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Volume 2, Spring 2012

PINNACLE The Derryfield School’s Scholarly Magazine The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination. Albert Einstein

Welcome, Scholars! You are currently reading the second issue of Derryfield’s academic magazine, Pinnacle! This magazine contains some of the best academic work in the Derryfield community and incorporates works from every discipline. As this is only the second installment of Pinnacle, I would like to explain the origin of this magazine. Jamie Ducharme and Kimberley Selwyn, of the Class of 2011, introduced Pinnacle as a method for students to express themselves through academics. The two write, “We recognized that not everyone has a skill that can be easily displayed on the field, the stage, or the gallery walls; we hope to help fill that void with this project.” Thank you to all who submitted. Even more, I am utterly grateful to all who made this possible, especially Becky Josephson and Lindley Shutz. Enjoy!

Leah DeWitt

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Blindness in the World of the Greeks — The Curse of Madness or the Blessing of Truth Cameron Campbell ’12

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The Transformation of Racial Oppression Amy Trinh ’13

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Liz Lemon: Break Out Character Lulu Carter ’13

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Evaluating the Cost of a Refrigerator Over Time Leah DeWitt ’12

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Lab E3: Ohm’s Law Maggie Cochrane, Leah DeWitt, and Saniya Shah ’12

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Translation: Horace Odes (Book III Poem 9) Ryan Stevenson ’12

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Borges: Técnicas de Irrealidad Maggie Cochrane ’12

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Ensayos de Práctica Leah DeWitt ’12

Editor-in-Chief: Leah DeWitt Faculty Advisors: Becky Josephson and Lindley Shutz


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Volume Volume 2, 2, Spring Spring 2012 2012

HISTORY We are not makers of history. We are made by history. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

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Blindness in the World of the Greeks — The Curse of Madness or the Blessing of Truth Cameron Matthias Campbell ’12 Senior Honors History Seminar: Antiquity In Homer’s Iliad, the classic Archaic-era epic, he consistently uses the word “blindness” to describe a wholly negative condition, one that connotes madness, folly, and even divine punishment. In contrast, Sophocles, a Classical-era playwright, refers to “blindness” in Oedipus Rex and Oedipus at Colonus as a far more subtle force that masks the mortal world but reveals truth in the process. These differing concepts of blindness stem from a fundamental change in the Greek worldview: Archaic Greece was focused wholly on martial excellence, and blindness was therefore seen as a curse. With Classical Greece’s newfound emphasis on a virtuous soul, and Plato’s proposition that the mortal world was a “shadow” to be transcended, blindness took on a positive connotation that it entirely lacked in the Archaic era. In the battles of the Iliad, blindness serves a singular purpose: it is a curse of recklessness or fear that strikes down the warrior, and bears no redeeming qualities. Agamemnon decries his failure to compromise with Achilles as a sightlessness sent by the gods, lamenting, “Mad, blind I was!” (Iliad 255). In a later tirade, he accuses the gods specifically of inflicting blindness on humanity as a punishing force. When he claims, “Great are the blinding frenzies you deal out to men!” he implicitly describes those “blinding frenzies” themselves as afflictions without mercy, punishments to be avoided rather than complex metaphysical conditions (Iliad 493). Later, as Achilles bears down on him, Aeneas too is made “blind with fear,” a condition that nearly results in his own death (Iliad 512): a clear indicator that the result of blindness will not be a boon, but rather an ignominious and early death in battle.

