Page 1

lectures, makes television appearances, and has written two books and several articles on North Shore architecture. She is a resident of Highland Park.

BENJAMIN

focus on historic preservation. Susan frequently

COHEN

SUSAN BENJAMIN owns a Chicago-area consulting

firm—Benjamin Historic Certifications—with a

STUART COHEN is a practicing architect and a Fellow

of architecture emeritus at the University of Illinois, Chicago. Stuart is the author of two books and numerous articles on architecture. His firm, Cohen and Hacker Architects, specializes in residential architecture and the restoration and renovation of historic houses. He is a resident of Evanston. Susan Benjamin and Stuart Cohen are the coauthors of North Shore Chicago: Houses of the Lakefront Suburbs, 1890–1940 (Acanthus Press, 2004).

URBAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE SERIES:

2 VOLUMES Sam Watters Great Houses of New York, 1880–1930 Michael C. Kathrens Chicago Apartments: A Century of Lakefront Luxury Neil Harris The New York Apartment Houses of Rosario Candela and James Carpenter Andrew Alpern

FORTHCOMING: New York Apartments, 1884–2008 2 VOLUMES

CHICAGO 1871–1921

GREAT HOUSES of

CHICAGO 1871–1921

SUSAN BENJAMIN AND STUART COHEN Foreword by Franz Schulze and Arthur H. Miller

D

ark, raw power built Chicago into an authentic American city. Beginning in the 1870s,

farmers, hog swains, and gamblers—Europeans, New Englanders, southerners, and nearby midwesterners—migrated to the shores of Lake Michigan. From a world of shanty towns and smokestacked factories, a handful of men ruthlessly built vast commercial and industrial enterprises that changed the way Americans shop, eat, and think. Adventurous, civic-minded, and newly rich, Chicago’s

grandees

boldly

hired

the

most

progressive architects and savviest art and antiques dealers to design and furnish private houses that

CHICAGO 1871–1921

Houses of Los Angeles, 1885–1935

of

of

OTHER TITLES FROM THE ACANTHUS PRESS

GREAT HOUSES

of the American Institute of Architects. He is professor

G R E AT H O U S E S

URBAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE SERIES

ultimately defined the city as a center of American capitalism, culture, and architecture. Along Prairie Avenue, majestic Lake Shore Drive, and Astor Street, the Armours, McCormicks, Pullmans, and Ryersons immortalized their place among Chicago’s elite with lavish palaces. They were designed by the great architects of the era, including Daniel Burnham, Frank Lloyd Wright, Howard Van Doren Shaw, and David Adler, in styles that ranged from Classical and Romanesque to Prairie School and International Modern. Great Houses of Chicago, 1871–1921, is the first authoritative study of Chicago’s city houses. Thirty-four in-depth profiles, illustrated with

Lisa Easton and Kate Lemos

restored archival photographs, drawings, and floor plans, portray a private world of midwestern splendor. This masterful volume includes biographical sketches of leading Chicago architects, a comprehen-

SUSAN BENJAMIN AND STUART COHEN

sive bibliography, and a portfolio of 40 additional, rarely-seen residences.

www.acanthuspress.com Printed in China

ACANTHUS PRESS

Front cover: Joseph T. Ryerson Jr. house Back cover: Francis J. Dewes house


PASTE DOWN PAGE 1

FRONT ENDSHEET 1-2


PASTE DOWN PAGE 1

FRONT ENDSHEET 1-2


URBAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE S E R I E S

G R E AT H O U S E S O F

CHIC AG O 1871–1921

Susan Benjamin and Stuart Cohen Foreword by Franz Schulze and Arthur H. Miller

ACANT HUS P RE S S N E W Y O R K : 2008


Acanthus Press, LLC 54 West 21st Street New York, New York 10010 www.acanthuspress.com

Copyright Š 2008, Susan Benjamin and Stuart Cohen Every reasonable attempt has been made to identify the owners of copyright. Errors of omission will be corrected in subsequent printings of this work. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in any part (except by reviewers for the public press) without written permission from the publisher.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Benjamin, Susan S. Great houses of Chicago, 1871-1921 / by Susan Benjamin and Stuart Cohen; foreword by Franz Schulze and Arthur H. Miller. p. cm. -- (Urban domestic architecture series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-926494-39-2 (alk. paper) 1. Dwellings--Illinois--Chicago. 2. Mansions--Illinois--Chicago. 3. Historic buildings--Illinois--Chicago. 4. Architecture, Domestic--Illinois--Chicago. 5. Chicago (Ill.)--Buildings, structures, etc. 6. Rich people--Homes and haunts--Illinois--Chicago. 7. Rich people--Illinois--Chicago--Biography. 8. Upper class--Illinois--Chicago--History. 9. Chicago (Ill.)--Biography. 10. Architects--Illinois--Chicago--Biography. I. Cohen, Stuart Earl, 1942- II. Title. F548.7.B46 2008 728.809773'1109034--dc22 2007026889

FRONTISPIECE: Main stair, Joseph T. Ryerson Jr. house, 1921. David Adler, architect.

Book design by Maggie Hinders Printed in China


CONTENTS Foreword • 9 Acknowledgments • 11 Great Houses: The Chicago Story • 15 Great Houses: Style and Theory • 28 “ULMENHEIM,” ELIPHALET WICKES BLATCHFORD, 375 LaSalle Street • 36 MARSHALL FIELD, 1905 South Prairie Avenue • 44 CYRUS HALL MCCORMICK, 675 Rush Street • 50 GEORGE M. PULLMAN, 1729 South Prairie Avenue • 60 EDWARD UIHLEIN, 2041 West Pierce Avenue • 70 CYRUS MCCORMICK JR., 50 East Huron Street • 76 JOSEPH SEARS, 1815 Prairie Avenue • 82 JOHN WESLEY DOANE, 1827 Prairie Avenue • 88 SAMUEL M. NICKERSON, 40 East Erie Street • 94 EDITH ROCKEFELLER MCCORMICK, 1000 Lake Shore Drive • 102 SAMUEL EBERLY GROSS, 1204 Lake Shore Drive • 110 POTTER PALMER, 1350 Lake Shore Drive • 116 CHICAGO ARCHBISHOP’S RESIDENCE, 1550 North State Parkway • 1 28 JOHN JACOB GLESSNER, 1800 South Prairie Avenue • 136 EDWARD E. AYER, 2 East Banks Street • 148 FRANKLIN MACVEAGH, 103 North Lake Shore Drive • 152


MRS. JOHN C. (LYDIA) COONLEY, 1150 Lake Shore Drive • 162 JAMES CHARNLEY, 1365 North Astor Street • 166 WILLIAM W. KIMBALL HOUSE, 1801 Prairie Avenue • 174 BRYAN LATHROP, 120 East Bellevue Place • 178 ROBERT WILSON PATTERSON, 1500 North Astor Street • 186 FRANCIS J. DEWES, 503 Wrightwood Avenue • 192 CHAUNCEY JUSTUS BLAIR, 4830 Drexel Boulevard • 200 DR. GEORGE ISHAM, 1340 North State Parkway • 204 ALBERT F. MADLENER, 4 West Burton Place • 212 FREDERIC CLAY BARTLETT, 2901 Prairie Avenue • 218 JULIUS ROSENWALD, 4901 Ellis Avenue • 226 ERNEST J. MAGERSTADT, 4930 South Greenwood Avenue • 234 FREDERICK C. ROBIE, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue • 240 WILLIAM O. GOODMAN, 1355 North Astor Street • 250 EDWARD MORRIS, 4800 South Drexel Boulevard • 258 MRS. ARTHUR RYERSON, ABRAM POOLE, HENRY DANGLER, AND AMBROSE CRAMER, 2700-10 North Lakeview Avenue • 266 FREDERICK AND ELEANOR COUNTISS, 1524 Lake Shore Drive • 274 JOSEPH T. RYERSON JR., 1406 Astor Street • 282 Portfolio • 292 Designated Landmarks • 299 Architects’ Biographies • 301 Bibliography • 319 Illustration Credits • 324 Index • 326


FOREWORD S U S A N B E N J A M I N A N D S T U A R T C O H E N have done a tremendous service in gathering together for the first time a substantial body of images about Chicago houses from the 1870s to the 1920s. Some of this rich heritage has been hinted at in books such as David Lowe’s Lost Chicago and Chicago Interiors, in books on single houses such as the Nickerson mansion or Wright’s Robie house, or in guides like Jean Block’s Hyde Park Houses (1978) or the excellent AIA Guide to Chicago, now in its second edition (2002). Long ago in the 1940s, John Drury performed pioneer work in his Old Chicago Houses, though he mostly discussed the history of the builders and inhabitants. Books on architects, as well, have been helpful for those interested in Chicago houses— including Richard Pratt’s 1970 book on David Adler (now a great collector’s item); Sarah B. Landau’s 1981 book on Peter B. Wight; Robert Bruegmann’s 1991 three-volume catalog and 1997 book, both about Holabird & Roche, Virginia Greene’s 1998 book on Howard Van Doren Shaw; and the many treatments of Wright’s Chicago work. But never before have so many stunning photographs of great and significant Chicago houses been made available together and in juxtaposition with one another, with useful historic and biographical context and frequently also with helpful close readings of the architecture and design. Here are almost three dozen of the best places—some treasured and preserved, some stable, and some lost—all remembered as they were when they were built and during the period covered in this study. Surely it is one thing to see the Charnley and Robie houses discussed in the context of Sullivan’s and Wright’s bodies of work or Adler’s Ryerson townhouses on Astor Street and Lakeview in the context of that master’s contrasting stunning body of work. But to see these together in one volume along with so many of the other houses of the period, which were their peers, is illuminating indeed. The reader can join the authors in tracking the shifts in taste and style cycles from avant-garde to passé. The authors follow several lines of dramatic tension, from the aping of European taste to attempts to define new national and regional styles and from the sturdy, dark, cluttered Europeaninspired interiors of the 1880s to the bright, delicate new-style rooms by the 1910s and 1920s. Certainly the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893, held here in Chicago, which had a profound influence in classicizing taste in this country for the next 50 years, can be seen influencing Chicago design traditions for commercial, public, and also domestic building. The untimely 1891 death of John Root, a champion of the organic Richardsonian vision described in the introduction, also impacted this dynamic design environment.

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

Here, though, the authors show the gradual shifting of taste and style from continental to a naturalizing Romanesque and then into separate branches for Colonial Revival/Greek and Roman classic, for English traditional historicism, and also for regional, Asian-influenced Prairie School. These shifts reveal themselves in the eclecticism of late-19th century and early-20th century works like the 1902 Madlener house of Schmidt and Garden, which blends Sullivan and Wright–derived ornament for stairs and stonework with some more historically-based art glass design. This rich dynamic reflected sometimes the nationalities of newer European immigrants or members of still-identifiable ethnic subcommunities. One example is found in the various Germanic tones of the Dewes and Madlener residences. The many wonderful plans displayed, as well, show these shifts in approach and taste, sometimes quite gradually, as in the 1903 modish Prairie style Rosenwald mansion with its quite traditional, even Belle Epoque, symmetrical plan, distinctly designated spaces, and even third-floor ballroom. The jump about a mile to the 1909 Robie house, in plan as well as style, then, is all the more affecting. Did Chicago have a distinctive style or type of townhouse, as did Boston, New York, or Washington? Or as did London, Paris, or Italian cities like Rome, Florence, and Venice? Yes, but only in part: the innovative regional style of Sullivan, Wright, and Garden stood out only in a few quarters, such as Hyde Park and nearby suburbs Oak Park and River Forest. The region’s geographic character prevailed upon style less than did the elite’s sense of ancestral European heritage. This could be recent, as with brewers like Edward Uihlein. Or it could be more abstractly recalled in a genealogical past, as with the Anglo-Saxon and sometimes New England–descended native-born individuals who sought out, for example, the trappings of Tudor new-money feudal respectability. One such Chicagoan was meatpacker Edward Morris. But Chicago’s variously styled neighborhoods like Astor Street, North Rush Street, Prairie Avenue, and even Hyde Park/Kenwood reflected an uninhibited, distinctively American approach in that age, mostly before the income tax was restored in 1913. This was derived from an instant connection with the westward course of empire, embodied in the 1893 World’s Fair, which brought Chicago recognition as a world city—following in turn the golden ages of Athens, Rome, Paris, London, Boston, and New York. In no place in the East had so much happened so quickly, with no intervening architectural stages of adolescence or callow youth. Chicago sprang onto the world stage when American architects and their clients were first experiencing Europe directly with new Pullman high-speed, overnight trains to the East Coast and regularly scheduled steamer service across the Atlantic. Perhaps in no place else in America did this shock of cultural recognition have such a profound and lasting effect as it did in Chicago from the 1870s to the 1920s. And perhaps in no other place did it lead to so many fruitful new architectural and design directions, in the city and in the North Shore suburbs already chronicled by the authors. Stuart Cohen and Susan Benjamin again are the reader’s guides here to that remarkable cultural flowering, this time in the city of Chicago proper. Franz Schulze Arthur H. Miller

