Gardens for a Beautiful America, 1895-1935

Page 1


Gardens for a Beautiful America

Sam Watters writes and lectures about American houses and gardens. articles and essays on wide-ranging subjects including cactus theft in the Mojave Desert, estate gardens east and west, and photographing Hollywood houses.

other acanthus press titles Dream House: The White House as an American Home Ulysses Grant Dietz and Sam Watters

Houses of Los Angeles, 1885–1935; 2 volumes Sam Watters

Houses of the Berkshires, 1870 –1930, Revised Edition Richard S. Jackson Jr. and Cornelia Brooke Gilder

Houses of the Hamptons, 1880 –1930 Gary Lawrance and Anne Surchin

The du Ponts: Houses and Gardens in the Brandywine, 1900 –1951 Maggie Lidz

Great Houses of New York, 1880 –1930 Michael C. Kathrens

Great Houses of Chicago, 1871 –1921 Susan Benjamin and Stuart Cohen

Great Houses of San Francisco, 1875–1940 Erin Feher (fall, 2012)

back cover: mary ball washington house, fredericksburg, virginia; View to Flower Garden, 1927

Tur ad ent facitatias et, nos sum eum nis sument re laute nimagni hillit verorendicid quat venist que nulla dolessita doluptatem eum imus, cuptat. Erume pa et quunt elit harci blaboriates dipide magnis eatia sam qui que porae. Et molorro quat. Aximi, consequ asperchicta quae conet volore nonsecaecum que nos et et ut laborem voluptat quo et doloreria nonsedi adiorero illent. Orem dolo entempori voluptaessit omnistrum velignis doloressitae pliquatium ditat.

Gardens for a Beautiful America 1895–1935

He is the author of Houses of Los Angeles, 1885–1935, and numerous

1895–1935 photographs by frances benjamin johnston Sam Watters Gardens for a Beautiful America, 1895–1935, presents for the first time 250 colored photographs of urban and suburban gardens taken by Frances Benjamin Johnston—photographer of presidents, celebrity authors, tastemakers, and estates of the County House Era. At the opening of the 20th century, as artist and progressive, Johnston was front and center in the movement to beautify America. Gilded Age industrialism had brought at new prosperity to life coast to coast, but at the price of once pristine forests, rivers, and blue skies, wrecked by continental railroad building and factory pollution in growing cities. As guardians of home and community, wealthy women rallied clubs and societies to green America through design and horticulture. To show all gardeners, rich and poor, what a garden should be, they turned to Frances Benjamin Johnston. Gardens for a Beautiful America, 1895–1935, written by Sam Watters and published in collaboration with the Library of Congress, presents Johnston’s colored lantern slides, not seen since the 1940s. They

Gardens for a Beautiful America

picture New York town house yards, Long Island villas, California hillside terraces and plantations of the South identified by Watters over years of research and travel. Johnston produced each slide for illustrated lectures she presented to gardening women. Today, these hand-painted, miniatures on glass still resonate with her crusading message: garden the nation back to America the Beautiful, one elm, one rose, one fountain and one boxwood terrace at a time.

1895–1935 photographs by frances benjamin johnston

front cover: killenworth, george dupont pratt house, glen cove, new york; View from Terrace to Swimming Pool, circa 1918

published in collaboration with the library of congress printed in china

Sam Watters

[ Frontispiece ] mount vernon, george washington house, mount vernon, virginia Privy in Vegetable Garden, 1894

Gardens for a Beautiful America 1895–1935 photographs by frances benjamin johnston

Sam Watters Preface by C. Ford Peatross

published in collaboration with the library of congress

Acanthus Press new york : 2012

acanthus press llc 1133 Broadway, Ste. 1229 New York, New York 10010 212-414-0108 Copyright Š 2012, Sam Watters All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in any part (except by reviewers for the public press) without written permission from the publisher.

for this edition, 50 copies have been bound in half-leather and are numbered 1 to 50 No.

