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O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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INDEX

The Conway School of Landscape Design is the only institution of its kind in North America. Its focus is sustainable landscape planning and design. Each year, through its accredited, ten-month graduate program just eighteen to nineteen students from diverse backgrounds are immersed in a range of applied landscape studies, ranging in scale from residences to regions. Graduates go on to play significant professional roles in various aspects of landscape planning and design. www.csld.edu

INTRODUCTION ................................1 CONTEXT regional.....................................2 neighborhood..........................3 EXISTING CONDITIONS..................4 SITE SECTION...................................5 CITY-WIDE ANALYSES................6-7 SITE ANALYSES access & circulation.............8 impervious surfaces.............9 views...........................................10 vegetation.................................11 utilities......................................12 sun/shade.................................13 summary analysis..................14 IDEAL CONCEPT.............................15 DESIGN ALTERNATIVE 1...........16-17 DESIGN ALTERNATIVE 2.........18-19 DESIGN ALTERNATIVE 3........20-21 FINAL DESIGN.................................22 planting guide.......................23 design details..................24-26 garden details................27-28 design precedents...............29 FOR THE FUTURE..........................30

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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The Springfield Museums The Springfield Museums include the

George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum, the Springfield Science Museum, the D’Amour Museum of Fine Art, the Connecticut Valley Historical Museum, the newly opened Lyman and Merrie Wood Museum of Springfield History, and the Dr. Suess Memorial Sculpture Garden. The Museums have long been a cultural and educational resource for the city. Since the 1895 opening of the Smith Museum, Springfield’s first art museum, the Museums complex has evolved, but remained rooted in its original mission: to provide exhibitions and programs that engage diverse audiences of all ages.

PROJECT GOALS & PROGRAM Overall Goal: An open air museum on the Springfield Museums campus that educates visitors and strengthens the community of Springfield. Art installations are integrated into the landscape. • Make thematic connections among all the existing museums • Include sensory gardens with interpretive signs, water features, and children oriented installations • Offer educational opportunities for both facilitated and self-guided learning

Environmentally sustainable practices are demonstrated on site. • Reduce impervious surfaces to allow more stormwater to infiltrate on site • Capture water for use in water features and for irrigation • Add vegetation to the campus with native plants, climbing vines, and green roofs • Provide outdoor recycling stations

Performances, community festivals, and other special events happen regularly • Site a three-season open-air pavilion for performances, weddings, and other special events that is integrated with installations and gardens • Site a multi-use outdoor classroom

The Open Air Museum is an integral part of Springfield’s revitalization • Celebrate Springfield’s culture and natural features • Make cohesive connections with other open spaces and cultural landmarks • Improve circulation and increase use of property

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

introduction

In 2008, two students from the Conway School of Landscape Design, Liz Kushner and Theresa Sprague, developed the “Springfield Museums Landscape Master Plan.” This plan included the idea of a “Sixth Museum,” an outdoor museum that would extend educational opportunities throughout the grounds. With that master plan as a blueprint for further design, the Museums staff have developed goals to realize the concept of an open air museum. Ideally, this new plan will provide interactive educational experiences, encourage community participation, and support the City of Springfield’s revitalization.

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The Springfield museums

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regional context

The Museums campus is located in western Massachusetts on the edge of the Springfield’s downtown business district and within 1/2 mile from the Connecticut River.

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The Museums are situated on the middle of three terraces that ascend from the Connecticut River. The central downtown business district is located on the terrace below; an open green space around the National Armory Historic Site on the terrace above. A steep grade separates the Museums from downtown and the river, giving the Museums a feeling of separation from the dense urban core.

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Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

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Its proximity to downtown makes the campus an easily accessible resource for Springfield residents. Interstate 91 passing just south of the campus allows easy access for visitors who drive to the Museums from a distance. A

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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to the richness of the area. j Just to the north is the historic Mattoon Neighborhood, the subject of citizen-guided walking tours. k Pynchon Park, closed for 20 years, is part of the redevelopment design project “From the Quad to the River” that seeks to restore connections between the Museums and downtown Springfield. l St. Michael’s Cathedral and Christ Church Cathedral flank the Museums on opposite sides. Christ Church operates a community soup kitchen. People who come to the soup kitchen often linger at Merrick Park and on the adjacent area of the Museums campus. m The Springfield Armory is a sizeable green space and historical site within a 5-minute walk from By

Mattoon Historic Neighborhood

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Springfield Armory historic Site

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Federal Court Building

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Springfield Museums campus

Museum & Library Parking

the Museums. n The Federal Courthouse, on the corner of State and Elliot Streets and designed by architect Moshe Safdie, is a prized building for the State Street Corridor Revitalization Project. o The city public library abuts the southeastern end of the Museums Quad, facing front to State Street. Merrick Park is a city park that shares a corner with the library and the Museums campus, its center piece the famous “Puritan”statue, a well-regarded work of master sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Soup-kitchen goers congregate here. The Museums and the city are currently discussing the possibility of collaborating on new visions for the park.

Neighborhood context

The Museums neighborhood is a diverse mix of uses—commercial, residential, historical—which add

o Merrick Park and Springfield Library

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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the Springfield museums campus Museum of Science

Museum of Science

Smith Art Museum Springfield Plaza City Library

Plaza

Kilroy (admin)

Law Offices

Dr. Suess

Dr. Suess Sculptures

North Lawn

North Lawn

Christ Church Cathedral

Museum of Fine Museum of Fine Arts

Merrick Park entrance

Christ Church Cathedral

Kilroy

Museum of Springfield Museum of Springfield History

The Quad

CT Valley History Museum

Law Offices

Edwards Street

B

Blake (security)

The Quad

CT Valley

B’

state street

Blake

Yertle Garden

Yertle Garden

State Street

Visitor Center

main entry to the Museums is from Edwards Street, through a parking lot that extends right up to the Visitor Center.

Smith Art

Four of the five museums are centered on a grassy Quad. The central and northeastern parts of the Quad are shaded by large trees. School groups and families can often be found there enjoying a picnic.

Merrick Park

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Chestnut Street

The campus is enclosed by iron fences; gates are locked at dusk each day.

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The Yertle Garden, sited between the Fine Arts Museum and the Kilroy Administration Building, boasts a Yertle the Turtle sculpture, but is not frequently visited.