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LAKE SHORE DRIVE LOOKING NORTH, 1926

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GREAT HOUSES: THE CHICAGO STORY

P

o e t r y p o r t r a y s C h i c a g o far better than does prose. The city’s most famous bard, Carl Sandburg, characterized late 19th-century Chicago more authentically and eloquently than any historian: Hog Butcher for the World Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat Player with Railroads and the Nation’s Freight Handler; Stormy, husky, brawling City of the Big Shoulders “C H I C A G O ,” C A R L S A N D B U R G , 1916

Chicago’s great houses were built by entrepreneurs who gave the growing metropolis its worldwide reputation as the City of the Big Shoulders. It was a place where Europeans, New Englanders, New Yorkers, southerners, and nearby midwesterners migrated to make their way—more specifically, to make their fortunes. From meager beginnings, men created enormously successful businesses: Philip D. Armour and Gustavus Swift in meatpacking; Cyrus McCormick and John J. Glessner in farm implements; Montgomery Ward, Richard Sears, and Julius Rosenwald in the mail-order business; George Pullman in railroading; Marshall Field in dry goods; and Potter Palmer as a retailer, hotelier, and real-estate developer. The houses they built became the physical embodiment of their accomplishments. Chicago was a compelling destination. Because of its strategic location, the pioneers who settled on the swampy land at the edge of America’s central inland sea envisioned a place of unlimited potential. Even its name was auspicious. Legends abound relating to its derivation, but Chicago is generally thought to derive from a Native American word meaning “wild onion,” which some writers believe correlates with the city’s strength. From a frontier settlement incorporated as a town in 1833 with a population of 350 residents in an area only three-eighths of a mile square, Chicago grew by 1860 into a city with a population of 109,263. And the phenomenal growth continued, fulfilling the potential of the city’s location, in the middle of the country at the confluence of Lake Michigan and the Chicago River and surrounded by the world’s most productive agricultural land. Chicago became not only the

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

HENRY B. “WIDOW” CLARKE HOUSE, 1836

largest grain and lumber market in the United States, but also the country’s transportation hub. Freight cars and steamboats carried raw goods into the city and delivered finished products to points throughout the United States. The vitality of Chicago and the enterprising spirit of its successful residents were captured in a book on Chicago written in 1917 by H. C. ChatfieldTaylor. He grew up on the west side of Chicago, the son of an agricultural-machinery manufacturer who had amassed a huge fortune through hard work and astute real-estate investments. Chatfield-Taylor characterized Chicago as “a city without idlers.” He described his town as “one huge kettle of energy

seething the whole day long, no healthy man or woman being able to exist without work of some kind or other to do.” He saw Chicago as “the stupendous product of the pioneer spirit.” Chicago’s pioneer entrepreneurs and their children hired prestigious architects to design new houses, or they bought and remodeled existing ones. As their wealth increased, families moved to more fashionable neighborhoods. Novelist Arthur Meeker Jr., who grew up on posh Prairie Avenue in a house that his family remodeled and then lived in for 11 years, recalled that Chicagoans moved perpetually. When people outgrew their quarters, he said, they restlessly

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

MANSION REPLACED BY MIES VAN DER ROHE–DESIGNED APARTMENTS (1963), CORNER OF FULLERTON AND LAKEVIEW

Armour, Philip D. Armour, and John Cudahy lived there. Other well-known residents included brewer Conrad Seipp, department-store executive Emanuel Mandel, and stock speculator John “Bet a Million” Gates. The time was “the Elegant Eighties.” Social life was highly regimented, and the parties and travels of the wealthy were regularly reported in endless detail in the Chicago papers. Among the rich, a woman’s life initially involved being her husband’s companion, directing the family’s social life, and managing staff, but as time went on, many women pursued their own activities vigorously, serving on boards and engaging in philan-

thropy. Chicago women formed literary societies, aided in the settlement movement, and donated time to promote the city’s culture and welfare. For example, Chicago’s undisputed society queen, Bertha Palmer, was also the chairperson of the Board of Lady Managers for the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition. As early as the late 1880s, the south side began to lose its attraction. For years, residents of Prairie Avenue tolerated the dirt and noise of the railroad that ran just east of the street on a trestle over Lake Michigan. In 1861, the Illinois Central ran 16 trains on the route; during the 1880s, the railroad ran 60. Coal soot-blackened houses and train noise

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

of form, it was totally unlike its historically inspired neighbors. These houses of the teens and twenties were the exceptions, and the completion of the Russell House marked the end of an era. Houses were torn down and replaced by apartment buildings at every opportunity. As cars became more prevalent and rail transportation to outlying Chicago suburbs became easier, many of Chicago’s leading families moved into luxury apartments for the winter social season and spent summers in their country houses on the North Shore. Some spent parts of the winter in Montecito or Palm Beach. After 1905, when architect Benjamin Marshall designed the Georgian Revival Marshall Apartments—Lake Shore Drive’s first apartment building—the Gold Coast took on a new appearance. During the 1910s and 1920s, many of the stately mansions facing Lake Michigan were demolished and replaced by luxury multifamily buildings with apartment interiors that rivaled the grand spaces of Lake Forest mansions. This trend continued on Lake Shore Drive through the 1960s, although the modern high-rises that replaced them were expensive but architecturally mundane. The Marshall has been replaced by a larger building. Only eight houses now remain on Lake Shore Drive. These include elegant city residences designed by McKim, Mead & White and Benjamin Marshall. The smaller townhouses along Astor Street and State and Dearborn parkways are now punctuated by high-rises, but many of these houses are being lovingly restored. What remains today of Chicago’s other great houses? Many of those in areas such as Hyde Park, Kenwood, and the Gold Coast still stand; these dense neighborhoods of elegant residences are highly prized and have been designated historic districts. The mansions in areas such as the west side and McCormickville have all but disap-

EDWARD P. RUSSELL RESIDENCE, 1928–29

peared. Cyrus McCormick’s mansion is long gone. A section of Leander McCormick’s house peeks from behind a restaurant. A shop building containing a store occupies the site of the houses Charles and John V. Farwell built facing Chicago’s Water Tower.

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INTRODUCTION

POTTER PALMER MANSION, WITH APARTMENT BUILDING TO THE NORTH ON LAKE SHORE DRIVE

Chicago is a dynamic city. Hard-working businessmen built its great houses. Entrepreneurial developers have guided—and not always for the best—Chicago’s transformation from a city of single-family residences to one that also embraces

apartment living. Today, considerable effort focuses on preserving Chicago’s residential masterpieces. It is a battle fought with the same aggressive spirit that has guided the city’s growth since 1871. —Susan Benjamin

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GREAT HOUSES: STYLE AND THEORY

F

a s h i o n a n d s o c i a l p o s i t i o n were factors that shaped the houses of prominent Chicagoans. It is easy to argue that design and style often said more about homeowners’ wealth, taste, and status than did the size of their houses. But Chicagoans did not build houses of the scale and opulence of their New York counterparts, even though the fortunes amassed by Chicago’s meatpackers, brewers, dry-goods merchants, steel moguls, and inventors would have allowed them to. Perhaps at the end of the 19th century Chicago was still perceived to some extent as the frontier, a place where people went to make their fortunes rather than display their wealth. If Chicago was perceived as a great American city after the attention drawn to it by the 1893 World’s Fair, New York was perceived by its residents as a great world city. When Chicagoans chose to display wealth, they competed with one another rather than with New Yorkers, although New York architects such as Richard Morris Hunt; McKim, Mead & White; and Charles Platt received commissions to build houses in Chicago for Marshall Field and William Borden, Bryan Lathrop, Robert Patterson, Edward T. Blair, and Arthur Meeker Sr. Wealthy New York families measured their houses against the châteaux and villas of Europe and the large, opulent city houses of London and Paris. Although wealthy Chicagoans also traveled to Europe, for most, their experiences didn’t translate into a desire to build houses on a larger scale.

Chicago houses did reflect the growing ease of travel. The East Coast could be reached by an overnight train ride, and the time required for a transatlantic crossing kept diminishing as new, faster, and bigger ocean liners came into service. Exposed to other cultures, wealthy Chicagoans began collecting art, decorative arts, books, and even looking to America’s West for Native American artifacts. These diverse collections, including paintings, sculpture, armor, weapons, fossils, mummies, gemstones, and meteorites, formed the initial holdings of institutions such as the Art Institute, the Field Museum, and the Newberry Library. They also required houses with rooms designed to display them. Sometimes these spaces took on specific themes: French rooms, Tudor rooms, and more exotically decorated Moorish, Egyptian, Pompeian, or Chinese rooms. Today, images of these spaces are hard for us to look at, as they suggest overdecorated stage sets, lacking the continuity and consistency of architectural style and detail to which we are accustomed. Yet architects responded to their clients’ desire to display acquisitions as well as wealth, helping fuel the eclecticism of the time and the fashion for floor plans composed of distinctly different rooms, each decorated to reflect a different theme based on its use, furnishings, or displayed artwork. Chicago differed from New York not only in the size and opulence of houses built but in architectural tastes. Late 19th- and early 20th-century

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”ROMANESQUE” LAKE SHORE DRIVE LOOKING NORTH FROM SCHILLER STREET SHOWING MACVEAGH, BARRETT, AND OGDEN AND BARBARA ARMOUR HOUSES

Chicago architecture is renowned for the development of the skyscraper and, in residential architecture, of the Prairie School. The former put forward the expression of frame construction as a new aesthetic and the latter, the development of new ideas about interior space and its visual connection to the outside. Both became cornerstones for the development of 20th-century modern architecture. Yet these two progressive approaches seem to have little to do with the history of the great city houses built in Chicago between the 1870s and the 1920s, as these were designed in traditional architectural styles based on historical forms and details. If the

progressive mindset of architects in Chicago and their clients’ foresight created the milieu that produced important architectural inventions, how does this relate to the historically eclectic houses that were being built? This presumed disconnect would explain why many extraordinary houses have been neglected by 20th-century historians. It has been argued that the “Chicago frame” was an economic and pragmatic invention, not an intellectual breakthrough, as described by European architectural historians. It has also been suggested that the spatial ideas of the Prairie School were an extension of Arts and Crafts architecture awaiting only the

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INTRODUCTION

relation to its function. These theoretical ideas, expressed in Chicago by Root and Sullivan, were intellectually linked to the Romanesque Revival. This relationship explains both its popularity and its persistence in Chicago residential design as an expression of Americanness and progressive thought. In light of this, and the buildings he con-

tinued to design, perhaps Louis Sullivan’s famous comment about the impact of the 1893 World’s Fair really referred to the further development of American Romanesque, not the Chicago School or the Prairie School of architecture as 20th century historians assumed. —Stuart Cohen

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MARSHALL FIELD HOUSE 1 9 0 5 S O U T H P R A I R I E AV E N U E R I C H A R D M O R R I S H U N T, 1875

VIEW FROM PRAIRIE AVENUE

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

MAIN HALL LOOKING TOWARD STAIRCASE

limestone trim and was topped by a steep slate mansard roof. Its floor plan, with a central hallway flanked by symmetrical rooms that had their centers on axis, clearly came from Hunt’s Ecole des Beaux-Arts training. He ingeniously oriented the house to the south, connecting the diagonallyoriented dining room and library with a semicircular conservatory. During this period, incorporating a conservatory within the plan of the house became prevalent in grand dwellings. The spartan exterior of the Field house gave no hint of its lavish interior, which was designed by L. Marcotte, of New York and Paris, a firm that also did the Cyrus McCormick house and

many Vanderbilt interiors. The Field residence’s reputed $2 million cost was reflected in its etched-glass front doors, curving walnut staircase, ornate carved woodwork, marble trim, and elaborate sterling-silver doorknobs and key plates. Moneyed Chicagoans, including the Fields, regularly entertained in lavish style, but no event rivaled the Fields’ January 1886 Mikado Ball, one of the grandest social occasions in Chicago history. The ball honored 17-year-old Marshall II and 14-year-old Ethel, the two Field children. More than 500 guests of all ages were invited. Gilbert and Sullivan’s operetta The Mikado, at the time the most popular stage success in