This book has been supported by a grant from Furthermore: a program of the J. M. Kaplan Fund All photographs of and by Frances Benjamin Johnston are courtesy of the Library of Congress A Classical America Series in Art and Architecture publication library of congress cataloging-in-publication data Watters, Sam, 1954Gardens for a beautiful America 1895-1935 : photographs by Frances Benjamin Johnston / Sam Watters ; preface by C. Ford Peatross. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-926494-15-2 1. Gardening--United States--Pictorial works. 2. Gardening--United States--History. 3. Gardens, American--Pictorial works. 4. Gardens, American--History. 5. Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 1864-1952--Photograph collections. 6. Women photographers--France--Paris--History--20th century. I. Title. SB451.3.W38 2012 635.0973--dc23 2011046568

printed in china


preface, c. ford peatross


notes to figures and plates



a garden photographer


the garden photograph



addenda “Our American Gardens” Slides 327 “California Gardens” Slides 329 A Garden Book Library 332


Gardens of the East

endnotes 49

Gardens of the West 147 Gardens for City and Suburb 201 Gardens of the Old World 235 Gardens of the South 263


selected bibliography acknowledgments index






Sumptuous and scholarly, Gardens for a Beautiful America, 1895–1935,

such beauty that they take your breath away. The eminent designer Fred-

Photographs by Frances Benjamin Johnston, provides both a time machine

erick Law Olmsted Jr. considered Johnston’s lantern slides to be “the finest

and a magic carpet capable of transporting us back to a lost, golden age

existing on the subject of American gardens.”

in the development of the American garden. We can travel from north

Frances Benjamin Johnston was a protean figure—pioneer photog-

to south, east to west, and coast to coast, from Bar Harbor to Charles-

rapher, photojournalist, and visual artist—who moved with equal ease

ton, Southampton to Santa Barbara, and places in between. We can pass

among presidents and plutocrats, reformers, architects, designers, publish-

through the gated entrances of the wealthy and privileged to gaze upon

ers, and promoters. Johnston was a force of nature who passed through

gardens of enormous scale and beauty, and then travel to Italy, France,

her world like a fresh breeze, bending the stiff backs of convention and

and England to see famous gardens from which Americans drew inspira-

clearing the air to allow us to see and understand her subjects in new

tion. We can observe the gardens of aspiring middle-class Americans and

ways. Those touched by the power of her personality, images, and ideas

also see gardens intended to bring a better life to city dwellers and fac-

were rarely left unchanged. Seemingly unforgettable, she nevertheless

tory workers. These American gardens were meant not only to delight the

has almost been forgotten. This publication, with its groundbreaking

senses but also to serve as vessels of identity and engines of change.

research, will go far to correct that deficiency and allow us to begin to

The hand-colored glass-plate lantern slides so faithfully reproduced

recognize and evaluate her accomplishments anew.

herein have not been seen in their full glory for more than 70 years, when

We thank Sam Watters and Acanthus Press for bringing Johnston

their seductive imagery and subtle colors were projected before elite audi-

and her times back to life so magnificently. Proof of the many sources

ences fortunate enough to attend one of Frances Benjamin Johnston’s

consulted and the many miles traveled to develop this well-rounded

garden lectures. An artist as well as a photographer, Johnston carefully

history of garden photography is in the extensive acknowledgments.

conceived and composed her lantern-slide “paintings” and guided their

With a fervent passion for and knowledge of his subject, Sam has pains-

coloring to have the maximum effect, to inform and to educate during

takingly examined Johnston and her work within the rich and complex

this revolution in American garden design. Some of these images are of

artistic, social, and historical context of her time. It was an era in which


the American garden came of age, defined and promoted by a flourishing

catalog information provided by Sam Watters, these images will now

garden club movement that used the garden to serve multiple agendas.

shine forth as a jewel in the crown of Johnston’s achievements, represent-

Johnston’s clients, colleagues, and associates represented a “Who’s Who”

ing her incomparable legacy to the American people and to the world.

of the first half of the “American Century” and of the American Renais-

They join the documentary records of the Historic American Landscapes

sance in architecture and landscape design.