The grassy central Quad and the Dr. Suess Memorial Sculpture Garden are main focal points that draw visitors to the 5.5-acre campus. The Museums campus has recently been classified as a National Heritage Park and is open to the public during the day, with gates closing at dusk. Springfield residents are admitted to the Museums free of charge. Non-resident visitors may purchase an admission ticket at the Visitor Center in the Museum of Science building. The main entryway to the Museums by car is on Edwards Street, where parking is available at the Visitor Center and on the opposite side of Edwards Street. A gateway from Merrick

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Park at the southeast corner of the Quad serves as a primary entrance for walking visitors. People sometimes linger after meals at the Christ Church soup kitchen and use this entrance to access the grounds. In the past, there have been concerns about soup-kitchen goers loitering on the campus. Prominent yet lightly used spaces on the campus include the large North Lawn, the Yertle Garden, and the open, hardscaped Plaza, which is mostly used as a walk-through to other places.

The Smith Art Museum and the back of the public library open onto a sunny and expansive granite Plaza at the southeastern end of the Quad.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

existing conditions

Heating Plant

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north lawn

The Museums 5.5-acre campus is relatively flat. Four of the five museums frame a central Quad. On its southeastern edge is the open Plaza and public library; on its northwestern edge is the Connecticut River History Museum. The ornate and historic Smith Art Museum faces the Plaza. The Museum of Science, very popular with children and the most frequently visited of the museums, sits next to the Smith and opposite the Fine

CT River Valley History museum

Shaded Quadrangle

Arts Museum. Both of the buildings are oriented toward the shaded part of the Quad and the Dr. Suess Memorial Sculpture Garden. The Connecticut River Valley History Museum, which houses a Dr. Suess exhibit, divides the North Lawn from the Quad. Edwards Street runs northsouth through the campus, separating the Springfield History Museum from the rest of the complex.

open Plaza

library

State Street

History museum

B’ Edwards Street

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

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The flat grounds provide ample sites for exhibits, educational programs, and performances. The shaded Quad and sculpture garden are destinations and gathering places in part because they are centrally located and are framed by surrounding buildings and a green canopy above.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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open openspace space2010 (2010)

Legend Museums 3.5-mile CT River Walk Water Bodies Protected Open Space

Legend

10-minute walk from Museums

Water Bodies City Boundary Impervious Surfaces Pervious Surfaces Museums

20-minute walk from Museums

Data from Office of Geographic and Environmental Information (MassGIS)

City Boundary

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Impervious surfaces include hardscape and rooftops—areas where stormwater cannot infiltrate the ground.

Notfor forconstruction. construction.This These drawings are part of a student project and not based on a survey. legal survey. Not drawing is part of a student project and is notare based on a legal

Observations

• The highest density of impervious surfaces downtown are clustered

along the Connecticut River. • The Museums campus is within this high density area. • The campus has a high percentage (~75%) of impervious surfaces in common with other properties in its locale.

implications

• The heat that radiates from impervious surfaces increases air temperature

in the urban core. • Impervious surfaces increase the volume of stormwater runoff (instead of infiltration), which contributes to possible combined sewer overflows into the Connecticut River and flooding and erosion along its banks. • The Museums campus central location and abundance of impervious surfaces makes it an accessible and highly visible demonstration site for sustainable stormwater management.

2 mi

Datafrom fromOffice OfficeofofGeographic Geographicand andEnvironmental EnvironmentalInformation Information(MassGIS) (MassGIS) Data

Observations

• Open space (protected green and/or recreational spaces) is scattered with

smaller, disconnected patches in the east and elongated fingers in south/ central Springfield. • From the Museums: A) 10 small open spaces are within a 10-minute walk B) The Connecticut River Walk is within a 15-minute walk C) 22 small open spaces are within a 20-minute walk

implications

• The Museums could become the center of a potential network of linked

open spaces within the urban core, with self-guided or facilitated tours beginning at the centrally located Museums. • Forming physical and thematic connections between the Museums and other open spaces could fortify community connections and support Springfield’s revitalization.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

city-wide analyses

Impervious Surfaces (2005)

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Bus lines (2010)

road network (2009)

I-91

Legend Legend Bus Routes Bus Terminal

Legend

Closest Bus Stops

Highways Major Routes & Roads Minor Roads Water Bodies City Boundary Museums

CT River City Boundary Museums

o

Data from Office of Geographic and Environmental Information (MassGIS)

Notfor forconstruction. construction.This These drawings are part of a student project and not based on a survey. legal survey. Not drawing is part of a student project and is notare based on a legal

Observations

• Springfield is centrally located within Western Massachusetts at the

intersection of Interstates 91 and 291. • Major routes converge downtown to the west of the site and radiate throughout Springfield.

implications

• The Springfield Museums are easily accessible by car for out-of-town

visitors • In the future, if special events such as festivals and performances occur at the Museums, the interstates provide direct routes to the area from out of town. • The Springfield Museums can provide a pedestrian-safe reprieve from surrounding areas cut through by highways and major routes.

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Data from Pioneer Valley Transit Authority

Observations

• Many bus routes weave throughout Springfield. • The Springfield Bus Terminal, a regional transportation hub, is a

20-minute walk from the Museums.

• Two city bus stops are within a block of the Museums. • Public transportation links most parts of the city to the Museums,

contributing to the potential of the campus to serve as an easily accessible community asset.

implications

• Publicizing nearby locations of the bus terminal and bus stops could

increase attendance of non-driving visitors. • If gasoline prices rise, people could still access the Museums via public transportation.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

city-wide analyses

I-291

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Observations

access & circulation

• • •

Heating Plant

Visitor Center

Museum of Museum Science of

Science

Smith SmithArt Art Museum

Blake (security)

CT Valley History Museum

implications

• Lack of circulation in areas other than the Quad raises • •

Christ Church Cathedral

Fine Arts

Kilroy (admin)

Law Offices

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Dr. Suess Sculptures

North Lawn

Museum of Fine Arts of Museum Museum of Springfield History

Plaza

the Quad

Springfield Springfield City City Library Library State Street

Edwards Street

Museum

• Merrick Park

Yertle Garden

Garden. Lightly used areas: Yertle Garden, North Lawn, and Plaza. The open Plaza is used primarily as a walk-through area. Iron fences surround entire campus and 7 of 12 entry gates are kept locked. No visible signage or access near Chestnut Street bus stop, the Yertle Garden, and the North Lawn. Pedestrian crosswalks and directional signs are lacking across State Street and across Edwards Street from public parking to Museums entry. Pedestrians use vehicular entry from State Street behind the Smith Museum; there is no sidewalk there.

safety concerns and may invite disruptive behavior. Replicating qualities that make the Quad attractive could help to distribute use across the campus. Limited activity in Yertle Garden and North Lawn may result from lack of signs and/or open access points. Fences and locked gates may increase security, yet limit accessibility and create dead-ends. First-time visitors may be confused about where to park and enter the Museums.

