Group 2_Kaira Looro Women's House Report

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La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere Grayson Bancroft--master of construction management YiJing Hong--master of construction management Yifei Qiu--master of architecture Yuxin Wang--master of construction management The University of Melbourne Author Note A Report and Design Proposal for the Kaira Looro Women’s House Architectural Competition, Baghere, Senegal. Prepared for the Balou Salo Organisation in partnership with the African Union for Women Gender and Developmen, ​UN Women​ and the Senegalese Government Ministry for Women, Families and Child Protection (Ministere de la femme, de la famille, du Genre et de la Protection des Enfants)


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Abstract The following report will identify the primary needs of the local women of Baghere to be addressed by our project, la Maison Des Femmes in response to the brief put forward by the Kaira Looro competition. The report will outline the current circumstances faced by the female Senegalese community, and how this project aims to address those inequalities through providing a safe and familiar architectural environment encompassing financial opportunities through agricultural education and the adoption of best practices in relation to WASH (Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene) facilities. The report will go into detail regarding the Architectural expression, water collection and use, waste management, irrigation and fertilisation, construction methods and materials, and the goals to be met by the development.

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Contents i. Fundamental Considerations i.i Collaborative Design and Construction i.ii Stakeholders, Agencies and Technical Experts i.iii WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) i.iv Power i.v Gender Equality Initial Consideration Cohesion

ii. Architectural Design Considerations ii.i Function Analysis ii.ii Design Flexibility and Adaptability ii.iii Architectural Expression ii.iv Building Typology ii.v Consideration of Local Customs and Cultural Practice Plans, Sections and Perspectives

iii. Landscape Design Considerations


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

iii.i Food Security iii.ii Plant Analysis iii.iii WASH iii.iv Landscaping Plan

iV. Construction Design Considerations iV.i Construction System iV.ii Construction Programme iV.ii Construction Materials iV.iii Construction Cost V. References V.i Appendix



La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

i. Fundamental Considerations La Maison des Femmes (The House of Women), Baghere; is designed with the utmost consideration to the future livelihoods of local women, aiming to relieve the women of ‘time poverty’ - where women’s time in inflexible as their lives revolve around routine and non-productive tasks to meet the basic needs of their families (World Bank, 2006). Baghere is a small village of roughly 2,200 people (53% women) situated in the Tanaff Valley within the Sedhiou religion of Senegal in Western Africa. The Sedhiou region is one of the least developed areas in all of Senegal with a poverty rate of 90% (Kaira Looro Architecture Competition, 2021). Currently, the women of Senegal are primary labourers in the Agricultural field but lack the same access to education and tools as their male counterparts. There is a growing trend of males leaving the region to find work in Urban areas or Abroad as food production depletes due to the growing desertification and salinisation in the area, leaving women and children to bear a heavier load in agricultural production (Dotto, 2021). Currently, Senegal relies on imports for roughly 50% of their necessary food supply and agricultural yield is expected to be reduced by a further 11% by the 2050s due to climate change without intervention (Sultan, Defrance and Iizumi, 2019). Additionally, sanitary conditions in the region are wholly insufficient with 86% of the population living in homes without a source of potable water (Kaira Looro Architecture Competition, 2021). ‘La Maison des Femmes’ aims to address these major regional deficiencies in the interest of promoting better health, wealth, education and hygiene to the women of this area. The aim is to reduce the physical labour necessary for women to meet their most basic daily needs by providing a framework for a collective of women to work together towards the goal of independence and self-sufficiency. Financial independence, power in knowledge, and simpler access to food and water will lead to a higher rate of education in children and girls in particular. With 40% of Senegalese women engaged in some form of polygynys marriage (Engelking, T. (2008), and underage marriage for girls being particularly prevalent (Cultural Practice LLC, 2010), it is the aim of La Maison des Femmes to support girls and women in gaining access to choice through better agricultural practices, thus relying less on prospective marriage opportunities for economic betterment.

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


i.i Collaborative Design and Construction Baghere is an almost exclusively Muslim village where 53% of the population is female (Kaira Looro Architecture Competition, 2021). By assessing the needs of the female population through data analysis from multiple exhaustive resources, a few main design goals - being the provision of better systems in water use and collection as well as agricultural practices - can be identified. As well as two private and secure areas, La Maison des Femmes employs a largely open plan and flexible spaces which may be adapted by its occupants to suit ongoing and changing needs. Consultation with the local Imam (male Muslim religious leader), who guides the community regarding intellectual and foreign ideas is paramount to the success of La Maison des Femmes. Collaboration with the Imam will support us in channeling human resources from the already existing organized framework of religious community members to undertake the construction of La Maison des Femmes. All construction materials employed in the project are able to be moved and placed without machinery; and the vast majority of construction materials can be sourced within the local area at a low cost. Construction materials include timber-in-theround columns, Earth bags, compressed earth, timber, custom-orb roof sheeting, milled timber for roof structure. These materials have been selected because of their existing local prevalence in construction, as well as their longevity. Considerations were made for more traditional building supplies like bamboo and thatch but have since been rejected for their short lifespan and heavy maintenance needs. Local women may be involved in the construction, decoration, and upkeep of the center as well as ongoing maintenance and changing or adding onto the building as needs change and develop.

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


i.ii Stakeholders, Agencies and Technical Experts The below Figure shows the primary stakeholders, agencies and technical experts and their level of involvement at each stage of the project. This figure has been adapted from the Duccio Turin model (Turin, 2003). By informing the brief, the local users of the project have a large part in most stages of La Maison des Femmes.

i.iii WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) In sub-Saharan Africa, it has been estimated that women spend a cumulative 40 billion hours a year collecting water (Mainstreaming Gender in Water and Sanitation, 2010). In the Sedhiou Region, 98% of families dispose of their wastewater in the road, in nature, or in open-air landfills (Kaira Looro


