, Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Regents of the University of California, 1970. Cran, Marion. Gardens in America. New York: Macmillan, 1932. Cutts, A. B., Jr. “The Hillside Home of Ramon Novarro.” California Arts & Architecture 44 (July 1933). Daniels, Mark. “Another Anthony Occupies His Niche.” California Arts & Architecture 39 (May 1931). [Earle C. Anthony] ———. “Garden Architecture.” California Arts & Architecture 38 (March 1931). ———. “The Horse Comes Back.” California Arts & Architecture 17 (June 1934). Darling, Michael, et al. The Architecture of R. M. Schindler. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2001. DeMille, Cecil. “Motion Pictures and Architecture.” Bulletin of the Allied Architects Association of Los Angeles 1 (July 1, 1925). Dobyns, Winifred Starr. California Gardens. New York: Macmillan, 1931.

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Drexler, Arthur, and Robert Hines. The Architecture of Richard Neutra: From International Style to California Modern. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1982. Duell, Prentice. “Some Recent Works of Marston & Van Pelt.” The Architectural Record 5 (July 1922). French, Jere. The California Garden. Washington, D.C.: Landscape Architecture Foundation, 1993. Gebhard, David. Lutah Maria Riggs: A Woman in Architecture, 1921–1980. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Capra Press, in association with the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1992. ———. Schindler. San Francisco: William Stout, 1997. ———. “The Spanish Colonial Revival in Southern California (1895–1930).” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 26 (May 1967). Gebhard, David, and Harriette Von Breton. Architecture in California, 1868–1968. Santa Barbara: University of California, Santa Barbara Art Museum, 1968. ———. Lloyd Wright, Architect: 20th Century Architecture in an Organic Exhibition. Los Angeles: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1998. ———. Los Angeles in the Thirties, 1931–1941. Los Angeles: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1989. Gebhard, David, and Robert S. Winter. Edited and revised by Robert S. Winter. An Architectural Guidebook to Los Angeles. Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2003. Gebhard, Patricia. George Washington Smith: Architect of the Spanish Colonial Revival. Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2005. Griswold, Mac, and Eleanor Weller. The Golden Age of American Gardens. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1992. Gross, Susan Jane. The Gardens of Edward Huntsman-Trout. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State Polytechnic University, 1976. Hall, George D. “The Perfect Grows—In Feeling as Well in Flowers.” American Landscape Architect (July 1930). Hall, Henry. “A Country House in Early California Style.” Pacific Coast Architect 25 (June 1924). [Thomas H. Ince] Hanson, A. E. An Arcadian Landscape: The California Gardens of A. E. Hanson, 1920–1932. Edited by David Gebhard and Sheila Lynds. Introduction by David Gebhard. Los Angeles: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1985. Harris, Allen. “The Work of Webber, Staunton & Spaulding.” Pacific Coast Architect 28 (July 1925). Henderson, Rose. “A Chinese Treasure House.” The Western Architect 38 (July 1929). [Grace Nicholson]

Hewitt, Harwood. “A Plea for a Distinctive Architecture in Southern California.” Bulletin of the Allied Architects Association of Los Angeles 1 (March 1, 1925). Hewitt, Mark Alan. The Architect & the American Country House. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990. Hines, Thomas S. “The Blessing and the Curse. The Achievement of Lloyd Wright.” Lloyd Wright: The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright Jr. Produced and photographed by Alan Weintraub. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998. ———. “The Issue of Tradition in a Twentieth-Century City.” American Architecture: Innovation and Tradition. Edited by David G. De Long, Helen Searing, and Robert A. M. Stern. New York: Rizzoli, 1986. ———. Richard Neutra and the Search for Modern Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. ———. “Wilshire Boulevard.” In The Grand Avenue, 1850–1920. Edited by Jan Cigliano and Sarah Bradford Landau. San Francisco: Pomegranate Books, 1994. Historic Resources Group. Marion Davies Estate Historic Structure Report. Santa Monica, Calif.: January 2005. Hopkins, Alfred. Preface to American Country Houses of Today. New York: Architectural Book Publishing, 1926. Hudson, Karen E. Paul Williams, Architect. New York: Rizzoli, 1993. Hunter, Paul R. “The Architect and the House, IV: Roland E. Coate of Los Angeles.” Pencil Points 20 (October 1939). Hunter, R., and Walter L. Reichardt, eds. Residential Architecture in Southern California. Los Angeles: Southern California Chapter, AIA, 1939. Jennings, Frederick. “The Architecture and Landscape Architecture of Los Angeles and Vicinity.” The Architect and Engineer 62 (August 1920). Johnson, Reginald D. “Architectural Expression: Design Influenced by Environment and Tradition.” The Architect and Engineer 122 (February 1936). ———. “A Course in the Appreciation of Architecture: The Elementary Line.” California Southland 8 (February 1926). ———. “The Development of True Californian Style.” California Southland 9 (March 1927). ———. “Trend of Architecture in California Residences.” Pacific Coast Architect 31 (February 1927). Kanner, Diane. Wallace Neff and the Grand Houses of the Golden State. New York: Monacelli Press, 2005. Kaufmann. Gordon B. “A House of Tuscan Inspiration.” Arts & Decoration 28 (February 1928).

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———. “A Plea for Better Domestic Architecture.” California Home Builder 5 (April 1927). Kelley, H. Roy. “Style and Character in Architecture.” California Southland 65 (1930). ———. “Why Have an Architect?” California Southland 9 (April 1927). Kielbasa, John. Historic Adobes of Los Angeles County. Pittsburgh: Dorrance, 1997. Lancaster, Clay. Japanese Influence in America. New York: Walton H. Rawls, 1963. Lockwood, Charles. Dream Palaces: Hollywood at Home. New York: Viking Press,1981. ——— and Jeff Hyland. The Estates of Beverly Hills. 2nd ed. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Jeff Hyland and Charles Lockwood, 1989. ——— and Peter V. Persic. Greystone Historical Report. Submitted to the City Council, City of Beverly Hills, August 30, 1984. Longstreth, Richard W. Julia Morgan, Architect. Berkeley, Calif.: Berkeley Architectural Heritage Association, 1977. MacDonald, Kenneth, Jr. “Residence Design.” The Architect and Engineer 42 (November 1915). March, Lionel. “The Residence of Dr. and Mrs. James Eads How, Silver Lake, Los Angeles, California, 1925.” GA Houses 56 (1998). McCoy, Esther. Five California Architects. Los Angeles: Hennessey + Ingalls, 1987. Millier, Arthur. “The Ballin Murals in Los Angeles.” California Southland 9 (October 1927). Montgomery, William. Studies in Southern California Landscape History Applied to the Development of Rancho Los Cerritos. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 1975. Neff, Wallace, Jr., ed. Wallace Neff: Architect of California’s Golden Age. Santa Monica, Calif.: Hennessey + Ingalls, 2000. Newcomb, Rexford. Mediterranean Domestic Architecture in the United States. Cleveland, Ohio: J. H. Jansen, 1928. Ovnick, Merry. Los Angeles: The End of the Rainbow. Los Angeles: Balcony Press, 1994. Padilla, Victoria. Southern California Gardens: An Illustrated History. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Allen A. Knoll, 1994. Patterson, Augusta Owen. “644 Bellagio Road.” Town & Country (May 1940). [Hilda Boldt Weber] Pickford, Mary. “Spanish Architecture Ideal for the California Home.” The Architect and Engineer 83 (December 1926). Regan, Michael. Mansions of Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Regan Publishing, 1965.