design directions

Chestnut Street

• Incorporate characteristics of the Quad into designs for • • • 0 5 10 20 40

80 ft

lower use areas. Site a shaded focal point on the Plaza. Add pedestrian crosswalks and signs for safe visitor access. Consider opening gates along Chestnut Street near the bus stop to increase overall circulation and use. Resolve pedestrian-vehicle conflict in alley behind Smith Museum.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

site analysis

• Heavily used areas: the Quad and Dr. Suess Sculpture

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Observations

impervious surfaces

• 75% of the site is impervious

A) Rooftops: 30% B) Parking lots: 25% C) Hardscape: 20%

• 25% of the site is at least semi-pervious

A) Mown lawn: 20% B) Perennial beds: 5%

implications

• Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces can

contribute to possible combined sewer overflows, flooding, and erosion. • Pooling water can create slick, unsafe surfaces. • Hard surfaces absorb and then radiate heat—making uncomfortable conditions for visitors in warm weather, yet favorable in cooler seasons. • Planted areas can absorb and infiltrate stormwater and reduce runoff. Mown lawn has a much lower infiltration rate than other planted areas.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

design directions

• Use best management practices for urban stormwater

Impervious surfaces include hardscape and rooftops— areas where stormwater cannot infiltrate the ground.

0 5 10 20 40

80 ft

management: A) increase vegetation on site: plant more trees, green appropriate roof tops, and reduce mown lawn area by installing perennial beds B) replace asphalt parking lots with porous pavement C) replace hardscape and re-use materials D) install vegetated infiltration basins such as bioswales, and rain gardens E) capture roof runoff: use for irrigation and possible water feature.

site analysis

• Demonstrate and highlight these best management

practices on site to educate visitors and employees about sustainable urban stormwater management.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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Observations

views

Plaza. • White pines and buildings obstruct views to and from the North Lawn and Yertle Garden • From Edwards and Chestnut Streets, passers-by can see into but cannot physically access the North Lawn and Yertle Garden due to fences, locked gates, and lack of directional signs to open entrances. • There are minimal views from State Street because site lines are blocked by the library and the uphill slope and statue on Merrick Park.

Heating Plant

Museum of Museum Science of

Science

Smith Art Museum

Visitor Center

Springfield S’Field City City Library Blake (security)

Plaza

CT Valley History Museum

implications

Library

State Street

the Quad

Dr. Suess Sculptures

Christ Church Cathedral

Kilroy (admin)

Museum of Fine Arts Law Offices

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Museum of Springfield History

Edwards Street

North Lawn

• Open sight lines through the linear Quad differ from the

narrow viewshed on city streets, offering a park-like respite for visitors. • Obstructed views from the well-used Quad to the North Lawn and Yertle Garden contribute to these areas feeling isolated; they may be perceived as unsafe and therefore less often visited. • Views into areas surrounded by fences and locked gates may indicate to passers-by that these places are off-limits, contributing to infrequent use.

Merrick Park

design directions

Yertle Garden

• Re-create the enclosed, yet open feeling of the Quad in

Chestnut Street

other areas of the campus. • Consider extending views to Yertle Garden and North Lawn from the central Quad. • Open up physical access to areas seen from the street. 0 5 10 20 40

site analysis

• There are pleasing, open views through the Quad and

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O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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Observations

vegetation

heating plant

Museum ofof Museum Science Science

• Smith SmithArt Art Museum Museum

Visitor Center

S’Field

CT Valley History Museum

Springfield City City Library Library

Plaza

the Quad

State Street

Blake (security)

Dr. Suess Sculptures

Law Offices

Edwards Street

• Non-native species may require higher maintenance. • Tall trees on the Quad filter sunlight, cool the air,

Christ Church Cathedral

Fine Arts

Kilroy (admin)

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Museum of Springfield History

implications

North Lawn

Museum of Fine Arts Museum of

Merrick Park Yertle Garden

groups throughout the campus. Mature deciduous trees, including sycamores, locusts, and a prized Chinese elm, are centered in the Quad; flowering mid-story trees line the Quad’s southern edge. Evergreen trees border the walkway between the North Lawn and Quad. Mown grass carpets the North Lawn and Quad; grass strips delineate parking lots, walkways, and building edges. Street trees line both sides of Edwards Street.

Chestnut Street

and frame a gathering space. Trees along the Quad’s southern edge add to its beauty and feeling of embrace. White pines along the Yertle Garden walkway block views to and from other areas of the campus. Mown grass requires high maintenance and can be as impervious as hardscape. Shade from street trees along Edwards Street make it more pleasant for pedestrians.

design directions

Deciduous Tree White Pine Mown Grass 0 5or10Groundcover 20 40 80 ft Woody Shrubs

• Install low-maintenance, native plants when

possible.

site analysis

• A variety of native and non-native plants grow in

• Keep and maintain trees in and along the Quad. • Consider replacing white pines with low-growing

vegetation. • Reducing mown lawn and using other groundcover and perennial beds will increase permeability. • Increase street trees to emphasize the boulevard-like quality of Edwards Street, potentially making it an attractive, shaded entry corridor.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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Observations

utilities

• Heating Heating Plant plant

• •

Museum Museum of of Science Science

Edwards Street

Visitor Center

Blake Blake (security) (security)

CT Valley CT Valley History History Museum

Smith Art Smith Art Museum Museum

Plaza Plaza

the The Quad Quad

Museum

implications

• Events requiring electricity can access underground lines in

most locations.

• If evening events occur on the campus, additional lighting

Dr. Suess

Sculptures

may be required. • Instead of directing roof runoff to drains that run off site, stormwater can be collected for irrigation or infiltrated into the ground on site.

North Lawn North Lawn

ChristChurch Church Christ Cathedral Cathedral

design directions

Kilroy

(admin) Kilroy

Law Offices

Law Offices

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Springfield Springfield City City Library Library

Dr. Suess Sculptures

Museum of Museum Fine Arts of Fine Arts

Museum Museum of of Springfield Springfield History History

Visitor Center, and are scattered elsewhere. Irrigation lines run along the northern and southern side of the Quad. Drains are situated in parking lots and walkways and connect to underground drain lines. Drainage system removes stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces and directs it off site. Downspouts collect rainwater from roofs of the Smith Museum, Kilroy, Blake, and the Visitor Center.

• Install additional lighting around area used for special

evening events. • Place rain barrels, swales, and/or rain gardens at downspouts and under roof lines to use rain water for irrigation and to minimize the volume of water entering the underground drain system. • Install rain gardens around storm drains to allow for infiltration prior to entering the storm sewers.