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Architecture Competition, 2021). Construction of a communal well in Baghere is planned for 2021 by Balouo Salo which will include a solar decontamination and sterilisation system to give access to clean, safe drinking water to an estimated 19,000 people (Balouo Salo - Baghere well project, 2021). For that reason, La Maison des Femmes will focus on water collection, better irrigation practices, and better hygiene practices. The centre will allow a safe space for women to learn and discuss menstrual hygiene and facilitate open discussions with the view of leaving behind practices of shaming girls and women who are experiencing menstruation. The centre will be equipped with dry squat toilets as well as hand washing basins with basic taps. La Maison des Femmes will collect rainwater across a steeply pitched roof with the main circulation space around a central tank. The integration of the tank into the main courtyard aims to keep WASH in the forefront of the minds of its users. By saving funds on building materials the centre will focus on programs around food production, water collection and water conservation, once these skills are learned they can be taken back to the homes of community members and passed on to others thereby benefitting the whole community. i.iv Power It is essential for women to be able to inhabit the centre in the evenings as the evenings are cooler than the day and women’s schedules may be tight and restrictive. Lighting will be provided by solar powered lights connected directly to singular panels with small household batteries within the unit. These lights can be relocated as needed and will turn on automatically at sunset and will run throughout the night for easy access and security for women using the facilities. Power necessary to run the aquifer pump as well as any additional power needed for tools or personal devices will be provided by 10 solar panels to be placed on the ground. These panels may be angled specifically to catch the most UV and may be stored inside at night if necessary. The solar panels can be cleaned easily from the ground and may even be loaned to other local buildings like schools if the need arises. These lights can be connected to batteries for power storage to be used inside or within the community in emergency situations. The solar panels will be able to generate 3600w at any time. This


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

will allow them to be used for charging large tools or machinery and to fulfill the needs of much of the community.

i.v Gender Equality There has been a growing trend identified in Senegal whereby the local men leave the villages to find work in the larger urban areas or overseas as they are unable to meet their agricultural needs due to severely declining crop yields (Dotto, 2021). Senegalese women remain time-impoverished as they struggle to meet the physical, educational, and emotional needs of their children while bearing the heavy load of agricultural work (primarily on male-owned land). La Maison Des Femmes aims to provide women with a safe and comfortable space to collaborate and to receive access to agricultural education; as well as better agricultural and irrigation tools, land and equipment. The women will have access to these resources in an easily accessible location where they can bring their children if necessary, for childcare duties. The centre has access to cooking facilities, safe and clean WASH facilities, as well as places to rest. Women may choose to engage in the construction of the centre as well as the decoration and ongoing maintenance to further their knowledge and opportunities in these areas. By taking advantage of the resources provided, women may form their own micro-finance schemes where women may take loans to set up their own gravity-fed irrigation systems on their own (or family) land. Women may choose to invest in communal plots after graduating from the on-site agricultural program based on the African Market Garden system (See iii. Landscape Considerations for further details). To further equality for women, equity and investment must be provided in raising their value and the value of their business endeavors to enable emancipation. The House of Women is not designed to inhabit men as current systems owned and operated by males have not included women in a fair and reasonable way. By giving local women the opportunity to control their own livelihoods, it is hypothesized that the health of families overall will improve, and that girls may be able to stay in education longer and have more access to choices involving their futures with less reliance on finding a financially stable husband despite how many wives he currently has or intends to have in the future.


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

ii. Architectural Design considerations ii.i Function Analysis How will the functions suggested by Balouo Salo be combined into the design? Will one or a few of the functions be prioritised over others? Justify. The brief indicates a need for great flexibility as the Women’s House must cater for meetings, seminars, administration and “any other activity that could be useful in reducing forms of discrimination, strengthening and promoting gender equality…” (Kaira Looro Architecture Competition, 2021). We have prioritised the functions of the WASH facilities and the setup of the communal irrigation system and agriculture programs and so the form of the building takes after the provision of these functions. Protection from the natural elements, local ease of buildability, spaces to comfortable accommodate different numbers of people were the main characteristics important in determining the layout and materials of the building.

Function Plan


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La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


The centre also considers the appearance of local males and potential outcomes utilizing the building. Internal spaces are carefully designed to be flexible and adaptive under different occasions through arrangement of movable walls. Different degrees of privacy and security can be achieved when a mixture of participants exists in the centre. The following diagrams indicates how spaces can be divided during 3 different events; a normal working day where the facility is mainly occupied by local women, fewer temporary structures are implemented to allow for maximum flexibility. The second diagram shows a family event day where spaces are strictly divided to provide unhindered functionality and also ensuring privacy and safety. At last, during night-time when staying over in the facility is necessary, interior spaces can be completely enclosed to provide maximum security.

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Movable walls Mixed use space Secured semi-mixed space Private use space


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

(Solar elevation angle (for a year) Calculator, 2021)



La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Farm Land

Building Ring


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


The construction process of the project is also designed to be more interactive with the local participants. As local labour are expected to be involved in the construction, a ‘spearhead’ building is included prior to all the other structure for demonstration and education purposes. The building is designed to include all the structural systems in the project so the local workers can learn as they build and eventually be equipped with more advanced and proper construction skills. The construction stages of this ‘spearhead’ building also simulates the main structure so that worker can be more familiar coming into the main construction. The structure upon completion will serve as a temporary storage and resting space during the construction period. The structure will then be further detailed and eventually become the community kitchen, seed and tool bank of the centre.

The exploded diagram indicates the structural systems and different stages of the ‘spearhead’ building which showcases the construction of the main building. The building utilizes a detached roof system with timber columns as primary structures. Wall systems can be categorized into temporary and permanent walls where permanent walls are mostly designed to be earth bag walls with some adobe mud-brick internal walls for design purposes. Movable walls can be placed between permanent walls and columns to further separate spaces. As a detached roofing system is in place, most of the walls are not load bearing. A refined earth floor plating system is employed as the foundation with gravel-based striped footing underneath.

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


The numbers in the diagram indicated the different stages of the construction. Where the first step would be foundation and footing, with the primary timber structures coming right after the first stage. The third and the forth stage would then be the construction of external and internal walls receptively; as earth bag and mud wall constructions require very large space above the actual wall body so that the roof can not be enclosed before the walls are in-place. Thus the fifth stage would be roof framing and cover. The moveable walls as most of them are not full height and light-weighted can be assembled after the enclosure of the roof for better wind and rain protection. The finishing touches such as guttering and plastering would be the last stage of the building.

