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PERMACULTURE IN PRACTICE: A PROPOSAL FOR EDUCATIONAL PERMACULTURE GARDENS @ GREENFIELD COMMUNITY COLLEGE GREENFIELD, MA

PROPOSED BY: THE PERMACULTURE STUDENT FORUM AT GREENFIELD COMMUNITY COLLEGE WITH GUIDANCE, EDITING, AND SUPPORT BY: INSTRUCTOR ABRAH DRESDALE, M.A.L.D., P.D.CERTIFIED

SPRING 2012


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In the face of multiple environmental, economic, and political challenges, an increasing number of communities and institutions are promoting local, sustainable food production as a means to regain stability, autonomy, and wellbeing. Greenfield Community College has joined this trend with a commitment to local food offerings in its dining services, a Farm and Food Systems Liberal Arts degree option, and a variety of new agriculture-focused “re-skilling” courses. A permaculture garden that showcases principles of sustainability and serves as a hands-on educational resource for faculty and students across campus is another example of GCC's commitment to building an ecologically sustainable future. This garden, designed by students in a recent permaculture class (AGR 240), will be implemented in three phases. The first phase, building a 1/8th acre Living Laboratory Garden in front of the new greenhouse, is slated for Academic Year ’12-’13. Native grasses have already been planted on the site to reduce soil compaction and erosion, and this fall the area will be sheet mulched to build its nutrient profile. In the spring, raised beds and plants will be installed. Throughout the process of creating this garden, instructors from across campus will be invited to incorporate the site and its activities into their curricula. Phase I will be overseen primarily by two faculty/staff members: Tony Reiber (as Garden Manager) and Abrah Dresdale (as Garden Coordinator). Tony Reiber, recently hired by the college as the greenhouse/laboratory technician, has expertise and interest in supporting the development and maintenance of the permaculture garden. His supervisors agree that he could contribute as many as 4 hours a week, with the possibility of more available hours during the summer. Mr. Reiber would help with permaculture garden maintenance and overseeing the work of 2-4 garden interns. Abrah Dresdale, who teaches LFF courses, including the course whose students are responsible for the garden designs, can contribute up to 6 hours per week under the Community Food Project grant hours. She will coordinate with faculty and staff to integrate this educational resource into course curricula, help oversee weekly garden work sessions, and advise a new Permaculture Club that will help steward the garden. Some materials and monies for Phase I have already been obtained. Lisa Depiano of Montview Farm has donated plants valued at $950 in exchange for access to propagules of these plants in the future, and UMass-Amherst has granted GCC $1,000 from a larger award they have received. In addition, two permaculture garden designers have volunteered consulting time in the planning phase of the project. It appears that the garden will not need to buy initial compost elsewhere, since Physical Plant has a cache of finished compost under decomposed leaf piles on campus. The SCI 135 course gifted the garden with twenty-five straw balls for mulch. Lastly, dining service staff have agreed to collect kitchen scraps to be composted on site for future use. Presently uncovered costs in the initial budget include monies to build a garden shed and water catchment system, monies for tools and materials (including materials to build a composting system), monies for soil amendments and additional plants, and monies for specialized labor or consulting. Tony and Abrah, along with members of the Green Campus Committee, the Development Office, and several students, are exploring ways to obtain all necessary materials at minimal cost. Appendix D outlines a funding scheme that would make the cost of implementing Phase I either minimal or at no cost to the college operating budget. However, for Phase I to succeed, it is paramount that it has the full support of administration. Once the garden is established, its upkeep expenses will be minimal, consisting primarily of labor from student volunteers and interns as well as further supervision from the aforementioned staff.


PREFACE: GREENFIELD COMMUNITY COLLEGE INSTITUTIONAL PRIORITIES 1. INCREASE STUDENT GOAL ATTAINMENT—TRANSFER, GRADUATION, EMPLOYMENT, LIFELONG LEARNING AND PERSONAL GROWTH. A permaculture garden at GCC would enhance job skills training and provide hands-on learning experiences in the growing sector of sustainable agriculture and nursery production. Such field experiences are essential for students seeking employment in these areas. Additionally, hands-on learning prepares students who intend to transfer into sustainable agriculture programs at four-year colleges. 2. EXPAND ACCESS, OUTREACH AND COLLABORATIONS IN THE PIONEER VALLEY AND SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES. A renewed ‘Community Commons’ is the conceptual framework for permaculture installations on GCC’s campus. The Phase I garden is proposed as a site that is highly accessible and welcoming to the local community. There could be regularly scheduled educational tours for k-12, college, and community education students. Teachers could fulfill continuing education credits for new garden-based curricular programs. And civic organizations such as Greening Greenfield, Transition Towns, and Master Gardeners could visit and learn about permaculture at GCC’s Living Laboratory garden. 3. FOSTER A CAMPUS CLIMATE THAT RESPECTS EACH INDIVIDUAL, VALUES

COLLABORATIVE EFFORTS AND PROMOTES PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

The nature of this project is transdisciplinary and collaborative by design. The outdoor classroom could become a commons for courses in art, social justice, science, environmental studies, math, and many more. The success of this project hinges on collaboration and communication among academic departments, students, Physical Plant, Dining Services, and the Green Campus Committee. A cooperative culture that surrounds the garden could promote professional development for all parties involved. 4. IMPLEMENT INTEGRATIVE PLANNING THROUGHOUT THE COLLEGE – BUDGET, ENROLLMENT, CURRICULUM, PROGRAM, STAFFING AND FACILITIES. A permaculture garden embodies the permaculture principle “integrate rather than segregate.” If the garden is realized, it will meet multiple, integrative goals: attract more sustainable agriculture students to GCC; implement creative financing; create crosscurricular applications; serve as an outdoor classroom for the new Farm and Food Systems initiative; embody GCC’s ethic of sustainability through best practices on campus; and produce hyper-local food that can be served in the dining commons.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTEXT

1

GREENFIELD COMMUNITY COLLEGE FARM AND FOOD INITIATIVES PERMACULTURE STUDENT FORUM—SPRING 2012 COMMUNITY-ENGAGED PROCESS

1 1 1 2

PERMACULTURE EXPRESSED

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PERMACULTURE PRINCIPLES PERMACULTURE & GCC’S CAMPUS

3 3

PROJECT GOALS

4

KEY STAKEHOLDERS

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TONY REIBER, GREENHOUSE TECHNICIAN ABRAH DRESDALE, FARM & FOOD SYSTEMS FACULTY/COORDINATOR PHYSICAL PLANT DINING SERVICES GREEN CAMPUS COMMITTEE & SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

5 5 5 5 5

DESIGN CONCEPT & PHASES

6

DESIGN CONCEPT PROPOSED PHASES OF DESIGN MICRO-CONTEXTS

6 6 6

INTERACTIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN

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INTRODUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT ARTICULATED ROLES STUDENT INVOLVEMENT CROSS-CURRICULAR INTEGRATION

7 8 8 9 9

PHASE I: LIVING LABORATORY OVERVIEW

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PROJECT FINANCES EXISTING CONDITIONS OF PHASE I

10 11

2012-2013 TIMELINE & TASKS

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SPRING 2012 SUMMER 2012 FALL 2012 SPRING 2013

12 12 13 13

APPENDIX A: PERMACULTURE LANDSCAPE DESIGNS FOR GCC’S CAMPUS APPENDIX B: PHASE I PLANT DATABASE & BUDGET APPENDIX C: YEAR 1 MATERIALS BUDGET APPENDIX D: FUNDING SCHEME

14-17 18 19 20


CONTEXT GREENFIELD COMMUNITY COLLEGE Greenfield Community College (GCC) lies between the foothills of the Berkshire Mountains and the fertile farmland of the Connecticut River Valley. Its home town, Greenfield, MA, includes 14,000 residents and is the county seat and largest town of rural Franklin County. The college's campus is a mixture of meadow, field, forest, buildings, and paved parking lot, comprising over 150 acres of land. A reading of the GCC landscape and abutting properties suggests earlier land uses of logging and farming, including crops and livestock. Approximately 4,000 full- and part-time students attend GCC, commuting from three states and seven counties. Additionally, over 350 faculty and staff work on campus. FOOD AND FARM INITIATIVES Local food advocacy and interest is on the rise at GCC—the administration has approved a new liberal arts degree option in "Farm and Food Systems;” the college now offers several hands-on agriculture courses each semester; there is a 20% local food initiative for the dining services; the Green Campus Committee’s initiative to compost food scraps is underway; the science department boasts a new zero-net energy greenhouse and has hired a greenhouse technician to oversee the greenhouse and a prospective permaculture garden; and the administration has been in support of students designing and advocating for permaculture gardens on campus through a one-time offering of AGR 240: Permaculture Student Forum, spring 2012. Collectively, these sustainable food, energy, and waste management initiatives place GCC at the cutting edge of leadership among institutions of higher learning. With a permaculture garden, GCC’s profile as a progressive school will be even more enhanced in the eyes of students and friends of the college. PERMACULTURE STUDENT FORUM—SPRING 2012 Under the guidance of instructor and permaculture designer Abrah Dresdale, a group of six dedicated students (four of whom hold Permaculture Design Certificates) from the inaugural class of EVS118: Introduction to Food Systems, fall 2011, worked to co-create permaculture designs for GCC’s campus. With the support of Dean Peter Rosnick, the one-time offering of a 2-credit Special Topics Course, AGR 240: Permaculture Student Forum, emerged. The students from Introduction to Food Systems, along with vested faculty and staff at the college, saw a need for an outdoor classroom that demonstrated sustainable land-use and food production while offering a site on the campus for experiential learning. This Special Topics Course was inspired and informed by Professor Dresdale’s work with the Sustainable Landscape Design Forum at Wesleyan University and from conversations she had with Ryan Harb, coordinator of the Permaculture Committee at UMass-Amherst. The six students in GCC’s Permaculture Student Forum were charged with the development, design, and creation of an actionable plan towards the implementation of a permaculture garden on GCC's campus. Topics included group collaboration, multistakeholder interviews, campus organizing and outreach, and applying permaculture design practices.

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Through this course, students met the following learning objectives: o o o o o o o o o o

Outline an action plan for advocating for a permaculture garden on campus Apply group facilitation skills Deliver a stakeholder charette to gather community input Identify connections among departments, campus services, and student groups to the garden Promote a permaculture garden through flyer design, blogging, tabling, and delivering public talks Design a multi-functional garden that can be replicated at other educational institutuions Document the process through photography, blogging, and journaling Research plants, their growing conditions, and range of prices and availability Compile a database of resources needed to implement a garden Convey plans for long-term maintenance of a permaculture garden

COMMUNITY-ENGAGED PROCESS The Permaculture Student Forum conducted a multi-stakeholder community-engaged process through out the spring months, including o hosting a stakeholder charrette to gather the visions and interests of 50 + attendees comprised of local residents, college students, and permaculturalists o interviewing GCC administrators, faculty, members of the Green Campus Committee, and staff from Physical Plant and Dining Services about their goals, concerns, and priorities o receiving guidance from Ryan Harb, Chief Sustainability Specialist at UMass o consulting with the following professional permaculture designers: Dave Jacke, author of Edible Forest Gardens; Jono Neiger and Keith Zaltzberg of Regenerative Design Group; and Connor Stedman of University of Vermont o visiting and learning from two institutional permaculture gardens at UMass-Amherst and Wellesley College o performing rigorous site analysis and assessment to highlight the needs and assets of the “silent client”—the land