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MARSHALL FIELD HOUSE

FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS

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GEORGE M. PULLMAN HOUSE 1 7 2 9 S O U T H P R A I R I E AV E N U E H E N RY S. J A F F R AY ; S O L O N S. B E M A N 1876, 1891, 1896

VIEW FROM PRAIRIE AVENUE

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

CONSERVATORY AND STABLE

by metal cresting. One entered either under an arched porte cochere or a stately raised porch flanked by classical columns. Its glass greenhouse was a large, elegantly designed structure featuring four full-height concave arches. Arthur Miller, Archivist and Librarian for Special Collections at Lake Forest College, has pointed out the importance of gardens and greenhouses to late 19th-century dining and decorating. Joan Morgan and Allison Richardson noted that in cuisine there was a shift from plain cooking to a new French standard focusing on quality ingredients

and beautiful presentation. The ingredients were often grown in family greenhouses. In interior design, the impact of France can be seen in the revival of the lighter palette, gilding and rococo detailing, popular in 18th-century France. This approach was prescribed by A. H. Davenport for the drawing room in Beman’s 1891 addition. Exotic plants grown in the conservatory were placed throughout the house. George Pullman started with little money or, it seemed, opportunity. Born in 1830 in a small town outside Buffalo, New York, he left school at

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GEORGE M. PULLMAN HOUSE

GREENHOUSE

age 14 to work as a cabinetmaker in his brother’s shop. His father, James Lewis Pullman, had invented a machine for transporting buildings on wheels. When he died, George concentrated on the building-moving business to support his mother and several unmarried siblings. In 1857, when business got slow, he visited Chicago in search of more work. His timing was excellent. Pullman arrived just when the marshy city was undertaking a project to raise Chicago’s business district by eight feet to accommodate a new sewer system. Pullman secured a contract to raise two

of the city’s best-known hotels and achieved a fine reputation raising multistory stone and brick masonry buildings. Pullman’s second success, and the one for which he is universally known, is the development of the Pullman railroad car. Having acquired money from his previous venture, Pullman and his friend New York State Senator Benjamin Field established a luxury-sleeping-car business in 1858. Before Pullman, sleeping coaches were uncomfortable and the food available consisted of stale coffee, bad doughnuts, and hardtack beef.

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JOSEPH SEARS HOUSE 1 815 P R A I R I E A V E N U E D A N I E L H. B U R N H A M , 1881–82 A R T H U R H E U N ( R E M O D E L I N G ),

IN

1902,

FOR

VIEW FROM PRAIRIE AVENUE

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ARTHUR MEEKER SR.


HOUSE AS REMODELED FOR ARTHUR MEEKER SR.

T

h e h o u s e at 1815 Prairie Avenue was built in 1881 for Joseph Sears, who became important in the history of Chicago as the developer of the suburb of Kenilworth. For his Prairie Avenue architect, Sears chose the young and not yet famous Daniel Hudson Burnham. The threestory house was faced with yellow Lemont limestone and had a slate mansard roof. On the north, a driveway led to stables behind the house. To the south, Sears had a log cabin built as a playhouse for his children. Sears and his father, John, founded the Chicago branch of the Swedenborgian Church, the Church of the New Jerusalem. The Chicago members formed a closely knit social group, and it was through the church that Sears and Burnham became friends. Joseph Sears was born in Lockport, Illinois, in 1843. His family was said to have descended

from the Pilgrims who landed on Plymouth Rock. In 1848 his parents moved to Chicago and Joseph’s father entered the wholesale drug business. His father’s company, Ball & Sears, expanded into manufacturing oil, lard, and candles and was bought by Fairbank, Peck & Company, who made soap from lard supplied by the city’s meatpacking industry. Joseph Sears attended the Dearborn School, the first permanent public school built in Chicago, and later Bell’s Commercial College. At 21, he entered the army and he served during the Civil War. Afterwards, Sears married Helen Stedman Berry of Chicago and went to work for N. K. Fairbank & Company, renamed after it was purchased by the American Cotton Oil Company. Under Joseph Sears, N. K. Fairbank & Company developed Cottolene, a cottonseed-oil substitute for cooking lard. It was a great success. The company

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EDITH ROCKEFELLER M C CORMICK HOUSE 1 000

LAKE SHORE DRIVE

S O L O N S. B E M A N , 1883

BELLEVUE PLACE FACADE

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

BELLEVUE PLACE GATE

afterward, the McCormicks moved to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where Harold was sent to manage the western branch of his family company. After two years, they moved to Chicago and settled into a 41room mansion at the corner of Bellevue and Lake Shore Drive, where they lived with 17 servants. The McCormicks’ newly acquired house, designed by architect Solon S. Beman, was reputed to have been a gift from Edith’s millionaire father, a story she denied. The house was built in the 1880s by Nathaniel S. Jones, a successful grain merchant, and then owned by another early wealthy Chicagoan, Joseph T. Torrence, who had started a system of belt-line railroads to handle freight.

In 1898, the McCormicks moved into their house on Lake Shore Drive, and Mrs. McCormick set about furnishing the house with great pieces such as a Louis XV dressing table and chairs, a gilt dinner service presented by Napoléon to his sister Pauline Borghese, and a Persian rug said to have been owned by Peter the Great. The wellknown Chicago interior decorator Cornelia Conger commented that the house “reeked formality” and that her client never really had a flair for putting pieces together. The fine things were used for state occasions, as when Mrs. McCormick hosted the Princess of Sweden or the Queen of Romania.

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EDITH ROCKEFELLER MCCORMICK HOUSE

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

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POTTER PALMER MANSION 1 350 L A K E S H O R E D R I V E C O B B & F R O S T, 1884

VIEW FROM CORNER OF LAKE SHORE DRIVE AND SCHILLER STREET

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

MAIN HALL

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

BERTHA PALMER

make way for 10- to 12-story luxury apartment buildings. In 1928, Potter Palmer Jr. sold the mansion to Vincent Bendix, head of the Bendix Aviation Corporation, for $3 million, and then

Palmer Jr. bought it back from Bendix in 1933. The mansion stood vacant for years but survived until 1950, when it was taken down to make way for a high-rise apartment building.

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CHICAGO ARCHBISHOP’S RESIDENCE 1 5 5 0 N O R T H S TAT E P A R K WAY W I L L E T T & P A S H L E Y, 1885

NORTH AND WEST FACADES

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DESIGN OF GROUNDS

T

h i s s t a t e ly Queen Anne house, located just south of Lincoln Park on Chicago’s Gold Coast, has served as the residence of the Archbishop of Chicago since its completion in 1885. Unlike all other 19th-century Chicago houses, it has seen few architectural modifications and no change in use or ownership. There is arguably no residence in the city that has an older, richer, and more significant story to tell. It provides a unique lens through which to view Chicago’s history. Chicago’s association with Catholicism dates back to 1673, approximately 160 years before Chicago was incorporated as a town. In that year, Father Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit missionary, and the French Canadian explorer Louis Joliet arrived at the intersection of the Des Plaines and Chicago rivers in search of a link to the Mississippi River. They were the first

Europeans to arrive at the marshy southern shore of Lake Michigan. Prominent citizens petitioned for the first church and resident pastor in 1833. Recognizing Chicago’s potential as a growing population center, the Fifth Provincial Council of Baltimore recommended to the Holy See the establishment of the Diocese of Chicago in 1843. In 1844, William J. Quarter, an Irish-born priest, was sent to Chicago to serve as its first bishop. In building his fledgling diocese, one of his first property purchases consisted of 17 acres on the edge of the lake, north of the Chicago River, and cost $853. Upon Bishop Quarter’s death, his brother, Father Walter Quarter, who served as administrator for the diocese, sold the land for $100 to the Mercy Sisters, who intended to open schools. Nevertheless, nothing was ever built on the property. The diocese regained ownership of the land when Bishop

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

WESTERN ELEVATION

NORTHERN ELEVATION

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CHICAGO ARCHBISHOP’S RESIDENCE

FIRST FLOOR PLAN

in 1979. The present archbishop, Francis Cardinal George, is the city’s only archbishop who was born in Chicago. The architecture of the residence is as significant as its history. Built of red brick with limestone trim, it has a picturesque silhouette, embellished with wrought ironwork and 19 highly ornamented chimneys; it is a visual delight. Noted preservation architect Walker Johnson has called it the finest

example of Queen Anne architecture in Chicago. Inside, there is a great hall, parlors separated by pocket doors, and simple but elegant details including a graceful staircase, wood-paneled ceilings, and quarter-sawn oak floors. Stylistically, the carved and turned woodwork is distinctly Eastlake Victorian. The city’s official Archbishop’s Residence has a grand presence but the feeling of a comfortable home.

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FRANKLIN M AC VEAGH HOUSE 103 NORTH LAKE SHORE DRIVE H. H. R I C H A R D S O N , 1886–87

FRONT ENTRANCE

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CORNER OF SCHILLER STREET AND LAKE SHORE DRIVE

A

rchitect H. H. Richardson’s house for Franklin and Emily MacVeagh was one of four buildings he designed in Chicago. However, Richardson was not the MacVeaghs’ original architect. They began with John Wellborn Root, who designed a house for property they owned on North Michigan Avenue (then Pine Street) at Erie Street. Dissatisfied with Root’s proposal, they hired New York architect William A. Potter to prepare plans. Still unhappy, MacVeagh, along with John J. Glessner, who was also planning to build, decided to approach H. H. Richardson on one of his visits to Chicago to confer with his commercial client Marshall Field. Richardson took the com-

mission in 1885 and began making plans for the MacVeaghs’ Michigan Avenue property. MacVeagh cabled Richardson to stop work when he purchased a new site from Potter Palmer just north of where Palmer was building his own residence. They began again, making new plans for a house facing the lake. Although MacVeagh signed all the correspondence with Richardson regarding the structure’s design, his wife, Emily MacVeagh, was the driving force behind the project. She taught herself to draw floor plans, which she sketched out on graph paper to better communicate her wishes. Franklin MacVeagh acted as the general contractor during construction, and the

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FRANKLIN MACVEAGH HOUSE

DINING ROOM

Commercial National Bank of Chicago. In 1909, President William Howard Taft nominated him as the 45th Secretary of the Treasury, a post MacVeagh held from 1909 to 1913. Although he didn’t address currency reform, he did streamline the Treasury Department, eliminating more than 400 jobs. He also modernized the customs services by introducing the use of automatic electric weighing devices and allowing certified checks instead of currency in payment of custom duties. MacVeagh also oversaw the design of the buffalo

nickel. At the end of Taft’s term, MacVeagh returned to Chicago and his highly successful grocery business. Emily MacVeagh was also active in civic affairs as the founder of the Municipal Art League in Chicago, a member of the Art Institute of Chicago, and a patron of Poetry Magazine. The house Richardson designed was less than adequate for lavish entertaining, and, in 1892, the MacVeaghs hired Shepley, Rutan, & Coolidge to create a room on the unfinished third floor

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JAMES CHARNLEY HOUSE 1365 NORTH ASTOR STREET A D L E R & S U L L I VA N , 1891–92

ASTOR STREET AND SCHILLER STREET FACADES

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JAMES CHARNLEY HOUSE

ENTRY VESTIBULE

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FRANCIS J. DEWES HOUSE 5 0 3 W R I G H T W O O D AV E N U E C U D E L L & H E R C Z , 1896

ENTRANCE DETAIL

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PERSPECTIVE RENDERING BY ADOLPH CUDELL

T

h e F r a n c i s J . D e w e s h o u s e , built between 1894 and 1896, is unlike any other in Chicago. It is a confection of German Baroque and French architecture with rococo and Gothic details, combined to convey impressive opulence and the owner’s financial success. An enormously successful brewer, Dewes typified the ambitious self-made man. He was born at Losheim, Prussia in 1845, and grew up in a comfortable and respected German family. His father, a small tobacco manufacturer and brewer, was in 1848 a member of Germany’s first parliament. After attending school in Cologne and learning the brewing trade from his father, Dewes spent a year in the army and, at age 23, moved to Chicago, no doubt drawn to the city by his enormous ambition and the city’s economic potential. Between 1868 and 1870, he served as a bookkeeper in a Chicago brewing firm. He saved his money and acquired stock in a second brewing company, Busch &

Brand, and became its secretary and treasurer. In 1876 he married Hedwig Busch. After selling his interests in 1882, he accumulated enough money to start his own business, the F. J. Dewes Brewing Company, which he later sold to establish the Standard Brewing Company. Dewes’ financial triumph allowed him to purchase a large 45-by-70-foot corner lot on Wrightwood Avenue near Lincoln Park, a few miles north of the Gold Coast and near where another successful brewer, Joseph Theurer, was building his residence. He selected the firm of Cudell & Hercz to design two houses, one for his family and a smaller but similar house just to the west for his younger brother, August. By 1896, when he reached the age of 51, Dewes had acquired the wealth and position to commission a house comparable to city palaces in Europe, where members of the eastern European upper class led a visibly cosmopolitan way of life.