The project values local traditions and religious practises and aims to incorporates them into the planning of the building. Respecting the local traditions and social norms especially among women, the latrine unit of the centre is specially designed and carefully placed away form the main activity area in a more private location but also being able to allow for easy access. A corridor is placed leading to the latrines to provide a sense of security and privacy for the local women. A total of 4 latrine units with 3 of them being private use-only female toilets and 1 being public male toilet with an opening facing towards the exterior of the centre. Also considering the potential conflicts that may occur between local male and female group, movable walls provides a flexible option to either separate or open up the space as shown before in the diagrams.

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

WASH Facility



Female Latrines

Male Latrines

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere Plans, Sections and Perspectives

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La Maison des Femmes, Baghere Plans, Sections and Perspectives


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere Plans, Sections and Perspectives

North West Elevation

South Elevation



La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

iii. Landscape Design (YiJing) iii.i Main Concept Agriculture plays a dominant role in Senegal's economy. With only 5% of the land irrigated, Senegal continues to rely on rain-fed agriculture. In fact, Senegal imports 50% of its food because soil fertility in Senegal is generally low, and soils are highly depleted due to erosion and unsustainable farming practices.(Mbalo, 2007) In about 75% of the agriculture workforce, Senegal women, as the lifeblood that animates and nourishes the villages, are the core of both their families and the economy of the villages. They play a vital role in managing resources, food production, animal husbandry, consumption choices and raising children.(Dotto, 2020) Therefore, La Maison des Femmes is designed to contain education, workshop, practice and provide a safe and comfortable environment for local women. With knowledge transfer, hopefully, skills can be passed onto others thereby benefiting the whole community and women can have a brighter future with no hunger and would be better to achieve economic independence. Figure 3.1 Landscape Concept


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

iii.ii Landscape layout La Maison des Femmes is planned to have 16 sections of field of 36m2 each to allocated women to have sufficient outdoor practice space, when they graduate from the agricultural program they can take their knowledge back to their own village and private land. There will also be spare areas that can be used for raising livestock such as chicken or cattle. Manure that animals produce can be utilised as natural fertiliser to enrich the soil of the field. The seed library enables women to be self-reliant on organic seeds which they can continue to harvest and save through the seasons.The tool library will allow women to take necessary items home on a loan basis before they may be able to afford them. A semi-outdoor kitchen is included in the scheme where women can cook harvested food. The irrigation system applied in agriculture will be based on the African Market Garden system and will be further explained in section 3.4. For more detailed information about landscape layout, please refer to figure 3.5 and AppendixLandscape Layout.

Table 3.1 Landscape plan

iii.iii Food security According to the Food Crisis Prevention Network (2020), more than 2.5 million people in Senegal may be at risk of not having enough food for the year. Despite a relatively wide variety of agricultural production, the majority of them produce for subsistence needs. Not only to bring availability and access of food to Senegal women, In La Maison des Femmes, women can also gain knowledge and skills, which will ensure the utilisation, stability and income from agriculture. In order to guarantee food security, there are three main aspects that are focused as follow:


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Table 3.2 Food security

1.Substantially It is essential to ensure the quality of production. ICRISAT in collaboration with AVRDC-the World Vegetables Center has improved some varieties to optimize the performance of heat tolerance, high quality, high yield and long shelf life with allowing year-round production. With the improvement of seed production, the quality and quantity of the production will be much higher.

Figure 3.2 Improved seeds

Icrixina tomatoes for the rainy season

Seed production of improved Violet de Galmi onion

Besides the upgrade of seed, land extent, climate and agricultural ecological zone should all be taken into consideration that refers to the microclimate of the farm. To ameliorate the microclimate, there will be gravity-fed drip irrigators connected to all producers, which helps to meet varied demands for certain crops as well as greatly reduce water consumption. With the help of this irrigation practice, pest control will be much easier.


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

2.Financially Despite significant economic growth and decades of political stability, Senegal still faces serious development challenges. More than one third of the population lives below the poverty line, and 75 percent of families suffer from chronic poverty.(United Nations World Food Programme, 2021) Women in Senegal need to support themselves as well as their families. For most of them, the only way of making a living is through agriculture. Thus, La Maison des Femmes tries to increase their income through increasing the production. There will be available seed libraries and tool libraries established for women to get high yield vegetable seeds and fertilisers. Apart from that, providing women with agriculture tools will release women’s workload to a large extent especially during sowing and harvesting seasons. Based on appropriate cropping calendar as a reference to get better profit from the maximum market price (Table 3.3). By educating women with strong agronomic knowledge, they can have a better harvest and apply the knowledge to their future living. After combining African Market Garden system with the project, it is expected to have lower operational costs for irrigation and management of the fields while doubling the revenues.

Table 3.3 Cropping Calendar

3.Politically Compared to other sectors, the agricultural sector is neglected due to low output and limited investments. The absence of employment and business opportunities in agriculture is a driver of migration, which leads


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere to urbanisation and emigration.(United Nations World Food Programme, 2021) Those left behind,

especially women, children and the elderly, are particularly exposed to food insecurity and other risks. In addition, Senegal lacks proper management of the agriculture market especially in rural areas. Gender disparities are widespread in rural areas. Traditional and religious customs such as early marriage force girls to drop out of school, which reduces their productivity and exacerbates the cycle of inequality. It is noteworthy that the national land policy has already appeared to foster gender-neutral access to land, but they still need to be emphasised and promoted in local communities. As males are still the dominant power in the villages, women have less access to the agricultural tools and better fertilisers. As women have little to no buying power, they are often left with whatever fertilisers and seeds are leftover from their husband’s agricultural activities. Raising the awareness of gender equality is still a critical point that requires the support from every corner of society and further communication with the local communities.

iii.iv Irrigation system The Casamance region is an important agriculture producing area, but without the infrastructure or transportation links to improve its capacity. In this design, an African market garden (AMG) system tends to be applied, which can not only increase the production but also create a formal system to link the market and outcomes. The system is adapted by many regions in Africa including Ghana, Benin, Niger and Senegal. People are generally glad about the rich harvest along with the system. It is based on a lowpressure drip irrigation system combined with a comprehensive crop husbandry package. (ICRISAT, 2014) It differs from the traditional irrigation system that has inefficient labor, water energy distribution and will eventually exacerbate soil degradation, instead, AMG system provides with more stable productivity and better food security. (Table 3.4 ) It generates income for small producers, contributes to better nutrition and mitigates the effects of climate change through the use of irrigation.