———. Stars, Moguls, Magnates: The Mansions of Beverly Hills. Los Angeles: Regan Publishing, 1966. Risley, Winchton L. “The Domestic and Other Architecture, H. Roy Kelly AIA.” Western Architect and Engineer 106 (September 1931). Saylor, Henry H. “Reginald D. Johnson.” Architecture 65 (June 1932). Schindler, Pauline G. “The Samuel House, Los Angeles.” The Architectural Record 67 (June 1930). Schindler, Rudolph M. “A Residence in Los Angeles, California.” The Architectural Record 65 (January 1929). [James Eads How] Sears, M. Urmy. “A Gentlemen’s Estate in California Hills.” California Southland 7 (March 1925). [Ben R. Meyer, Beverly Hills] Spaulding, Sumner M. “The Patio Is Logical for California.” California Arts & Architecture 14 (July 1931). Storrer, William. The Frank Lloyd Wright Companion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Streatfield, David C. California Gardens: Creating a New Eden. New York: Abbeville Press, 1994. ———. “The Evolution of the California Landscape.” Four-part series in Landscape Architecture 67: “Settling into Arcadia” (January 1976); “Arcadia Compromised (March 1976); and in Landscape Architecture 68: “The Great Promotions” (May 1977); “Suburbia at the Zenith (September 1977). ———. “Where Pine and Palm Meet: The California Garden as Regional Expression.” Landscape Journal 4 (Fall 1985). Thiene, Paul G. “An Old World Garden in a New World Setting.” American Landscape Architect (August 1929). ———. “Water Features: Notes on Experience in California Gardens.” Landscape Architecture 17 (October 1927). Tuttle, Kathleen. Sylvanus Marston: Pasadena’s Quintessential Architect. Santa Monica, Calif.: Hennessey + Ingalls, 2001. Weintraub, Allan. Lloyd Wright. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998. Winter, Robert and Alexander Vertikoff. The Architecture of Entertainment in the Twenties. Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2006. Woodbridge, Sally B. Bernard Maybeck: Visionary Architect. New York: Abbeville Press, 1992. Wright, Frank Lloyd. “A Building Adventure in Modernism.” Country Life 56 (May 1929). [Alice Millard] ———. “In the Cause of Architecture.” Architectural Review 64 (July 1928). ———. The Natural House. New York: Horizon Press, 1954. ———. A Testament. New York: Horizon Press, 1957.

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Yoch, Florence. “Fitting the Land for Human Use: An Art Closely Allied to Architecture.” California Arts & Architecture 38 (July 1930). ———. “The Significance of the Mediterranean Garden in California.” California Arts & Architecture 35 (February 1929). Yoch, James J. Landscaping the American Dream: The Gardens and Film Sets of Florence Yoch, 1890–1972. New York: Harry N. Abrams/Sagapress, 1989.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND BIOGRAPHY Beauchamp, Carrie. Without Lying Down: Frances Marion and the Powerful Women of Early Hollywood. New York: University of California Press, 1997. Coffman, Taylor. Building for Hearst and Morgan: Voices from the George Loorz Papers. Berkeley, Calif.: Berkeley Hills Books, 2003. Danky, James P., and Wayne A. Wiegand. Women in Print: Essays on the Print Culture of American Women from the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006. Davies, Marion. Life with William Randolph Hearst: The Times We Had. New York: Ballantine Books, 1975. Dickinson, Donald C. Dictionary of American Book Collectors. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. Guiles, Fred Lawrence. Marion Davies. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. Ellenberger, Allan R. Ramon Novarro: A Biography of the Silent Film Idol, 1899–1968. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999. Feuchtwanger. Marta. Emigré Life: Munich, Berlin, Sanary, Pacific Palisades. Interview by Lawrence Weschler. Oral History Program of the University of California. Los Angeles: The Regents of the University of California, 1976. Lambert, Gavin. Norma Shearer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Marion, Frances. Off with Their Heads: A Serio-Comic Tale of Hollywood. New York: Macmillan, 1972. Nasaw, David. The Chief: William Randolph Hearst. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. Neutra, Richard. Life and Shape. New York: Appleton–Century–Crofts, 1962. Pickford, Mary. Sunshine and Shadow. New York: Doubleday, 1955. Pohlmann, John O. “Alphonzo E. Bell: A Biography.” Southern California Quarterly Part I, 46, no. 3 (September 1964); Part II, 46, no. 4 (December 1964). Selznick, Irene Mayer. A Private View. New York: Knopf, 1983. Soares, André. Beyond Paradise: The Life of Ramon Navarro. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.

Vance, Jeffrey, and Suzanne Lloyd. Harold Lloyd, Master Comedian. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2002. Von Sternberg. Josef. Fun in a Chinese Laundry. New York: Macmillan, 1965. Whitfield, Ellen. Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1997. Wright. Frank Lloyd. An Autobiography (New York: Duell, Sloane & Pearce, 1943) Zeitlin, Jake. Books and the Tradition: Fifty Years of Rare Books. Interview by Joel Gardener. Oral History Program of the University of California. Los Angeles: The Regents of the University of California, 1980.

REGIONAL HISTORY Banham, Reyner. Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies. Berkeley: University of California, 1971. Basten, Fred E. Santa Monica Bay. Santa Monica, Calif.: Hennessey + Ingalls, 2001. Bel-Air: A Picturesque Domain of Homes. Los Angeles: Bell Corporation, n.d. Bel-Air: The Aristocrat of Suburban Development. Los Angeles: Frank Meline, n.d. Bent, Arthur S. “Bel-Air Development Was Reached through Vision Backed by Great Investment.” The Bel-Air Progressive 1 (July 1928). Davis, Mike. Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. Dowey, Bill. A Brief History of Malibu and the Adamson House. Malibu, Calif.: Malibu Lagoon State Beach Interpretative Association, 1995. Engstrand, Iris H. W. “Rancho Los Cerritos: A Southern California Legacy Preserved.” Southern California Quarterly 82 (Spring 2000). Fogelson, Robert M. The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850–1930. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Hill, Laurence L. La Reina: Los Angeles in Three Centuries. Los Angeles: Security-First National Bank of Los Angeles, 1931. Hine. Robert V. and John Mack Faragher. The American West, A new interpretative history. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. Hise, Greg, and William Deverell. Eden by Design: The 1930 OlmstedBartholomew Plan for the Los Angeles Region. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Los Angeles: The Metropolis of the West. Los Angeles: Frank Meline, 1929. McWilliams. Carey. Southern California Country: An Island on the Land.