Survey, the early Papers of the American Society of Landscape Archi-

Since the 1930s, the Library of Congress has been working to preserve

tects, the Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted and Olmsted Associates, and

and make available for study and research what became a vast archive

many other collections in the Library of Congress. Together these basic

of Johnston’s photographs and papers. Leicester B. Holland, chief of the

tools advance our understanding and appreciation of the varied roles that

Library’s Fine Arts Division, chairman of the Committee on the Preserva-

the garden has occupied in our national life and of the garden’s ongoing

tion of Historic Buildings of the American Institute of Architects, and, not

potential to improve and enrich the daily existence of all Americans. As

incidentally, author of The Gardening Blue Book: A Manual of the Perennial

Thomas Jefferson wrote to Charles Willson Peale in August of 1811: “No

Garden (1915), recognized Johnston’s talent by providing tangible support.

occupation is so delightful to me as the culture of the earth, and no culture

In 1930, he exhibited her Fredericksburg Survey prints and also purchased

comparable to that of the garden … But though an old man, I am but a

some of her negatives for “the purpose of creating a national foundation for

young gardener.”

the study of early American architecture and of garden design.”



—c. ford peatross

The digitization of the colored lantern slides used in Johnston’s garden

the library of congress

lectures represents the culmination of the library’s efforts. With the

october 2011

Introduction Miss Johnston is a lady, and whom I personally know & can vouch for; she does good work, and any promise she makes she will keep. —Theodore Roosevelt to Admiral George Dewey, 1899

In 1930 the popular garden chronicler Marion Cran traveled from her

upper-middle-class magazines had published Johnston’s photographs for

home in Kent, England to assess America’s gardening achievements. From

20 years and garden club members and landscape architects had collected

New England, through the Midwest, out to California, and to the mid-

her prints for study and exhibition. These were the images, as well as pho-

Atlantic, she visited the gardens of businessmen and movie stars. She

tographs by Johnston’s contemporaries, that had lured Cran to America.

spoke to gardeners and plantsmen, small-house owners and park super-

Frances Benjamin Johnston (1864–1952) was born one year before the

intendents, many of them no doubt unsuspecting the pithy account to

close of the Civil War and died seven years after the bombing of Nagasaki,

follow in her 1932 Gardens in America, the early critical view of garden-

Japan. An educated woman needing to make a living, she pragmatically

ing she wrote from her experiences across the continent.

forged a 60-year career. As an American working in a progressive era, she

When Cran arrived in century-old Washington, D.C., which she

combined advocacy for social change with strategies for paying the rent.

observed would “soon” be the most beautiful city in the world, she whirled

She began in the 1880s as a photojournalist and promoted photography

her way through diplomatic receptions and official meetings. She met

as a profession for women. When magazines devoted to the new Ameri-

“other enchanting people such as Frances Benjamin Johnston, whose won-

can home emerged from 1900, she used her professional skills to become

derful photographs are kept in the Library of Congress; she is one of the

a house and garden photographer. From 1910 until the mid-1930s, she

women one does not forget; joyous and vigorous; difficult and gentle. Her

photographed gardens for house owners, editors, and landscape architects.


garden pictures are the best I have seen in my life.”