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With the rise of the Classical era, however, came a new emphasis on a virtuous soul, exemplified by Plato’s theories of the immortality of the soul and the world of forms. His Allegory of the Cave proposed specifically that the material world was but a world of shadows, and that perceiving it could actually detract from one’s ability to reach the world of forms. Because blindness removes an individual from Plato’s “world of shadows,” it may initially seem a curse, but it also enables one to comprehend the higher truth revealed by the world of forms – including an understanding of fate. Just such an understanding of fate is revealed in the Oedipus Cycle, as represented by its depiction of blindness: it serves a far more complex role than in the Iliad, representing a physical detriment but a spiritual blessing. The figure of the blind seer, Teiresias, is the first indicator of the dual roles of blindness: he is described as the only mortal in whom “truth was born. . . . blind though [he is]” – it is implied that his blindness to the physical world and his awareness of the world of fate are intrinsically bound together (Sophocles 16). Later, he foreshadows the folly of Oedipus by describing him as blind to the truth although he can see the world around him (Sophocles 25). As Oedipus begins to realize the depth of his recklessness and pride, he sees the wisdom in Teiresias’ words, remarking that “I am not sure that the blind man can not see” (Sophocles 40). As the play draws to its close, Oedipus’ own decision to blind himself carries an equal metaphysical weight. Although his initial motive is denying himself the painful sight of the world around him, his blindness also allows him to comprehend fundamental truths about fate and his own condition that he failed to see earlier: as the Choragos tells him, “Your fate is clear, you are not blind to that” (Sophocles 72). As he exiles himself from Thebes, he realizes the full depth of his earlier folly: he refers to his blindness simply as “[a new] way of seeing,” and condemns his earlier actions because he “had neither sight nor knowledge [while he was sighted]” (Sophocles 78). By the introduction to Oedipus at

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Colonus, he has fully come to terms with the dual blessing and curse of his blindness. When he is asked what service he can render Theseus, as a blind man, he replies ironically that “All I shall say will be clearsighted indeed,” commenting on his clear-sighted ability to perceive truth although he cannot see the world (Sophocles 90). This difference in the role of blindness – from the warrior’s misfortune in the Iliad to the gift of true-seeing in the Oedipus Cycle – hinges on a fundamental shift in Greek values from the Archaic to the Classical era. In the days of Homer’s work, the Greek ideal was that of a warrior who could achieve martial excellence on the battlefield: the soul and the afterlife to which it traveled were seen as banal and unimportant compared to the immortality that a successful warrior could achieve. Therefore, anything that impeded a warrior in his quest for glory – such as blindness – would intrinsically be seen as a curse, possibly sent by the gods as punishment. As the Archaic emphasis on martial excellence waned, so too did the Greek fear of blindness as a debilitating force. In its place emerged a newfound view of blindness as a spiritual blessing, though it remained a curse in the material world: though it isolates men such as Oedipus and Teiresias from the world around them, it opens their eyes to the world of fate that was before closed to them. Thus, through the transition from Archaic to Classical ideologies, the concept of blindness was changed from a negative force of madness and folly to a positive one of prophecy and truth.

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The Transformation of Racial Oppression Amy Trinh ’13 AP United States History The abusive conduct towards slaves transformed into an even more racially violent and oppressive attitude after their liberation in the Civil War. Slavery was a system of white dominance, for African Americans were subjugated to oppression and abuse. Although the Civil War’s abolition of this “peculiar” institution may have represented freedom from white tyranny, it proved instead to cause a heightened shift in white antagonism: a racial prejudice resulting from the denial to accept freedmen as equals. While the oppression of African Americans symbolized supremacy in the white race, the liberation of slaves in the Civil War, representing the elimination of racial imbalance, proved to be rather a transformation of African American abuse by the intensified violence of the Reconstruction period. Because slaves were bound to and confined to serve under white jurisdiction, their oppression emphasizes white superiority. African Americans under the life of slavery faced brutal measures: they lived in abject poverty causing high mortality rates, worked arduous long hours leading to death, and were condemned to rape and thus hostility from the mistresses (Brinkley 309). This way of life where there is no escape from physical and mental torment illustrates a degradation of slaves as human beings. They were dehumanized to the point where they had become possessions, as exemplified through the slave trade where blacks were transferred to central markets in order to be auctioned off to other buyers (Brinkley 312). The slave trade established them not only as property, but deprived them of family, love, and community. Children stripped from parents and families torn apart exemplified this idea of white dominance in this cruel treatment because whites controlled this system. This idea of racial imbalance is