Merrick Park Merrick park

Yertle Garden

Yertle Garden

Chestnut Street

irrigation line

drain

electric line

lamp post

drain line

downspout

site analysis

• Underground electric lines crisscross the main campus. • Light posts are concentrated on the Quad and around the

utility box 0 5 10 20 40

80 ft

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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sun/shade

visitor parking lot

visitor parking lot

visitor parking lot

Plaza

Plaza

Plaza North Lawn

North Lawn

North Lawn

Museum of Springfield History

Museum of Springfield History

Museum of Springfield History

Summer solstice @ 9am, 12 noon, & 3pm Observations

• The Plaza receives full sun from spring to fall. • The North Lawn and Museum of Springfield History lawn are Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Quad

Quad

Quad

sunny throughout the year, with afternoon shade in the spring and summer and more shade in the winter. • The Quad has varying degrees of shade throughout the year. • The visitor parking lot receives full sun from spring to fall and afternoon sun in the winter. • Rooftops receive close to full sun year-round, with the exception of the southern edge of the roofs along Chestnut Street that may receive some shade from taller buildings on the south side of the street.

Fall equinox @ 9am, 12 noon, & 3pm implications

• The granite Plaza is unfavorably hot and little used in warm

weather, and more comfortable in cooler weather. • The mix of sun and shade in the North Lawn make it a good space for gardens and outdoor events. • People congregate under the tree canopy in the Quad, making it an ideal space for programs, eating, and other sustained activities. • Sunny conditions on rooftops and in the visitor parking lot are conducive for harnessing solar energy.

winter solstice @ 9am, 12 noon, & 3pm design directions

• Plant deciduous trees and/or provide shelter on the Plaza to cool • • • •

the space and increase its use. Place sun-loving and shade-tolerant plants where appropriate on the North Lawn and Museum of Springfield History lawn. Site venues for outdoor events in areas that receive a mix of sun and shade for the comfort of visitors during sustained periods of outdoor activity. Maintain the area under the tree canopy of the Quad as a shaded gathering space. Install solar panels on rooftops and in Visitor Center parking lot; avoid planting trees on south side of panels; provide some shade for visitors parking that will not block panels.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

site analysis

Note: dark gray areas are a composite of the likely shadows cast at the times shown

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Visitor Center

B) North Lawn

Smith Art Museum

CT Valley History

Springfield City Library

E) Plaza

D) Quad

Dr. Suess Sculptures

white pines

state street

Edwards street

Blake (security)

C) Yertle Garden

+ Gardens + Sculpture of Yertle the Turtle + Some seating

D) Quad

+ Shaded lawn + Interactive Dr. Suess sculptures + Frequent use and circulation + Centrally located + Seating + Open and sunny + Centrally located + Some seating

Kilroy

Law Offices

Christ Church Cathedral Museum of Springfield History

C) Yertle Garden

E) Plaza Merrick park

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Museum of Fine Arts

KEY OBSERVATIONS

The campus is 5.5 acres, with 3 acres of open space. The Quad-Plaza and the North Lawn are the largest open spaces on the campus. From the Quad, white pines obstruct views to the Yertle Garden and North Lawn. • Iron fences surrounds the entire campus; 7 of 12 entry gates are locked during hours of operation. • • • •

Opportunities

+ Hot and sunny A) Visitor Parking Lot + Adjacent to campus + No need to cross street + Open space B) North + Flat Lawn + Trees

Heating Plant

Museum of Science

A) visitor parking lot

Location

Chestnut street

Iron Fence

Downspout

Locked

Bus Stop

Unlocked Entrances Pedestrian/ Vehicle Conflict

White Pine Flat Roof with sun Views without Access

• Pedestrian/vehicle conflicts occur on State Street and

0 5 10 20 40

Edwards Street where visitors are crossing from off-campus parking to the Museums entry. • The Museum of Springfield History, Museum of Fine Arts, and Science Museum all have flat roofs with sun exposure. • Downspouts collect rainwater from roofs of the Smith Museum, Kilroy, Blake, and the Visitor Center.

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Constraints

- Hot and sunny - Impervious - Isolated -Little use or circulation - Lacking focal point - From street, views without access - 70% impervious hardscape - Dead end - From street,views without access - Impervious walkways and benches - Lacking formal place to eat - Hot and sunny - Open and exposed - Lacking focal point - Impervious granite paving

site analysis

Summary Analysis

DESIGN DIRECTIONS TO APPLY TO EVERY ALTERNATIVE • Limit alley use to vehicles only—to reduce pedestrian-vehicle conflict and to eliminate service parking lot as an entry point • Create vegetated visual screen between the Quad and service parking lot to discourage the public from using the service lot and alleyway to enter and exit the campus • Consider removing white pines to increase campus connectivity and extend views to the Yertle Garden and North Lawn from the Quad • Add signage or archways to make entry points clear to visitors • Open gates on south side of Yertle Garden to eliminate a dead end and to improve accessibility to people walking and/or arriving via the bus that stops on Chestnut Street • Include crosswalks on State and Edwards Streets to increase safety and accessibility for visitors parking in off-site lots

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

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Each of the three design alternatives that follow offers a different plan for creating an open air museum on the Springfield Museums campus, and contributing to Springfield’s city-wide revitalization. And while all the alternatives incorporate the project goals of art in the landscape, sustainability demonstration, and community engagement, each design emphasizes one of these three goals to a greater extent. Each design also seeks to incorporate the following design principles.

design Principles o o o

Re-use on-site materials and/or local materials Plant native vegetation Harness on-site resources and energy

Education o o o o

Include interpretive signs with new plants that detail their function(s), i.e., insectory, nitrogen-fixer, medicinal, edible, etc. Include colorful, simplified diagrams and/or explanations at each exhibit, i.e., artist’s statement and materials used, the significance of native plants, how stormwater is managed, etc. Offer guided tours of the Open Air Museum. Educational programs with focus topics can be presented in an outdoor classroom or gathering space.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

ideal concept

Ideal Concept

15 30


art in the landscape vegetated screen

reduced parking P

rooftop solar panels

meandering rock wall with periodic recessed seating

cafe with outdoor patio at Smith Museum

art installation sites (typical) Edwards St. closed to through traffic

P

rock wall with 2’ hedge

rooftop solar panels

open air pavilion

North Lawn

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Dr. Suess sculpture collection (re-located: Yertle as water feature and Lorax at path convergence) climbing vines on fences

Japanese garden with yoga/tai chi platform 0 5 10 20 40

A Suess-inspired whimsical artwalk pulls visitors through a dynamic viewing experience and improves circulation on the campus. o Hedges and native gardens frame outdoor gallery spaces for art installations. o Meandering wall leads visitors through contiguous pedestrian-safe space created by closing a portion of Edwards Street to vehicles. o Outdoor cafe at Smith Museum becomes an endpoint of the artwalk for social events and mingling.