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Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1946. McClung, William Alexander. Landscapes of Desire: Anglo Mythologies of Los Angeles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. O’Day, Edward F. Bel-Air Bay: A Country Place by the Sea. Los Angeles: Alphonzo Bell, 1927. Pitt, Dale, and Leonard Pitt. Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. Roderick, Kevin. With research by J. Eric Lynxwiler. Wilshire Boulevard: Grand Concourse of Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Angel City Press, 2005. Rolle, Andrew. California: A History. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 2003. Scheid, Ann. Pasadena: Crown of the Valley. Northridge, Calif.: Windsor, 1986. Starr, Kevin. Endangered Dreams: The Great Depression in California. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. ———. Material Dreams: Southern California through the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Vorspan, Max, and Lloyd P. Gartner. History of the Jews of Los Angeles. San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1970. Young, Betty Lou. Pacific Palisades: Where the Mountains Meet the Sea. Los Angeles: Casa Vieja Press, 2001.

PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS The American Architect American Landscape Architect The Architect and Engineer Architectural Digest The Architectural Record Arts & Decoration California Arts & Architecture California Southland Country Life The House Beautiful House and Garden Landscape Architecture Landscape Journal Los Angeles Builder and Contractor Los Angeles Evening Herald & Express Los Angeles Examiner Los Angeles Express Los Angeles Times New York Times

Pencil Points Southern California Quarterly Southwest Builder and Contractor Sunset Magazine Time Magazine Town & Country The Western Architect

ARCHIVES The American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C. Automobile Club of Southern California Archive, Los Angeles, California Beverly Hills Public Library, Historical Collection, Beverly Hills, California California Polytechnic State University, Special Collections and University Archives, San Luis Obispo, California California State Library, Sacramento, California Columbia University, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Drawings and Archives Department, New York City The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, Taliesin West, Scottsdale, Arizona The Huntington Library, San Marino, California Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Los Angeles Public Library, Photo Collection, Los Angeles, California Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Los Angeles, California Pasadena Museum of History, Pasadena, California Rancho Los Cerritos Historic Site, Long Beach, California University of California, Berkeley, Environmental Design Archives, Berkeley, California University of California, Los Angeles, Charles E. Young Research Library, Department of Special Collections, Los Angeles, California University of California, Los Angeles, UCLA Geography Air Photo Archives, Los Angeles, California University of California, Santa Barbara, University Art Museum, Architectural Drawing Collection, Santa Barbara, California University of Southern California, USC Specialized Libraries and Archival Collections, Los Angeles, California William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, Los Angeles, California

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INDEX A. E. F. Architectural Training Center, 362, 367 Académie Julian, Paris 366 Academy Award (Oscar), 365 Adamson, Houses of Merritt Huntley, 270–277, 358 Adamson, Merritt Huntley, 271, 274 Adamson, Rhoda Agatha Rindge, 271, 274 Adelaide Drive, 192 Adler & Sullivan, 368 Adohr Stock Farms, 272 Afshani, Nasrolla, 255 Akademie der bildenden Künste, 366 Allen & Collins, 367 Allied Architects of Los Angeles, 14, 361 Allison & Allison, 362, 364 Allison, James E. and David C., 362 Ambassador Hotel, 11, 123 American Colonial style, 18, 311 American Expeditionary Forces, 360 American Film Institute, 233 American Institute of Architects (AIA), Southern California Chapter, 35, 364 American Legion Hall, 367 Andalusian style, 67, 90, 202, 272, 366 Angelo Drive, 65 Annandale Estates, 360 Anthony, Earle Charles “Charles,” 279, 286, 287, 358 Anthony, House of Earle Charles, 278–289, 358 Anthony, Irene Kelly, 287 Applegarth & MacDonald, 363 Applegarth, George A., 363 Architectural Forum, 19 Armitage, Merle, 189 Arrowhead Springs Hotel, 331 Art Deco style, 11, 18, 365 Art Institute of Chicago, 361 Arts and Crafts style, 51, 364

Assyrian style, 365 Atelier Laloux, Paris 362 Atelier Pascal, Paris 363 Atkinson, Lynn, 367 Atterbury, Grosvenor, 365 Austin, John C., 32, 368 Bainter, Fay, 305 Ball, Lucille, 368 Ballets Russes, 189 Ballin, Hugo, 151 Bank of Italy, 365 Bardy Hall, 360 Barker Brothers, 17, 138, 202, 217, 307 Barker, Clarence, 307 Barnes, William “Lejeune,” 95 Barnsdall, Aline, 366, 368 Bass, Herbert L., 362 Battson, Leigh, 233 Battson, Lucy Smith Doheny, 225, 226, 231, 233 Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, 367 Beaux-Arts style, 14, 75, 214, 235, 243, 331, 363 Bel-Air, 12, 59, 107, 111, 115, 311, 321, 362 Bel-Air administration building, 360 Bel-Air Bay Club, 165 Bel-Air Country Club, 107, 341 Belasco Theater, 365 Bell, Alphonzo E., 12, 59, 89, 107, 165, 199 Bellflower, 291 Benedict Canyon, 90 Benedict Canyon Drive, 243, 246 Bennett, Constance and Joan, 361 Benson, Rodney, 202, 357 Bent Brothers, 107 Bent, Arthur S., 107, 111, 356 Bent, Bootie McKnee and Crawford H., 111

– 385 –

Bent, Henry Kirk White, 107 Bent, House of Arthur S., 106–113, 356 Beowulf, 49 Bergstrom, G. Edwin, 279, 361 Berkeley Square, 12 Bernheimer, Adolph L., 165, 171, 357 Bernheimer, Eugene, 165 Beverly Boulevard (later renamed Sunset Boulevard), 12, 165, 209, 213 Beverly Crest, 225 Beverly Hills Hotel, 243, 317 Polo Lounge, 368 Beverly Hills Nursery, 20, 32 Beverly Hills Speedway, 361 Beverly Hills 65, 75, 233 Beverly House, 160 Bierce, Ambrose, 153 Biscoe, Maurice, 361 Bishop & Company, 118 Bishop, Harriet S., 118 Bishop, Roland Porter, 118 Bishop, William T., 115, 118, 356 Bissell, Frank H., 362 Bixby Knolls, 296 Bixby, Jotham, 292, 295, 296 Bixby, Lillian Avis Smith, 297 Bixby, Llewellyn, Sr., 296, 297, 358 Bixby, Stafford W., 360 Blacker, house of Robert R., 23 Boldt, Charles E., 349 Boldt, Hilda, 341, 348, 349, 353, 358 Bordeaux, William D., 364 Bosworth, William W., 364–365 Bouvier, Jacqueline, 160 Brea Canon Oil Company, 287 Brecht, Berthold, 207 Bricker, Lauren Weiss, 142 Broadway Department Store, 17, 209, 307 Brooks, Roy, 254 Brotherhood of Daily Life, 87