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further represented in Hammond’s “Mudsill Theory”: “We do not think that whites should be slaves either by law or necessity. Our slaves are black, of another and inferior race” (Hammond - The “Mudsill” Theory). Hammond considers African Americans an “inferior race,” and, in this way, he justifies slavery. He implies that, because whites are a superior people, they do not deserve the condescension that accompanies being a slave. Although it may appear that slaves were content, and, according to Stampp, “said the things they thought their masters wanted to hear, and... conformed with the rituals that signified their subservience,” it was a misconception (Stampp - A Troublesome Property). Further on in Stampp’s essay, he argues rather that: The masters had power and... they developed an elaborate technique of slave control. Their very preoccupation with this technique was, in itself, a striking refutation of the

myth

that

slavery

survived because of the cheerful acquiescence of the slaves (Stampp - A Troublesome Property). Stampp conveys that the reason slavery persisted was not because of the slaves’ compliance, but because of the extent to which plantation owners would go in order to keep their labor-force restrained. This connects back to the idea of oppression: the institution of slavery was kept alive because of white methods used to keep them confined. He exposes rising racial tensions between a race perceived to be inferior and another superior. For example, the running away of slaves lead to the Fugitive Slave Law in the Compromise of 1850, which ordered that Northern states had to return any slaves that had escaped from their masters (Brinkley 335). Although the Union territories were considered “free,” the Fugitive Slave Law represented a slave’s eternal imprisonment, a bondage that could never be severed. In this way the passing of the law rendered a slave forever tied to an autocratic white master. African Americans did not face equality before the law: In the Dred Scott Decision (Dread Scott v. Sandford), the slave Scott had been taken into lands where slavery was forbidden. After his master’s death, he sued his master’s widow and

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grounded in Missouri law, he was declared free. However, the State Supreme Court reversed this ruling when the brother of the widow later claimed possession of Scott (Binkley 365). This decision was an act of white supremacy because Scott had no standing against a white plantation owner. Furthermore, the fact that Scott had no citizenship and no protection under the Constitution not only put whites above him, but made him inferior by the laws in which the United States abided by, laws that the Founding Fathers had created. The oppression and abuse forced upon slavery conveyed racial imbalance, weighted toward the whites. The liberation of the slaves in the Civil War may have implied future release from white tyranny; however, the result was a transformation of racial opposition into an intensified means of violence and oppression. The abolition of the institution began with Abraham Lincoln’s 1862 Emancipation Proclamation, which had liberated all slaves residing in the Confederacy. As antislavery sentiments had grown, the ultimate step had come in the 1865 13th Amendment, which eradicated slavery in the United States (Brinkley 380-381). These two events marked a significant milestone for African Americans. After being for so long a puppet to white authority, their slavery as a whole had been abolished. This idea of breaking away from the ties of plantations and overseers demonstrated the hope for equality. It suggested the elimination of racial imbalance. However, the perception of equality that came with the slaves’ liberation in the Civil War (1861 - 1865) proved to be a misconception. To begin with, Frederick Douglass, a freed man born into slavery, noted the condition in which slavery had left blacks: ...the freedman was powerless. He had nothing left him but a slavery-distorted and diseased body, and lame and twisted, limbs with which to fight the battle of life (Frederick Douglass on Reconstruction). He conveys that although the institution had been abolished, slaves cannot enter society on the same level

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as whites. So beaten down and ruined by years of enslavement, Douglass emphasizes a human being who can no longer continue down the path of life. “Distorted,” “diseased,” and “lame and twisted” vividly depict the abjection, a result of white abuse. Slaves were put in such a vulnerable position that they would not hold against a heightened racial aggression. This intensified white antagonism first began with the 1865 and 1866 Black Codes in the South, which gave a considerable amount of power to whites over freedmen (Brinkley 410). The Black Codes demonstrated the misconception from the Civil War because abolition did not entirely free African Americans from white control. This legislation enacted upon them upset a balance of equality. It was a transformation, an alteration of abuse. The Black Codes represented a way to still oppress blacks despite their liberation. Racial antagonism intensified in the Memphis Race Riot of 1866 where hostile whites had destroyed black neighborhoods and killed forty-six people. Although intents were unclear, it was believed that the riot was in response to strict regulations defending freedmen and an endeavor to intimidate and control them (Brinkley 411 - The Memphis Race Riot, 1866). This riot exemplifies the whites’ refusal to accept freedmen as not just equals, but as people. Their rampage shows how they had still viewed African Americans as property and dehumanized their worth. However, unlike this similar perception was the shift in violence. Because a slave had been considered a possession in pre-Civil War, there was a sense that, the owner must preserve it in order to use it for toil. Yet the Memphis Race Riot indicated a change in white aggression: there appeared to be no restraint in ravaging black neighborhoods, destroying buildings and taking lives. Whites looked to still undermine African Americans even though they no longer had the control, the superiority, they once had. The transformation of racial antagonism is further shown in the heightened violence of secret societies, particularly the Ku Klux Klan founded in 1866. It used terrorism in order to intimidate and their “midnight rides” tyrannized black communities (Brinkley 421). Societies such as the Ku Klux Klan