With photographs from these commissions, she produced glass slides for

Johnston (FBJ) was the only photographer Cran deemed noteworthy

lectures she delivered across America to advance the Garden Beautiful

for her book, and she was not alone in her regard. The critic Royal Cor-

movement and to enhance her reputation as an artist, lecturer, and garden

tissoz thought Johnston’s images of European gardens were “striking”


and not “forced.” Landscape designer and photographer Mary Ruth-

In 1930 Johnston conceived creating “a national foundation for the

erford Jay wrote that FBJ’s work convinced her of “the need of having

study of Early American Architecture and of Garden Design”at the


proper photos of my gardens.” By the time Cran reached Washington,

Library of Congress, with her manuscript and photograph collections as


a garden photographer



The garden photographs that follow are a selection from the more than 1,100 Frances Benjamin Johnston lantern slides at the Library of Congress. The five chapters represent the five collections Johnston formed from her travels, beginning with American estate gardens in the 1910s and concluding with southern gardens in the 1930s. For clarity, slide images are presented geographically by garden location. FBJ, in fact, rearranged slides within and between collections for different lectures. Unless otherwise noted, images dated 1895–1909 and 1917–35 are by Frances Benjamin Johnston; those dated 1910–16 are by the Johnston-Hewitt partnership.



the elms, edward julius berwind house, newport, rhode island Fountain Alley, Summer 1914

[ 16 ] mariemont, thomas josephus emery house, middletown, rhode island Flower Garden, Summer 1914

[ 21 ] rookwood, evelyn russell sturgis house, manchester, massachusetts View to Atlantic Ocean, Summer 1924

[ 32–33 ]

weld, larz anderson house, brookline, massachusetts

Above: Willow Alley from the Rond Point to Temple, circa 1914; Opposite: Temple in Water Garden, circa 1914

[ 68 ] laurelton hall, louis tiffany foundation, cold spring harbor, new york Octagonal Garden, circa 1918

[ 84 ] gray gardens, robert carmer hill house, east hampton, new york View West to Pergola, 1914

[ 97 ] lob’s wood, carl h. krippendorf house, perintown, ohio Woodland Daffodils, circa 1920

[ 100 ] john henry fisher adobe, redlands, california Trophy Room, Spring 1917

[ 110 ] mrs. francis lemoine loring house, pasadena, california Flower Garden, Spring 1917

[ 151 ] new place, william henry crocker house, hillsborough, california Exedra, Spring 1917

[ 157–158 ] james kennedy moffitt house, piedmont, california View from House to Water Terrace and Steps from Water Terrace, Spring 1917

[ 171–173 ] flagstones, charles clinton marshall house, new york, new york Above: Porch and Laundry, 1922; Opposite: Tea House/Sleeping Porch, 1922

[ 188 ] west potomac park, washington, d.c. Irises Along the Embankment, 1921

[ 200 ] villa i tatti, bernard berenson house, settignano, italy View from Villa, Summer 1925

[ 217 ] hampton, john ridgley house, towson, maryland House Facing South to Hillside Parterre Garden, circa 1915

Notes to Figures and Plates

Unless noted, the photographs published here and dated from 1895–1909 and

produced Johnston’s European garden slides and some of her images of southern

from 1917–36 are by Frances Benjamin Johnston. Photographs from 1910–16

gardens. From time to time T. H. McAllister-Keller Co., at 176 Fulton Street, New

are by the Johnston-Hewitt partnership known as “Miss Johnston–Mrs. Hewitt,”

York, New York, worked for FBJ. The names of slide producers, when known, are

“Frances Benjamin Johnston, Mattie Edwards Hewitt, 628 Fifth Avenue, New

found in the Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog (www.loc.

York” and “The Johnston Hewitt Studio, 536 Fifth Avenue, New York.” Maga-


zines and books also credited “Miss Johnston and Mrs. Hewitt“ and “Johnston &

Identification of garden location, owners, landscape and house architects was

Hewitt.” Photographs by Frances Benjamin Johnston were credited: “Johnston,”

achieved through research of archival photographs, landscape plans, descriptions

“Miss Johnston,” “Frances B. Johnston,” and “Frances Benjamin Johnston.”

in periodicals, newspapers, and historic collections. Johnston summarily noted

All images, unless specified otherwise, are from glass lantern slides measuring

owner names and location, sometimes inaccurately, on some slide labels of East

3 ¼ by 4 inches. Print photograph and document dimensions are to the closest ¼

Coast and California gardens. More than 600 of the 1,134 slides have no identify-

inch. All colored slides are hand-tinted.

ing marks.