Brown, A. Page, 363 Brown, Arthur, Jr., 364 Brown, Horace G., 160 Brown, Lucile Lloyd, 49 Brownfield, Marion, 65 Brundage, Avery, 263 Bryan, Mrs. William Jennings, Jr., 111 Bryant, Lynn, 65 Bryn Mawr College, 367 Bullock’s Wilshire, 11, 192, 194, 307 Bullock, John, 307 Bush, Gladys Lewis, 346 Buss, Jerry, 35 “Bussfare,” 35 Byers, John, 298, 299, 304, 358, 360 California Building, 363 California Heights, 296 California Institute of Technology (Caltech), 56, 362 California Riviera development, 360 California State Department of Parks and Recreation, 275 California State University, 325 California style, 14, 44 Cambridge University, 361 Canfield, Charles, 59 Canfield, Daisy, 59, 60, 62, 356 Cannell & Chaffin, 254 Canoga Park High School, 361 Capo di Monte, 59 Capra, Frank, 365 Cardwell, Kenneth H., 363 Carolwood Drive, 363 Carpenter Brothers, 257, 361 Carrère & Hastings, 362, 363 Casa de los Olivos Muertos, 241 Casa Encantada, 340–355, 358 Casino building, Catalina Island, 367 Cassiobury Park, Hertfordshire, England 230 Castellammare, 165, 213, 214 Castillo del Lago, 98–105, 356 Cecil B. DeMille Pictures Corporation, 365 Cedar Rapids High School, 362 Cedars of Lebanon Hospital (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center), 80, 160 Center for Advanced Film Studies, 233 Chambers, H. C., 298, 305, 358 Chandler, Harry, 99 Chaplin, Charlie, 32, 72, 243, 261, 317 Cheesewright Studios, 34, 94, 226, 356, 357

Cheesewright, Edgar, 15, 226 Cheney, Charles, 367 Cheney, Sheldon, 21 Chester Place, 12, 225, 231 Childs Avenue, 59 Chloe P. Canfield Memorial School for Girls, 62, 361 Christy, Howard Chandler, 259 Church of the Wilderness, Denver, CO 361 Churchill, Winston and Randolph, 259 Clark, Alson S., 22, 94, 311 Clark, William Andrews, 295 Clark, William Andrews, Jr., 56 Clements, Stiles O., 272, 274, 364–365 Cline, William B., 363 Coate, Roland Eli, 12, 18, 19, 49, 140, 141, 142, 144, 172, 176, 177, 181, 316, 317, 321, 331, 357, 358, 360, 362 Codman & Despradelle, 364 Cohn, Estelle, 151, 153, 160 Cohn, Kaspare, 80, 160 Cohn, Rachel, 80 Colonial Revival style, 257, 259, 321, 331, 346, 362 Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 331 Commodore Hotel, 363 Compania Inversiones de Puebla, 83 Connell, Will, 189 Conservative Life Insurance Company, 271 Consolidated Steel Corporation, 146 Cook, Wilbur David, Jr., 21, 288, 368 Copley, Ira Clifton, 138 Coppell, Herbert, 221 Cord, E. L., 331 Cordhaven, 331 Cornell University, 146, 360, 362, 367 Cornell, Ralph Dalton, 20, 297, 358 Cotswold style, 109, 183 Couchot, Maurice C., 363 Council, Lucille, 20, 118, 144, 356, 357, 358 Craftsman style, 107, 279, 362, 363 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, 367 Cram, Ralph Adams, 365 Crawford, Anna V., 241 “Crazy Sunday,” 305 Crescent Drive, 72 Crestmount, 58–63, 356 Crown, Henry, 233 Cubist style, 192 Cukor, George, 361

– 386 –

Cutts, A. B., 194 Daniels, Mark, 59, 198, 199, 202, 213, 279, 287, 288, 358, 357, 360 Danziger, Daisy Canfield, 59, 60, 62 Danziger, Jay M., 59 Dark Angel, 95 Davies, Marion, 72, 156, 160, 254, 257, 258, 259, 261, 299, 358 Davis, Mildred Hillary, 243 de Forest, Lockwood, 367 De Lario, John Lucian, 98, 101, 356, 360–361 de Stijl movement, 85 de Wolfe, Elsie, 34 Defense Homes Corporation, 365 del Rio, Delores, 353 DeMille, Cecil B., 365 Depression, the, 21, 105, 138, 153, 206, 241, 259, 268, 331, 361 Dias Dorados, 64–73, 356 Dietrich, Marlene, 325 Dodd, William J., 59, 361, 368 Dodge, House of Walter L., 23 Doheny, Edward L., 225 Doheny, Edward L., III, 323 Doheny, Edward Laurence “Ned,” Jr., 225, 226, 231, 233, 357 Doheny, Estelle, 56 Doheny, Lucy Smith, 225, 226, 231, 233 Dolena, James E., 129, 305, 340, 341, 348, 353, 358, 361 Donohue, Daniel and Bernadine M., 287, 288, 358 Dove, Billie, 261 Doves Press and Bindery, 56 Drebin, Max C., 366 Drexel Institute, 364 Drown, Joseph, 261 Duell, Prentice, 14 Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, 364 Duquette, Tony, 34, 356 Durant, Cliff, 361 E. J. Stanton & Company, 185 Eads, James Buchanan, 87 Earl, Edwin T., 11, 369 Earlham College, 360 Ebell Club, 361 Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 361, 362, 363, 364, 366 Edward H. Rust Nurseries, 211, 357


Edwardian style, 362 Eisner, House of Isidor, 130–139, 357 Eisner, Isidor, 131, 138, 357 Eisner, Lelia Jacoby, 138 El Capitan, 365 Ellis, Diane, 261 English, Otto B., 363 Ennis house, 368 Entourage, 83 Estep, Joe Morgan, 362 Everglades Club, 279 Fairbanks, Douglas, 27, 34, 35, 356, 365 Fairfax Avenue, 11 Falcon Lair, 95 Famous Players—Lasky Corporation, 365 Fanshaw, Hubert Valentine, 361 Farmers Market, 361 Farquhar, Robert D., 58, 59, 60, 176, 356, 362, 364 Federal Reserve Bank Board, 146 Feuchtwanger, Lion, 206, 207 Feuchtwanger, Marta, 207 Field, Marshall and Ted, 255 Figueroa Street, 225 First Church of Christ, Scientist, 364 First Methodist Church, 271 Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 305 Flannery, William Edward, 256, 257, 358, 361 Flewelling, Ralph C., 19 Flint, Bixby & Company, 292 Flint, Frank P., 41 Flintridge, 41 Foote, Hilda, 363 Forest Lawn Cemetery, 233 Forever Amber, 233 Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate Conception Order, 62 Frank Meline Company, 213, 365 Frederick Fisher and Partners, 261 Fredericks, John D., 311 Freeman house, 368 Fremont Place, 12, 361 French Classical Revival style, 363, 367 French Norman style, 317 Friends of Villa Aurora Inc., 207 Fudger, Eva Katherine, 173, 181, 357 Fudger, House of Mrs. Richard B., 172–181, 357 Fudger, Richard Barry, 176