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contradicted the implication of equality and freedom from white oppression the Civil War had brought. In fact, it drastically altered racial opposition despite slavery’s abolition. The Ku Klux Klan was different from the oppression by the Black Codes and the Memphis Race Riot. It was not just a legislative restraint or a violent raid, but a largely organized militant force. It symbolized the continuation of a war that had already ended, a war the South had fought to preserve slavery. Therefore, the heightened racial antagonism following slavery’s abolition was a transformation. White dominance due to the oppression of slaves may have been hoped to die out with the abolition of the institution; nevertheless, the intensified racial hostility proved to be a change in African American abuse. The persecution of slaves left African Americans inferior to white superiority. The liberation of slaves in the Civil War may have indicated future racial balance, yet instead white oppression underwent a transformation as new forms of abuse morphed themselves around the blacks in order to still oppress them. This idea of transformation pervades throughout history, particularly with the Scientific Revolution. This movement of breaking away from pre-conceived notions and following original thought creates this alteration from what had been simpler knowledge and technology to an advanced and modernized society. Although highly established religious figures and men believed otherwise, much as the abolition of slavery had been hoped to diminish racial violence, science had dramatically transformed.

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ENGLISH Literature adds to reality, it does not simply describe it. It enriches the necessary competencies that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the deserts that our lives have already become. C.S. Lewis

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Liz Lemon: Break Out Character Lulu Carter ’13 AP English Language and Composition

In NBC's hit mockumentary series, 30 Rock, Liz Lemon challenges conventional gender roles by presenting a different version of feminine than has traditionally been presented in television. Liz is a character who breaks away from the widespread image of the trendy, passive woman and instead takes on the role of frumpy ball buster. Liz's clothing is frumpy and out of fashion, in stark contrast to the traditional concept of the appearance obsessed female. Though Liz does challenge some traditional conceptions of women, she also does assume a somewhat conventional persona in the way she relates to others in the work place. While traditional concepts of women have shown them as being polite and submissive, Liz assumes a powerful position with blunt mannerisms. Ultimately, Liz's aversion to fashion and her bossy personality challenge the accepted image of what it is to be a woman, while her relationships with others make it easier for us to accept. Instead of portraying yet another fashion obsessed female, Liz Lemon is remarkably out of step with the style world. Liz’s aversion to fashion is presented early in the series. In the third episode, she has to be ordered by a male superior to go out and buy new clothing for a blind date, “from a women’s clothing store.” This in itself challenges the image frequently promoted in television that women, as a gender, are oriented around looking good. Liz’s clothing choices are compared to two other characters on the show: Cerie, the inappropriate intern, and Jenna, the aging star obsessed with retaining her sex appeal. If the writers of 30 Rock intended to compare Liz’s go-to work attire with any character, Cerie is definitely dressed for the part. Cerie makes a habit of wearing very short cut-offs and shirts that are

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simultaneously cut too low and too high. She makes a comical comparison to Liz’s go-to outfit, an illfitting blazer and thick-framed black glasses. Jenna, in turn, shines a light on Liz’s nonchalant attitude towards make-up and cosmetic surgical procedures. One of the more interesting comparisons would be Liz’s dumbstruck reaction to Jenna using leeches to loose weight – “I’ve lost tons of blood weight,” Jenna tells Liz (Episode 4, Season 6). Liz fails to understand, and in fact chastises Jenna for acting so “dumb.” The juxtaposition of Liz, dowdy and drab, with Cerie and Jenna, both of whom concentrate their energies on personal upkeep, reflects the emergence of a female character that challenges the stylish, trendy, and skinny caricature of women so often portrayed in television. In her relationships, Liz is actually somewhat conventional in the role she fills. Her immediate superior is Jack Doneghy, the stereotypical white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant male. Jack as verbalizes their relationship being that of “mentor/mentee,” but in its essence, he tells her what to do, and she does it (Episode 3, Season 1). Liz may grumble at his orders, and those orders might be issued with her best interests at heart, but she nonetheless obeys. With those who are not her superior, but instead her underlings; Liz assumes the role of a mother hen. When Jenna buys into a dieting craze, or Tracy, say, gets a facial tattoo of a dragon that he claims is real but is actually drawn with marker in order to increase his “street cred,” instead of punishing them, Liz makes the problems go away (Episode 6, Season 1). Liz acts as a caretaker for those who she is charged with, and treats them the way a mother might treat her children. In her relationships, Liz actually makes an interesting parallel to the image of a Wife portrayed by Judy Syfers in her 1971 essay, “Why I Want a Wife.” Liz makes sure that her “children” are cared for, and keeps her “house” clean and free of disruption, and listens to Jack when he “explain[s] a rather difficult point” (Syfers). Liz challenges many conventional ideas that surround women, but she still fills a traditional role in relationships.