FBJ did not date any slides. In the 1940s she and an assistant cataloged some

In notes to individual plates and in the online catalog, only landscape architects

print photographs and negatives that correspond to the lantern slides. The dates

and gardeners known to have contributed to garden features in the photographs

associated with this cataloging are unreliable. Only when letters, invoices, or pub-

are listed. For present day clarity, the term landscape architect distinguishes

lications confirmed a year or year and month were specific dates assigned to slides.

designers with professional training from landscape gardeners, though this dis-

Otherwise dates are approximate. Slides with seasons correspond to months:

tinction did not always apply in the period when Johnston worked.

Winter (December, January, and February); Spring (March, April, and May); Summer (June, July, August, and September); Fall (October and November). In lectures Johnston identified Grace Adele Smith Anderson as her colorist

with the Prints & Photographs Online Catalog are (LC-DIG-ppmsca—XXXXX).

from circa 1914 until circa 1928. It is not possible to determine which slides Ander-

Call numbers for research of original photographs at the Library of Congress are

son painted since she did not sign or label her work. Edward van Altena, 71–79

(Lot XXXX-X).

West Fourth Street, New York, New York, labeled his workshop’s production. He


All photographs and illustrations are in the Library of Congress Catalog Prints & Photographs Division, unless otherwise noted. Reproduction numbers for use

[23] Native Plant Garden, August 1927. While photographing New England estates and art collections, experiencing “nearly three weeks of rain, mostly in deluge…,” FBJ stayed with Amy Richardson, a Washington friend with shared interests. She was a fellow D.A.R. member, Y.M.C.A. philanthropist and preservationist, a descendent of horticulturists, and sister of Johnston’s client, landscape architect John H. Small III. With precedent in 17th-century Native American gardens, picket-fence yards, wrote Frank A. Waugh, were appropriate for Cape Cod cottages. Richardson honored this history and planted her garden with regional plants. Letter from FBJ to Nellie B. Allen, August 24, 1927, LOCFBJ reel 10; Charles Moore, “In Memoriam, Mrs. Amy Elizabeth Richardson,” Records of the Columbia Historical Society 39 (1938): 101–03; Frank A. Waugh, “Picketed Gardens from Cape Cod,” House & Garden 56, no. 1 (July 1929): 87. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-16973)

plates 24–25 dudley leavitt pickman jr. house, beverly, massachusetts, little & browne, landscape architects, 1899–1900 [24] Fountain Basin, 1926. Attorney and descendent of an 18th century Salem, Massachusetts merchant family, Dudley L. Pickman Jr. was a Henry James Bostonian. In 1899 he hired his Commonwealth Avenue neighbor, architect Arthur Little, to renovate and enlarge his Beverly country house and garden in the Colonial Revival style. This lily pool was at the center of a sunken terrace. Little & Browne Archives, Account Book, Historic New England Library and Archives, Boston, Massachusetts. For a plan of this garden see “A Garden at Beverly, Massachusetts,” American Gardens, ed. Guy Lowell (Boston: Bates & Guild, 1902), n.p. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-16788) [25] View from House, 1926. Little & Browne aligned the brick-walled sunken terrace with Pickman’s white-shingled house. For lecture audiences this was the new American formal garden derived from English and colonial precedents. “Every condition of climate and growth make for opulence of bloom with richness of color in these gardens of the North Shore,” Johnston wrote. “Sheltered by dense woods … the flower masses reach a perfection seldom surpassed even in the garden spots of Bar Harbor and Long Island.” FBJ, “Captions. Town and Country. Garden of Mrs. Dudley Pickman, Beverly Cove, Massachusetts,” LOCFBJ reel 23. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-16790)