Gabor, Zsa Zsa, 368 Gainsborough, Thomas, 259 Galli-Curci, Amelita, 365 Gamble, House of David C., 23 Gatch-Hill Studios, 48, 356 Gebhard, David, 21, 22, 331 George Washington Slept Here, 365 Georgian Colonial style, 321 Georgian Revival style, 181, 259 Georgian style, 14, 331, 341 Getty Museum, 218 Getty, J. Paul, 218 Getz, Estelle Cohn, 151, 153, 160 Getz, House of Milton E., 150–163, 357 Getz, Milton E., 80, 151, 156, 261, 362 Gibbons, Cedric, 194, 299, 353, 357 Gibbons, Dolores del Rio, 353 Gibbons, Grinling, 226, 259 Gibbs, George, 21 Gill, George Brockwell, 361 Gill, Irving J., 9, 23, 366, 368 Gillis, Robert C., 165 Gladdin, McBean & Co., 15 Glass, Charles Ray, 311, 358 “Glasses,” 243 Goetz, Edie Mayer, 317 Goetz, William, 365 Goldwyn, Samuel, 257 Goodhue, Bertram G., 367 Gordon B. Kaufmann & Associates, 362 Grace Nicholson Treasure House of Oriental Art, 267 Grauman’s Chinese Theater, 368 Graves, Leon, 366 Great Danes, 246 Green, Edward G., 361 Greenacres, 242–255, 357 Greene & Greene, 9, 23, 267, 279, 363 Grey, Elmer, 9, 272, 349, 362 Greystone, 224–233, 323, 357 Grieve, Harold Walter, 286, 304, 358 Griffith Park, 99, 101 Griffith, Corinne, 32, 72 Guasti, Secondo, 254 Haenke, Johann Martyn, 361 Hahn, Herman, 362 Hancock Park, 105, 138, 173, 176, 209, 272 Hancock, George Allan, 173, 183 Hancock, Henry, 173 Hann, Phil Townsend, 189

– 387 –

Hansen, Ejnar N., 274 Hanson, Archibald E. “A. E.,” 34, 126, 129, 185, 237, 241, 243, 288, 356, 357, 366 Hanson, House of William P., 40–49, 356 Hanson, William Pere, 41, 44, 356 Harold Lloyd Foundation, 255 Harris, Allen 367 Hart, William S., 363 Harvard Herbarium, Cambridge, MA, 368 Harvard University, 10, 87, 271, 314, 360 School of Architecture, 366 Hastings, Theodore Mitchell, 367 Hawks, Howard, 299 Hayworth, Rita, 218 Health House, 325–326, 365 Hearst Castle, San Simeon, California 364 Hearst Corporation, 261 Hearst, Phoebe Appleton, 263, 364 Hearst, William Randolph, 67, 72, 94, 95, 156, 160, 257, 258, 259, 261, 299, 353, 358, 364 Hefner, Hugh, 211 Hewitt, Henry Harwood, 14, 40, 41, 44, 49, 356, 361 Heye, George G., 267 Highland Park, 107 Hilltop House, 164–171, 357 Hilton, Conrad, 353 Hines, Thomas S., 132, 192 Hipper, 32 Hobo College, 87 Holabird & Roche, 365 Hollenbeck Home for the Aged, 364 Hollister, Dana, 62 Hollywood Bowl, 368 Hollywood, CA, 9, 14, 17, 18, 65, 95, 299 Hollywoodland, 99 Holmby Hills, 126, 129, 209, 235, 307, 311, 315, 363 Holmby Hills Corporation, 211 Holmby House, 211 Holtzclaw, John B., 15, 217, 274, 358 Hoover Dam, 362 Hoover, Ira Wilson, 364 Hopper, Hedda, 254 Horning, William A., 366 Hotchkiss School, 148 House of the Dead Olives, 241 “House of the Month,” 362 How, Holger Carl, 87


How, House of Dr. James Eads, 84–87, 356 How, Ingeborg Jensen, 87 How, James Eads, 85, 87, 356 Howard, John Galen, 364 Howard, Paul Joseph, 90, 356 Hueneme, Malibu & Port Los Angeles Railway, 271 Hughes, Howard R., 181 Hunt & Burns, 107, 361 Hunt & Eager, 362 Hunt & Hunt, 363 Hunt, George S., 94, 254, 356 Hunt, Jarvis, 364 Hunt, Myron, 9, 11, 41, 298, 305, 358, 364, 367 Hunter, Paul Robinson, 321 Huntington Hotel, 148 Huntington Palisades, 360 Huntington, Henry E., 9, 56, 142, 259 Huntsman-Trout, Edward, 35, 65, 314, 332, 337, 356, 358 Huntsman-Trout, William, 20, 21 Hutchison, Charles Milton, 182, 183, 357, 361–362 Il Vescovo, 114–121, 356 Ince, Ellen Kershaw, 72, 243 Ince, Thomas Harper, 65, 243, 356 Industrial Workers of the World, 87 International Exposition of Architecture and Fine Arts, New York, 49 International style, 18, 22, 85 Islamic style, 366 Ismaili Muslims, 218 Italianate style, 14, 59, 272, 288, 360 Ivanhoe Hills, 279 J. W. Robinson, 153 Jacobean style, 209 James, George Wharton, 263 Janss family, 211, 361 Janss Investment Company, 209, 311 Janss, Edwin, 209, 311 Janss, Gladys Letts, 209, 307 Janss, Harold, 126, 129, 209, 235, 311 John Byers Mexican Handmade Tile Company, 360 Johnson, Alexander Parley, 173 Johnson, Kaufmann & Coate, 75, 132, 307, 360, 362 Johnson, Reginald D., 14, 18, 21, 176, 243, 307, 362, 368

Jones, Jennifer, 323 Jutten, Llewellyn W., 41 KABC radio station, 279 Kalmus, Herbert T., 364 Kaspare Cohn Commercial & Savings Bank, 80 Kaspare Cohn Hospital, 80 Kauffman, Clemence, 218 Kauffman, Leon, 213, 218, 357 Kaufmann, Eva MacFarlane, 241 Kaufmann, Gordon Bernie, 12, 18, 19, 21, 49, 55, 56, 74, 75, 79, 106, 109, 111, 114, 115, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 138, 150, 151, 153, 224, 225, 226, 231, 234, 235, 237, 241, 306, 307, 311, 331, 356, 357, 358, 362, 365 Kaufmann, House of Gordon Bernie, 234–241, 357 Kaufmann, Lippincott & Eggers, 362 Keaton, Buster, 243 Keaton, Diane, 194 KECA radio station, 279 Kelley, Harold Roy, 19, 220, 221, 222, 357, 362, 367 Kelly, Arthur Rolland, 208, 209, 315, 357, 362–363, 367 Kelly, Joseph R., 363 Kelmscott Press, 56, 153 Kennedy, John F. and Jacqueline Bouvier, 160 Kerckhoff building, 364 Kern, Henry R., 123, 126, 129, 235, 357 Kern, House of Henry R., 122–130, 357 Keshishyan, John S., 79, 217 Keysor & Morgan, 364 Keysor, Ezra F., 364 KFI-AM radio station, 279 Khan, Prince Aly, 218 Kilmer, Eugene and Val, 315 Koebig, Adolf H., 222 Koebig, House of Dr. Walter Christian S., 220–223, 357 Koebig, Pearl Louden, 222 Koebig, Dr.Walter Christian S., 221, 222, 357 Kollsman, Paul, 95 Krause, Margarete, 268 Kuehl, A. Emile, 133, 225, 226 La Brea Avenue, 11 La Cañada, 307