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FRANCIS J. DEWES HOUSE

ENTRY HALL LOOKING TOWARD STAIRCASE AND FOUNTAIN

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FREDERICK AND ELEANOR COUNTISS HOUSE 1 524 L A K E S H O R E D R I V E H O WA R D V A N D O R E N S H AW, 1917

LAKE SHORE DRIVE FACADE

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GROUND FLOOR, ENTRANCE LOBBY

W

h e n i t w a s c o m p l e t e d in 1917, the Countiss house was one of the last mansions to be built on the stretch of Lake Shore Drive between Oak Street and North Avenue. Once the city’s northern boundary, North Avenue marked the beginning of Lincoln Park, which in 1864 had been the city cemetery. By 1917, a number of houses on Lake Shore Drive had already come down to make way for apartment buildings, including the apartment house at 1130 Lake Shore Drive, built in 1910 and designed by Howard Van Doren Shaw, whom the Countisses also selected to design their house.

Shaw was an Arts and Crafts architect who flirted with “the high game of classicism.” The two Lake Forest houses Shaw designed for Edward Ryerson were classical, but Shaw’s use of classical elements tended to be more original than canonical. The Arts and Crafts style of building, with its preference for simple materials, vernacular building forms, and connections to the socialist movement in England, was both too modest and too left-wing to suit Chicago’s captains of industry. Shaw’s client Eleanor Robinson Countiss and her siblings spent a great deal of time in France during their childhood. Mrs. Countiss’ sister

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

BUTLER’S PANTRY

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JOSEPH T. RYERSON JR. HOUSE 1406 A S T O R S T R E E T D AV I D A D L E R , 1921

ASTOR STREET FACADE

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J O S E P H T. RY E R S O N J R . H O U S E

DINING ROOM

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J O S E P H T. RY E R S O N J R . H O U S E

DRAWING ROOM LOOKING TO HALL

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G R E AT H O U S E S O F C H I C A G O

BASEMENT AND GROUND FLOOR PLANS

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PORTFOLIO OF HOUSES

1910. House of R. T. Crane, plumbing fixtures manufacturer Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects Demolished

1913. House of Gustavus Swift Jr., meatpacker Howard Van Doren Shaw, architect Demolished

1914. House of Claude Seymour, vice-president Otto Young and Company, upholsters George Maher, architect Private residence

1912. House of Edward Tyler Blair, hardware merchant, William Blair & Company McKim, Mead & White (William Kendall), architects Museum, International College of Surgeons

1914. House of Samuel S. Hutchinson, Theatre Film Service Company President Tallmadge and Watson, architects Demolished

1 9 1 6 . House of Bernard A. Eckhart, B.A. Eckhart Milling Co. president and civic leader Benjamin Marshall, architect Polish Consulate

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D E S I G N AT E D L A N D M A R K S APPEARING IN THIS VOLUME

SAMUEL NICKERSON HOUSE (p. 94) Chicago Landmark

DR.GEORGE ISHAM HOUSE (p. 204) Gold Coast National Register District.

ARCHBISHOP’S RESIDENCE (p. 128) Gold Coast National Register District Astor Street Chicago Landmark District

ALBERT F. MADLENER HOUSE (p. 212) National Register Landmark Gold Coast National Register District Chicago Landmark

JOHN JACOB GLESSNER HOUSE (p. 136) National Historic Landmark Prairie Avenue National Register District Chicago Landmark Prairie Avenue Chicago Landmark District JAMES CHARNLEY HOUSE (p. 166) National Historic Landmark Gold Coast National Register District Astor Street Chicago Landmark District WILLIAM W. KIMBALL HOUSE (p. 174) National Register Landmark Prairie Avenue National Register District Prairie Avenue Chicago Landmark District BRYAN LATHROP HOUSE (p. 178) National Register Landmark Gold Coast National Register District Chicago Landmark ROBERT W. PATTERSON HOUSE (p. 186) Gold Coast National Register District Astor Street Chicago Landmark District FRANCIS J. DEWES HOUSE (p. 192) National Register Landmark Chicago Landmark

JULIUS ROSENWALD HOUSE (p. 226) Hyde Park-Kenwood National Register District Kenwood Chicago Landmark District ERNEST J. MAGERSTADT HOUSE (p. 234) Hyde Park-Kenwood National Register District Kenwood Chicago Landmark District FREDERICK C. ROBIE HOUSE (p. 240) National Historic Landmark Hyde Park-Kenwood National Register District Chicago Landmark WILLIAM O. GOODMAN HOUSE (p. 250) Gold Coast National Register District Astor Street Chicago Landmark District LAKEVIEW HOUSES FOR MRS. ARTHUR RYERSON, ABRAM POOLE, HENRY DANGLER, AMBORSE CRAMER (p. 266) Lakeview National Register District FREDERICK COUNTISS HOUSE (p. 274) Seven Houses on Lake Shore Drive Chicago Landmark District JOSEPH T. RYERSON, JR., HOUSE (p. 282) Gold Coast National Register District Astor Street Chicago Landmark District

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D E S I G N AT E D L A N D M A R K S

PORTFOLIO SIDNEY A. KENT HOUSE (p. 294) National Register Landmark Chicago Landmark RANSOM R. CABLE HOUSE (p. 295) Chicago Landmark

ISIDORE HELLER HOUSE (p. 297) Hyde Park-Kenwood National Register District Chicago Landmark EDWIN M. COLVIN HOUSE (p. 297) Chicago Landmark

WILLIAM HALE HOUSE (p. 295) North Kenwood Chicago Landmark District

EDWARD TYLER BLAIR HOUSE (p. 298) Gold Coast National Register District Seven Houses on Lake Shore Drive Chicago Landmark District

MARTIN A. RYERSON HOUSE (p. 295) Hyde Park-Kenwood National Register District Kenwood Chicago Landmark District

CLAUDE SEYMOUR HOUSE (p. 298) Buena Park National Register District Hutchinson Street Chicago Landmark District

JOHN A. MCGILL HOUSE (p. 296) Hyde Park-Kenwood National Register District

BERNARD A. ECKHART HOUSE (p. 298) Gold Coast National Register District Seven Houses on Lake Shore Drive Chicago Landmark District

WARREN MCARTHUR HOUSE (p. 296) Hyde Park-Kenwood National Register District Kenwood Chicago Landmark District

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ARCHITECTS’ BIOGRAPHIES DAVID ADLER (1882–1949) David Adler devoted his practice almost exclusively to the design of houses for elite members of Chicago society. Among his clients, Adler counted Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ryerson Jr. (steel), Mr. and Mrs. Albert Lasker (advertising), Mr. and Mrs. William McCormick Blair (finance), and Mr. and Mrs. Lester Armour (meatpacking). Most of Adler’s residences were located along Chicago’s North Shore, especially in Lake Forest, but he also built houses in Chicago, for clients including Joseph T. Ryerson Jr., Mrs. Arthur Ryerson, and Charles King. Adler was born in 1882 in Milwaukee, the son of a wealthy German-Jewish clothing manufacturer. After graduating from Princeton University in 1904, Adler studied architecture at both the Polytechnic University in Munich and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From Paris, he toured Europe, collecting hundreds of postcards that, along with his collection of photographs, newspaper and magazine clippings, and books, served as important sources of inspiration. Returning to Chicago in 1911, Adler went to work in the office of Howard Van Doren Shaw, a leading residential architect. A year later, Adler formed a partnership with Henry C. Dangler, a friend from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts who was also working for Shaw. After Dangler’s sudden death in 1917, Adler took Robert Work, another colleague from Shaw’s office, as a

partner. Adler never passed the Illinois state architectural licensing exam, and both Dangler and Work, in addition to being licensed and able to sign drawings, brought their technical expertise to his projects. After Dangler’s death, Adler again failed the state exam in 1917, receiving one of the lowest scores ever recorded. Asked to size the diagonal web members in a steel truss, Adler is said to have answered, “I have people in my office that attend to such matters.” In 1928, with an impressive array of recommendations from clients as well as fellow architects, the examining board granted him a license. Once licensed, he never again had a partner. Adler often collaborated with his sister Frances Elkins, who became a leading interior decorator. After his death, the Chicago Tribune described Adler as “a residential architect of great distinction whose taste in the decorative arts was unequalled in his time.” Architectural historian Richard Guy Wilson notes in his essay for David Adler, Architect: The Elements of Style that “Adler’s range of stylistic choices and his quality of design and execution rank with and indeed surpass such contemporaries as John Russell Pope, Delano and Aldrich, Harrie T. Lindeberg, F. Burrell Hoffman, Jr., George Washington Smith, and Myron Hunt and Elmer Grey.” He compliments their “enduring excellence.”

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BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL REFERENCES American Institute of Architects. American Architects Directory. 2nd ed. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1962. The Book of Chicagoans. Chicago: A. N. Marquis, 1905, 1911, 1917, and 1926. Handbook for Architects and Builders. Chicago: Illinois Society of Architects, 1898–c. 1935. Who’s Who in Chicago. Chicago: A. N. Marquis, 1931.

House and Garden. Chicago and New York. 1901–93; 1996–present. House Beautiful. New York, 1896–present. Inland Architect and News Record. Chicago, 1889–1908. Prairie School Review. Chicago, 1964–81. Town and Country. New York, 1846–present. Western Architect. Minneapolis, 1902–31.

Who’s Who in Chicago and Vicinity. Chicago: A. N. Marquis, 1936 and 1941. Withey, Henry F., and Elsie Rathburn. Biographical Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased). Los Angeles: Hennessey and Ingalls, 1970.

PERIODICALS AND NEWSPAPERS American Architect and Building News. Boston and New York, 1876–1938. The Architect. New York, 1910–32. The Architectural Forum; Brickbuilder. New York, 1896–1924. The Architectural Record. New York, 1891–1932. The Architectural Review. Boston, 1891–1921. Architecture. New York, 1900–1930. Chicago Daily News. Chicago Tribune. George W. Maher Quarterly. Sauk City, Wisconsin.

BOOKS, PRINTED MATERIAL, AND ARTICLES Angle, Paul M. The Great Chicago Fire: Described in Seven Letters by Men and Women Who Experienced Its Horrors, and Now Published in Commemoration of the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of the Catastrophe. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1946. Ascoli, Peter M. Julius Rosenwald: The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2006. Banks, Charles Eugene. Beautiful Homes and Social Customs of America. Chicago: Bible Publishers, 1902. Beadle, Muriel, and the Centennial History Committee. The Fortnightly of Chicago: The City and Its Women, 1873–1973. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1973. Berger, Miles. They Built Chicago. Chicago: Bonus Books, 1992. Betsky, Aaron. James Gamble Rogers and the Architecture of Pragmatism. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1994.