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Table 3.4 Comparison of traditional irrigation and AMG system

There are four models developed by AMG to suit a range of conditions. Among these, the communal irrigation system is particularly suitable for women’s groups with strong organizational capacity. In La Maison des Femmes, it is designed as an educational tool for participating women.

Table 3.5 Operation Mode of AMG system

The Communal system has one central water source that provides water to a large drip system. It requires only one meters pressure for operation so that it can draw on solar energy. Combined with climate conditions, there will be two main water sources for different seasons. One is pumping water from the aquifer during dry seasons, the other is collecting rain during monsoon season. According to FAO Aquastat database (2014), there are 3500 million cubic meters of renewable groundwater per year and these aquifers also constitute one of the main sources of drinking water in Senegal. With a proper water extraction schedule (Table 3.6 ), there will be sufficient water for irrigation while keeping the sustainability of groundwater. Despite that, there will be an average annual rainfall of more than 1,000ml between June and October to support the irrigation system. In raining seasons, producers and water storage will be open to collect as much rain as possible to support the system for dry seasons. In addition, the aquifer is expected to be replenished during raining seasons.


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Table 3.6 Water extraction schedule

The field will be divided into parcels allotted to individual producers. Producers respectively take responsibility for managing water and fertiliser supply, and plant protection treatments for the members of their group. (Figure 3.3 ) Figure 3.3 Irrigation plan

This system will not only have easy access for training and monitoring but also increase productivity independent of erratic rainfall. It doesn't require individual reservoirs, boreholes or pumps, which can reduce a large amount of cost and energy. (ICRISAT, 2014) Buying power is significantly increased within a collective. There are cases from other are in Senegal where the African Market Garden scheme has been implemented that have been shown to halve the typical payback time in a microfinance loan when compared with traditional agricultural practices.

iii.v Agriculture system

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


Currently, Senegal relies on rain-fed agriculture to a great extent. (Mbalo, 2007) Except for the varieties that are currently being sown, high yield vegetables including eggplant, cucumber, melon and so on are scheduled to be planted for better economic income and well-balanced nutrition gain. Figure 3.4 Meals in Senegal

Promoting sanitation and hygiene in rural Senegal, 2016. Copyright World Connect

The main diet in Senegal is based on cereals (rice, millet, sorghum), vegetables, chicken and fish. Cereals take about two-thirds of their dietary energy supply. Protein and vitamins are lacking in their daily meals. Therefore, a richer variety of higher value vegetables are planned to be sown and there can also be small areas for domestic animals. In the village, people mostly keep chicken and cows, which is also the main source for them to get protein. By ensuring more clean water and imparting breeding techniques, poultry production is also expected to increase. The animal manure that chicken and cow produced can be used as natural fertilizer for farming and this strategy has been applied for centuries. It can improve the soil aggregation so that the soil can hold more nutrients and water. Figure 3.5 Landscape plan

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


Mostly, women in Senegal earn money from selling any crops surplus to their own food needs. This money goes to support themselves and pay for part of their children’s school. As the new school year starts after the main harvest season, often women do not have enough money for school expenses. (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2018) Based on climate changes and growth cycle of different plants, a cropping calendar is created as a reference for local women to have better arrangement for sowing seasonal vegetables and obtain more profit at maximum market price to increase their income for family expenses. (Table 3.3)

In terms of agriculture practice, it is always good to identify the crop and agronomy of the crop before the practice because certain crops require different practices, which also implies the importance of imparting knowledge to the local women. According to Kapila Premarathne (2017), the suitable mixing of livestock into the system helps to improve the crop yield. For instance, perennial plants can be cultivated while keeping the cattle in the same area, which will help to control weeds and fertilise the soil. The shading for suitable crops may help to improve the quality. For example, cauliflower and cabbage head formation are


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

sensitive to heat thus mulching is important. Moisture control also helps to avoid fungi in many crops therefore, it is essential to control sunlight using proper shading. In La Maison des Femmes, the shade of acacia and mango trees can be used as natural shading for parts of the field. Additionally, it is necessary to keep the buds and branches undamaged for the fruiting of next season. Pruning damaged or old branches will help to improve the harvest of some crops. Agronomic practices like above can improve both quality and quantity. Through a combination of theoretical learning and hands on practice, women are able to develop the most suitable and efficient strategy to have enough income and a good production which is nutritious and environmentally sustainable. WASH Design Hygiene and Sanitation Currently, villages in Senegal suffer from water shortage, even communities who do have access to water regularly face interruptions to a clean supply. Villages are facing serious health issues and infant mortality is about 45.2.(Figure 3.6) Good news is that Senegal is planning for financial mechanisms to make water and sanitation affordable for all people. Additionally, the government of Senegal made a commitment focused on gender mainstreaming within the WASH sector. Senegal committed to incorporating the gender mainstreaming strategy into the sector plan. An action plan will enable it to be implemented, in close cooperation with the Ministry for Equity and Gender, UN Women, civil society organisations and local authorities. (UN Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking water, 2014) Figure 3.6 Health estimates data

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


Adapted from UN Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking water,

La Maison des Femmes aims to achieve secure and sustainable access to water, as well as safe sanitation and hygiene. From an educational perspective, the awareness of personal hygiene should be increased. Since Senegalese people are accustomed to eating with their hands, it is important to wash hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food. Posters about correct steps for hand washing will be pasted on the wall in latrines and kitchen areas. There will also be soap placed in each basin for easy access to hand washing. Research shows that, if widely practiced (Aiello, AE. et al., 2008), hand washing with soap could reduce diarrhea by almost fifty percent and respiratory infections by nearly twenty-five percent.( Jefferson T. et al., 2007) Hand washing with soap also reduces the incidence of skin diseases and eye infections. Food should be cooked for an appropriate length of time and at proper temperature to ensure pathogens are killed. Leftovers need to be stored at a cool place and covered to prevent bug infestations.