– 388 –

La Casa de Rancho Los Cerritos, 290–297, 358 La Casa Nueva, 365 La Collina, 74–83, 151, 356 La Cuesta Encantada, 95, 259, 364 La Grande Station, 12 La Miniatura, 50–57, 356 Laemmle, Carl, 72, 299 Laird, Marshall, 48–49, 60, 79, 153, 254 Lakewood, 291, 295 Lang, Fritz, 207 Lankershim, John B., 325 Lao-tzu, 165 Laudamus Hill, 274 Lawrenceville Scientific School, 366 LeFleur, James, 105 Leistikow, Frederick, 368 Les Milles, France 206 Letts family, 363 Letts, Arthur, 209, 211, 307, 314 Letts, Arthur, Jr., 209, 211, 311, 357 Letts, Florence Edna, 307, 315 Letts, Gladys, 209 Letts, House of Arthur, Jr., 208–211, 357 Lexington Road, 257 Ley, George W., 199, 207 Lincoln Building, 138 Lincoln Mortgage, 368 Lincoln Petroleum Corporation, 105 Lindeberg, Harrie T., 221 Lindley, house of Willard, 123 Little Museum of the Book, 54 Llewellyn Iron Works, 146 Lloyd, Harold Clayton, 34, 243, 244, 246, 254, 255, 257, 261, 357 Lloyd, house of Ralph B., 360 Lloyd, Mildred Gloria, 244, 254 Lloyd, Suzanne, 254 Long Beach, 291, 297 Longan, Georgianna Friend, 105 Longan, Patrick Michael, 101, 105, 356 Loos, Adolf, 85, 365, 366 Loos, Anita, 257 Los Angeles Better Business Bureau, 307 Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, 107, 118 Los Angeles Country Club, 211, 311 Los Angeles County Men’s Detention Center, 368 Los Angeles Examiner, 89 Los Angeles Express, 11 Los Angeles Gas & Electric Company, 363


Los Angeles General Hospital, 222 Los Angeles Herald-Examiner building, 361, 364 Los Angeles Lakers, 35 Los Angeles Music Centre, 211 Los Angeles Park Commission, 35 Los Angeles Pressed Brick Company, 15, 267 Los Angeles Public Library, 367 Los Angeles Regional Planning Commission, 10 Los Angeles School of Art, 367 Los Angeles Times, 11, 99, 199, 202, 206, 362 Los Angeles Times Demonstration Home, 199 Lovell, house of Philip, 23, 366, 370 Lovell, Richard, 365 Luce, Henry R., 148 Luckman, Charles, 368 Lutyens, Sir Edwin, 362 MacDonald, Archie M., 181 MacDonald, Kenneth, Jr., 212, 213, 214, 357, 363 Madonna, 105 Magnin, Edgar F., 72, 299 Malaga Cove Plaza, 367 Malibu Canyon, 271 Malibu Historical Society, 275 Malibu Lagoon, 272 Malibu Potteries, 274 Malibu Ranch, 271 Mann, Thomas, 207 Marion, Frances, 34, 89, 90, 94, 95, 96, 254, 356 Marston & Maybury, 363 Marston & Van Pelt, 14 Marston, Phineas F., 363 Marston, Sylvanus Boardman, 51, 363 Marston, Van Pelt & Maybury, 262, 267, 358, 363 Martin, Albert C., 360 Marx, Harpo, 365 Massachussets Institute of Technology (MIT), 361, 364, 365, 367 Mauran, Russell & Crowell, 365 May, Cliff, 18 May, David, 362 Mayan Theater, 365 Maybeck, Bernard, 278, 279, 287, 288, 358, 363–364 Maybury, Edgar Wood, 363

Mayer, Irene, 257, 258, 317, 323, 358 Mayer, Louis B., 257, 258, 299, 317, 353, 361 Mayer, Theodore, 366 Mayfair Hotel, 138 Mayr, Hans, 366 McClung, William Alexander, 22 McCormick, John, 321 McNaghten, Florence Edna Letts, 307, 315 McNaghten, House of Malcolm, 306–315, 358 McNaghten, Malcolm, 307, 315, 358 McPherson, Aimee Semple, 258 Mediterranean Revival style, 14, 19, 32, 96, 360, 362, 366, 367 Mediterranean style, 41, 59, 79, 99, 129, 131, 286, 364, 366 Meier, Rudolph, 365 Meline, Frank, 213 Mellor, Meigs & Howe, 221 Memorial Rotunda, 363 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), 305, 366 Metropolitan Parkway System, 10 Meyer & Holler, 362, 368 Meyer, Ben R., 75, 80, 138, 151, 156, 225, 356 Meyer, John Henry, 14 Meyer, Rachel Cohn, 80 Midwick Country Club, 361 Millard house, 368 Millard, Alice Covell Parsons, 51, 54, 55, 56, 356 Millard, George Madison, 51 Millard, Roxana, 56 Mines, William Wales, 49 Miracle Mile, 11 Miramar, 198–207, 357 Miramar Estates, 199, 207, 213 Mission Inn at Riverside, 202 Mission Revival style, 14, 363 Mission style, 361 Mississippi River, 87 Mix, Tom, 32 Mizner, Addison, 279 Monaco, Armand, 364 Montecito, California 123 Monteagudo y Moreno, Antonio Garrido , 59, 60, 62, 356 Moore, Colleen, 321 Moorish style, 12

– 389 –

Moreno Highlands, 59 Moreno, Daisy Canfield Danziger, 59, 60, 62, 356 Morgan & Walls, 364 Morgan, J. P., 263 Morgan, Julia, 160, 256, 257, 259, 358, 361, 364 Morgan, Octavius, 364 Morgan, Octavius Waller, 364–365 Morgan, Walls & Clements, 270, 358, 364–365 Morgan, Walls & Morgan, 364, 365 Morton, Robert, 218 Moser, Glen, 367 Mount Lee, 360 Mount St. Mary’s College, Bardy Hall, 360 Mount Vernon, 258 Mountbatten, Lord, 27 Mulholland Drive, 62 Mulholland Highway, 105 Mulholland, William, 99 Murdoch, David, 353 Murphy, Bernadine, 287, 288 Murphy, Daniel, 287 Murphy, John F., 367 Nash, John Henry, 153 National Biscuit Company (Nabisco), 118 National Park Service, 21 National Register of Historic Places, 275 Neff & Edwards, 365 Neff, Wallace, 18, 21, 26, 34, 88, 90, 176, 225, 317, 331, 356, 365 Negri, Pola, 261 Neutra, Dion, 365 Neutra, Richard Joseph, 18, 23, 85, 132, 324, 325, 327, 329, 356, 358, 365, 366 Newman, Woodman & Harris, 366 Newmark, Harris, 80 Niblo, Fred, 299, 365 Nicholson, Grace, 263, 267, 268, 358 Nicholson, House of Grace, 358, 262–269 Nielsen, Peter C., 274 Nieto, Manuel, 291 Norris, Robert Dewitt, 274, 358 North Long Beach, 296 North Los Angeles, 325 North Los Robles Avenue, 267 Northridge, 325 Novarro, Ramón, 189, 193, 194, 357