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INDEX “A Plea for Indigenous Art” (Maher), 235 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Joyce), 103 A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 225 A System of Architectural Ornament (Sullivan), 316 Academy of Arts and Letters, 308 Adam, Robert, 270 Adams, Henry, 311 Addams, Jane, 18, 163, 182, 309 Adler & Sullivan, 166, 296, 303, 315, 317 Adler, Dankmar, 302, 315 Adler, David, 9, 25, 30, 81, 125, 160, 190, 254, 266–68, 273, 282–83, 286, 288, 289, 301, 313 Adler, Katherine Keith, 269 Administration Building, World’s Fair, 303 Agricultural Aid Society, 231 AIA Guide to Chicago (ed., Sinkevitch), 9 Alden, John, 183 Aldis, Helen Lynde, 181, 182 Aldis, Owen, 181 Aldrich, House of J. Frank, 292 Alfred Shaw & Associates, 146 Allegheny County Courthouse and Jail, 311 Alta Vista Terrace, 113 Altgeld, John Peter, 75 American Academy, Rome, 304, 308 American Association of Arts and Industries, 48 American College of Surgeons, 100 American Colonial style, 254

American Cotton Oil Company, 83 American Express Building, 316 American Fur Company, 24 American Furniture Mart, 281 American Institute of Architects (AIA), 134, 146, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 310, 312, 313 American Railway Union, 68 American Red Cross, 279 American Soccer Federation, 177 American Steel and Wire Company, 294 Ames Building, 314 Amherst College, 308 Ann Arbor High School, 309 Archbishop of Chicago, 131 Archbishop’s Residence, 128–35 Archdiocese of Chicago Archives, 134 Architects Club of Chicago, 177 Architectural Forum, 270 Architectural Record, 85, 232, 235 Architecture in Old Chicago (Talmadge), 117 Arden, Elizabeth, 279 Armington & Sims, 90 Armour & Company, 17, 85, 261 Armour Institute of Technology, 146 Armour, Barbara, 303 Armour, House of Barbara, 297 Armour, House of Philip D., 292 Armour, J. Ogden, 17, 21–22, 86, 278, 306 Armour, Mr. and Mrs. Lester, 301 Armour, Philip D., 15, 22, 23 Art Deco style, 25 Art Institute of Chicago, 7, 20, 28, 97, 125, 132 155, 175, 181,182, 183, 201,

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214, 225, 255, 256, 305, 314 Art Nouveau style, 198, 315 Artistic Country Seats (Sheldon), 89 Artistic Houses (Sheldon), 89 Arts and Crafts style, 29, 146, 222, 232, 254, 275, 314 Ascoli, Peter M., 230 Ashland Avenue, 18 Associated Jewish Charities, 230 Astor Street, 10, 24, 26, 123 Astor, John Jacob, 24, 306, 309 Atchinson & Nebraska Railroad Company, 293 Atlas, 197 Atwood, Charles, 307 Auditorium Building, 31,172, 302, 315 Autobiography of an Idea (Sullivan), 316 Avery Plow Works, 164 Avery, Benjamin and Susan Look, 164 Ayer & Lord Tie Company, 151 Ayer, Edward Everett, 149, 150, 151 Ayer, House of Edward E., 148–51 B. A. Eckhart Milling Co., 298 Back of the Yards (Goodman), 256 Ball & Sears, 83 Bankers Club, 203 Baptist Training School for Nurses, 310 Barrell, House of Finley, 261 Barrett, Nathan, 302 Barrett, S. E., 161 Barry Street, 86 Bartlett, Adolphus Clay, 219 Bartlett, Dora Tripp, 219, 222 Bartlett, Frederic Clay, 219, 223, 225


INDEX

Bartlett, House of Frederic Clay, 218–25 Bates, R. W., 122 Bauer & Hill, 307 Bauhaus, 48 Beechman, Clayton J., 84 Bell’s Commercial College, 83 Belle Epoque, 10 Beman, Solon Spencer, 30, 60, 61, 62, 69, 102, 104, 174, 175–76, 177, 179, 297, 302, 309 Bendix Aviation Corporation, 126 Bendix, Vincent, 126 Benjamin, Wayne, 146 Berry, Helen Stedman, 83 Betsky, Aaron, 208 Bierstadt, Albert, 97 Bigelow, William B., 180, 308 Biltmore, 45, 306 Bishop College School, 313 Bishop of Nashville, 131 Blair, Chauncey Buckley, 203 Blair, Chauncey Justus, 201, 203 Blair, Edward T., 28, 309 Blair, House of Chauncey Justus, 200–203 Blair, House of Edward T., 281, 298 Blair, Mr. and Mrs. William McCormick, 301 Blatchford, Eliphalet Wickes, 37, 39, 40, 42 Blatchford, House of Eliphalet Wickes, 36–43 Blatchford, Mary, 40 Blatz, Margaretha, 214 Block, Jean, 9 Board of Architects, Worlds Fair, 303, 306 Board of Lady Managers, World’s Fair, 22, 125, 182 Bohemian Mission of Chicago, 40 Borden, House of William, 294 Borden, William, 28, 179, 306 Borghese, Pauline, 104 Boston Latin School, 306 Boston Public Library, 308 Boulevard Bank, 281 Bowen, House of Mrs. Joseph (Louise), 296 Bowen, Joseph T., 303

Bowen, Louise De Koven, 182, 303 Brackebush, Grace, 307 Bradner, Charnley & Company, 167 Brattle Square Church, 308, 310 Brooklyn Mercantile Library, 316 Brooks, H. Allen, 313 Brooks, Peter, 181, 312 Brooks, Shepard, 181 Brown University, 314 Bruegmann, Robert, 9 Bryan, Thomas B., 180 Bude, Volusin, 306 Bunny Hutch, the, 210 Burling & Whitehouse, 94, 95, 302–3 Burling Street, 303 Burling, Edward, 95, 96, 302–3 Burnham & Root, 24–25, 110, 111, 148, 160, 167, 293, 294, 295, 303, 304, 309, 311, 312 Burnham Library, 255, 314 Burnham, Daniel Hudson, 31, 82, 83, 154, 187, 197, 303, 312 Burton Place, 81 Busch & Brand, 193 Busch, Akiko, 176 Busch, Hedwig, 193 Byram, House of Augustus, 293 Byrne, Barry, 318 C. F. Murphy Associates, 146 Cable, House of Ransom R., 295 Cabrini, Frances, 134 Calumet Club, 305 Calumet Street, 21 Carnegie, Andrew, 68 Carpenter, Rue Winterbotham (Mrs. John Alden), 183 Carson Pirie Scott & Company, 316 Carter & Bauer, 316 Carter, Asher, 316 Carter, Drake & Wight, 303, 312 Casino Club, 306 Casino, Newport, 308 Catherine the Great, 106 Catholic Church, 24, 131 Caton, Mrs. Arthur Delia, 48 Caxton Building, 180 Chamberlin, Everett, 89 Chapel, Vassar College, 314

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Chapin & Company, 281 Chapin, S. B., 278 Charnley House: Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, and the Making of Chicago’s Gold Coast, (Longstreth), 172 Charnley, Albert, 316 Charnley, Douglas, 170 Charnley, Helen Douglas, 111, 167, 168, 170 Charnley, House of James, 9, 110–15, 163, 166–73, 316 Charnley, James, 111, 167–68, 170, 172 Charnley-Persky House, 172 Château de Josselin, 176 Chateau-sur-Mer, 93 Chatfield-Taylor, H. C., 16 Cheltenham Beach, 313 Cheney, Edwin and Mrs., 318 Chicago and Its Suburbs, 89 Chicago and North Western Railway, 20, 305 Chicago and North Western terminal, 305 Chicago and Northern Pacific Railway, 302 Chicago Architectural Club, 213 Chicago Architecture Foundation, 146 Chicago Athletic Association, 203, 304 Chicago Athletic Club, 203 Chicago Board of Education, 100, 182 Chicago Board of Trade, 91, 261, 292, 302 Chicago Citizen’s Association, 154 Chicago City Horse Railroad Company, 95 Chicago City Missionary Society, 40 Chicago Civic Opera, 103 Chicago Congregational Club, 40 Chicago Daily News, 288, 295 Chicago Economist, 179 Chicago Edison Company, 93 Chicago Equal Suffrage Association, 182 Chicago fire, 20, 30, 41, 72, 91, 121, 131, 175, 289, 312, 316 Chicago frame, 29 Chicago Froebel Kindergarten Association, 40


INDEX

Chicago Geographical Society, 205 Chicago Hebrew Institute, 230 Chicago Historical Society (now the Chicago Historical Museum), 279, 289, 304 Chicago Horticultural Society, 75 Chicago Interiors, (Lowe), 9 Chicago Literary Club, 157 Chicago Loop, 24 Chicago Malleable Iron Company, 164 Chicago Manual Training School, 39–40 Chicago Medical School, 205 Chicago Opera House, 304 Chicago Orchestra Association, 255 Chicago Public Library, 201, 305, 314 Chicago Real Estate Board, 180 Chicago Rock Island, 295 Chicago Room (Joseph T. Ryerson Jr. house), 288 Chicago School, 31, 33, 180, 312 Chicago School of Architecture Foundation, 146 Chicago Stock Exchange, 205, 278, 311, 315 Chicago Symphony Orchestra, 181 Chicago Theological Seminary, 39, 247 Chicago Times, 188 Chicago Tribune, 21, 56, 90, 93, 111, 156, 187, 188, 189, 301, 305 Chicago Welcomes You (Granger), 305 Chicago window, 231 Chicago with Love (Meeker Jr.), 85 Chicago Women’s Club, 164 Chicago Zoological Gardens, 107 Chicago, City of, 131, 307 Chicago, IL, 9, 10, 15–32 “Chicago’s First Palace,” 89 Chrimes, John, 17 Church of the New Jerusalem, 83 City Beautiful movement, 30 City Club, 310 Civic Reform League of Chicago, 154 Civil War, 83, 113, 188, 261 Clarke, Henry B., 17 Classical Revival style, 307 Cleveland, Horace W. S., 132 Cliff Dwellers Club, 251 Cobb & Frost, 116, 295, 303–4, 305

Cobb, Henry Ives, 122, 296, 303–4, 305, 310, 313 Cochran, J. L., 307 Codman, Ogden, 210 Cody, Cardinal, 134 Cole, Thomas, 97 Collegiate Gothic style, 232, 241, 312 Colonial Revival style, 10 Colonial style, 179 Columbia University, 154, 308, 309, 312 Columbus Hospital, 134 Colvin, House of Edwin M., 297 Commercial Club of Chicago, 93, 154 Commercial National Bank of Chicago, 155 Cone, Evalyne, 175 Conger, Cornelia, 104 Congregationalist Church, 37 Constable, John, 80 Cook County, IL, 239 Coolidge, Charles A., 146, 201, 314 Coolidge, Shepley, Bulfinch & Abbott, 314 Coonley, Avery, 163, 318 Coonley, House of Mrs. John C. (Lydia), 162–65 Coonley, John Clark, 164 Coonley, Lydia Arms Avery, 163, 164 Corn Exchange Bank, 203 Corwin, Cecil, 318 Corwin, Charles, 307, 313 Cottolene, 83 Countiss, Eleanor Robinson, 275, 278–79, 281 Countiss, Frederick Dower, 278 Countiss, House of Frederick and Eleanor, 274–81 Court of Honor, 30 Court of the Golden Hand, 25 Cowles & Ohrenstein, 296 Cram, Ralph Adams, 314 Cramer, Ambrose, 266, 269 Crane, House of R. T., 298 Crerar Library, 39 Crerar, John, 39 Crosby Opera House, 175 Crystal Palace Exhibition, 54 Cudahy, House of John, 294, 303 Cudell & Blumenthal, 50, 197, 304

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Cudell & Hercz, 192, 193, 197 Cudell, Adolph A., 197, 292, 295, 304 “Culture for Women” (Mitchell), 182 Cyrano de Bergerac (Rostand), 115 D. C. Heath Publishing Company, 87 D. H. Burnham & Company, 30, 303, 307 da Sangallo, Antonio, 187 Daley, Richard J., 249 Dana, Susan Lawrence, 241 Dangler, Henry Corwith, 255, 266, 267, 269, 270, 273, 301 Dato, Ernest A., 107 Davenport, A. H., 62 David Adler, Architect: The Elements of Style, (ed., Thorne), 301 Day, Albert Morgan, 311 Day, Anne, 205, 311 de Morgan, William, 146 Dearborn Parkway, 24, 26 Dearborn School, 83 Debs, Eugene, 68 Deering Harvester Company, 79, 142 Deering Library, Northwestern University, 312 Delano and Aldrich, 301 Delmonico, 64 Dent, Thomas, 91 Depression, 146, 161, 177, 210 Derby Iron and Steel Works, 167 Dewes, Francis J., 25, 193, 197, 198 Dewes, House of Francis J., 192–99, 304 Diamond Match Company, 278 Dick, A. B., 24, 208 Dickens, Charles, 42 Diocese of Chicago, 129, 131 Division Street, 167 Dixon, Lavall B., 293, 294 Doane, House of John Wesley, 88–93 Doane, John Wesley, 89, 90, 91, 93 Doane, Julia Moulton, 93 Doggett, Kate Newell, 182 Donnelley, Reuben, 314 Dorfred House, 219 Douglas, Helen, 167, 168, 170 Douglas, House of James H., 297 Douglas, John D., 170 Drake & Wight, 36, 316–17