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

Figure 3.7 Water recycling

Water Collection and Storage In Senegal, Farmers and herders heavily depend on rain to water their crops and rear their animals. The Casamance region has average rainfall greater than the rest of Senegal. Therefore, it is practical to have a rainwater collection system to support the house. La Maison des Femmes will collect rainwater across a steeply pitched roof with the main circulation space around a central tank. Based on the assumption of daily water usage for at least 30 people using this building, a water tank with a capacity of at least 15000 litres is required for daily toilet and kitchen usage.

Table 3.7 Daily water usage

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To obtain purified water, rainwater will firstly flush through a coarse filter to take away the dirt, sediment and leaves from the roof. After a water treatment system, the water without bacteria, protozoa, viruses and chemicals can be used for daily hygiene, drinking, cooking and washing. Filtered and sanitised water is better for human health, especially for children who are more susceptible to contracting water-borne diseases. Figure 3.8 Rainwater Harvesting as a Drinking Water

The rainwater will mainly be used for WASH, drinking and food preparation purposes. To deal with the long period of drought and erratic rainfall, a grey water treatment system can also be installed to reuse grey water for flushing the toilets or irrigating the fields. Grey water from basins will firstly run through a coarse filter and surge tank, then be purified by sand filter with reeds. Figure 3.9 Ecological wastewater treatment

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


Despite the rainwater collection system, water shortage is still a big concern perplexing Senegal. The issue of access to water has been plaguing Senegal for years. Farmers and herders struggle to make ends meet. Considering the erratic rainfall and prolonged drought, how to store water become a critical point in water usage. Since there will be an average annual rainfall of 1,000ml+ between June and October, the building will take maximum use of rainwater during that period. By using safe containers to store water and seal tightly, people can store more water. Filtered water can be preserved in plastic buckets or barrels and stored in dark places or underground. The plastic should be in dark colors which can restrict light and helps prevent algae growth. Furthermore, keeping water in a dark and cool place can prevent evaporation during hot and dry weather. The containers are typically stackable, so they do not require much space for storage, they can be placed at the corner of the seed lab or in a specific basement for better preservation. Containers with handles also makes for easy transport should people need to carry them over a distance. With better water conservation strategies, it is possible to use collected water over a long period.

Wastewater system There are limited latrines in local villages. As for those who have a private latrine, most cannot afford to pay a septic truck (if event available) to come empty the latrines. Research shows that 98% of families


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere

dispose of their wastewater in the road, which will leave the groundwater contaminated. (Gates, 2015) Instead of directly leaving the waste on ground, the toilet is designed with alternate containers under the toilet pan so that the waste may be cleaned out when the container is near full. The container can be any plastic buckets or rubbish bin, available from the local market. There will be a perforated false floor set inside to separate and drain off the urine from the solid waste. A vent pipe with a fan inside will help disperse any smell. The frequency of changing the container will depend on the frequency of toilet usage. The waste will be dumped and covered to a specific soak pit at the north corner of the site, which is far away from the main building and the agricultural plots.

Table 3.8 Pros and cons of the soak pit

The soak pit can offer a cost-efficient opportunity for a partial treatment of wastewater from a primary treatment and a relatively safe way of discharging it to the environment and then recharging groundwater bodies. As wastewater seeps through the soil from the soak pit, the effluent will be absorbed by soil particles and moves through the soil pores. (HEEB et al. 2008). Figure 3.10 Soak pit

Adapted from Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition.

In consideration of menstruation, there is a more private toilet at the rear of the block for additional

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privacy if girls and women feel it is necessary during that period. Apart from that, there will be a small laundry area for them to wash their cloth beside the toilet as well as a private space for drying. In response to their culture and custom, the latrine will also have a sprayer or a pot of water for them to clean up.

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


iV. Construction Design considerations iV.i Construction strategies and materials selection Considering the project budget constraints and the goals of involving the local community (Kaira Looro Architecture Competition, 2021), the choice of construction strategies and building materials are important. In order to reduce the cost and impact on the local environment, the construction process of this project was designed to use local natural materials such as earth, trees, etc. as much as possible. Except for the low cost, other key advantages of these materials and technologies typically include low energy consumption (which often results in reduced greenhouse gas emissions), ease of construction and wide availability (Daigle et al., 2011).

Footing & floor system There are two main types of foundations and footings, trench footing underneath exterior walls (loadbearing walls) and isolated footing for timber posts. given the availability and price of materials, reinforced steel and concrete will not be used. Trench footing is mainly filled with layers of gravel, while isolated (post) footing uses cement (which can be purchased from nearby cities) for structural stability and safety reasons.

Compressed earth is used for the main flooring system and requires little else. It consists of three main layers, including a gravel layer to help drainage, a rammed earth bearing layer and rammed earth pavement (finishes).

Wall system For the main wall system, we plan to use earthbag and adobe for the exterior and interior walls respectively. Both earthbag and adobe technologies represent the sustainable, fast and low-cost construction methods (Canadell et al., 2016). Adobe is one of the historical forms of earthen building and has a relatively long durability. However, the adobe system has a drawback that cannot be ignored, namely that mud bricks

La Maison des Femmes, Baghere


cannot be used for walls until they are fully cured, which requires a long enough period of time and dry weather to allow them to dry sufficiently (Hunter & Kiffmeyer, 2004). Considering the waiting time for drying, the project therefore chose adobe only as the internal wall, which on one hand reduces the labour necessary to make earth bricks, and on the other hand can reduce the impact of waiting time by a reasonable arrangement of construction procedures, such as simultaneous work for foundation and external wall (see construction Gantt chart for details). Earthbag, a flexible form using the rammed earth technique combined with woven bags, does not require as much time and attention as adobe. Since the polypropylene bags act as moulds, the mixture of clay, sand, straw etc. are placed directly into them and then used to build the wall without waiting (Hunter & Kiffmeyer, 2004). Furthermore, Cataldo-Born et al. (2016) found that compared to traditional brick and mortar houses, the earthbag building alternative offers 20% energy savings over the life cycle, 50% savings in initial investment, and 38% savings in life cycle costs. But even with so many advantages, one problem with earthbag walls is that the thickness of the wall is difficult to reduce. Therefore, the combination of using adobe as an interior wall is to reduce unnecessary waste of interior space and make full use of the limited area. In addition to the permanent wall, the project also designed a movable inner wall (screen) made of bamboo and reeds. This temporary interior wall not only provides flexible space and necessary privacy for the users, but also brings in the local community to participate in the production process, especially the local women.