plate 26 holm lea, charles sprague sargent house, brookline, massachusetts, thomas lee and charles sprague sargent, landscape gardeners, 1845–1927 Crab Apple (Malus), circa 1914. Holm Lea was the 130-acre family estate of Charles Sprague Sargent, first director of the Arnold Arboretum, author of The Silva of North America (1891–1902), and early supporter of the garden club movement. The crab apple was symbolically a portrait of the noted dendrologist who prized the flowering genus. Sargent’s colleague and plant collector for the Arboretum, botanist Ernest Henry Wilson, wrote that the tree’s bloom “had the delicate odor of violets…” This slide established Johnston’s credentials as a photographer of America’s garden aristocracy. Stephane Barry Sutton, Charles Sargent Sprague and the Arnold Arboretum (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970); Ernest Henry Wilson, Aristocrats of the Garden, vol. 2 (Boston, The Stratford Company, 1932), 238. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-16685)

plates 27–33 weld, larz anderson house, brookline, massachusetts, charles adams platt, landscape architect, late 1899 or 1900–01; little & browne, temple architects, 1911 [27] Herms at Pathway from House Lawn, the Bowling Green, to Italian Garden, circa 1914. Platt influenced Johnston’s photographic composition and her lectures. His Italian Garden, also known as the Formal Garden, was already famous in 1914 as a model of integrated house and garden design. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-16730; for landscape plan, see 16455) [28–29] Italian Garden Stairway and Terrace, circa 1914. Larz Anderson, American ambassador to Japan (1912–13), and his wife landscaped their 60-acre estate with English, Italian, and Japanese gardens that reminded them of their travels and their guests of the Andersons’ culture and wealth. Platt’s design of this garden was inspired by Italian gardens he visited in the 1880s. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-16805 and 16294) [30–31] Italian Garden, View from Terrace to Cupid Fountain, View from Cupid Fountain to Terrace, circa 1914. This 200-foot square garden was aligned with the house, screened from view by pines and hemlocks above the terrace. Isabel Perkins Anderson inherited a clipper ship fortune and was an active garden club member. Supporting progressive causes, she hosted settlement house

notes to plates


Williamsburg, Virginia, 263 Willowbank, Joseph Coleman Bright House, Bryn Mawr, Plates 185–86, 318 [Plates 185–86] Willowmere, Rear Admiral Aaron Ward House, Roslyn Harbor, 43, Plates 51–52, 290 [Fig. 20], 300 [Plates 51–52], 328 Wilmington, Delaware, 263 Wilmington, North Carolina, Plate 235, 325 [Plate 235] Winterthur, 352n5 Wooldon Manor, Dr. Peter Brown Wyckoff House, Southampton, Plates 71–72, 303 [Plates 71–72], 328 Worker Houses and Gardens, Dayton, Ohio, 27, 290 [Figs. 16a–b] World’s Columbian Exposition (Chicago), 13-14, 15,1617, 30–31, 263, 289 [Fig. 5], 343n4 Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, 51, Plates 91–92, 306 [Plate 91], 307 [Plate 92] York House, Captain George Preston Blow House, Yorktown, Plates 230–31, 325 [Plates 230–31] Yorktown, Virginia. See York House Youngstown, Ohio, 329

camera equipment, 13, 35, 38, 51, 236, 298 [Plate 34], 340n45, 344n16, 345n24 Carnegie Survey of the Architecture of the South, 265, 326 [Plate 240], 340n46, 352n20 City Beautiful movement, 17, 19–20, 26, 30, 201–02, 265, 301 [Plate 59], 319 [Plate 188] civic reform/improvement, 17, 21, 25–26, 29, 201–02, 315 [Frontispiece] Colonial Revival, 22–23, 341n58 color books/articles about, 38 in California gardens, 149, 311 [Plate 124], 329 in flower gardens, 38–40, 51, 295 [Plate 10], 325 [Plate 231] in garden design, 297 [Plate 25], 304 [Plate 80], 347n60 and hand-tinted photos/slides, 39–40, 41 and Impressionist paintings, 42, 43 in Italian gardens, 321 [Plate 202] for new American garden, 43, 50 Country Life in America, 17, 18, 20, 21–22, 31–32, 34, 43, 290 [Fig. 20], 301 [Plate 57], 302 [Plate 62], 312 [Plate 135], 338n20, 338n21, 342n83, 344n10, 348n7