INDEX

Drake Hotel, 108, 279 Drake, William, 316 Drexel Boulevard, 24 Drummond, William, 306, 318 Drury, John, 9 Duggan, Bishop James, 131 E. W. Blatchford & Company, 37 Eastlake style, 93, 123 Eastlake Victorian style, 135 Eastman, George, 309 Eckhart, Bernard A., 298 Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 30, 139, 176, 208, 254, 269, 288, 301, 305, 306, 308, 310, 311, 315 Edgewater, 307 Edison, Thomas, 91 Egyptian style, 112 Eighteen, the, 214, 306 Elkins, Frances Adler, 301 Elmslie, George Grant, 307 Epiphany Episcopal Church, 303 Erechtheum, 197 F. J. Dewes Brewing Company, 193 Fairbank, Peck & Company, 83 Fairbanks Canning Company, 261 Fairy soaps, 84 Farnese Palace, 187 Farson, John, 307 Farwell & Company, 293 Farwell, Arthur, 208 Farwell, Charles, 18, 26, 182 Farwell, Francis C., 208, 311 Farwell, House of Charles, 293 Farwell, House of John, 293 Farwell, John V., 18, 26, 208, 311 Feast in the House of Levi, 156–57 Feehan, Patrick A., 131, 132, 134 Fellows, William K., 309 Field Museum of Natural History, 28, 45, 151 Field, Benjamin, 63 Field, Ethel, 46 Field, House of Marshall, 44–49 Field, Marshall, 15, 20, 23, 28, 45, 46, 47, 51, 72, 84, 91, 95, 120, 144, 153, 208, 297, 306, 311 Field, Marshall III, 46, 48

Field, Marshall, Jr., 84 Field, Nannie Douglas Scott, 48 Field, Palmer & Leiter, 48 Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, NYC, 103 Fifth Provincial Council of Baltimore, 129 Fine Arts Building, 183, 231, 302 First California Calvary, 150 First National Bank, 95, 302, 303 First Presbyterian Church, 37, 304 Fisher, Lucius G., 97 Flanders & Zimmerman, 313 Flatiron Building, 303 Florence Hotel, 67 Fogg Museum, 306 Foley, Bishop Thomas, 131 Forbes, 227 Forbes, B. C., 227 Ford Motor Company, 279 Ford, Edsel, 281 Ford, Henry, 279 Fortnightly, 164, 182, 183 Fourth Presbyterian Church, 314 Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio and Preservation Trust, 249 Free Academy, 316 French château style, 93, 286 French Empire style, 61, 176 French Renaissance châteaux style, 306 French Renaissance style, 156, 176, 208 French, William, 132 Frielder, A., 96 Froebel, Friedrich, 40 Frommann & Jebsen, 70, 73, 74, 304–5 Frommann, Emil H., 73, 304–5 Frost & Granger, 218, 305 Frost, Charles Sumner, 122, 219, 304, 305 Fuller, George A., 305 Fullerton Avenue, 20, 25 Furness & Hewitt, 315 Furness, Frank, 306, 315 Gabriel, Ange-Jacques, 278 Gage Building, 315 Gambrill & Richardson, 308, 314 Gambrill, Charles, 306, 310 Garden, Hugh M. G., 10, 213, 312, 313

{ 329 }

Gardenesque, 214 Gates, House of John “Bet a Million,” 294 Gates, John “Bet a Million,” 22 Genius and the Mobocracy (Wright), 170, 315 George, Francis Cardinal, 135 Georgian Revival style, 26, 179 Georgian style, 179, 201, 254, 269 German Baroque style, 193 Gibson, Charles Dana, 309 Gilbert and Sullivan, 46 Gilbert, Cass, 310 Gilded Age, 45 Glessner House Museum, 146 Glessner, George and Frances, 146 Glessner, Houses of George and Frances, 297 Glessner, House of John Jacob, 136–47, 176, 293 Glessner, John Jacob, 15, 18, 31, 139, 142, 144, 146, 149, 153, 175, 297, 311 Glessner, Mrs. Frances, 146 Gloss, Henry L., 151 Gold Coast, 17, 24, 25, 26, 81, 108, 129, 131, 213, 267 Gold Dust Twins Washing Powder, 84 Goodhue, Bertram, 311 Goodman Lumber Company of Wisconsin, 255 Goodman Theater Building, 255, 314 Goodman, Erna Sawyer, 255, 256 Goodman, House of William O., 250–57 Goodman, Kenneth Sawyer, 256 Goodman, William Owen, 25, 251, 255, 256 Gothic Revival style, 32, 41, 317 Graceland Cemetery, 69, 180, 256 Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, 217, 313 Grand Central Station, 302 Granger & Bollenbacher, 305 Granger, Alfred Hoyt, 179, 214, 219, 305, 313 Granger, Lowe & Bollenbacher, 305 Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 146


INDEX

Great Lakes Naval Training Station, 256 Greek Revival style, 17, 18 Greek style, 10 Greene, Virginia, 9 Greenwood Avenue, 251 Grey, Elmer, 301 Griffin, Marion Mahony, 318 Griffin, Walter Burley, 306, 318 Gross, Emily, 111, 115 Gross, House of Samuel Eberly, 110–15 Gross, Samuel Eberly, 111–13, 115, 168 Grover, Oliver Dennett, 177 Guaranty Building, 316 Guggenheim Museum, 317 Hale Elevator Company, 295 Hale, House of William, 295 Hale, William, 150 Hall of Graduate Studies, Yale University, 311 Ham Lantern Company, 296 Hamilton, John, 309 Hand, Johnny, 47 Hardenberg, Henry, 122 Harkness Memorial Quadrangle and Tower, Yale University, 311 Harkness, Edward, 311 Harned, Henry, 316 Harrison, Carter, 17, 18 Harrison, House of Carter, 17 Harrison, Carter, Jr., 18 Harry Weese & Associates, 146 Harvard University, 303, 306, 307, 308, 310, 314 Havenwood, 286 Hay, John, 311 Haymarket Riot, 18, 79 Hearst, William Randolph, 189 Hefner Hall, 210 Hefner, Hugh, 210 Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, 225 Heller, House of Isidore, 297 Hercz, Arthur, 197, 304 Herter & Company, 122 Heun, Arthur, 82, 85, 306 Hewitt, Marvin, 305

Hibbard, Spencer & Bartlett, 219 Hieronymus, Lora, 241 High Victorian Gothic style, 316 Highland Park, 134 Hindenburg, 261 History of Chicago (ed., Kirkland and Moses), 112 Hitchcock, Henry Russell, 160 Hoffman, F. Burrell, Jr., 301 Hoffmann, Donald, 32 Holabird & Roche, 9, 25, 179, 180, 316 Holt, Alice, 81 Holy Name Cathedral, 132, 302 Holy Name Female School, 132 Holy See, 129 Home Insurance Building, 317 Homeopathic Hospital, 317 Honore, Bertha, 18, 22, 23, 106, 121, 123, 125, 126, 182 Honore, Henry Hamilton, 18, 121 Horticulture Hall, World’s Fair, 75 House of the Four Winds, 286 Hughitt, Marvin, 20 Hull, Charles J., 18, 309 Hull, Judith S., 302 Hull-House, 18, 163, 296, 309 Humboldt Park, 73, 304 Hunt, Myron, 301 Hunt, Richard Morris, 28, 30, 44, 45, 46, 61, 93, 176, 179, 288, 294, 303, 306, 310, 315 Hurricane Katrina, 168 Hussey, Obed, 53 Hutchinson, Charles L., 20, 182 Hutchinson, House of Samuel S., 298 Hyde Park, 10, 23, 24, 26, 249, 251, 310, 313 Hyde Park Houses, 9 Illinois Central Railroad, 22, 167, 168, 296 Illinois College, 37 Illinois Institute of Technology, 48, 146 Impressionists, 125, 225 Indian Room (Ayer House), 151 Indianapolis Museum of Art, 225 Inland Architect, 96, 312 Inland Steel, 286 Inness, George, 80, 97

{ 330 }

Institute of Design, 48 International College of Surgeons, 281 International Harvester, 19, 51, 56, 78, 79, 142 International Museum of Surgical Science, 281 Interstate Architect and Builder, 32 Irving, Washington, 42 Isham, George, 205, 208, 210, 311 Isham, House of George, 204–11 Isham, Katherine Porter, 205 Isham, Ralph, 205 Italian Renaissance style, 187, 201, 308 Jackson Boulevard, 18 Jackson Park, 23 Jackson, Thomas R., 316 Jaffray, Henry S., 60, 61 Jenney & Mundie, 313 Jenney, William Le Baron, 293, 303, 309, 311, 313, 315, 317 Jensen, Jens, 232, 313 John B. Murphy Memorial Auditorium, 100 John Hay Library, Brown University, 314 John McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases, 106 John Paul II, Pope, 135 John Wellborn Root: The Meanings of Architecture (ed. Hoffman), 32 Johnson Wax Building, 317 Johnson, Philip, 146 Johnson, Walker, 135 Joliet, Louis, 129 Jones, Jenkin Lloyd, 317 Jones, Nathanial S., 104 Jones, Owen, 317 Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Inc., 286 Joyce, James, 103 Jung, Carl, 103, 107 Keith, Edison, 91 Keith, House of Osborne R., 294 Keith, Osborne and Katherine, 269 Kendall, William, 298 Kenesaw Terrace, 307 Kenilworth, 83, 84, 307 Kenilworth Club, 307 Kent, House of Sidney A., 294


INDEX

Kenwood, 10, 23, 24, 25, 26, 232, 235, 259 Kenwood Club, 305 Kenyon College, 305 Kimball, Evalyne Cone, 175 Kimball, House of William Wallace, 174–77 Kimball, William Wallace, 175, 176, 177 “Kindergarten Chats” (Sullivan), 32 King, Charles, 301 Kinzie’s Addition, 131 Kinzie, House of Robert A., 292 Kinzie, John, 292 Kirkland, Joseph, 112 Krenn, Edwin H., 107 La Farge, John, 93 Labrouste, Henri and Jacques, 310 Lake Forest, 24, 81, 86, 301 Lake Forest University (now Lake Forest College), 62, 188, 304, 305, 310 Lake Michigan, 131 Lake Shore Country Club, 314 Lake Shore Drive, 24, 111, 121, 122, 123, 126, 275, 314 Lake, William H., 307 Lakeside Press Building, 314 Lakeview, 25, 266–73 Lambert, Phyllis, 146 Landau, Sarah B., 9, 41 Larkin Building, 317 LaSalle Hotel, 197 Lasker, Mr. and Mrs. Albert, 301 Lathrop, Bryan, 28, 179, 180–82, 309 Lathrop, Helen Lynde Aldis, 181, 182 Lathrop, House of Bryan, 178–85 Lawrence Scientific School, 303, 307 Lawson, House of Victor, 295 Le Corbusier, 32 Lefuel, Hector, 306 Leicht, Andrew E., 25 Leighton, Frederic, 160 Leiter, Levi, 48, 95, 120 Lenox Library, 306 Leo XIII, Pope, 131 Leslie’s Weekly, 227 Levi, Julian, 249