PERMACULTURE EXPRESSED: A NOTE FROM THE PERMACULTURE STUDENT FORUM At Greenfield Community College, permaculture students and instructors are listening to the land and gathering its wisdom. As the Permaculture Student Forum, we have developed landscape designs with the goal of harmoniously integrating people at GCC with the land to which we belong. You may ask, “what is permaculture exactly?” Permaculture, an eco-social design movement that began in Australia in the 1970s, draws connections across a broad spectrum of disciplines. Permaculture designers observe patterns found in natural systems and in traditional ecological knowledge from around the world. They then mimic these patterns

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and relationships in the design of systems that meet human needs while increasing ecological and social health. Permaculture draws from an extensive toolbox built on these ecological patterns and principles, including green building; ecological landscape design; restoration ecology; regenerative agriculture with a focus on perennial crops; and more. Humans are understood through this practice to be an integral part of, rather than separate from, nature. As an important keystone species in ecosystems world wide, people are encouraged to interact with, manage, and tend both ‘wild’ and cultivated landscapes with the aim of greater health, diversity, and resilience. PERMACULTURE PRINCIPLES (selection from David Holmgren)

o o o o o o o o o o o o

Observe and interact Use and value on-site resources Catch and store energy Obtain a yield Produce no waste Use and value diversity Apply self regulation and accept feedback Design from patterns to details Integrate rather than segregate Use small and slow solutions Use edges and value the marginal Creatively respond to change

PERMACULTURE & GCC’S CAMPUS With a permaculture garden on campus, those of us in the Forum believe that Greenfield Community College can be a hub of social and educational interconnection. As the designers of these gardens, we envision that individuals who visit these transformed sites will find themselves enlivened and uplifted. Permaculture installations on GCC’s campus will compliment the new Farm and Food Systems courses as hands-on living laboratories. Support from students, faculty, staff, and community members was evidenced by the 50+ attendees of the stakeholder charrette in March, 2012. Additionally, enthusiastic students from GCC’ pilot year in Farm and Food Systems, fall 2011 to spring 2012, continue to express interest and curiosity in experiential learning and re-skilling on campus. The proposed campus permaculture gardens will respond to the requests of these students and serve as a central, common resource for the wider learning community.

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PROJECT GOALS Students in the Forum conducted a multi-stakeholder charrette along with several interviews with the administration, science faculty, members of the Green Campus Committee, Physical Plant, and Dining Services over the course of spring 2012. The Goals Articulation below represents a synthesis of the goals that emerged from this community-engaged process. GOAL 1: The permaculture sites serve as outdoor classrooms for diverse courses OBJECTIVES o Science, art, social justice, engineering, and other related courses integrate the permaculture sites on campus into their curricula o Farm and Food Systems students benefit from on campus demonstrations of small-scale food cultivation strategies GOAL 2: Permaculture activities on GCC's campus engage the broader community OBJECTIVES o Community residents and nearby schools work in and learn from the gardens o Interpretative signage informs visitors about the functions and characteristics of plants while showcasing GCC's commitment to local food and sustainability o Gathering places invite people to relax, meditate, learn, and connect with self, others, and nature GOAL 3: The permaculture demonstration sites mimic the patterns of nature by collecting, storing, and utilizing on-site resources OBJECTIVES o GCC’s campus demonstrates a new baseline for whole systems sustainability in an educational setting, incorporating food waste, storm water, and other on-site inputs o Plants serve multiple functions such as pollinator forage, habitat for beneficials, food production, and soil improvement GOAL 4: In dynamic collaboration, the administration, faculty, staff, and students contribute to the longevity and success of this project OBJECTIVES o A combination of internships, student club activities, class service projects, and management from the Greenhouse Technician provides the support to ensure the gardens are well maintained and aesthetically pleasing o Elements such as mulch, passive rainwater collection, drip irrigation, and hardy plants create a low-maintenance landscape o GCC serves as a model community college by successfully developing longstanding institutional permaculture gardens

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KEY STAKEHOLDERS Tony Reiber: Greenhouse Technician Tony Reiber, recently hired by the college as the Greenhouse/laboratory technician has expertise and interest in supporting the development and maintenance of the permaculture garden. His first priority and responsibility being the greenhouse and laboratory support, his supervisors agree that he could contribute as many as four hours a week to permaculture garden maintenance with the possibility of more available hours during the summer. Abrah Dresdale: Faculty & Initiative Coordinator of Farm and Food Systems Abrah Dresdale has served as instructor for AGR240: Permaculture Student Forum and SCI 137: Permaculture Design. She has provided guidance for the community-engaged process thus far and has offered critical feedback to the students about their designs through out the spring semester. She will continue to act as project liaison among the student body, faculty, administration, and broader community, with the goal of integrating the permaculture gardens into curricula and campus sustainability practices at GCC. Physical Plant Physical plant works at maximum capacity to maintain a beautiful and clean campus. Director Jeff Marques indicates that the amount of support they can offer is minimal. He, however, is in support of this initiative, and offered the following ways in which Physical Plant may be able to contribute to permaculture gardens on campus: o resource sharing such as woodchips, composted leaves, hauling vehicles, or temporaryuse materials o support of periodic low-investment requests o advising and sharing knowledge Dining Services Rosemary Gardner, Director of Dining Services, indicated a high level of interest in regards to local food in the dining hall. In Fitz Vogt’s (Dining Services provider) contract, they have agreed to a 20% local food initiative (and they are already well on their way to meeting this commitment in partnering with the Mass Farm to School Program and CISA). During the interview, Ms. Gardner expressed interested in growing salad bar greens, culinary herbs, and storage vegetables on campus and incorporating this hyper-local produce into recipes. Most recently, Ms. Gardner, Montserrat Archbald of the Green Campus Committee, and Greenhouse Technician Tony Reiber have been in conversation about composting Dining Commons paper waste and food scraps on campus. The finished compost could be incorporated into the garden. Green Campus Committee & Science Department The Green Campus Committee and the Science Department support a permaculture garden next to the Science Department’s new zero-net energy greenhouse. In addition to the joint composting initiative, three of the Committee’s members—Brian Adams, Montserrat Archbald, and Trevor Kearns—attended the Permaculture Your Campus conference at UMass-Amherst in June 2012, along with Science Faculty Abrah Dresdale and Tony Reiber, and two dedicated GCC students. There, attendees “learn how to create edible, ecological gardens and landscapes as an important strategy for making all campuses more sustainable,” says UMass Permaculture.