O’Melveny, Henry and John, 176 Oak Knoll, 142, 307 Ocean House, 254, 256–261, 358 Ocean House Hotel, 261 Old English style, 230 Olmsted Brothers, 367, 368 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 19 Oneida, 67 Orsatti, Frank, 305 Oscar (Academy Award), 365 Orselli, Alfredo, 364 Ostoff house, 366 Otis, Harrison Gray, 11 Ottenheimer, Stern & Reichert, 366 Ovnick, Merry, 17 Owens River, 99 Owens Valley, 156 Owensmouth High School, 361 Pacific Asia Museum, 268 Pacific Coast Highway, 274 Pacific Electric Railway, 9 Pacific Heights, 363 Pacific Life Mutual Company, 27, 271 Pacific Palisades, 12, 165, 199, 213 Packard, 279 Page, Raymond Elwin, 20, 21, 32, 356 Palace of Fine Arts, San Francisco, 363, 364 Paley, House of Jay, 330–339, 358 Paley, Jacob “Jay,” 331, 332, 337, 358 Paley, Lillian, 337 Paley, William S., 331 Palos Verdes, 366 Palos Verdes Estates, 12 Panama-California Exposition, 365, 368 Panama-Pacific Exposition, 363, 364 Pantages Theater, 364 Paramount, 291, 295 Paramount Publix Corporation, 326 Parisi, Paul, 364 Parker, Max Everts, 26, 32, 356, 365 Parkinson, Donald B., 11, 364 Parkinson, John, 11, 279, 364 Parrish, Maxfield, 151 Pasadena Art Institute (Pasadena Art Museum), 268 Pasadena Athletic Club, 363 Pasadena High School, 363 Pasadena, CA, 144, 268 Payne, John W., 87 Pebble Beach, CA, 307

Pepperdine University, 275 Peterson Studios, 341, 358 Phillips, Lee Allen, 27 Pickfair, 26–39, 317, 356 Pickford, Charlotte, 34 Pickford, Mary, 27, 32, 34, 35, 38, 90, 94, 254, 356, 365 Picnic, 361 Platt, Charles Adams, 314 Playboy, 211 Plunkett, Theodore Hugh, 233 Polo Lounge, Beverly Hills Hotel, 368 Polytechnic School, Croyden, 362 Pomona College, 107, 363 Pope, John Russell, 362 Portland Cement Company, 287 Powell, William, 361 Prairie School style, 368 Pratt Institute, 367 pre-Columbian style, 51 Price, Roy Seldon, 64, 65, 356, 365 Pringle house, 366 Probst-Taylor Company, 202 Prospect Park, 51 Purdy, Benjamin Morton, 20, 304, 341, 353, 358 Queen Anne style, 271 “Rabbi to the Stars,” 299 Ramona, 65 Rancho La Brea, 173, 291 Rancho Los Cerritos, 291 Rancho Los Cerritos Historical Site, 297 Rancho Santa Fe, 34 Rand Corporation offices, 362 Rand, Ayn, 329 Ray, Russell, 367 Regency style, 34 Reichardt, Walter, 321 Renaissance style, 244 Rennick, Jack, 202 Requa, Marjorie, 34, 254, 356, 357 Reynolds, Joshua, 259 Richardson, Henry Hobson, 364 Richardsonian style, 271 Richfield Oil building, 365 Richfield Oil Company, 185 Riggs, Lutah Maria, 127, 278, 288, 358, 366 Riklis, Meshulam, 35 Rindge family, 275

– 390 –

Rindge, Frederick H., 271 Rindge, May K., 274 Rindge, Rhoda Agatha, 271 Robsjohn-Gibbings, Terrence Harold “T. H.”, 341, 347, 348, 353, 358 Rocha, José Jorge, 173 Roehrig, Frederick L., 271 Rogers, Charles “Buddy,” 35, 38 Rogers, Roy, 315 Rolling Hills, 366 Rolls-Royce, 243, 327 Romboz house, 367 Ruskin, John, 363 Rutan & Russell, 361 Ryon, Ruth, 315 Sabin, F. H. Palmer, 19 Sadler, Hammond, 287–288, 341, 353, 358 Safety Last, 243 Saks Fifth Avenue, 368 Samarkand Hotel, Santa Barbara 123 Samuel, Louis, 189, 192, 193, 357 Samuel-Novarro House, 188–196, 357 San Fernando Rey de España mission, 325 San Fernando Valley, 14, 325 San Francisco Examiner, 94 San Gabriel Valley, 14 San Marino, CA, 142, 144 Sandburg, Carl, 192 Santa Barbara Junior College, 366 Santa Monica Mountains, 12 Santa Monica Pier, 165 Santa Monica, 261, 299 Schenk, Joseph, 361 Schindler, Pauline, 192 Schindler, Rudolph Michael, 9, 23, 84, 85, 87, 192, 356, 365, 366 Schoenberg, Arnold, 207 Schuyler Road, 225 Schweitzer/BIM, 194 Scott, Theodore John, 321, 366 Scripps College, 362 Second Street, 12 Selznick, David O., 299, 323, 358 Selznick, House of David O., 316–323, 358 Selznick, Irene Mayer, 257, 258, 317, 323, 358 Semper, Gottfried, 363 Senator Hotel, 363 Shearer, Norma, 299, 304, 305


Shell Oil Corporation building, 362 Shellenberger, Harriet R., 34, 331, 356, 358 Shelley v. Kraemer, 12 Sherman Oaks, 366 Sherman, Moses H., 99 Shingle style, 311 Siegel, Bugsy, 105 Signal Hill, CA, 9, 291, 296 Silsbee, Joseph Lyman, 368 Silver King, 90 Silver Lake, 59, 60, 85 Sinatra, Frank, Sr., 368 Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, 288 Small, Franklin M., 164, 165, 357 Smeraldi, John (Giovanni) B., 79, 132, 237 Smith, George Washington, 34, 122, 123, 127, 357, 366 Smith, Henry Atterbury, 362 Smith-Herberton house, 366 Soper, J. H. Gardner, 237 Soule, Murphy & Hastings, 366–367 Soule, Winsor, 366 South Irving Boulevard, 243 South Kensington School of Art, London 361 Southern Pacific Railway, 271 Sowden, house of John, 368 Spalding, Caroline C., 59 Spalding, Silsby M., 32 Spanish Colonial style, 65, 67, 274, 365, 366 Spanish Mediterranean style, 101, 194 Spanish Renaissance style, 361 Spanish Revival style, 21, 34, 48, 75, 89, 94, 95, 176, 199, 235, 360, 361, 365, 366, 367 Spanish-Italian style, 60 Spaulding, Sumner Maurice, 19, 243, 244, 254, 367 Spaulding, Sumner P., 362 Spelling, Aaron and Candi, 315 Spreckels, Adolph, 363 St. Francis Hotel, San Francisco 123 St. John’s Cathedral, New York, 361 St. Paul School, 366 St. Paul’s Episcopal Cathedral, 362 St. Peter’s Italian Catholic Church, 364 St. Regis Hotel, New York, 363 Stanford University, 185