Lincoln Park, 17, 24, 267, 275 Lincoln Park Board, 181 Lincoln, Abraham, 63, 188, 297 Lincoln, House of Robert Todd, 297 Lincoln, Mary Todd, 18 Lincoln, Robert Todd, 24 Lindeberg, Harrie T., 301 Lionberger Warehouse, 314 Lippincotts, 315 List, Anna, 315 Lockwood, Francis Cummins, 151 Longstreth, Richard, 172 Loomis, House of John Mason, 293 Lost Chicago, 9 Louis XVI style, 112, 283 Louvre, 51 Lowden, Frank and Harriet, 215 Lowe, David, 9 Lowe, William G., 308 Lurie, Paul, 146 Lutyens, Edwin, 32, 275 Mach, Max, 304 MacVeagh, Emily, 153, 155–57 MacVeagh, Franklin, 24, 31, 153, 154–55, 161, 311 MacVeagh, House of Franklin, 152–61 Madison Square Garden, 308 Madlener, Albert Fridolin, 213, 214, 215, 217 Madlener, Albert, Jr., 217 Madlener, Elsa Seipp, 213, 214, 215, 217 Madlener, Fridolin, 215 Madlener, House of Albert Fridolin, 212–17, 304, 313 Magerstadt, Della, 239 Magerstadt, Ernest J., 235, 239, 307 Magerstadt, Hattie, 239 Magerstadt, House of Ernest J., 234–39 Maher, George Washington, 97, 234, 235, 239, 297, 298, 307 Maiden Portal, 197 Mandel Brothers, 293 Mandel, Emanuel, 22 Mandel, House of Emanuel, 293 Manns, Augusta, 72 Marble House, 306 Marcotte, L., 46

{ 331 }

Marine Bank Building, 302 Mark Steel, 314 Mark, Clayton, 314 Market Square, 314 Marquette Building, 181 Marquette, Jacques, 129 Marshall & Fox, 100, 115 Marshall Apartments, 26 Marshall Field & Company, 24, 45, 48 Marshall Field Wholesale Store, 32, 311 Marshall, Benjamin, 26, 115, 298 Martin, Darwin, 318 Martin, Edgar, 312, 313 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 303, 304, 305, 312, 313, 314, 315 Mayer, Levy, 84 Mayflower, 205 McArthur, House of Warren, 296 McBirney, Annie Lawrie, 286, 288, 289 McBirney, House of Hugh, 259 McClintock Court, 255 McClurg, Alexander Caldwell, 303, 306 McClurg, House of Alexander Caldwell, 296 McCormick, Edith Rockefeller, 103, 104, 106–8 McCormick, House of Edith Rockefeller, 102-109 McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, 54, 78, 79, 103, 142, 189–90 McCormick Reaper Works, 19, 78, 205 McCormick Sr., Cyrus, 15, 19, 26, 46, 73, 103, 182, 197, 304, 309 McCormick, Cyrus Hall, 51, 53, 54, 56, 78, 80, 188 McCormick Jr., Cyrus Hall, 54, 56, 78, 79, 80, 81, 189, 190 McCormick, Edith Rockefeller, 58, 179 McCormick, Harold F., 58, 103, 104, 107, 179 McCormick, Harriet, 80 McCormick, House of Cyrus Hall, 50–59 McCormick, House of Cyrus, Jr., 76–81 McCormick, House of Edith Rockefeller, 102–9 McCormick, House of J. Hamilton, 296


INDEX

McCormick, John D. Rockefeller, 106 McCormick, Katherine Medill, 188 McCormick, Leander, 19, 26, 54, 81 McCormick, L. Hamilton, 81 McCormick, Nettie Fowler, 54, 56, 79 McCormick, Robert Hall, 81 McCormick, Robert R., 188, 189 McCormick, William, 19, 54 McCormickville, 19, 26, 51, 80, 95 McCutcheon, John T., 21 McGill, House of John A., 296 McGill, John A., 304 McKim, Charles Follen, 180, 183, 305, 307–9, 311 McKim, Mead & White, 24, 26, 28, 30, 144, 178, 179, 180, 186, 187, 298, 303, 307, 314 McKinley, William, 311 MacVeagh, Franklin, 201 Mead, William Rutherford, 307, 308 Meade, Frank B., 305 Meaning in Architecture (Pond), 310 Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University, 189 Medill, Joseph and Elinor, 187, 188 Medill, Katherine, 188 Meeker, Arthur, Jr., 16, 21, 23, 61, 85, 86, 108 Meeker, Arthur, Jr., 24 Meeker, Arthur, Sr., 17, 25, 28, 82, 84–87, 306 Meeker , House of Arthur, Sr. 17 Meeker, Mrs. Arthur Sr., 21, 25 Mellody Farm, 306 Mentor Building, 314 Merchant’s Bank, 278 Merchants’ Loan and Trust Company, 91, 93 Mercy Sisters, 129, 131 Metropolitan Museum, 306 Mexican Cultural Institute, 157 Meyer, Albert Cardinal, 134 Michael Reese Hospital, 313 Michigan Avenue, 18, 21, 256 Michigan State Prison, 309 Michigan State University, 309 Midway Plaisance, 245 Mikado Ball, 46 Miller, Arthur, 62

Millionaires’ Row, 21, 122 Minneapolis Park System, 134 MIT. See Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mitchell, Ellen, 182 Moholy-Nagy, László, 48 Molloy, Mary Alice, 21, 160 Monadnock Building, 31, 181, 303, 312 Monday Morning Reading Class, 146 Monroe, Harriet, 182 Montauk Block, 312 Montgomery Ward, 227 Montgomery Ward & Company Warehouse, 304, 313 Montini, Giovanni Cardinal, 134–35 Moorish style, 123 Morgan, Joan, 62 Morris & Company, 261, 259 Morris, Edward, 10, 24, 259, 261 Morris, Helen Swift, 261 Morris, House of Edward, 258–65 Morris, Nelson (father of Edward), 261 Morris, Nelson (son of Edward), 261 Morris, William, 32, 146 Moses, John, 112 Mosser, Edwin J., 307 Mundelein, Cardinal, 134 Municipal Art League, 155 Murray, William, 84 Museum of Modern Art, NY, 225 Museum of Natural History, Geological Hall, 164 Museum of Science and Industry, 231, 307 N. K. Fairbank & Company, 83 Nagle Hartray, 190 Napoleon, 104 Napoleon III, 51 National Academy of Design, 316 National Historic Landmark, 146, 249, 307 National Trust for Historic Preservation, 249 Native Americans, 151 Navy Pier, 305 Neidecken-Wallbridge Company, 243 Neo-Grec style, 304 New Bauhaus, 48

{ 332 }

New Hermitage, 197 New Orleans Public Library, 314 New West Educational Commission, 40 New York City College, 316 New York Daily News, 189 New York State Capitol, 310 New York Times, 78 New York University, 308, 312 Newberry Library, 28, 39, 151, 181, 293, 304 Newberry, House of Walter C., 293 Newberry, Walter Loomis, 39 Newsday, 189 Nichols, Rose Standish, 259 Nicholson & Wadskier, 316 Nickerson, House of Samuel M., 9, 20, 94–101, 302 Nickerson, Roland, 97 Nickerson, Samuel M., 95, 97 Nimmons & Fellows, 226, 231, 233, 309 Nimmons, Carr & Wright, 309 Nimmons, George C., 309 North Avenue, 275 North Rush Street, 10 North Shore, 26, 306 Northway, 278 Northwestern Medical School, 205 Northwestern University, 189, 307, 311 “Oasis” (Sullivan), 32 O’Leary, Mrs., 20 O’Regan, Bishop Anthony, 131 Oak Park, 10, 172 Oak Street, 24, 25 Ogden, William B., 18, 54 Old Chicago Houses (Drury), 9 Old Colony Building, 180 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 308, 310 Orchestra Hall, 181, 183, 251 Otto Young and Company, 298 P. Palmer & Company, 120 Pabst Brewing Company, 302 Pacelli, Eugenio Cardinal, 134 Pacific Railroad Company, 295 Paderewski, Ignacy, 91 Paepke, Hermann, 304


INDEX

Palace of Fine Arts, 125, 307 Palmer Boulevard, 123 Palmer House Hotel, 122 Palmer, Bertha Honore, 18, 22, 23, 106, 121, 123, 125, 126, 182 Palmer, House of Potter, 116–27 Palmer, Potter, 15, 18, 23, 24, 48, 96, 111, 117, 120–23, 125, 131, 153, 167, 168, 225, 304 Palmer, Potter, Jr., 126 Partridge, House of Edward, 295 Pashley, Alfred F., 132 Passavant Memorial Hospital, 205 Patten Gymnasium, Northwestern University, 307 Patten, James, 235 Patterson, Alicia, 189 Patterson, Eleanor “Cissy,” 189 Patterson, Elinor Medill, 187, 188 Patterson, House of Robert Wilson, 186–91 Patterson, Joseph Medill, 189 Patterson, Robert (father to Robert W.), 188 Patterson, Robert W., 28, 187, 188, 309 Paul VI, Pope, 134 Peabody & Stearns, 294, 303, 304, 305 Penn, William, 255 Pennsylvania Station, 308 Percier & Fontaine, 201 Perkins & Will, 146 Perkins Hall, Harvard University, 314 Perkins, Dwight, 214, 306, 309, 311, 318 Perkins, Fellows, & Hamilton, 309 Perkins, Lucy Fitch, 182 Persky, Seymour, 172 Peter Schoenhofen Brewing Company, 215 Peter the Great, 104 Petit Trianon, 278 Pevsner, Nicholas, 315 Pierce Hall, Kenyon College, 305 Pierremont, 286 Pike, Charles, 306 Pilgrims, 83 Pinkerton detectives, 78 Pinkerton, Allan, 18 Pioneer, 64 Pius XII, Pope, 134

Plan of Chicago 1909, 154 Platt, Charles, 28, 30, 87, 108 Playboy, 210 Playboy Club, 210 Playboy Mansion, 210 Plaza Hotel, NY, 122 Pleasant Home, 307 Poetry Magazine, 155, 182 Polytechnic University, Munich, 301 Pompeian Room, 222 Pond & Pond, 162, 163, 214, 306, 309–10, 313 Pond, Allen B. and Irving K., 309–10 Pontiac Building, 180 Poole, Abram, 18, 267, 270, 273 Pope, John Russell, 288, 301 Porter, Katherine, 205 Post, George B., 306 Potter, William A., 144, 153 Prairie Avenue, 10, 20–23, 24, 47, 61, 84, 86–87, 121, 146, 175, 176, 302 Prairie Avenue, (Meeker Jr.), 21, 85 Prairie School, 10, 29, 30, 33, 97, 232, 309, 314 Prairie style, 10, 170, 213, 235, 317 Pratt, Richard, 9 Prettyman, William, 157 Priestly, Joseph, 310 Princess of Sweden, 104 Princeton University, 81, 269, 301, 312 Prohibition, 75, 305 Pugin, Augustus Welby, 32, 317 Pulitzer, Joseph, 309 Pullman Company, 64, 74 Pullman Palace Car Company, 64, 93, 297 Pullman Strike, 68 Pullman, George M., 15, 20, 23, 51, 61, 62–64, 67–69, 72, 74, 96, 176, 215, 302 Pullman, George M., 175 Pullman, Harriet and Florence, 61 Pullman, Hattie, 61, 69 Pullman, House of George M., 60–69 Pullman, IL, 67, 73, 302, 309 Pullman, James Lewis, 63 Purdue University, 241, 310 Quadrangle Club, University of Chicago, 314

{ 333 }

Quarter, Walter, 129 Quarter, William J., 129 Queen Anne style, 24, 30, 32, 111, 129, 135, 304 Queen of Romania, 104 Quigley, James Edward, 134 R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 87, 177 Racine College, 203 Radcliffe College, 308 Railway Utilities Company, 239 Rath, John, 307 Ravenswood, 310 Refectory, Humboldt Park, 73 Regas, John, 289 Reid, Murdoch & Co., 309 Reliance Building, 303 Renwick, James, 312, 314 Richard H. Driehaus Museum, 100 Richard Love Galleries, 100 Richardson, Allison, 62 Richardson, Henry Hobson, 18, 30, 31, 32, 117, 136, 137–39, 142, 144, 149, 150, 152, 153–57, 160, 201, 303, 305, 308, 310–11, 314, 316 Richardson, Julia, 314 Richardsonian, 161, 310 Richardsonian Romanesque, 31, 137, 179, 304, 310 River Forest, 10 Robb, J. Hampden, 187 Robie Motor Car Co., 243 Robie, Frederick C., 24, 241, 243, 247, 318 Robie, House of Frederick C., 9, 10, 232, 240–49 Robie, Lora Hieronymus, 241 Robinson, Eleanor Barber, 275, 278–79, 281 Robinson, Laura, 278 Rockefeller, John D., 103, 230, 311 Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 108 Roebuck, Alvah, 227 Rogers, Anne Day, 205, 311 Rogers, James Gamble, 30, 204, 205, 311–12 Romanesque Revival style, 30, 31, 32, 33, 137, 310


