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THE IMPACT OF LIGHTING ON EMPLOYEES IN THE 21ST CENTURY WORKPLACE

Abby Buchmann, Rutvik Date, Abigail Zohner, Vibhavari Jani Department of Interior Architecture and Product Design, College of Architecture Planning and Design

APDesign Student Research Symposium, 9 November 2013


ABSTRACT “The impact of lighting on productivity, aesthetics, and general human well-being should not be underestimated. We conduct our lives under artificial lighting most of our waking hours. Proper design layout is critical.� -Paul Vrabel, lighting energy efficiency expert with ICF Consulting (2003). Designers must understand specific use of lighting and its effects on the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of employees, especially concerning creativity and productivity.


HYPOTHESIS The lighting design in an office environment has substantial impact on the employees’ physical, psycological and emotional well-being and productivity. Natural and artificial daylighting should be well balanced and used efficiently.

IESNA Lighting Handbook. (Photographer). (2004). [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/crsng-nserc/ NR24-4-2004-eng.pdf


METHODOLOGY Phase One: Qualitative Methods • Reviewed and analyzed published research • Studied several precedents • New York Times Building • Statoil Regional & International Offices • The Yellow Building


DATA ANALYSIS LIGHT LEVELS CONCENTRATION HEALTH & MOOD GLARE

ILLUMINATION PARAMETERS


DATA ANALYSIS LIGHT LEVELS


DATA ANALYSIS LIGHT LEVELS

LIGHTING COMFORT LEVELS

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT LIGHTING SCHEMES


DATA ANALYSIS CONCENTRATION

CONTRAST


DATA ANALYSIS HEALTH & MOOD SMART DAYLIGHTING DESIGN

GRAPHIC 3

Transparent partition top allows daylight to penetrate into the rest of the office.

ELECTRONIC BALLAST

GRAPHIC 2 MAGNETIC BALLAST

Headaches are twice as frequent with low frequency magnetic ballasts.


DATA ANALYSIS GLARE PROBLEMATIC SOURCE/TASK/EYE GEOMETRY

CONTRAST

GLARE


PRECEDENT STUDIES NEW YORK TIMES BUILDING LOCATION: New York City, New York DESIGNED BY: Renzo Piano INTERIORS BY: Gensler LIGHTING BY: OVI Inc. YEAR: 2007 • Ceramic rod faux-facade screen • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory daylighting analysis


PRECEDENT STUDIES STATOIL REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL OFFICES LOCATION: Fornebu, Bærum, Norway DESIGNED BY: a-lab INTERIORS BY: a-lab + Momentum Arkitekter YEAR: 2012 • Five stacking modules face different directions • Extreme Nordic daylight hours • Center atrium provides maximum sunlight to the main space


PRECEDENT STUDIES THE YELLOW BUILDING LOCATION: London, UK DESIGNED BY: Allford Hall Monaghan Morris LIGHTING BY: Norman Disney & Young Light YEAR: 2008 • Flexibile gallery lighting • Office lighting designed to 300 lux • Top floor design studio employs artificial ambient lighting • Full-height curtain wall glazing


METHODOLOGY Phase Two: Qualitative • Observe employees in an open office environment • Intended location: 360 Architecture, Kansas City, Missouri • Divide the office into zones based on the amount of natural and artificial light, measured in footcandles. • Observe and record the employees’ tendencies to migrate to each predetermined zone. Quantitative methods • Distribute a standardized survey to assess preferences in lighting conditions at individual work stations. • Distribute an identical survey to employees in a fixed office environment to ensure our data is diverse. • Intended location: Kansas State University’s Hale Library private offices. In the future, to expand our research, we will observe and survey a larger variety of corporate office environments.


DESIGN LESSONS LEARNED Details of lighting fixtures and placement of the luminaires; More research on the LEED requirements and how they were determined; Lighting is a personal preference; difficult to determine an ideal lighting scenario; General consensus as to how much and what types of lighting should be utilized.


FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONS Lighting does in fact affect the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of the employees in a corporate office environment, especially concerning creativity and productivity. Light levels, lamp type, daylight and artificial lighting percentages, color index, and placement of the light fixtures play important roles in the comfort and consequently the well-being of the workers. At this point, findings indicate that the original hypothesis stating that poor design and layout of lighting affects the health and mood of the staff is correct. This is ongoing research and the authors will conduct experiments to test this hypothesis further.