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Liz grasps the title of head writer for a popular television show, and the power that accompanies it, with ease, assuming the role with a bossy confidence that contradicts traditional images of women in the workplace. Virginia Woolf was not the first to verbalize how women ought to behave, but in her essay “Professions for Women,” she takes an unconventional approach by having the “angel” of propriety express it. The angel whispers, “Never let anybody guess that you have a mind of your own,” to Woolf as she writes and disrupts conventional gender norms. If the angel were to see Liz Lemon, screaming at one of her male stars “Wait for me in my office!”, imagine what she might say (Episode 3, Season 6). Liz breaks the ideal of a docile and submissive woman by even taking a job which would put her in a position over men, but goes further by enforcing rules and issuing commands. Liz does not feel challenged by her role as “the boss,” but rather embraces it. She easily sits Cherie down to explain why she must start dressing more professionally in the work place (Episode 4, Season 1). She manipulates her immature cast members with skill. Liz challenges the idea that women must be submissive by representing a woman who is not, and instead offers viewers an example of a powerful, dominant woman. Ultimately, when you sit down to watch 30 Rock, and you see Liz Lemon striding about, gesticulating wildly in drab attire and yelling at her subordinates but still taking care of them, she will not strike you as unconventional. Liz shows audiences women who they already know exist. As women like Hilary Clinton assume powerful roles in government, a woman with a high-ranking job is not shocking any more. Simply walking around in your average American Wal-Mart will prove that not all women are dressed in designer labels and have invisible pores, so Liz’s unattractive clothing does not enrage you. Seeing a woman care for people whom one might term “helpless” certainly challenges nothing in your psyche. The part of Liz Lemon that is revolutionary is that she represents a shift, from television representing the ideal woman, to television representing the real woman. In her TED talk, Lauren

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Zalaznick suggests that “television has a conscience” and “television is how we disseminate our value system.” If that is true, we all know a Liz Lemon, and now television is finally reflecting her.

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MATHEMATICS If people do not believe that mathematics is simple, it is only because they do not realize how complicated life is. John Louis von Neumann

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Evaluating the Cost of a Refrigerator Over Time Leah DeWitt ’12 Precalculus Variables Let C(t) be the annual cost of the refrigerator, in dollars per year ($/year) Let t be the time of refrigerator ownership, in years Function

! ! =

92! + 800 !

Annual cost if refrigerator lasts for 15 years?

! 15 =

92(15) + 800 = $145.33/!"#$ 15 Annual Cost vs. Time Graph

C(t), Annual Cost ($/year)

(1, 892)

(2, 492)

(10,172) C(t) = 92

(15, 145.33)

(40, 112)

t, Time (years)

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Window For this graph, I chose the window [0, 50] by [0, 500] for multiple reasons. The minimum for the x -axis is zero because I cannot have a negative value for t, time. I also know there cannot be a negative annual cost, so the y-axis has a minimum of zero. I chose a maximum x value of 50 because I figure the refrigerator will not be around for longer than 50 years. I chose a y maximum of 1000 so the shape of the function was easy to see and the annual refrigerator cost for one year, $892, was visible. There is another portion of this graph in the second and third quadrants, because they fulfill the function mathematically, but they cannot be in this graph because negative values do not work in the reality of this problem. Description of Ordered Pair The point (2, 492) on the graph means that if the refrigerator is owned for 2 years, each year of ownership will require a payment of $492. The point (40, 112) means that if the refrigerator lasts 40 years, it will require a $112 annual payment. As time goes on, the annual payment becomes smaller. Horizontal Asymptote The horizontal asymptote for this function is C(t) = 92. This means that, over time, the annual cost will get closer and closer to $92 per year. After many years, it will feel like you are only paying for the electric cost of the refrigerator, which is $92. However, it will never be exactly $92 because you still have to account for the initial cost of the refrigerator, $800. Function for New Energy-Efficient Refrigerator (Curve in Red): Â ! ! =