INDEX

Romanesque style, 10, 157, 179, 201, 314, 315 Rookery, 181, 303, 312 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 134 Root, John Wellborn, 9, 31, 32, 33, 111, 149, 150, 153, 182, 239, 303, 310, 312 Rosenwald Family Association, 233 Rosenwald, House of Julius, 10, 226–33 Rosenwald, Julius, 15, 24, 227–28, 230–33, 309 Rostand, Edmond, 115 Royal Academy (Munich), 223 Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Copenhagen), 316 Royal Institute of British Architects, 308 Rubens, Harry, 235 Rumsey, Julian S., 18 Ruskin, John, 42 Russell House, 26 Russell, Edward P., 25 Rutan, Charles H., 314 Ryerson Library, 255 Ryerson, Annie Lawrie McBirney, 286, 288, 289 Ryerson, Edward Larned, 254 Ryerson, House of Joseph T., Jr., 9, 282–89 Ryerson, House of Martin A., 295 Ryerson, House of Mrs., 270 Ryerson, Joseph, 18 Ryerson, Joseph T., Jr., 25, 286, 288, 289, 301 Ryerson, Martin, 24, 182, 225 Ryerson, Arthur Larned , 273 Ryerson, Mrs. Arthur, 267, 301 Ryerson, Mrs. Joseph T., Jr., 301 Saddle & Cycle Club, 203 Salny, Stephen, 269 Sandburg, Carl, 15 Sanskrit, 107 Santa Claus soaps, 84 Sawyer, Erna, 255, 256 Sawyer, Goodman & Company (later the Sawyer Goodman Company), 255 Sawyer, Philetus, 255 Scales, John C., 307

Schaffner, Joseph, 24 Schlesinger & Mayer, 316 Schlitz Brewing Company, 72, 305 Schlitz Row, 73 Schlitz, Joseph, 72 Schmidt & Garden, 10, 212 Schmidt, Garden & Martin, 312–13 Schmidt, Otto, 215 Schmidt, Richard E., 213, 214, 215, 304, 312–13 Schoenhofen Brewery, 313 School of Art Institute, 210, 256 Schultz, Jim, 146 Schuyler, Montgomery, 30 Scott, Baillie, 222 Scott, Isaac, 146, 293 Scott, Nannie Douglas, 48 Scottish Rite Cathedral, 316 Scribner’s, 32, 149 Scully, Vincent, 308 Sears, Helen Stedman Berry, 83 Sears, House of Joseph, 82–87 Sears, John, 83 Sears, Joseph, 83, 84, 91 Sears, Richard, 15, 227 Sears, Roebuck & Company, 227, 228, 233, 309 Second Empire style, 30, 40 Second Presbyterian Church, 188, 223, 314 Secretary of the Treasury, 155 Seglin, David, 210 Seipp, Conrad, 22, 72, 304 Seipp, Elsa, 214 Seipp, House of Conrad, 295 Selfidge’s, 297 Selfridge, House of Harry, 297 Seymore, Claude, 307 Seymour, House of Claude, 298 Shaw, Francis Wells, 313 Shaw, Howard Van Doren, 9, 25, 30, 214, 223, 250, 251, 254, 256, 258, 259, 261, 269, 274, 275, 278, 286, 297, 301, 313–14 Shaw, Richard Norman, 208, 219 Shedd, John Graves, 24 Sheldon, George W., 89, 117 Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson & Abbott, 314

{ 334 }

Shepley, George F., 314 Shepley, Henry Richardson and Julia Richardson, 314 Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, 30, 76, 80, 142, 154, 155, 156, 200, 201, 297, 298, 305, 313, 314 Sherman House Hotel, 197 Sherman, House of Watts, 308 Sherman, John B., 303 Sherry’s of New York, 47 Shingle style, 303, 308, 318 Silsbee, Joseph Lyman, 235, 307, 317 Simonds, Ossian C., 180 Sinai Temple, 302 Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Foundation, 146, 172 Smith, George Washington, 301 Smith, House of Perry H., 292 Smith, Perry H., 197 Society of Architectural Historians, 172 Society of Midland Authors, 164 Sorbonne, 288 Sorority Quadrangle, Northwestern University, 312 South Michigan Avenue, 86, 121–22, 175 Spalding & Porter, 255 Spencer & Powers, 306 Spencer, Robert, 214 “Spirit of the Waves”(Madlener house), 217 Sprague, Paul, 172 Springer Block, 316 St. Catherine’s Academy, 132 St. James Episcopal Church, 302 St. Louis National Stock Yard Company, 261 St. Luke’s Free Hospital, 93 St. Thomas Church, 302 Stable, Humboldt Park, 73 Standard Brewing Company, 193 Standard Oil, 311 Stanford University, 314 State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 58 State Street, 24, 120 Statue of Liberty, 306 Steeles Tavern, 53


INDEX

Steinway Hall, 306, 318 Sterling Law buildings, Yale University, 311 Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University, 311 Stewart Apartments, 115 Stewart, John K., 115 Stonehill, Mr. and Mrs. Charles, 288 Street Hall, Yale University, 316 Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, 302 Studebaker Building, 302 Sturgis, Russell, 156, 308, 316 Sullivan, Albert, 168, 315 Sullivan, Anna List, 315 Sullivan, House of Albert, 296 Sullivan, Louis, 10, 30, 31, 32, 33, 137, 160, 163, 167, 168, 172, 213, 214, 239, 302, 303, 310, 311, 312, 313, 315–16, 317 Sullivan, Patrick, 315 Swedenborgian Church, 83 Swedish Engineers Society of Chicago, 198 Swift & Company, 261 Swift Hall of Engineering, Northwestern University, 307 Swift, Gustavus, 15, 24, 261 Swift, House of Gustavus Jr., 298 Swift, Helen, 261 Tacoma Building, 180 Taft, William Howard, 155 “Tall Office Building Artistically Considered,” (Sullivan), 315 Tallmadge, Thomas, 117 Tallmadge and Watson, 298 Tapestry Room, 81 Taylor, David Lee, 247 The Breakers, 306 “The City House in the West”(Root), 149 The Decoration of Houses (Wharton and Codman), 210 The Game of Chess (Goodman), 256 The Geography of Home (Busch), 176 The Grand American Avenue (ed., Cigliano and Landau), 21 The Green Scarf (Goodman), 256

The Life of Edward E. Ayer (Cummins), 151 The Melody of Childhood (Coonley), 164 The Melody of Life (Coonley), 164 The Melody of Love (Coonley), 164 The Merchant Prince of Cornville (Gross), 115 The Practical Sculptor, Comprising a Series of Original Drawings for Monuements, Mantles, Balustrades, & Adapted to the Present Taste and Style of Architecture (Wadskier), 316 The Prairie School (Brooks), 313 “The Story of a House,”(Glessner), 146 Theatre Film Service Company, 298 Theurer, Joseph, 193, 215 Thomas, Theodore, 146 Tiffany, Charles, 309 Times Mirror, 189 Titanic, 273 Tomlinson, Webster, 306 Torrence, Joseph T., 104 Town & Country, 183, 201 Transportation Building, World’s Fair, 315 Treasury Department, 155 Treat & Foltz, 251, 293, 295 Tree, House of Hans Lambert, 294 Tribune Building, 302 Trinity Church, 150, 310 Tripp, Dora, 219, 222 Tudor style, 30, 254, 311, 314 Tuskegee Institute, 230 Uihlein, Augusta Manns, 72 Uihlein, Edward, 10, 71, 72, 74, 75, 304 Uihlein, House of Edward, 70–75 Ulmenheim, 36–43 Union Army, 261, 293 Union Bag and Paper Company, 97 Union Club, 303 Union College of Law, 113 Union League, 203 Union Stock Yard and Transit Company, 303 Union Stock-Yards National Bank, 95 United Charities, 182 United States, 16, 51

{ 335 }

United States Army, 150 United States Sanitary Commission, 39 United States Senate, 93, 154 Unity Church, 316 Unity Temple, 317 University Club, 205 University of Chicago, 23, 39, 164, 231, 232, 241, 249, 304, 312, 314 University of Göttingen, 302 University of Illinois, 305 University of Indiana, 305 University of Michigan, 309, 310 University of Virginia, 308 University of Wisconsin, 317 Upjohn, Richard, 302 Van Bergen, John, 318 Van Brunt, Henry, 306 van der Rohe, Mies, 25, 146 Van Osdel, John, 302 Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 306 Vanderbilt, George W., 45 Vanderbilt, William K., 306 Vassar College, 314 Venturi, Robert, 308 Veronese, Paolo, 156 Victoria’s Secret, 26 Victorian style, 30, 32, 112 Villard, Henry, 309 Viollet-le-Duc, 146 Wadskier, Theodore Vigo, 88, 93, 316 Wagner, Otto, 222 Wainwright Building, 316 Wainwright Tomb, 213 Walnut Grove, 53 Walska, Ganna, 107 Ward, Henry, 164 Ward, Lydia Coonley, 164 Ward, Montgomery, 15 Ward-Coonley Collection, 164 Warder, Benjamin, 311 Warder, Bushnell & Glessner, 79, 142 Warren Boulevard, 18 Washburne, Hempstead, 239 Washington Boulevard, 18 Washington Herald, 189 Washington Times, 189 Washington University, 314


INDEX

Washington, Booker T., 230 Wasmuth Portfolio, 318 Wasmuth, Ernst, 318 Water Tower, Chicago, 18–19, 23, 26 Watkins, J. R, Medical Company, 307 Weaver, Lawrence, 32 Webb & Knapp, 249 Webster, Daniel, 42 Weese, Ben, 146 Weese, Harry, 146 Wells, Francis, 313 West Park System, 75 West Point, 308 Western Association of Architects, 305, 312 Western Edison Light Company, 89–90, 91, 93 Wharton, Edith, 210 Wheelock & Clay, 295 Whistler, James McNeill, 47, 181, 223 White House, 308 White, Richard Grant, 308 White, Stanford, 187, 307, 308, 311 Whitehouse, Francis, 30, 85, 293, 294, 296, 297, 302–3, 306

Whitehouse, Henry, 302 Whiting, Lawrence Harley, 281 Whitney, William Channing, 309, 313 Who’s Who in Chicago, 1911, 74 Wicker Park, 72, 305 Wickes, Eliphalet, 37 Widow Clarke House, 17, 18 Wight Fireproofing Company, 317 Wight, Peter Bonnett, 9, 30, 36, 41, 303, 312, 316–17 Wilber, Marshall Dodge and Isadora, 247 Willett & Pashley, 128 Willett, James R., 132, 134 Williams, House of Eli B., 302 Willits, Ward, 318 Wilson, Richard Guy, 301 Wilson, Thomas, 259 Winona Savings Bank, 307 Winslow house, William W., 163, 172, 213 Winston, F. S., 201 Winterbotham, Rue, 183 Wintergreen, Richard, 146 Work, Robert, 301, 313

{ 336 }

World War I, 189, 279 World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 (World’s Fair), 9, 10, 22, 24, 28, 30, 33, 72, 74, 93, 125, 179, 180, 182, 187, 197, 231, 245, 303, 304, 306, 307, 313, 315, 317 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 10, 24, 31, 32, 40, 163, 167, 170, 172, 213, 214, 232, 235, 239, 240, 241, 245, 247, 249, 278, 296, 297, 306, 307, 312, 313, 315, 317–18 Wright, William, 317 Wrightwood Avenue, 193 Wrigley Chewing Gum Company, 281 Yale University, 154, 167, 170, 205, 208, 303, 311, 313, 314, 316 Yerkes Observatory, 205 YMCA and YWCA, 230 Zeckendorf, William, 249 Ziegfield, Florenz, Jr., 18 Zuber et Cie, 183

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Great Houses of Chicago, 1871-1921 is the first authoritative study of Chicago’s grand city houses. Thirty four in-depth profiles, illustrat...

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