Figure 4.1 Construction of earthbag wall and Adobe wall (Hunter & Kiffmeyer, 2004)

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Roof system The design of the roof differs from the traditional construction method, which is separate from the walls. The roof structure includes posts, beams, rafters and battens will be made of timber, which is widely available locally. The roof covering was originally intended to be a more natural, low-cost thatching, but the corrugated iron sheet was finally chosen for its durability and the convenience of collecting rainwater. Bamboo was selected as the material for the gutter because it is a promising renewable resource with low environmental impact (Trujillo et al., 2013), and as a natural material, it is more consistent with the overall architectural style. Considering that bamboo exposed to the outside is prone to decay and needs to be replaced regularly, gutter was designed to be flexible and easy to replace (supported by half-round gutter barriers, see gutter detail in the following part).

Overall construction Unlike conventional design, the entire women's centre is a semi-enclosed complex consisting of several individual buildings rather than one complete building. The buildings are separated, but the construction systems and materials they use are almost identical and unified. One of the buildings is a shelter which was designed as a prototype, using almost the same construction methods and materials as the main building. The project planned to build this shelter at the beginning of construction as a test system that could help the team identify problems and make adjustments in time. In general, the selection of construction systems and materials are based on the key factors of integration of local material resources and community involvement. The combination of various local materials (earth, sand, timber, bamboo and reed, etc.) reduces costs without causing too much impact on the local ecological and environmental systems. The different construction processes (e.g. strenuous or skilled ones) also makes it possible to involve more local communities with different identities (see next section),


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and also provides opportunities for them, especially local women, to be trained in construction skills and techniques. Table 4.1 Summary of main construction strategies and materials

Construction system


Trench footing

Rubble, earthbag

Isolated footing

Gravel, cement

Floor system

Rammed earth floor


Exterior wall

Earthbag wall

Earth, sand, straw, PP bags, Barbed wires, lime…

Interior wall

Adobe (mud bricks)

Clay, sand, straw…

Roof system

Timber posts

Wooden posts

Timber roof structure (beam, rafters, battens etc.)


Corrugated iron covering

Corrugated iron sheets


Treated bamboo, gutter barriers


iV.ii Construction procedure and details Footing & Foundation - trench footing Step 1: Site preparation


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The construction of a structurally stable building requires the selection of a well-drained building site that is not prone to water accumulation. Mark the boundaries according to the drawings. Clear the site of debris and initially level the site.

Step 2: Trench excavation Earthbag structure usually does not need a traditional foundation, but there are some potential risks if the soil is poorly drained. Therefore, digging a gravel trench helps prevent moisture from being sucked into the walls of the bag, as well as preventing the walls from "heaving", helping to keep the whole structure stable. Dig trenches along the border down to the mineral subsoil.

Figure 4.2 Earthbag wall trench (Geiger, 2007)

Figure 4.3 Rubble trench (Bancroft, 2013)

Step 3: Trench filling Lay the waterproof membrane in the trench and fill the trench with sufficient gravel or round drainage stones. It is better to lay large gravels at bottom and then layers of gradually smaller gravel.

Step 4: Laying earthbags Recess the first row of bags into the trench to strengthen the structural stabilities. It is a good idea to fill the first row of bags with gravel to ensure that water does not seep upward. Also, double bagging may reduce the pressure from the weight of the wall and gravel on the bag material, reducing the possibility of puncturing the base bags.


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Figure 4.4 First course of gravel bags (Geiger, 2010)

Figure 4.5 Sketch of trench section

Footing & Foundation – isolated footing The first two steps are very similar to trench, first digging a hole (keeping the hole narrow as well as a certain depth) and then filling the bottom with a layer of gravel to keep the water from draining out of the bottom. The next step is different in that the timber post will be placed in the hole to keep it perpendicular to the ground and fixed. Make cement and pour it into each hole to form the footing.

Figure 4.6 Isolated footing detail Flooring system – rammed earth floor


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Rammed earth floor is designed to mainly consist of three layers (Mileto et al., 2012), including a 200 mm gravel layer to help drainage, a 250 mm rammed earth bearing layer and 50 mm rammed earth pavement on the top.

Figure 4.7 Rammed earth floor detail

Permanent walls – earthbag walls The exterior wall of this project is made of earthbags, as shown in the figure 4.7, the bottom three courses of bags are mainly filled with gravels, which act as damp courses, while the top ones are filled with clay, sand, straw, husks, etc. Detailed decomposition construction steps are shown below.

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Figure 4.8 Wall section (exterior walls)

Step 1: Earthbag filling Considering the soil on the site is sandy-lateritic, it does not swell when wet or shrink when dry as heavy clay does when bagged. However, the insulation properties of the soil are relatively poor and the temperature inside the building may not be very comfortable, so the appropriate addition of materials with good insulation properties (such as rice husk, which should be easily available locally because it is rice farming dominated) may enhance the insulation property. A similar mass of filler allows the bags to be compacted to approximately the same level after being tamped.


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Figure 4.9 A bag stand (Bingham, 2018)

Figure 4.10 Bag mould (Balouo Salo, 2018)

Step 2: Laying and bonding Laying a second or third layer above floor level by using gravel bags can effectively reduce the risk of moisture damage.

Stacking bags is like laying bricks, and the staggered pattern is important (Hunter & Kiffmeyer, 2004). The seams between the bags should never be aligned, which means that each successive layer of filler bags should be offset by a certain length. When the top layer of bags holds the bottom layer of bags well, the strength and stability of the wall increases. Create custom size bags to fill corners or special size spaces, including measuring the volume and then filling the bags to the appropriate level.