C(t), Annual Cost ($/year)

500

400

300

200

(10, 172)

100

0

10

20

30

40

50

t, Time (years)

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!"##!!"! !


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The new, energy-efficient refrigerator, as long as it is kept and lasts for a significant amount of time, is definitely worth the difference in costs. Changing the electricity costs from $92 per year to $52 per year also changes the horizontal asymptote from C(t) = 92 to C(t) = 52. This means that over time, the annual cost of the refrigerator will only be about $52. If the $800 refrigerator lasted 15 years, it would cost $145.33 per year. If the new $1200 refrigerator lasted 15 years, it would cost only $132.00 per year. There is a point, however, when the energy-efficient refrigerator is less cost-effective. Any time after ten years of ownership, the energy-efficient refrigerator is the better buy. If either of the refrigerators is only kept for less than ten years, the $800 refrigerator is the better choice. I know this because the intersection of the two curves is at (10, 172). This point means that if both refrigerators are kept for exactly 10 years, they will have the same annual cost, $172 per year. This can also be found easily mathematically by setting the two functions equal to each other. That math would look like this: !""!!"! !

=

!"##!!"! !

800 + 92t = 1200 + 52t 40t = 400 t = 10 years It is visible graphically that the annual cost of the energy-efficient refrigerator is greater than that of the $800 refrigerator in the first 10 years of ownership, but it is less after that point. This has to do with the horizontal asymptote, as mentioned before, and also the initial cost of the refrigerator.

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SCIENCE Science cannot resolve moral conflicts, but it can help to more accurately frame the debates about those conflicts. Heinz Pagels

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Lab E3: Ohm’s Law Maggie Cochrane, Leah DeWitt, and Saniya Shah ’12 AP Physics

Abstract The objective of Electromagnetism Lab 3 was designing an experiment to prove Ohm’s law. Ohm’s Law states that current through a device is always directly proportional to the voltage applied to the device. The accompanying equation reads V = IR. The methodology involved creating circuits with constant, independent, and dependent variables. We designed an experiment based on this equation. Current is directly proportional to voltage (as voltage increases, current increases). Current is also inversely proportional to resistance.

Date Submitted: April 17, 2012 Date Performed: April 11, 2012 Course: AP Physics Block G Course Instructor: Mr. Cousineau

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Procedure Equipment: Breadbox, Connecting wires, Resistors of varying strength, Multimeter, Power Supply, Ammeter Relationship Between Current and Voltage 1. Configure a simple circuit involving one resistor and one power supply. In this experiment, resistance will be held constant at 100 â„Ś. 2. Set the voltage of the power supply with the multimeter. In this experiment, voltage will be the independent variable. 3. Using the ammere, measure the current flowing through the resistor. In this experiment, current is the dependent variable. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for a total of five tests, setting the voltage to a different level each time. (Warning: carefully monitor the system when in high voltage settings) Relationship Between Current and Resistance 1. Configure a simple circuit involving one resistor and one power supply. In this experiment, resistance will be the independent variable. 2. Set the voltage of the power supply with the multimeter. In this experiment, voltage will be held constant at 10 V. 3. Using the ammere, measure the current flowing through the resistor. In this experiment, current is the dependent variable. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for a total of six tests, changing the level of resistance each with each test. Data

Voltage (V) 2.51 4.99 10.01 15.01 16.52

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Current (A) 220 450 940 1490 1660


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Resistance (Ω) 33 68 100 150 220 330