80 ft

o Zen garden with yoga platform draws contemplative visitors. o As a new water feature, Yertle the Turtle joins the other Suess sculptures to form a concentrated play area for children.

Design Alternative 1

winding walkways

DRAWBACKS: Closing part of Edwards Street may not be feasible or could compromise emergency access; high surveillance may be necessary for outdoor art; construction of new sidewalks and concentrated play area may damage Quad trees.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

16 30


Alternative 1:

Art in the Landscape

Storm King; photograph by Elizabeth Cooper

Storm King; photograph by Elizabeth Cooper

Recessed seating; photograph by Abrah Dresdale

Storm King; photograph by Elizabeth Cooper

precedents

for

alt 1

Proposed Elements: o Meandering rock wall carries visitors through the landscape, and can be low enough (2 feet) for seating. o Interactive art installations display the effects of sound, light, plants, and water. o Natural elements frame outdoor art in a sculpture-park-like setting, such as at DeCordova Museum.

DeCordova Museum; photograph by Jaclyn Pryor

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

17 30


sustainability demonstration solar panel trellis

rooftop performance space

green roof with solar panels

P

Edwards (green) Street (porous pavement, curb bump outs with vegetated swales, treebox filters)

rain barrels for irrigation

P

rain barrel demonstration rocky swales carrying roof runoff green roof with solar panels

rain garden

vine-covered pergola on the Plaza North Lawn

recycling station berry bushes planted on contour with berm and swale

tree house Yertle water feature fed from roof runoff

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

green roof rain garden with boulders

grey water system

children’s garden

By incorporating sustainable practices on site, every application becomes an educational exhibit. o o o o

Paths converge at a rain garden with boulders for rock hopping in the North Lawn, a focal point of beauty and an exhibition of stormwater management. Rain barrels capture roof runoff and irrigate native plants in a children’s garden and supply water to an interactive Yertle the Turtle water feature. Solar panels take advantage of the sunny parking lot and extensive rooftops to generate energy. Green walls and green roof tours showcase their multiple functions: cooling buildings, reducing stormwater runoff, creating green spaces in urban settings.

0 5 10 20 40

o Demonstration green parking lots and Edwards (green) Street uses grass pavers and rain gardens to reduce off-site runoff and increase groundwater infiltration. o A vine-covered pergola on the Plaza offers shaded relief and a place for people to gather.

DRAWBACKS: Expensive to buy solar panels and install green roofs and porous pavement; High-maintenance to tend to the green roofs and stormwater systems.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

80 ft

Design Alternative 2

green parking lot (porous pavement & rain gardens)

18 30


Alternative 2:

Solar grove over parking lot; Photo copyright 2005, Pablo Mason Photography,

Interactive water feature, Montshire Museum; photograph by Abrah Dresdale

Rocky swale, Eric Carle Museum; photograph by Abrah Dresdale

Green roof on Toronto’s city hall; photo courtesy of wikimedia

Water exhibit, Montshire Museum; photograph by Abrah Dresdale

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

precedents

for

Proposed Elements: o Green roofs serve multiple functions: filter stormwater, reduce runoff, cool building, provide green urban space and beauty o Rocky swales and rain gardens work to infiltrate stormwater in urban settings o Captured roof runoff can supply interactive water features, which in turn engage children and educate visitors about the valuable resource of stormwater o Solar panels over parking areas take advantage of the open access to sun rays while providing shade in an otherwise hot asphalt lot.

alt 2

SUSTAINABILIT Y DEMONSTRATION

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2-story parking garage with green roof

outdoor classroom

“village green” for markets & festivals

sculpture at each museum entrance

rain gardens

amphitheater on the Plaza

reduced parking; handicapped accessible only courtyards amongst perennial beds

riser seating P

community gardens at Merrick Park North Lawn

open air pavilion

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

food forest in the North Lawn indoor cafe with sidewalk seating at the Museum of Springfield History

This design engages visitors and Springfield residents alike by providing a sprawling oasis amidst the urban context. o o o o

Fences are removed with the goal of increasing campus use, making the site a public park with festive lighting at night for safety. Visitors circulate through the entire campus on well-defined pathways through gardens harboring inner courtyards for reading and sketching. A covered amphitheater in the Plaza shades visitors in the summer and serves as a venue for performances and outdoor movies in the evenings. A food forest in the North Lawn and community garden plots in Merrick Park offer fresh public produce three seasons of the year for visitors, school groups, and passers-by.

0 5 10 20 40

80 ft

o o o

The main parking lot is reduced to decrease runoff and provide an adjacent vehicle accessible yet pedestrian-safe “village green” for farmers markets and artisans fairs. Edwards Street parking lot is converted to a green-roofed, 2-story parking garage to accommodate the high volume of visitors during special events. A cafe is housed in the Museum of Springfield History, making the formerly disconnected museum a destination that provides food to visitors and local residents and enhances the street culture with sidewalk seating.

DRAWBACKS: Removing fences could create safety problems; 2-story parking garage may not be cost effective; lighting at night requires more energy and may contribute to light pollution.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

Design Alternative 3

community engagement

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Alternative 3: Proposed Elements: o An outdoor venue for live performances and film screenings with the Smith Museum as a beautiful backdrop, a concept similar to the venue in the Mass M.O.C.A. courtyard. o Festive lighting would make the campus attractive and user-friendly at night. o Removing perimeter fence, such as at Bryant Park, NYC, where this increased the park’s safety and opened up the grounds for more people to access the sidewalk cafe, expansive lawn, and gaming tables. o Riser seating creates a gathering place, and could frame the grassy Quad.