Stanton, Erastus James, 185 Stanton, Florence Sobel, 183, 185 Stanton, House of Leroy Hamilton, 182–187, 357 Stanton, Jesse E., 362 Stanton, Leroy Hamilton, 183, 185, 357 Statham, Louis D. and Anne, 211 Staunton, William Field, Jr., 367 Stella Dallas, 95 Stewart, Rod, 129 Stickney Memorial School of Art, 49 Stiles Clements & Associates, 365 Storer house, 368 Streatfield, David C., 21 Strong, Frank R., 59 Summit Drive, 27 Sun Drug Company and Sun Realty Company, 138 Sunset Boulevard (originally Beverly Boulevard), 12, 59, 75, 90, 165, 299, 363 Talmadge, Norma, 361 Taylor, House of Reese Hale, 140–149, 357 Taylor, Kathryn Emery, 148 Taylor, Margaret, 148 Taylor, Ralph D., 366 Taylor, Reese Hale, 146, 148, 357 Taylor, Waller, 146 Teapot Dome scandal, 225, 233 Technicolor, 364 Temple, John, 291, 292, 297 Temple, Walter, 365 Tenjiin, 165 Thalberg, House of Irving Grant, 298–305, 358 Thalberg, Irving Grant, 299, 304, 305, 358 Thalberg, Irving, Jr., 304 The Enchanted Hill, 88–97, 356 The Hoodlum, 365 The House Beautiful, 19, 221 The Knickerbocker Buckaroo, 365 The Knoll, 233 The Paramour, 62 Thiene, Paul, 79, 80, 133, 156, 160, 225, 226, 231, 307, 356, 357, 368 Thomson, Frederick “Fred” Clifton, 89, 90, 95, 96, 356 Time, 146, 148 Times-Mirror building, 21, 151

– 391 –

Tipper, 32 Torrance, CA, 368 Touring Topics, 189 Tracy & Swarthout, 361 Trousdale Estates, 233 Trousdale, Paul, 233 Trowbridge & Livingston, 360 Tudor Revival, 257 Tudor style, 27, 107, 142, 183, 209, 221, 226, 304, 349, 364 Tuscan style, 127 Union Bank & Trust Company, 80, 83, 156 Union Oil, 146 United States Engineers, Department of War, 362 United States Forestry Service, 21 United States Park Service, 360 United States Supreme Court, 12 Universal City, 299 Universal Studios, 299 University of California at Berkeley, 360, 363 College of Civil Engineering, 364 School of Architecture, 366 University of California at Los Angeles, 146, 209 University of California at Santa Barbara, 367 University of Chicago, 361 University of Illinois, 362, 366 University of Iowa, 362 University of Michigan, 360, 367 University of Pennsylvania, 363 School of Architecture, 361 University of Southern California (USC), 207, 222, 272, 368 School of Engineering, 367 University of Wisconsin School of Engineering, 368 Valentino, Rudolph, 95 Van Nuys, Isaac Newton, 325 van Pelt, Garrett, 363 Vaquero Hill, 272, 274 Veterans Memorial State Building, 368 Vidor, King, 299 Vienna Technische Hochschule, 365, 366 Villa Alegre, 14 Villa Aurora Foundation for European Relations, 207


Villa d’Este, 246 Villa de Leon, 363 Villa Gamberaia, 244 Villa Lante, 244 Villa Leon, 212–219, 357 Villa Rufolo, 116 Villa San Giuseppe, 288 Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène-Emmanuel, 363 von Sternberg, House of Josef, 324–329, 358 von Sternberg, Joseph 325, 326, 327, 329, 358 W. W. Mines & Company, 49 Wagner, Otto, 365, 366 Wagner, Richard, 116 Walker & Eisen, 362, 364, 365 Walls, John A., 364 War Housing Department, 368 Warner Brothers, 259 Warren & Wetmore, 362 Washington University, 365 Wayfarers Chapel, 368 Webber & Spaulding, 242, 243, 254, 357, 367 Webber, Staunton & Spaulding, 367 Webber, Walter, 367 Weber, Arthur Alexander, 199, 206, 207, 213, 357 Weber, Hilda Olsen Boldt, 341, 348, 349, 353, 358 Weber, Joseph Otto, 349

Weber, Sophia Martha, 206 West Adams Street, 225, 288 West Seventh Street, 138 Western Avenue, 11 Western Electric Company, 361 “Western White House,” 27 Westlake Park, 10–11 Westlake School for Girls, 363 Westminster Presbyterian Church, 363 Weston & Weston, 367 Weston Building Company, 367 Weston, Eugene and Eugene, Jr., 367 Weston, Joseph, 244, 367 Westwood Village and Westwood Hills, 209 Weyerhaeuser Lumber Company, 360 Whispers and Chants, 192 White House, 258 White, Mark H., 364 Whitgift School, Croyden, 362 Whitmore Hotel, 363 Williams, Paul Revere, 19, 330, 331, 332, 346, 358, 367 Wilshire Boulevard, 10, 11, 12, 173, 279, 361 Wilshire Country Club, 173 Wilshire district, 89 Wilshire, Henry Gaylord, 10 Wing, Kenneth J., 290, 296, 358 Wing, Kenneth Smith and Kenneth S., Jr., 368 Winslow, Carleton, 367

– 392 –

Wolfskill family, 59 Wolfskill, William, 209 Woman’s World, 362 Woodbridge, Sally B., 279 Woodruff, Sidney H., 99, 105, 360 World War I, 165, 206 World War II, 171 World’s Columbian Exposition, 363 Wright, David, 368 Wright, Eric, 189 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 9, 18, 50, 51, 55, 56, 356, 365, 366, 368 Wright, Frank Lloyd, Jr., 50, 51, 54, 79, 188, 189, 192, 193, 194, 356, 357, 368 Wurster, William W., 18 Wyntoon, estate of, 364 Yale, 148 Yamashiro, 165 Yoch, Florence, 20, 21, 115, 116, 144, 148, 176, 177, 237, 241, 321, 323, 356, 357, 358, 362 Yoch, James J., 116 Yosemite National Park, 360 YWCA building, 364 Zadora, Pia, 38 Zeitlin, Jacob “Jake” I., 56, 153, 192 Zelah, 325

Houses of Los Angeles, 1920-1935  
Houses of Los Angeles, 1920-1935  

Houses of Los Angeles, 1920-1935 is the sequel to Houses of Los Angeles, 1885-1919. This volume brings together for the first time house an...