Current (A) 0.285 0.140 0.094 0.064 0.044 0.030

Discussion In the experiment comparing current versus voltage, the data proved that current through a resistor is directly proportional to the voltage across that point. The data yielded the equation I = 98.5V, with R = 98.5 Ω. The resistor was labeled as a 100 Ω resistor, but it may have lost strength over time. (The resistance should have been recorded with the ammere upon starting the experiment.) By holding resistance constant, the data proved that current is directly proportional to voltage. In the experiment dealing with current and resistance, the expected result was obtained. The graph of the data shows a variation of the inverse function, which means that current is indirectly proportional to V 1 resistance. This is also seen in Ohm’s Law: V = IR ! I = ! I " . As resistance increased, the R R measurement of current seemed more precise. For example, the last gathered data point confirmed that the voltage was held at 9.9 V, but the first point suggests the voltage was 9.4 V. Conclusion In conclusion our objective was to prove that current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance and through our experiment we proved this. In our first experiment our data shows that as the voltage increased so did current. We started with 2.51 volts and 220 A and when we increased to 4.99 V our current also increased to 450 A, and this pattern continues through the rest of the trials. In the second experiment as Resistance increased the current decreased. For example we started with 33 ohms and the current being .285 A and as the resistance increased to 68 ohms the current decreased to .140 ohms. These two experiments proved ohms law, and proved that current and voltage are directly proportional and current and resistance are inversely proportional. Possible sources of error in this experiment could include inexact values of resistance, accidental change in power supply during second experiment, misreading of values on ammere.

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FOREIGN LANGUAGE Life is a foreign language; all men mispronounce it. Christopher Morley

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Translation: Horace Odes (Book III Poem 9) Ryan Stevenson ’12 Honors Latin Advanced Literature Seminar This Ode by Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) is a conversation between two lovers who alternate points of view in each stanza. This poem is written in the meter of the Second Asclepiad system, as Latin poems are not written to rhyme, like most English poetry, but to fit meters. The translation here is as literal as possible, and uses the literal meanings of words (e.g. “torch” for fax, which here could be read “fire of love”). This translation was also compared and edited in the Honors Latin Advanced Literature Seminar, taught by Dr. David Simpson.

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Borges: Técnicas de Irrealidad Maggie Cochrane ’12 AP Spanish Literature “El Sur” por Jorge Luis Borges es un cuento de realismo mágico, cuando los lectores no están ciertos que es la realidad y la irrealidad. Borges lo logra este técnica por el uso de símbolos y referencia específico. No conocemos que si la protagonista sobrevive el sanatorio, o todavía si él estaba en el sanatorio, pero hay un símbolo que significa que la realidad no es tan clave. A la empieza del cuento, Dahlmann está leyendo Mil y una noches, y cuando estaba leyendo, el recibió un tajo en su frente de cabeza. El símbolo es el cuento de Mil y una noches, porque la irrealidad aparece cuando Dahlmann tiene pesadillas sobre la trama. Como otros cuentos (Continuidad de los Parques, por ejemplo), la literatura es un símbolo de la fantasía. También, otro símbolo es el hombre en el bar durante el fin del cuento. El hombre tiene gauchos que “ya no quedan más que en el Sur” (Borges 151). Pues, el hombre significa la irrealidad: gente no llevan pantalones como los del caballero. Él es posiblemente un producto de la imaginación: una representación del pasado, o la vista romántica que Dahlmann tiene del Sur. La otra técnica que Borges emplea es paralelismo. Al principio del cuento, la protagonista pasa tiempo en un hospital, y cuando Dahlmann entre el bar, él “creyó reconocer al patrón; comprendió que lo había engañado su parecido con uno de los empleados del sanatorio” (Borges 150). Ahora, hay confusión por razón de este paralelismo: ¿está él en un bar misterioso, o es todavía en el sanatorio? La referencia significa que es posible que Dahlmann no esté seguro sobre su realidad.

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Por referencia directa y por los símbolos, Borges demuestra a sus lectores una idea de fantasma. Realismo mágico es una estrategia que pregunta la legitimidad de la vida auténtica: ¿podemos tener confianza en lo que observamos?

No sé, pero Dahlmann estaba experimentando una realidad tan

excéntrico.