Mass M.O.C.A’s; Courtesy of D.I.R.T. Studio

Mass M.O.C.A’s outdoor venue and lighting at night; courtesy of D.I.R.T. Studio

Bryant Park, NYC; sidewalk cafe; Courtesy of Wikimedia

The Highline Park, NYC, with nigh time access and lighting; Courtesy of courtesy of D.I.R.T. Studio

Precedents for Alt 3

community engagement

Proposed seating design for the Highline Park, NYC; Courtesy of courtesy of D.I.R.T. Studio

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

21 30


open air museum The final design re-imagines how the various areas throughout the campus can be

unified, yet display qualities and offer attractions that give each a distinctive sense of place. By increasing circulation and use of the grounds through pathways delineated by garden beds and a meandering rock wall, more people are enjoying the North Lawn (see number 3 sheet 24), Native American Garden (former Yertle Garden, see number 8 sheet 28), and the new Museum Way (see number 6 sheet 26), stopping along the path to view the art installations. The Museums campus is a beautiful green park open to the public for special events such as farmers markets and local artisans fairs along Museum Way—a combined pedestrian street and outdoor gallery—(see Roof Tops See number 1 sheet 24

Heating Plant

0 5 10 20 40

Green Parking Lot

Visitor Center

See number 5 sheet 25

Museum of Science outdoor cafe

Smith Art Museum

Springfield City Library

P

Museum Way

Blake (security)

See number 6 sheet 26

pergola-covered deck

CT Valley History Museum

The Quad See number 2 sheet 24

North Lawn See number 3 sheet 24

sculpture at museum entrances (typical)

Museum of Fine Arts

Christ Church Cathedral

Community Gardens See number 4 sheet 24

Kilroy (admin)

Law Offices

Museum of Springfield History

Edwards Street

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

80 ft

State Street

P

Final design

number 6 sheet 26). People come to the Open Air Museum for outdoor movie screenings and educational programs at the new performance venue on the east end of the Quad, and for picnics on the North Lawn while listening to a concert in the open air pavilion. Lastly, the Museums have become an ecotourism destination where visitors come to learn about urban sustainability practices such as stormwater management, alternative energy generation, and green roof installation. And the local community benefits from the amenities and public offerings that the Open Air Museum provides for the city of Springfield.

Sensory Garden

Native American Garden

See number 7 sheet 27

See number 8 sheet 28

Chestnut street

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

22 30


Planting Guide

campus planting guide 0 5 10 20 40

gr

80 ft

8’

RB

gr

RB rg

SY

SY

RM

For clear visibility and safety on campus, trees over 15 feet are to be limbed up a minimum of 8 feet and shrubs should be maintained at a maximum height of 3 feet.

SY

lm

WO

SY RM

SB

lm sh

SY

WO

sh

vin SY

Ra

gr

gr

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

rg

Code Trees RB RM SB SY WO Low Shrubs

Common Name

Scientific Name

Redbud Red Maple Serviceberry Sycamore White Oak - sh Meadowsweet Running Serviceberry Snowberry Edible Fruit Shrubs Ra Red Raspberry

Cercis Acer Amelanchier Platanus Quercus

canadensis rubrum arborea occidentalis alba

Height

Width

12'-25' 40'-75' 20'-30' 70'-100' 60'-80'

Function/Form Flowering Tree Shade Tree Overstory/Shade Shade Tree Overstory Tree

Spirea alba Amelanchier stolonifera Symphoricarpos albus

2'-4' 1'-3' 2'-3'

2'-5' 3'-10' 3'-4

Flowering Shrub Flowering Shrub Flowering Shrub

Rubus

2'-6'

3'-5'

Edible Fruiting Shrub

idaeus

Code Common Name Perennial Vines - vin Grape Trumpet Creeper Virginia Creeper Low-Mow Lawn - lm Buffalograss Dutch White Clover Fescue Rain Garden - rg Blue Flag Iris New England Aster Purple Cone Flower Sweet Spires

Scientific Name

Height

Width

Vitis spp Campsis radicans Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Function/Form Fruiting Climber Flowering Climber Fall Color Climber

Bouteloua Trifolium Festuca

dactyloides repens spp.

to 6" 3"-6" to 6"

Low Maintenance Lawn Low Maintenance Lawn Low Maintenance Lawn

Iris Aster Echinacea Itea

versicolor novae-angliae purpurea virginica

1'-3 2'-4' 2'-3' to 6'

Perennial Perennial Perennial Flowering Shrub

Planting Guide

2-3’

Green Roof - gr Roofs should be evaluated by a structural engineer to determine weight load capacity before determining depth of planting substrate and plant species to be used.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

23 30


j k

l m site locator key

Note: a structural engineer must evaluate the load-bearing capacity of each building to determine the feasibility of added weight on the roof.

o Lawn and shade trees are extended into the Plaza, where granite is removed and replaced by a pervious hardscape semi-circle (A) in front of a pergola-covered deck (B) to accommodate programs, performances, and film screenings. o The Yertle sculpture (C), now a water feature fed by collected rainwater (D) from the Visitor Center downspouts, is relocated and joined with the Dr. Suess Memorial Sculpture Garden, centralizing the collection in the Quad. The Suess theme continues (E) through the Quad and into a new Suess-inspired cafe (E) housed in the Connecticut Valley Historical Museum, offering service for outdoor dining on the Quad-side Patio (F). o A mosaic-tiled path (G) obliquely crosses the Quad, forming a physical and artistic connection between the Smith Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts. o The Quad is better connected to the North Lawn and former Yertle garden by removing white pines to open views and limb up all existing trees for clear visibility k and safety.

(D)

Museum of Science

(A) Museum of Science

Center and science Museum j Visitor with green roof and solar panels

Smith

(A) (F)

(C)

MFA

(G)

(B)

o While maintaining a secure interior, fencing is strategically reduced to eliminate dead spaces, create a more welcoming perception, improve connections and circulation, and where feasible, open back doors of museums for streetside access. o The hardscapes from the Plaza and under picnic tables are removed and materials are re-used to build swales and garden paths. o Crosswalks are added across State and Chestnut Streets to provide safe access to museum entries for visitors who walk there or park off-campus. o A sign on State Street indicates that the alleyway behind Smith Museum is open to service vehicles and handicap parking for the library only. o Plentiful signs along the perimeter of the campus direct visitors to entry points. o Sculptures are placed at museum entrances to announce the focus of the museum and to make a conceptual connection between museums. o Remove the archway overhang to widen the threshold to the Quad.

Church

The Quad: Suessian-themed Quad-side outdoor cafe, Yertle water feature, mosaic-tiled walkway, and pergola-covered deck.

l

NORTH LAWN o A festive open air pavilion (A) is nestled among flowering beds and Blake situated near the back entrance of the cafe (B) for catering services. (security) The pavilion offers special events such as poetry readings, evening concerts, and weddings, with open lawn for expanded seating or (E) tents(C) shaded by a new sycamore to the south (D). o Walkways along a meandering stone wall (E) and perennial garden (G) beds guide visitors through the space and lead to framed ‘courtyards’ (F) that showcase art installations and sustainability exhibits. o Removing the fence flanking both sides of Edwards Street opens up a direct axis from the North Lawn to the Museum of Springfield History and the new Museum Way (G).