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DESIGN CONCEPT & PHASES DESIGN CONCEPT The permaculture gardens at Greenfield Community College will serve as a Commons—or a resource that belongs to or affects a whole group—where all members of the broader community alongside the college community are invited. Through student, faculty, and civic participation, the goal of the garden project is to engage the community in a sense of common ownership of and mutual benefit from these gardens. The permaculture sites on campus will serve multiple functions of a Commons: o Outdoor classrooms that offer experiential education for students of all ages o Areas to propagate and share plant stock with community members who want to start their own permaculture gardens o In conjunction with the green house, an opportunity for students to gain nursery management and gardening job skills o A space that offers beauty and tranquility for pedestrians on campus PROPOSED PHASES OF DESIGN ‘Long and thoughtful observation’ is a trademark of permaculture design. Here, the three sites that the students in the Forum designed are divided into three phases. Implementing only one phase at a time helps to ensure the that these gardens will be maintained in good health and in aesthetic quality over time. Phase I: Living Laboratory (see Appendix A, p. 1)—around the new zero-net energy Greenhouse; installation proposed beginning Fall ‘12; see Interactive Management Plan, p. 7 Phase II: Micro-orchard (see Appendix A, p. 2)—south end of current white pine stand; installation proposed within 2-3 years; will require initial time and monetary investment, with yields increasing and maintenance decreasing after the first few years of establishment Phase III: Edible Landscaping (See Appendix A, p. 3)—raised bed/retaining wall in front of Core building; installation proposed within 3-5 years; low cost to install; may be the most maintenance for groundskeeping MICRO-CONTEXTS Phase I: Living Laboratory In 2012, GCC installed a new zero-net energy greenhouse just south of the natural science wing on the south side of the main building. The college subsequently hired Tony Reiber to oversee the operation of the greenhouse and its auxiliary functions. In order to construct the greenhouse, the college cleared the 1/8th acre area surrounding the greenhouse. This area for the Phase I design is sloped between 10 and 20% to the southeast and is currently shaded by a grove of white pines directly to the south. The college, however, soon plans to clear-

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cut the pine grove, thus providing ample sun to the greenhouse and surrounding site. The yield of the proposed garden includes food, medicinal and edible herbs, teas, education, a sanctuary, and increased ecosystem health. Phase II: Micro-Orchard The Phase II site, approximately 1/6th of an acre, slopes to the north and is located directly west of Parking Lot F (faculty paring lot), and east of an access road. This area is surrounded by asphalt to the east, south, and southeast. Heavy automobile traffic occurs in these areas, as well. Building construction has been taking place to the north, northeast, west, and northwest for the past decade. Students parking in lot E walk past the site to access the main buildings. Large buildings (South, Core, & North) are located directly north of the site. A dense evergreen and coniferous forest is located directly west of the site, and a forest patch containing a similar tree composition abuts the north end of the site. From 9am-3pm, this area receives mostly full sun. Phase III: Edible Landscaping The low raised bed/retaining wall that runs along the walkway parallel to the Core building is the location for the Phase III design. This site is very visible and in a well-traveled location on campus. It stretches the walkway between the parking lots and the two main entrances to the Core building. The bed is now planted with approximately 140 horizontal juniper bushes and approximately 15 echinacea at the southern end of the bed. One 10' high tree sits in the bed and another one is in the bed above. The existing soil is not compacted since the bed has been recently installed. There are a few inches of compost, keeping the bed moist and weed free. The site is surrounded with seating and table arrangements, from the upper patio, lower patio, and benches. Moving north to south of the outer edge of the front lawn is the bus stop, the visitor and handicap parking lot, a smoking gazebo, and faculty parking lots. Visibility is a key issue for this site, as it is exposed in all directions and is visible from above inside the building.

INTERACTIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION The following section proposes institutional infrastructure to support the Phase I: Living Laboratory garden. The goal of this plan is to outline the people and systems that could collectively manage the garden and foster the cultural container to support it over the long-term. The permaculture garden project at Greenfield Community College can be seen as a modern day “barn raising� wherein the whole community contributes to an initial investment of time, labor, and love. The lasting benefits include an educational demonstration of perennial food production, a community commons for plant propagation and dispersal, an opportunity for students to gain nursery and gardening job skills, and a stronger social fabric centered around land stewardship and ecosystem regeneration.

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After careful consideration of the few existing models of institutional permaculture initiatives, the following are recommendations that can help ensure the success and longevity of Phase I: Living Laboratory. PROJECT MANAGEMENT The primary administrators for the proposed Phase I: Living Laboratory will be Tony Reiber and Abrah Dresdale. They will have the greatest responsibility for ensuring the health, maintenance, and socio-cultural systems related the garden. The management system proposed below should also allow for flexibility and adaptation as new opportunities arise. Additional support for garden installation and maintenance will come from students who are either members of the new Permaculture Club, interns under Mr. Reiber, and/or volunteers. ARTICULATED ROLES Garden Manager—Tony Reiber, 4+ hours per week yearly Garden Coordinator—Abrah Dresdale, 6 hours per week each fall and spring semesters;

funded under Coordinator hours designated in the USDA Community Food Project grant Garden Manager o meets with Garden Coordinator for 30 minutes weekly during the growing season, prior to Permaculture Club meeting o identifies garden/greenhouse tasks and prioritizes projects for Garden Interns and Permaculture Club o supervises garden/greenhouse interns in the execution of tasks and projects o co-supervises regularly scheduled work sessions during the growing season for the Permaculture Club and other student volunteers o maintains the garden over the summer and oversees potential summer interns o conducts educational garden tours when available Garden Coordinator o meets with Garden Manager for 30 minutes weekly during the growing season, prior to the Permaculture Club meeting o co-supervises regularly scheduled work sessions during the growing season for the Permaculture Club and other student volunteers o advises permaculture club meetings; coordinates with guest presenters o coordinates with faculty for the integration of the garden into course curricula o communicates with Physical Plant, Dining Services, administration, and other vested stakeholders at the college about the garden o continual work on fundraising with Development Office o conducts educational garden tours when available