REFERENCES (2003, September). [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/public/oh/OHB50.pdf (2010, May 10). [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://trinityblogg.wordpress.com/tag/lazy/ (2011, October 13). [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://blog.arizonalasik.com/recognize-the-symptoms-of-eye-strain/ (2013, August 28). [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/lighting_survey.html Arefian Atelier. (2011). Interior light effects on human mood and social behaviour. Retrieved from http://www.arefianatelier.com/interior-light-effects-on-human-mood-and-social-behaviour.html Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (2013, August 28). Lighting ergonomics - survey and solutions. Retrieved from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/lighting_survey.html Charles, K. E., Danforth, A. J., Veitch, J. A., Zwierzchowski, C., Johnson, B., & Pero, K. National Research Council Canada, Indoor Environment Research, Institute for Research in Construction. (2004). Workstation design for organizational productivity (NRCC 47343). Retrieved from Public Works and Government Services Canada website: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/crsng-nserc/NR24-4-2004-eng.pdf Che-Ani, A., Tawil, N. M., Musa, A. R., Yahaya, H., & Tahir, M. M. (2012). The architecture studio of universiti kebangsaan malaysia (UKM): Has the indoor environmental quality standard been achieved? Asian Social Science, 8(16), 174-183. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k-state.edu/docview/1346923163?accountid=11789 Chevan, H. (1992). Good office design can keep both your workers and your bottom line healthy. Office Systems, 9(12), 22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k-state.edu/docview/216453132?accountid=11789 Frable, F. (1997). Improving your work environment can improve staff productivity. Nation’s Restaurant News, 31(45), 118-120. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k-state.edu/docview/229308375?accountid=11789 Guest Expert. (Photographer). (2011, November 3). [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://mbahighway.com/2011/11/multitasking-death-to-productivity/


REFERENCES Howarth, P. (1999). Lighting in the workplace - A glaring problem? The Safety & Health Practitioner, 17(7), 27-28. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k-state.edu/docview/200921152?accountid=11789 Jones, Dr. S. (Photographer). (2012, April 10). [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://working-posture.ergonomic-office-supplies.com/category/ergonomic-advice Lighting in offices. (2003, December). Retrieved from http://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/public/oh/OHB50.pdf Newsham, G., Mancini, S., Veitch, J., Marchand, R., Lei, W., Charles, K., & Arsenault, C. (2009). Control strategies for lighting and ventilation in offices: Effects on energy and occupants. Intelligent Buildings International, 1(2), 101-121. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k-state.edu/docview/194673494?accountid=11789 Newsham, G. R., Marchand, R. G., & Veitch, J. A. (2004). Preferred surface luminances in offices, by evolution. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 33(1), 14-29,87. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k-state.edu/docview/205238147?accountid=11789 Reinhold, K., & Tint, P. (2009). Lighting of workplaces and health risks/Darbo vietu apsvietimas ir jo sukeliama rizika sveikatai. Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika, (2(90)), 11+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA234999816&v=2.1&u=ksu&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w Smolders, K. C. H. J., de Kort, Y. A. W., & Cluitmans, P. J. M. (2012). A higher illuminance induces alertness even during office hours: Findings on subjective measures, task performance and heart rate measures. Physiology & Behavior, 107(1), 7-16. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031938412001874 Veitch, J. A., Stokkermans, M. G. M., & Newsham, G. R. (2013). Linking lighting appraisals to work behaviors. Environment and Behavior, 45(2), 198-214. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url;jsessionid=D44F8603EE78262EAC7F7F8CC9D9E421. N5T5nM1aaTEF8rE6yKCR3A?eid=2-s2.0-84872732223&origin=resultslist&sort=plff&cite=2-s2.0-84872732223&src=s&imp=t&sid=D4706C90A06D71D10ABA3746C1652E5E. ZmAySxCHIBxxTXbnsoe5w:20&sot=cite&sdt=a&sl=0 Vrabel, P. (2003). Lighting efficiency: A matter of design. Electric Perspectives, 28(6), 46-54. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k-state.edu/docview/217562911?accountid=11789 [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://sts.bwk.tue.nl/artificial_light/help.htm

College Research Symposium_Impact of Lighting  

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