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Ensayos de Práctica Leah DeWitt ’12 AP Spanish Language The following in-class essays, based off of material from the 2011 Advanced Placement Spanish Language exam, were written in preparation for the 2012 exam. AP essay topics often deal with ideas such as the environment, health, and culture. Two written articles and one audio source provide evidence for each answer. 2011 AP Spanish Language Presentational Writing (Free-Response) Question: ¿Cuál es el impacto del uso de la bicicleta en distintos lugares del mundo? El uso de la bicicleta ha aumentado en los últimos años, y los beneficios son obvios: este cambio ha afectado la comunidad, el medio ambiente, y la salud. Según el primero artículo impreso sobre bicicletas en Europa, hoy en día más y más ciudadanos están montando sus bicicletas para preservar el medio ambiente. De hecho, casi 75% de la gente en Ámsterdam viajan por los dos ruedas. El autor del artículo escribió que un de los dos motivos principales es la “preservación del medio ambiente.” Si más de la población global negaran de usar los carros, tendríamos aire mas limpio y saludable. La segunda fuente impresa también se trata del calentar global. El tema es que es preciso que reducimos el humo con el uso de transportación sostenible. La cultura de cada ciudad mencionada también ha mejorado por este cambio. Como punto de partida, el narrador de la fuente auditiva dice que Bogotá ha transformado en un lugar habitable. Cada domingo, ocurre un evento llamado “Ciclovía,” en que casi toda la gente corre, camina, o monta el “caballo de ruedas.” Es claro que eso reducirá el efecto invernadero, pero además aumentará la seguridad y tranquilidad y mejorá las relaciones entre los ciudadanos. Todos hace un esfuerzo para promover este cambio de vida. Por ejemplo, personas sin bicicletas pueden encontrarlas totalmente gratis. Este método de transporte y este evento han sido adoptado en muchos lugares del mundo. 28


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La primera fuente impresa habla del afecto de la salud. El uso de bicicleta apoya una vida activa, y actividades físicas nos ponen más saludables y contentos. El autor hace hincapié en que las personas de Estocolmo montan sus bicicletas por el beneficio de la salud colectiva. Al fin y al cabo, el rato del uso de transporte sostenible está creciendo rápidamente. Lo importante es que la comunidad, el medio ambiente, nuestra salud, y otros elementos de la vida reciben los beneficios de una cultura que incorpora el uso de bicicleta. 2011 AP Spanish Language Presentational Writing (Free-Response Form B) Question: ¿Por qué es aconsejable mantener una vida sana y activa? Los jóvenes tienen el riesgo más alto de obesidad porque faltan de dormir, comer bien, y ejercer. Como punto de partida, el primero artículo impreso se trata del asunto sobre alimentación en los Estados Unidos, especialmente entre los jóvenes. El chef mencionado, José Andrés, ha trabajado con Michelle Obama en la Casa Blanca – para ello, le gustaría que los grupos políticos enfocaran más en la vida saludable. Él dio una conferencia en la Casa Blanca – en que afirmó que "hay tanta que no sabe cómo alimentarse." El desafío de obesidad entre los jóvenes ha aumentado durante los últimos años, y él querría desempeñarse un papel para informar a los estadounidenses. Según Andrés, si desarrolláramos mejores hábitos, reduciríamos el riesgo de ser sobrepeso. La fuente auditiva también habla del riesgo de obesidad, que ha tenido un crecimiento exponencial desde los últimos años. A éste doctor, entonces, le importa que los niños hoy en día viven totalmente en sedentarismo. De hecho, 38% de los jóvenes en los EEUU no participan en nunca actividad físico cada día. El médico aconseja que el sistema de educación promueva deportes o clases de educación física. De acuerdo a pruebas recientes, un medio hora más ayudaría prevenir obesidad, y eso es el argumento del doctor mencionado.

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La segunda autora pone la culpa de obesidad en la carencia de sueño. Con investigación, científicos han introducido la idea que trastornos fiscales y de la salud mental son resultados de la falta del sueño. Sería mejor si los jóvenes durmieran solamente en o dos horas más cada noche para superarse y prepararse para el próxima día. La calidad fe atención en la escuela y la condición del cuerpo padecen porque actualmente estudiantes no tienen bastante tiempo para dormir. Al fin y al cabo, hay tres elementos que contribuyen al riesgo de obesidad entre los jóvenes: comida que no es saludable, sedentarismo, y falta de sueño. Por eso, necesitamos enseñar a la próxima generación cómo cuidarse para prevenir mortalidades por ser sobrepeso.

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Pinnacle 2012  

The Derryfield School's Scholarly Magazine

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