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STUDENT INVOLVEMENT Garden Interns—by application; two to four students each semester to undertake a

semester-long, greenhouse and garden internship (3 credits) with Tony Reiber, overseen by Faculty Mentor Abrah Dresdale; offers students credit, resume-building, job skills training Proposed Permaculture Club—student club (not for credit); meets weekly—for garden work sessions during the growing season, and indoor activities during the winter months Permaculture Courses—the garden will serve and be serviced by students in GCC’s two permaculture courses, SCI 137: Permaculture Design and AGR115: Permaculture Landscape Management and Installation Service Learning Class Projects—students can fulfill service learning requirements for their classes by working in the permaculture garden Science Department Work Study—additional support for the garden can be assigned to science department work study students Student Volunteers—regularly scheduled time slots will allow for interested students to drop in and volunteer in the garden Garden Intern Responsibilities o meets with Garden Manager weekly to receive tasks and projects o works in the garden and/or greenhouse under the supervision of the Garden Manager o ideally gardens alongside the Permaculture Club during the weekly work session Proposed Permaculture Club Roles o meets weekly—for garden work sessions during the growing season and indoor permaculture-related activities during the winter months o engages community through outreach, tabling, and social media o over time, permaculture club participants will participate in peer-mentoring and more seasoned members will teach new members as they join each semester CROSS-CURRICULAR INTEGRATION Greenfield Community College offers the following classes that could directly benefit from a Living Laboratory permaculture garden while simultaneously providing garden maintenance as part of a class/community service projects: Spring Semesters o SCI 137: Permaculture Design o BIO 124: Introductory Horticulture o EVS 152: Organic Gardening o BIO 103: Ecology o BIO 120: Introduction to Environmental Science o EVS 101: Issues in Sustainability

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Fall Semesters o SCI 138: Soil Science o BIO 102: Botany o BIO 120: Introduction to Environmental Science o SCI 125: Sustainable Landscape Design o EVS 118: Introduction to Food Systems Workshops/Re-skilling Series Workshops and re-skilling series can provide a great opportunity for learning and management through hands-on skills in the garden. Instructors of these classes could incorporate the garden into part of their class time, albeit for shitake logs on the north side of the greenhouse or harvesting from the Nanking cherries to make jam. Re-skilling Series includes: o EVS 152: Organic Gardening o AGR 110: Beekeeping o AGR 111: Four Season Farming o AGR 112: Food Preservation and Storage o AGR 113: Mushroom Foraging and Cultivation o AGR 114: Creating a Cooperative Food Economy o AGR 115: Permaculture Landscape Management and Installation

PHASE I: LIVING LABORATORY OVERVIEW PROJECT FINANCES Pro Bono & Donations o GCC faculty, staff, and administration have generously spent time meeting with and supporting students in the Permaculture Student Forum. o Dave Jacke, author of Edible Forest Gardens, Keith Zaltzberg of Regenerative Design Group, and Connor Stedman of University of Vermont have volunteered their time to consult with the Forum. o Lisa Depiano of Montview Farm has donated her stock of edible and useful perennial plants to the garden, valued at $950. She sees this gift as an investment in the GCC and the broader community, with the agreement that she be allowed to take propagules from these plants in the future. o UMass-Amherst will be granting GCC $1,000 from a small award they received, with the goal of supporting other institutions to start educational permaculture gardens. o A donor has committed to donating $1000 to the Green Campus Fund starting in January, 2013, to be used in support of the permaculture gardens. Future Costs Future costs include: o materials (construction materials, soil amendments, tools, seeds, plants, etc.)

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o infrastructure (garden shed, water catchment) o labor (specialized labor and unskilled labor) o unforeseen costs (please see Appendices B for Plant Data and Appendix C for Materials Budget) Reducing Costs Steps taken so far to increase funding and reduce costs include: o applying for a USDA SPECA-NIFA grant, which was not awarded o conversations with UMass Permaculture about partial fiscal sponsorship for a garden, which has resulted in the aforementioned $1,000 gift o the development of AGR115: Permaculture Landscape Management and Installation, beginning fall 2012, which will provide installation expertise from instructor Keith Zaltzberg and labor from students o the creation of Garden Internships and a Permaculture Club will provide garden maintenance while students acquire hands-on skills Continued measures will be taken to seek funds and reduce expenses so that the cost of implementing Phase I would be either minimal or at no cost to the college operating budget (see Appendix D for Funding Scheme). These plans include: o seeking fiscal support from the Green Campus Fund for specific requests o working with Development Office to apply for more grants and seek donations from the community (monetary donations, materials, labor, intellectual support, etc.) o using low-cost/no-cost/recycled and on-site materials o undertaking a plant sale fundraiser from propagated edible or useful greenhouse/stock plants o annual budget and/or 1-time special request funds through Student Life for the prospective Permaculture Club o possible fundraiser through Soup and Games night at Hope and Olive restaurant o collaborations with the Franklin County Technical School to share tools, commission shop-students to create signage and other materials needed o resource-share for tools, dump truck use, etc. with Physical Plant o purchase certain tools that will also be utilized in SCI courses with science department’s budget o approach Fitz Vogt about providing the cost of seed for growing greens for the dining commons o seek discounts in bulk buying from vendors and/or propose they make a taxdeductible donation of materials to the GCC Foundation EXISTING CONDITIONS OF PHASE I Infrastructure and Hardscaping The existing infrastructure and hardscaping of the site includes the new zero-net energy greenhouse, an old greenhouse, two lighting poles, cemented walkways that surround the garden, drains, and all the surrounding buildings of the college. Over time, allocated locations are needed for a resources depot, composting site, tool shed, signage, benches, and art installations (both temporary and permanent). 11