(B)

Springfield City Library

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

k THE QUAD

NOTES:

m MERRICK PARK COMMUNITY GARDEN (F) (B) (C)

(A)

CT Valley History Museum

o In a collaborated vision between the Museums and Merrick Park, the park could be used as a soup kitchen community garden, with the goal of forming positive community relations with the church and soup kitchen-goers. o Raised vegetable beds are planted on contour (A), collecting rain water for low-maintenance irrigation as runoff moves down slope. o Raspberry bushes (B) are planted in the hot microclimate against the southern side of the library for a pick-your-own offering of fresh berries.

(B)

Library

design details

j

ROOF TOPS o Solar panels (A) line the southern edges of 4 of 5 museum roofs, and are accompanied by vegetation (B) where roofs are flat. o Green, vegetated roofs improve the efficiency of solar panels and filter water, reduce runoff, cool buildings, and enhance aesthetics. o Vegetation covers and cascades over the roof edges of the Visitor Center/Science Museum (C), announcing to arriving visitors that (C) there is something different happening overhead. o If feasible and safe, the Science Museum’s green roof is open for tours, and/or people can view the green roof and solar panels from a roof-level lookout.

(A)

(D)

l The North Lawn

Park Soup m Merrick Kitchen Community

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

Gardens

24 30


green parking lot

n

site locator key

(D)

(B) (A)

n Green Parking Lot

Visitor Center

(C)

GREEN PARKING LOT o Visitor parking has been turned into a demonstration green parking lot to harness alternative energy and manage stormwater. o A rain garden (A) (see figure I) surrounds a storm drain, absorbing additional water not infiltrated through the porous pavers (B) (see figure II) that have reaplaced the impervious asphalt. o A solar panel trellis (C) (see figure II) over the middle row of parking casts shade and generates energy for the Museums from the sun’s rays. o A green buffer (D) defines the entrance into the Visitor’s Center, showcases sculptures, and provides a drop-off landing. o The spacing has been reconfigured to a triple-loaded lot, allowing a sidewalk run along the parking spaces on both edges. o The parking lot’s new single entry is widened to compensate for closing the other entry in an attempt to move vehicle traffic further from the pedestrian-safe campus interior.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

STORMWATER MANGEMENT

Some of the existing impervious surfaces at the Museums such as roofs, paving, and hardscape will be replaced by green roofs, porous paving, rain gardens, rocky swales, and vegetation. These changes will reduce stormwater runoff from those areas by up to 50%

design details

m

Figure I: Rain Garden

Figure II: Conceptual Diagram Solar Panel Parking Trellis with Porous Pavement

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

25 30


museum way:

o

pedestrian street & outdoor gallery o PEDESTRIAN STREET

gate

Municipal Parking Lot porous cobble pavement low-growing beds (typical)

crosswalk to visitor parking

Edwards Street Parking Lot

10’ wide reinforced turf beyond curb on both sides of street (typical)

art installation space

o Edwards Street, as part of the State Street Redevelopment Project, has been allotted funding for streetscape renovation. o From gated end to gated end, Edwards Street could open to through traffic during museum hours of operations, yet the gates, clearly marked crosswalks, and cobble pavement signal to drivers that this is a special corridor and to proceed slowly. o Ten-feet wide reinforced turf would replace the sidewalk with a grassy alternative that can withstand the heavy impact of booths and loading and unloading vehicles for farmers markets and local artisans fairs. o Trees could be added among the existing street trees, enhancing a boulevard-like feeling and providing shade for walkers and vendors.

OUTDOOR GALLERY o An outdoor gallery could front the Museum of Springfield History as part of the new Museum Way, accommodating art installations framed by low-growing garden beds and weaving walkways. o New shade trees and sidewalk would increase the comfort and safety of visitors parking at the Edwards Street and municipal lots. o The fence on the corner of Edwards and Chestnut Streets could be removed, eliminating a dead zone and opening up the beautiful building façade to the street.

crosswalk to North Lawn

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

B Museum of Springfield History

B’

gate

service vehicle access

green roof with solar panels

sculpture at entrance (typical)

B

o

Museum Way: Pedestrian Street & Outdoor Gallery

Springfield History Museum

outdoor gallery

market booth

curb

curb

cobble stone pedestrian street

B’ market booth

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

design details

site locator key

North Lawn

26 30


sensory Garden

stone wall with recessed seating

copper beech

Nea Vi

rain garden

rain pool

Scientific Name

Height

Liatris Rudbeckia Iris Asclepias Osmunda Ilex Asclepias Matteuccia Echinacea Cornus

1'-5' 1'-3' 1'-3' 1'-2' 2'-5' 3' 1'-2' 2'-5' 2'-5' 3'

spicata serotina versicolor tuberosa cinnamomea glabra syriaca struthiopteris purpurea sericea

rocky swale

Width

3'-6'

4'-8'

stone basin

Wb Bb

Kilroy

Form/Function

A

Purple perennial Yellow perennial Blue perennial Orange perennial Fern Flower-Fruit Shrub Pinkish perennial Fern Purple perennial Flower-Fruit Shrub

Law Offices

Code Common Name Bird & Butterfly Rain Garden Bst Blazing Star Bs Black-eyed Susan Ir Blue Flag Iris Bfw Butterfly Weed Cnf Cinnamon Fern IN Inkberry Mw Milkweed Osf Ostrich Fern Pcf Purple Cone Flower RD Red-osier Dogwood Perennials Bb Bee Balm Chi Chives Hyf Hay-scented Fern Lb Lemon balm Nea New England Aster Vi Violet Wb Wild Bergamot Hopping Rocks Garden Spw Creeping Speedwell Thy Creeping Thyme Rw Green Carpet Irm Irish Moss Pr Path Rush Perennial Vines - vin Grape Trumpet Creeper Virginia Creeper

fern bed

A’

Hyf

didyma schoenoprasum punctilobula canadensis nova-angliae spp. fistulosa

2'-3' 1'-2' 1'-2' 1'-2' 2'-3' 3" 2'-3'

Fragrant leaves Edible flower, leaves Fern Fragrant leaves Fall color Edible flower Fragrant leaves

Veronica Thymus Herniara Sagina Juncus

repens praecox glabra subulata tenuis

low ground on ground 2" on ground

Steppable Between step stones Steppable Steppable Steppable

climbing climbing climbing

Fruiting Climber Flowering Climber Fall Color Climber

Vitis spp. Campsis radicans Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Nea

Pcf Bb

Bst

exploration station

Pcf Bs RD

Mw

Bst

Pcf

IN

Vin

p

Bs

Bfw

Osf

Vin

rocky swale

rain garden

Ir

Hyf

Cnf

Monarda Allium Dennstaedtia Mentha Aster Viola Monarda

stone basin (typical)

double-sided benches

Kilroy

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Figure I: stone basin under downspout