The process of stacking earthbags requires improving the adhesion and friction between courses by placing barbed wire on top of each course (Canadell et al., 2016) to provide shear strength. Lay two strands of 4-point barbed wire on top of each course of bags, with the two strands neither close to each other nor too close to the edge of the wall. Bricks or stones can be used to temporarily hold the barbed wire in place until it is covered by the next course. In addition, consider using nails to hold the wire at higher locations to reduce the risk of heavy objects falling from high places. Continuous barbed wire can


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be used at corners to improve the strength of the wall. Barbed wire not only helps lock the bags together but also resists any tendency for the wall to expand outward with the weight above.

Figure 4.11 Earthbag laying (Bingham, 2018)

Figure 4.12 Barbed wire (Geiger, 2010)

Step 3: Opening framework Openings are essential to provide ventilation and light. To build windows and doors on the earthbag wall, we first need to place frames, which can be made of timber. Anchor plate will be used to attach the window frame and earthbags. Temporary support like bracing is also attached to make it more stable.

Figure 4.13 Earthbag wall opening framework (Johnson, 2017)

Step 4: Tamping

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After every course is completed, it is very necessary to tamp and level the earthbags. Usually, workers need to tamp the high points first and then tamp the rest evenly. During this process, the safety of labour is a concern and proper protection such as scaffolding or movable platforms are required.

Figure 4.14 Earthbag wall tamping (Balouo Salo - Polyvalent Cultural Center, 2018)

Step 5: Wall finishes: Rendering & Plastering Before tendering, tamping the sides of the bags can flatten walls. To reduce material costs, mud will be used for the first two coats of rendering/plastering. The first layer should fill the recesses between the earthbag layers. After the first layer dries, the second layer of mud plaster will be applied to make the surface smooth. Finally, a third layer of cement or lime is applied to obtain a smoother surface and make the earthbag wall stronger.

Figure 4.15 Earthbag wall rendering (Balouo Salo - Polyvalent Cultural Center, 2018)

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Permanent walls – Adobe

Because the earthbag wall is thick (about 400mm), so the adobe is selected for building interior walls in order to save internal space. In order to facilitate light and ventilation (and to save the number of mud bricks), the interior wall was designed as a combination of two parts, the lower part is Adobe system, which provides privacy protection as well as a more solid structure, and the upper part is a frame made of timber and bamboo, which provides a channel for light and air flow. It is more appropriate to use bamboo indoors because they do not decay as easily as outdoors (Trujillo et al., 2013).

Figure 4.16 Internal wall (Adobe) detail

Adobe (mud bricks) are bricks that are not fired in a kiln, but are naturally dried, and are mainly made of clay. Straw and hay are also added to prevent cracking and to enhance structural stability (Hunter & Kiffmeyer, 2004). When adobe is fully cured, it can be used to build walls where mud mortar will be used to connect bricks and render. And the upper frames will be made separately and connected to the adobe wall through embedded bolts (as shown in figure 4.16).

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Figure 4.17 Adobe production process (Craven, 2019)

Roofing system 1. Timber columns/posts Select timber with similar size and treat them. Bury these timbers in the hole and fill with cement. It is important to note that the buried parts need to be waterproofed and preserved in advance (e.g. painted with a special coating) to extend the service life.

2. Timber roof structure Regarding roof structures, timber is conventional and suitable material since it is wide applicable locally with relatively low cost. In addition, it is easier to handle and more durable than bamboo.

First of all, timber plates (beams) will be attached on the top of the two inner and outer circles of posts respectively, as a platform for the subsequent construction of rafters. Once the rafter is built, it is necessary to put a layer of membrane on it and use nails to fix it. After that, the smaller timber can be used as batten, lined up in the direction perpendicular to the rafters. These structural components can be connected with nails.


La Maison des Femmes, Baghere 3. Roof covering

The corrugated iron material is selected because it is light and puts little pressure on the main structure system. Also, it is relatively strong and unbreakable with low cost, which is more durable than traditional thatching roofs.

4. Guttering The case study in Matènwa found that bamboo gutter and pipe systems are perfectly feasible, helping local people collect rainwater from their roofs (Asenso et al., 2011). Bamboo is a suitable material because it is cheap to purchase, process and maintain, and does not have much negative impact on the environment (it usually grows in 3-5 years). Considering that the bamboo does not last long and needs to be replaced, we designed a flexible installation (mainly supported by half-round gutter barriers and fixed by wire or other materials). Also, in order to improve the durability and insect resistance of bamboo, it is necessary to treat the bamboo before use. The traditional treatment method is to soak the bamboo in borax and boric acid solution for several days, then expose them in the sun for about one week, and finally in a cool and dry place to dry slowly until it is used for bamboo construction.

Figure 4.18 Roof & gutter detail


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iV.iii Construction Programme According to the figure below, the most suitable time for our project is around February to April, as this is not the rainy season and also avoids the busy farming season, making it possible to involve more of the local community.

Figure 4.x Important time periods in Senegal

(source: FAO) The project construction programme is expected to start on 1 February 22 and will end on 8 November 22, lasting for 201 days (only workdays). This seems like a long time, but it actually includes a six -month gap between occupancy and post-occupancy evaluation. POE is a process of examining the effectiveness of an occupied design environment for human occupants. Unlike architectural reviews that focus on aesthetics, building systems, or material performance, POE typically focuses on evaluating occupants’ satisfaction (Zimmerman & Martin, 2001) . Considering that the goal of our project is to develop the skills of the local community, especially local women, in agriculture and to promote gender equality, the function of th e building to meet the requirements of the users and thus achieve the goal is a very important matter. Therefore, we designed a week-long evaluation event, which will be conducted six months after the project is delivered.

As shown in the Gantt Chart (see in appendix), the project process including collaborative design, approvals, site preparation and other detailed construction stages will last for 64 working days (from February 1, 2021 to April 29, 2022). Then POE will be conducted after six months of occupancy. The production of the mud bricks and bamboo treatment was mentioned as the first process after the completion of the final design, as it will take about three weeks to dry so that the internal mud brick wall as well as bamboo screens can be perfe ctly picked up after the construction of the external wall without delay.