In July 2012, the College intends to clear-cut the white pine stand directly adjacent to the south/southwest of the Phase I site. Peter Rosnick and Jeff Marques agree with the Forum that the felled trees can be used as resources in the garden, whether for raised beds, benches, or chipped pathway mulch. Site Preparation The soil around the greenhouse will need repair due to the compaction from construction equipment, exposure of bare soil, and areas of steep slope. Additionally, soil test results indicate a lack of biovailable micro- and macro-nutrients. In April 2012, Tony Reiber planted a grass seed mix of fibrous roots, which will begin the process of aerating the compacted soil and stabilizing erosion. Building soil health using various techniques such as applying amendments, adding compost, sheet mulching, planting dynamic accumulators, and so on, will greatly benefit the future plants and ecosystem. Plantings The planting timeline will change depending on the amount of funding available. With more funding, we will be able to fully stock plants proposed in the design. If the current funding situation continues, Mr. Reiber has indicated that he will propagate from the current stock of donated plants. Additionally, the Permaculture Club can continue to seek donations of seed/cutting/plants, and build the garden stock over time.

2012-2013 TIMELINE & TASKS SPRING 2012 Site Modifications  Heel in plants from Montview Farm behind East Building  Native grass mix spreads and aerates compacted soil Planning  Present designs to the community and administration for review and feedback  Amend proposal; finalize research SUMMER 2012 Site Modifications  Clear cut the white pine stand  Mill lumber and chip mulch  Install composting infrastructure  Continue watering heeled in plants Planning  Faculty, staff, and students attend UMass Permaculture Your Campus conference  Follow up meeting with GCC conference participants to finalize proposal, budget, fundraising plans, etc.  Submit final design of Phase I and Proposal to the president and board for review and approval 12


 Display of Phase I-III final designs at GCC  Meet with Dining Services to understand how best to support the kitchen staff as they move towards fully integrating composting into the kitchen routine  Coordinate UMass Permaculture Garden tour for the fall; invite the president, and vested administrators, faculty, staff, and friends of the college  Communicate with Physical Plant about regularly acquiring leaves, grass clippings, etc. for compost operation  Insure fall student orientation includes recycling and composting-on-campus instructions FALL 2012 Site Modifications  Make necessary soil amendments based on soil test results  Create micro-earthworks for swales, pathways, and rain garden with the Permaculture Club, Garden Interns, and instructor and students in AGR 115: Permaculture Landscape Management and Installation  Begin sheet mulching; garden interns gather cardboard and other materials  Continue watering heeled-in plants Planning  Meet with Dining Services to discuss the potential for interns and/or work study participants to maintain, harvest, and/or prepare food grown on campus and to deliver dining hall food and paper scraps to compost pile  Garden Coordinator contacts faculty of applicable classes to articulate their use of the garden in spring 2013  Communicate with Franklin County Technical School for any contributions (garden tools from welding shop; equipment from landscaping shop, etc.) Events  GCC tours UMass Permaculture Garden  Possible community-engagement day for GCC site SPRING 2013 Site Modifications  Construct frames for raised beds  Begin planting and mulching  Rain barrel and drip tape installation, possibly dovetailing with a community education workshop Planning  Prepare signage (1 large garden sign, several small plant ID signs)  Coordinate a garden kick-off event and tour for end of spring 2013 semester

13


Appendix A Permaculture Landscape Designs for Greenfield Community College Campus

Phase I: Living Laboratory (year 1) Phase II: Micro-orchard (years 2-3) Phase III: Edible Landscaping (years 3-5)


Phase I: Living Laboratory

Section a-a’


P h a s e II : M i c r o - o r c h a r d

3-Year View

Mature Design


P h a s e III : E d i b l e L a n d s c a p i n g


Appendix
B:
Plant
Data
for
Phase
I‐‐Living
Laboratory
Permaculture
Garden Common
 La*n
name Qty
in
 Qty
 Price
 Name Design Donated per
Unit

Total
 Cost
to
 Func*on Nursery Cost GCC

hazelbert

Corylius
x
 hybrid

1

1

$50


$50


$0


Nanking
 cherry

Prunus
 tomentosa

2

1

$80


$160


$80


jostaberry

Rubus
 nidigrolaria

3

3

$50


$150


$0


high
bush
 Vaccinuim
 blueberry corymbosum

4

1

$25


$100


$75


golden
 Rubus
idaeus
 raspberry aureus

3

1

$10


$30


$0


Maintenance

Notes

edible
 Montview
 5
to
10
gallons
of
water
 Mulch
well,.
Edible
nuts. hedge,
 Farm per
day
unJl
the
end
of
 ornamt'l May,
and
2
to
3
Jmes
per
 week
thereaNer
through
 mid‐July edible
 Montview
 Apply
Phosphorous
 Prune
Annually,
keep
weeds
 berry Farm concentrated
ferJlizer
 around
plant
low
to
prevent
 during
first
year
of
 disease
and
pests.
Consider
 planJng smaller
size=reduce
the
cost. edible
 Montview
 The
best
Jme
to
plant
is
 Likes
moist,
slightly
acidic
soil.
 berry Farm;
2
 early
winter,
mid‐ Do
not
prune
aNer
1st
year,
 addiJonal
 November,
or
up
unJl
 prune
annually
thereaNer.
 plants
can
 mid‐march.
When
 Propagates
from
hardwood
 be
 planted,
trim
every
shoot
 cu\ngs. propagatd to
within
two
buds
above
 soil
level
to
encourage
 strong
roots. edible
 Montview Plant
in
early
spring,
 full
sun.
requires
acidic
soil.
 berry mulch
well,
ferJlize
3‐4
 (4.5‐5.2),
prune
annually
for
 weeks
aNer
planJng,
and
 excellent
growth
(cut
back
 remove
flowers
for
first
 canes
6
years
and
older
for
 two
years
to
encourage
 new,
vigorous
growth). root
growth. edible
 Montview
 FerJlize
twice
a
year. Prune
twice
a
year:
once
in
 berry addiJonal
 spring
(late
march/early
April)
 plants
can
 to
cut
back
weak
and
tall
 be
 canes;
again
in
fall
aNer
last
 propagatd harvest
to
remove
canes
that
 fruited;
mulch
well