subjects exhibitions, 24, 28, 345n24 at Architectural Club of Los Angeles, 148–49 of Fredericksburg, Virginia, photos, 264 at garden clubs, 24, 264, 290 [Fig. 17], 293 [Fig. 34d], 316 [Plate 169], 317 [Plate 173], 319 [Plate 192], 353n8 of garden photography, 202–03, 236, 316 [Plate 166], of Johnston’s book collection, 332 at Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 237, 290 [Fig. 14], 343n85, 351n15 organized by Johnston, 16, 202–03 .See also gallery names; International Flower Show; specific organizations

Arts and Crafts, 341n54 gardens, 318 [Plate 185] houses, 307 [Plate 93], 309 [Plate 114], 310 [Plate 117], 310 [Plate 119], 318 [Plate 185] magazines, 315 [Plate 160] movement, 20, 25–26, 38, 341n54 pottery/tiles, 319 [Plate 192] autochromes, 295 [Plate 16], 340n45 abandoned by Johnston, 40, 339n39, 340n48 exhibition of, 340n40 manufacturing of, 339n36 pioneered by Lumière, 11, 21 projection of, 21, 339n39 used by garden photographers, 38, 347n60 used by Johnston, 11, 20, 21–22, 33, 41, 49, 289 [Fig. 9], 339n29, 339n36, 347n55, 351n15

films/movies, 37–39, 148, 346n40 flower preservation, 26 forest preservation, 13, 17, 313 [Plate 149]

Barbizon painting, 33 Beautiful Gardens in America (Shelton), 21–23, 37, 149, 295 [Plate 16], 303 [Plate 71], 306 [Plate 90] billboard regulation, 27, 29

Garden Beautiful movement, 9, 16, 24–26, 30–31, 50–51, 265, 332 garden clubs, 38, 50, 294 [Plate 3], 343n85 Anglo-Italian bias of, 237

association with Garden Club of America, 19–21 and Emerson transcendence, 37 and flower gardens, 295 [Plate 10] and gardening books, 332 lectures for, 25–26, 28, 30, 39, 301 [Plate 55], 303 [Plate 72], 314 [Plate 154], 323 [Frontispiece] models for, 300 [Plate 49] provides Johnston with clients, 22, 264 publications of, 341n57 study Old World gardens, 235 tours of, 326 [Plate 239] and urban gardening, 201–03 garden design developments in, 329 diagrams for, 35, 36, 291 [Fig. 24a] European influence on, 22, 235 as fine art, 20, 34–35, 306 [Plate 87] history of, 263 important aspects of, 37 Italian influence on, 237 and Johnston’s lantern slides, 50 Johnston’s photos of, 10 for “new” American Home, 28 oldest in America, 299 [Plate 43] as photographic subject, 31, 33 and “progression and sequence,” 37 in relation to the house, 28, 50, 237, 297 [Plate 27], 305 [Plate 82], 308 [Plate 102], 321 [Plate 200], 321 [Plate 203], 324 [Plate 224] and social improvement, 26 study of, 9, 36 garden literature, 332–36 garden photographers, 23-5 garden photography, 341n59 as “Arts and Crafts” profession, 23 composition of, 34, 36–37, 39, 41, 236, 296 [Plate 16], 319 [Plate 191], 323 [Plate 220], 344n20 dating of, 348n2 developments in, 31–33 diagrams for, 35, 36, 291 [Fig. 23a], 291 [Fig. 23c] documentary, 23, 51 emerging fi eld of, 34 embodies “beauty,” 45 and European/classical standards, 235 as fine art, 29, 31, 34, 43–44, 51, 148, 235–36, 289 [Fig. 11b] lack of training for, 33



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