Lb

stone wall

Law Offices

Thy

Chi

Hyf

A

Spw Irm

rock

site locator key

perennial beds

Cnf

Vin

Osf

Vin

SENSORY GARDEN

RD

Garden details

Lb Wb

Rw

Pr

gard

Bb

hop

p

en

“tree house”

A’

o The meandering stone wall snakes into the Sensory Garden (formerly part of the North Lawn), providing continuous seating and safe container for children playing in the garden. o Perennial beds display bright colors, fragrant flowers, and a variety of textures. o The towering copper beech provides shade for a moss and boulder garden at its base and its branches support an array of wind chimes. o Rainwater runoff from the Kilroy building’s roof gushes from downspouts into stone basins that overflow into a rocky swale that terminates in a retention basin foot pool surrounded by a rain garden. The “exploration station”—a hardscape patio with seating alongside—edges the pooling water, rocks, and vegetation, allowing for close investigation. o A “tree house” offers shade and a play space within the garden. o Vines weave through the surrounding fences, creating the ambience of an outdoor room.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

27 30


q site locator key

NATIVE AMERICAN GARDEN

o A primary pathway forks at a break in the stone wall, leading visitors to a Native American Garden (former Yertle Garden), displaying plants traditionally used by people indigenous to Connecticut Valley. o In the garden’s center a wide path encircles a rain garden; stepping stone crosspaths cut through reflecting the shape of a Native American Medicine Wheel; signs here and along side paths tell of traditional uses of the plants. o The rain garden serves multiple functions; it provides habitat for birds, butterflies, and beneficial insects and infiltrates roof rainwater runoff channeled from the Kilroy’s roof downspouts via a rocky swale. o Gates into the garden from Chestnut Street are open are opened to improve accessibility. o Sitting rocks and stone benches are grouped throughout the garden for reading, relaxing, and viewing the garden.

Native American Garden Bb

stone wall

Wh Bns

Yr

Wh Glr Ch

Ch

St

Bns

Glr

Wh

Yr

Glr

Jp

Glr St

rocky swale

Ch

Jp

Bb St

Yr

EL

sitting rocks and stone benches EL

2'-3' 1'-3' 1'-3' 1'-2' 5'-6' 1'-3' 3'-5' 1'-3' 1'-2' 4'-6' 1'-1.5' 1'-4' 1'-2' 2'-4' 1' 1'-2' 8'-15' 6'-12' ground 9"-16"

Width

3'-8'

1'-2' 3'-8'

2'-4'

6'-15' 6'-15'

Function/Form Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Medicinal Food, medicine Medicine, dye Medicinal Edible berries Food, medicine Flower-Fruit Medicinal Medicinal roots, leaves Food, medicine Medicinal inner bark Medicine, 'root beer' Medicinal root Medicinal bark,leaves,twigs Medicinal bark,leaves,twigs Edible berry, medicine Medicinal

Medicine Wheel rain garden

RE

BL

Ir BL

Bfw

Bns

BL Mw Sw

Wh

Jp Bb

Glr

Kilroy

Height

Bns

Yr

Wh

St SB

traditionally used plants

MV

Ss

Sa

MV

Museum of Fine Arts

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Bb

Common Name Scientific Name Native American - Rain Garden Bb Bee Balm Monarda didyma Ir Blue Flag Iris Iris versicolor Bns Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum Bfw Butterfly Weed Asclepias tuberosa EL Common Eldlerberry Sambucus canadensis Glr Goldenrod Solidago spp. Jp Joe Pye Weed Eupatorium purpureum Bl Low bush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Mw Milkweed Asclepias syriaca RE Red Elder Sambucus racemosa Yr Yarrow Achillea millefolium Native American - Perennial Beds Ch Chicory Cichorium intybus L. Gr Cranesbill Geranium Geranium maculatum MV Maple Leaf Viburnum Viburnum acerifolium Sa Sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulum Ss Solomon's Seal Polyganatum biflorum SB Spicebush Lindera benzoin Wh Spring Witch-hazel Hamamelis vernalis St Strawberry Fragaria vesca Anthoxanthum odorata Sw Sweet Grass

Garden details

q

Ss

Gr

Gr Sa

Chestnut Street

open gates

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

28 30


Final Design:

Sidewalk Cafe at deYoung Museum, San Francisco; Courtesy of Wikimedia

‘Tree House;’ Courtesy of Wikimedia

o The Quad-side Patio offering outdoor cafe service would be a relaxing place for people to gather for refreshments or mingle after an evening event. o A raised tree house platform in the Sensory Garden would give visitors of all ages a different vantage point from which to appreciate the landscape. o Museum Way pedestrian street could be modeled after such streets in Scandinavia, where pedestrians and cars share the road,

but traffic is slowed and pedestrians are privileged over vehicles. o The pavilion in the North Lawn might have a tent-like structure such as the Norway Pavilion, where the architecture signals to users that exciting festivities are happening within. o A solar grove or trellis over parking areas increase the sustainability of the Museums, maximize on the openness of the lots, and provide shade for visitors arriving and departing via car.

Pedestrian street at night, Kirkenes, Norway; Courtesy of Wikimedia

Norway Pavilion, Shangai, China; Courtesy of Wikimedia

Pedestrian street with part vehicular traffic, Haslev, Denmark; Courtesy of wikimedia

Design Precedents

open air museum

Solar grove over parking lot; Photo copyright 2005, Pablo Mason Photography,

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

29 30


open space (2010)

open space within a 20-minute walk National Armory

Federal Square

Armory Commons

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Pynchon Park

Connecticut River

Symphony Hall

Connecticut River Walk Access Point

Merrick Park

Springfield Cemetery

The Springfield Museums campus is a city gem. Its proximity to downtown Springfield, the Connecticut River Walk, and residential neighborhoods makes it a central node for connecting other cultural and natural landmarks within a comfortable walking distance. Open space in the urban Springfield landscape is scattered and currently disconnected. The Heritage Trail in Boston is a successful precedent that forms physical and thematic connections among spatially separated city assets by using colored brick to delineate the urban trail. Potentially, the Open Air Museum could serve as a nexus through which a north loop and a south loop converge. The Museums could provide information, maps, and guided tours for the new Springfield Heritage Trail—yet another reason why the Museums can be an exciting destination and simultaneously contribute to the revitalization of Springfield.

O p e n A i r M u s e u m • Springfield Museums, Springfield, MA Elizabeth Cooper • Abrah Jordan Dresdale • Conway School of Landscape Design june 2010

for the future

Connecting Urban Districts, Open Spaces, & The River

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Open Air Museum