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In addition, different stakeholders will play a role at different stages. The following table details the involvement of different stakeholders and their roles in the construction process of this project. For instance, male volunteers tend to take on more strenuous tasks while local women are responsible for tasks that require more skills and patience. This is also an opportunity to help local women learn and develop construction -related skills, which may have a positive impact on their future development and promote gender equality.

Table 4.2 Stakeholders involvement during construction programme


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iV.iv Construction Cost Project costs are divided into three main components: labour costs, material costs, and indirect (overhead) costs. The calculation of labour cost and indirect cost is based on the benchmark of affordable housing in Senegal, and some adjustments were made to scale down the rate according to the difference between affordable housing in Dakar and this project. For instance, in terms of labour cost rate, considering that international volunteers will be engaged during the construction process and that labour costs in rural areas will be much lower than in cities (especially in the capital), it is assumed that the project labour cost is 60% of BENCHMARK. Thus, Labour cost rate = $58/m2 x 60% = $34.8/m2 = €28.7/m2. The rate of construction materials is calculated according to the average price provided by the material supplier, while the quantity is calculated according to the architectural design and the dimension of the model. The final project cost estimate is shown in the following table. Table 4.3 Cost estimation of La Maison des Femmes Project

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Overall, the estimated total construction material cost of this project is €16357.25, which is within the budget. The cost of construction materials accounts for the largest of the three components, at about 60%. We have also added a 7% contingency and allowance to cover unknown risks and changes during the future project progress. For example, the participation of more inexperienced locals may lead to additional material wastage as well as training costs. In addition, some materials that can be obtained directly on site such as mud bricks and earth do not require a cost and are not included in the above calculation. Due to budget constraints, we have taken many steps to reduce costs. For example, we reduced transpo rtation costs and material prices by selecting local or natural materials, reduced training costs and unnecessary material losses by reducing the complexity of the construction process, and selected cheaper types of materials while maintaining a certain level of quality. Also, continuous and reasonable management and supervision during the project is also one of the important measures to reduce costs.

52 57

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Conclusion With consideration to the local context, availability of materials, budget, and needs of the women of Baghere, we believe that the La Maison des Femmes is the best possible solution to address as many areas as possible to further gender equality and dramatically improve the lives of local women and girls. The solutions are unassuming and easily administered in an area with a great need for environmental sustainability and longevity in materials. The construction of the physical building and the implementation of programs are all to be run and overseen by women with the building to grow with them as financial independence is achieved. By directly targeting the industry where 70% of these women make up the primary workforce, we use the important motives of financial emancipation and free time to address the ongoing equality for women through Baghere and greater Senegal.


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References (2021). Life in Senegal ~ Daily Life in Senegal ~ Village Life in Senegal.

Asenso, C., Czekaj, E., & Pierre, D. (2011). Feasibility of Water Distribution using a Bamboo Piping System in Matènwa, Haiti. (2018). Balouo Salo - Polyvalent Cultural Center - Museum of cultures and traditions. (2021). Balouo Salo - Baghere well project.

Canadell, S., Blanco, A., & Cavalaro, S. H. P. (2016). Comprehensive design method for earthbag and superadobe structures. Materials & Design, 96, 270–282.

Cataldo-Born, M., Araya-Letelier, G., & Pabón, C. (2016). Obstacles and motivations for earthbag social housing in Chile: Energy, environment, economic and codes implications. Revista de La Construcción. Journal of Construction, 15(3), 17–26.

Cultural Practice LLC. (2010). Gender Assessment USAID/Senegal. DevTech Systems, Inc.

Daigle, B., Hall, K., & MacDougall, C. (2011). Earthbag housing: Structural behaviour and applicability in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering Sustainability, 164(4), 261–273.

Dotto, C. (2020). The energy to stay: Senegal’s village of women. ALJAZEERA.

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Engelking, T. (2008). Senegalese Women, Education, and Polygamy in "Une si longue lettre" and "Faat Kiné". The French Review, 82(2), 326-340.

Gispert, M. et al. (2018). Rainwater Harvesting as a Drinking Water Option for Mexico City. Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3890.

High accuracy calculation for life or science. (2021). Solar elevation angle (for a year) Calculator.

Hunter, K., & Kiffmeyer, D. (2004). Earthbag Building: The Tools, Tricks and Techniques. In Earthbag Building: The Tools, Tricks and Techniques.

Hydrogeology of Senegal. (2020). Earthwise,.

ICRISAT-International Crops Research Institute. (2011). The African market garden: the development of a low-pressure drip irrigation system for smallholders in the Sudano Sahel. Irrig. and Drain 2011, 60,613– 621. DOI: 10.1002/ird.610

Kaira Looro Architecture Competition. (2021). Kaira Looro Architecture Competition 2021 WOMEN’S HOUSE. Kaira Looro Architecture Competition. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 8 February 2021].

McKay,K. (2014). Hydration for the Apocalypse: How to Store Water for Long-Term Emergencies.

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Mileto, C., Vegas, F., & Cristini, V. (2012). Rammed Earth Conservation. CRC Press.

Nelson, B. (2017). 21st Century California Water Storage Strategies. Science 2017, 4(1), 15. 2021. Qibla Finder with Google. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 14 February 2021].

Saito, K., Diack, S., Dieng, I., Ndiaye, M.K. 2015. On-farm testing of a nutrient management decisionsupport tool for rice in the Senegal River valley. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 2015, 116, 36– 44.

Sultan, B., Defrance, D. and Iizumi, T., 2019. Evidence of crop production losses in West Africa due to historical global warming in two crop models. Scientific Reports, 9(1).

Tanaka, A., Diagne, M. & Saito, K. (2015). Causes of yield stagnation in irrigated lowland rice production system in the Senegal River Valley. Field Crops 2015, 176, 99-107.

Tilley, E. Ulrich, L. Luethi, C. Reymond, P. Zurbruegg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag).

The world bank. (2018, July 3). Senegal: Increasing Access to Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services.

Below: Women’s Empowerment Principles as identified by EmpowerWomen.Org on the column on the left. The column on the right shows how these goals may be met by La Maison Des Femmes

Landscape Layout Plan View Scale 1:300


Semi-mixed Space/ Classroom/Workshop

Seeds & Tools Labs Semi-Outdoor Kitchen

Irrigation system

Soak Pit

Space for livestock