trumpet
 
semperviren honeysuckle
 s

2

2

$25


$50


$0


honey
 suckle
bush

Dievilla
 lonicera

2

2

$40


$80


$0


anise
 hyssop

Agastache
 foeniculum

11

2

$10


$110


$0


Priaire
 Dropseed

Sporobulus
 heterolepsis

5

0

$10


$50


$50


juneberry

Melanchier
 alnifolia

2

2

$40


$80


$0


2‐‐1
 male
1
 Female

0

$25


$50


$50


winterberry
 Ilex
 holly ver@cillata

basket
 willow

Saliz
 viminalis

5

10

$3


$15


$0


bundle
 flower

Desmanthus
 illinoensis

5

5

$25


$125


$0


insectary,
 Montview
 nectary,
 Farm edible
 flowers

Mulch
well.

Prune
shrubs
and
vines
aNer
 harvesJng.
Aggressive
 varieJes
can
be
pruned
down
 to
the
ground.
ParJal
shade
is
 ok.
Propagates
through
 cu\ngs
in
summer
and
fall. nectary

 Montview
 Prune
back
to
basic
 Adracts
hummingbirds,
does
 Farm framework
in
early
spring
 well
in
hanging
pots.
 while
plant
is
dormant. Propagates
from
suckers
at
 base
of
plant. tea,
 Montview
 Plant
2
feet
apart. Plant
will
bloom
if
flowers
are
 medicinal
 Farm;
will
 deadheaded.
Propagate
 insectary,
 spread through
seed. fragrant erosion
 Nasami
 When
cut,
responds
with
 Seeds
itself.

Can
divide
grass
 control,
 Farm new
aggressive
growth.
 bunches
to
produce
more
 wildlife
 Cut
at
least
once
a
year. plants habitat edible
 Montview
 Prune
plants
back
to
2
 Propagate
from
root
cu\ngs. berry Farm inches
above
the
roots
in
 early
spring food
for
 Nasami
 Water
if
water
is
less
 Likes
well
drained,
acidic
soil.
 birds Farm than
1
inch
per
week,
 PropagaJon
mostly
from
seed
 mulch
well,
compost
bi‐ since
holly
does
not
grow
 annually. vigorously wastewat Montview
 Harvest
when
plant
is
 Coppiced
close
to
the
ground
 er
filter,
 Farm dormant
and
there
are
 for
basket
products.
 baskets no
leaves. Propagate
from
1
N.
long
 cu\ngs. seed
for
 Montview
 Full
sun Propagate
from
seed,

likes
 birds,
 Farm moist
soil medicinal
 buderfly


chocolate
 mint yarrow

Mentha
 piperita Achillea
 millefolium

2

2

$5


$10


$0


7

2

$5


$35


$0


welsh
onion

Allium
 fistulosum

1

1

$20


$20


$0


oregano

Origanum
 vulgare

1

1

$10


$10


$0


echinacea

echinacea
 purpurea

7

1

$10


$70


$0


dwarf
 comfrey

Symphytum
 grandiflorum

3

1

$25


$75


$0


violet

viola
odorata

2

1

$15


$30


$0


wild
ginger

asarum
 caudatum

5

0

$4


$20


$20


alpine
 mouse
ear

Ceras@um
 alpinum
 lanatum Ur@ca
dioica

Bulk

0

$96


$96


$96


3

3

$5


$15


$0


sJnging
 nedles

Herb,
 Montview
 Trimming
plant
 Spreads
rapidly,
propagate
by
 Medicinal Farm encourages
bush
growth harvesJng
runners Medicinal Montview
 ANer
first
frost,
cut
plants
 Drought
tolerant.
To
 Farm;
will
 back
to
1"
of
soil
line. propagate:
uproot
and
divide
 spread plants
into
clumps;
replant. Vegetable
 Montview
 Divide
established
 Propagate
from
seeds
or
by
 food Farm clumps
every
4‐5
years.
 division Cut
back

aNer
die‐down Herb,
 Montview
 Drought
tolerant,
dead‐ Propagate
from
seeds
or
 Insectary,
 Farm head
flowers
for
benefit
 cu\ngs.
 of
flavor. Insectary,
 Montview
 Deadheading

will
 Leaving
seed
heads
will
 nectary,
 Farm promote
addiJonal
 adract
birds.
Can
easily
be
 medicinal
 blooming grown
from
seed
in
the
 ornamt'l greenhouse
from
stock
plants Groundcv
 Montview
 Control
spreading
(12"
 dense
groundcover insectary,
 Farm;
will
 per
year) food spread Groundcv
 Montview
 needs
good
sun
and
well‐ insectary,
 Farm;
will
 drained
soil food spread Groundcv
 G'field
 Water
well
unJl
 food Farmers'
 established,
plant
in
light
 Coop
Exch shade Groundcv stepables. well‐drained
soil com

edible
flowers
and
leaves,
 depending
on
the
variety

Medicinal
 Montview
 Food Farm

SJngs
to
the
touch!
Grows
 well
in
disturbed
soil.
 Propagate
rhizomaJcally.

Cu\ng
back
tops
 encourages
bushy
 growth.

PropagaJon
by
division


chives

climbing
 spinach New
Eng
 naJve
 wildfwr
mix white
clover

northern
 ecology
 lawn
mix bee
balm

Allium
 schoenopra‐ sum Basella
alba

2

1

$10


$20


$0


0

$8


0

$1.27
per
 pckt $15


$8


N/A

6
 packets 8
oz.

$15


$15


N/A

1
lb.

0

$6


$6


$6


N/A

1
lb.

0

$52


$52


$52


Monarda
 didyma


8

2

$10


$80


$0


TOTAL $1,612 COSTS ACTUAL COST TO GCC

$452

Herb,
 Insectary,
 ornamt'l Edible,
 ornamt'l Ornamt'l
 insectary Nitrogen
 fixer,
 groundcv Groundcv
 food nectary,
 medicinal
 tea

Montview
 Divide
plants
every
3‐4
 Propagate
by
seed
or
division Farm;
will
 years,
 spread Parkseed.c Need
trellis/pole,
loves
 Propagate
by
seed om sun/heat,
mulch
well G'field
 Full
sun Farmers'
 Coop
Exch G'field
 Seed
in
and
water
to
 Farmers'
 establish,
mulch
into
soil
 Coop
Exch when
ready
to
plant nicholsgar Seed
in
and
cover
with
 dennurser straw
to
protect
seed
 y.com from
birds. Montview
 ANer
first
frost,
cut
plants
 Propagate
by
dividing
clumps
 Farm;
will
 back
to
1"
of
soil
line.
 at
least
every
2‐3
years. spread Mulch
well.


Appendix C: Materials Budget, Phase I--Living Laboratory Permaculture Garden Priority for Fall 2012

Key YEAR 1 MATERIALS

AMOUNT

Site Preparation + soil test (existing) + soil test (future)

unknown

+ compost/loam mix + cardboard

40 yards 5,000 sq. ft

+ leaves + straw + wood chips Plants/Seeds + plant stock & seed mixes

+ trowels + cultivator

$15 $15

$30 $30

$500

continuous 25 bails 10 yards

$32 0

$1,280 0

0

0 $100 $100

4/bail 10/yard

approx 100 variable

+ lettuce mix for greenhouse 1/4 lb Tools + shovels (6 pointed, 2 flat) + digging forks + pitch forks + fan rakes + hard rakes + spades

COST PER TOTAL TOTAL COSTS to UNIT ITEM COST GCC

2 2

+ soil amendments

Secondary; not needed until Spring 2013

$1,612 $35

$35

8 4 8 2 4

$11 $25 $12 $6 $10

$88 $100 $96 $12 $40

4

$25

$100

10 10

$6 $4

$60 $40

NOTES

0 Paid already $30 Sci Dept has 50 lbs rock phosphate, 50 lbs of lime, $200 30lbs cotton seed meal free - via Physical Plant ;1 $0 yard 3" thick covers 100 sq. ft 0 free--via Cental Services free--via Physical plant; for 0 compost operation & mulch 0 free--left over from SCI 135 0 free--via Physical plant $940 of plants donated from $452 Montview Farm $35 $88 for all tools-will seek donations $100 and/or discounts for bulk order $96 $12 $40 Science dept funds will cover $0 for soil science class Science dept funds will cover $0 for soil science class $40


YEAR 1 MATERIALS

AMOUNT

+ broad fork + wheelbarrows Infrastructure + shed + hose + drip tape + timer

+ compost tumblers

$200 $50

1

1,700 $90 $75

$300

unknown

+ garden sign

+ plant signs w stakes

1 2

2

+ rain catchment Signs

COST PER TOTAL TOTAL COSTS to UNIT ITEM COST GCC

$450

30 stakes

0.75 TOTAL COSTS ACTUAL COST TO GCC Fall 2012 Priority Total

$200 $100 $1,700 $90 $75

$600

$1,000

$450

$22.50

NOTES

$0 borrowed for infrequent uses $100 $1,700 $90 $75

Tony Reiber will construct 2 tumblers rather than $250 purchasing pre-fabricated as a community ed workshop; construct DIY rains barrel system from food grade $500 barrels--will reduce cost wood donated by Trevor 0 Kearns; sign made at FCTS

researched/designed by interns; printed & laminated $22.50 at GCC

$8,461

$3,831

$2,486


Appendix
D:
Funding
Scheme Source UMass
Grant

Sum 1000

ConstrucBng
 the
tool
shed
 with
in‐house
 labor

1000

AddiBonal
plant
 donaBons
from
 local
nurseries

400

Student
Life

FoundaBon
 Green
Campus
 Fund ResubmiZal
of
 USDA
grant Other
grants
 and
fund‐ raising Total
Es2mated
 Income

500
‐
1000

1000

$3900‐4400

Provisos Verbal
agreement
from
UMass;
waiBng
for
funds
to
be
 transferred
and
distributed
to
UMass
from
central
account;
 (expect
within
1‐6
months) The
esBmated
cost
for
purchasing
an
off‐the
shelf
shed
was
 $1700.

We
esBmate
cost
of
materials
to
be
$700
and
GCC
 trades
people
would
do
the
rest.

There
is
also
a
chance
for
 addiBonal
savings
if
pine
from
the
island
can
be
milled
and
 used
for
the
construcBon. Tony
has
begun
conversaBons
in
coordinaBon
with
Regina
 with
local
nurseries
–
like
Nasami
Farm

Students,
with
Abrah
as
advisor,
will
apply
to
form
a
 Permaculture
Club
and
will
apply
to
Student
Life
for
Seed
 money
for
the
permaculture
garden.

This
has
NOT
been
 commiZed A
donor
has
commiZed
to
donaBng
$1000
to
the
Green
 Campus
Fund
starBng
in
January
to
be
used
in
support
of
 the
permaculture
gardens. We
will
resubmit
our
grant
from
last
year
that
would
have
 provided
dollars
for
permaculture
and
greenhouse
needs We
believe
strongly
that
the
gardens
will
help
us
in
future
 grant
wriBng
and
fund‐raising
efforts
and
we
are
commiZed
 to
pursuing
all
leads.

Profile for Abrah Dresdale Consulting

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