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A b IG A I L K L E E R E KOPE R F MP03 R e s earc h P D F


Co nt ent s Dev elop, deliv er & det ermi ne impact

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D i scover

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D elve

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Reflect ions

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D efine

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Bibliography

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DISCOVER

Abigail Kleerekoper

Discover

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DISCOVER

Abigail Kleerekoper

The v ery begi n n i n g As Paul said, I have a growing interest in the way design can be used to solve social issues. I aimed to gain a better understanding of the topic of social design. I wanted to take my key interests/skills and plot them into a social design context. In this way I would be able to focus on them in the right conext and strengethen them through this project.

“A growing interest in the role design can play within social contexts, in response to particular issues or concerns, clearly motivates your interest in the subject. You also express an appreciation for the value of, and requirement for, research to identify ‘precise’ insights that inform appropriate responses to a given problem or challenge. This mindset situates you very comfortably within the field of social design.” - Paul Bailey

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DISCOVER

Abigail Kleerekoper

My key interests

Through splitting my key interests into two sections, I realised that in fact, they are all related to social design either directly or as part of

“Cause/concern, ethics, research & analysis, Reason/not baseless, precision, originality, helpful.”

the process used. Now I realise that not only do I need to find a cause/ concern to focus my project on but I need to enhance the process by keeping these other factors in mind. I will try my best to develop this project by practicing these skills. Through the implementation of

1. “Cause/concern, ethics, helpful and Reason/not baseless”

2. “Research & analysis, precision and originality”

these aspects, I hope to result in increased accuracy of conceptual and contextual decisions as well as design decisions. Through doing this I hope to create a more meaningful

The essence of Social Design

Factors that would enhance a social design project.

and impactful outcome.

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DISCOVER

Abigail Kleerekoper

Ageing Population

Obesity in Society

“Cause/Concern�

Dangers of After thinking about a number of pressing social issues

Womens safety

Internet & Social Media

that are constantly being mentioned in the media, I decided to focus on the dangers of the internet and social media as I was intrigued to find out how I could contribute

Unemployment in UK

to one of the many issues regarding this matter.

Property prices in UK

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DISCOVER

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DISCOVER

I n t ern e t A ddi ction After having discovered more about all the other categories of the dangers of the internet and social media, I ended with looking at internet addiction.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DISCOVER

I n t ern e t A ddi ction

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DISCOVER

I n t ern e t A ddi ction I found some headlines that jumped out at me as being really pressing social issues surrounding Internet addiction. Regarding it as an “illness� made me really think about how extreme this issue really can be. I also looked at the symptoms of Internet addiction as I thought that it would help me understand the issue on a better level.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DISCOVER

I n t ern e t A ddi ction I began looking to see if there were any solutions to this issue. It was interesting to see that there was a campaign that was created in order to motivate people who are “addicted� to their phones. This made me think about Internet addiction with regards to using email and social media on mobile devices and how internet addiction is not limited to the computer.

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DISCOVER

Abigail Kleerekoper

[ chosen route: Internet Addiction ] The topic of Internet addiction is often discussed in

This leads to many different areas of exploration, for

the media. Unlike other issues, there are quite a few

example, the increasing expectations of employees due

examples of social design around this topic. As well

to 24/7 access of emails via computers, smartphones

as a general awareness of what internet addiction is,

and tablets. This forms a pressure that never used to

there are two main initiatives that have been taken.

exist where employees feel that they ought to respond

One is a general disconnection from the Internet in

within 30 seconds which doesn’t leave much room

order to enhance communication with the important

for thought. We are living in a world that relies on

people in our lives. This is not specifically aimed at

technology but it is suffocating us.

diagnosed addicts but is directed at the addict in all of

A feasible route for this project could be the

us. This includes concepts like “disconnect to connect”

exploration into the digital age with the intention of

and “unplug to recharge”. The disadvantage of these

spreading awareness and empowering the audience

campaigns is that they are extremely short term. It is

(e.g employees) to take a stand and demand some

unlikely that switching one’s phone off for an hour will

breathing space.

have a lasting impact.

I realise that in reality, drastic change will not be

The other initiative taken is when an individual

made as the world relies on technology but it would

decides to disconnect in order to inspire, be inspired or

be interesting to explore the attitudes of an audience

make a social point.

and strive to alter their mindset slightly in order to

It is clear that internet addiction or dependency,

enhance their quality of life.

(even in a mild form) is an issue that a huge number

Although “Disconnect to Connect” may intrinsically aim

of people in society face every day. It seems that

to solve similar issue, my aim would be to have a long-

although one cannot turn back time, there is an issue

term impact on attitude rather than suggest a “one

concerning the digital age and its effect on society.

hour disconnection”.

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DISCOVER

Abigail Kleerekoper

Audience: City Lawyers

Aim/Context: To empower the audience to take a stand and demand some breathing space from technology. Creating systems that provide “timeout�.

Client: Mental Health Foundation

Modes of Engagement: Participatory/ Motivational Campaign

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Delve

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DELVE

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[ INTroduction: Why i chose this topic ] Ever since I was born, I have been carrying out

worse. Although it meant that she could work from

primary research for this very project. My mother

home more, it also meant that she was glued to her

is a high-flying city lawyer who takes her job and

emails.

responsibilities very seriously. For 22 years I have

Buzzing on average every 3 minutes, with about 175

observed her expertise, her attitudes towards

emails a day it was enough for anyone to wonder how

colleagues as well as her consistent drive to produce

on earth she stayed sane. She loved it though. She

top quality work for her successful and demanding

thrived on the “efficiency” of her fast responses. She

clients. This meant waking up at 3am every morning,

adored helping people in times of “need”. Whether she

staying awake for more than 48 hours during intense

was fighting for a discriminated victim on grounds

multi-million pound deals. It meant being on call day

of race, age or sex or for long standing partners in a

and night for high-profile clients to cry like babies,

sensitive dispute, she was there, waiting for that “buzz”.

demanding instant attention. It meant dropping social

Eager to reply in an “efficient” instant. It was always

commitments to satisfy the needs of these people who

a case of being “quick on the uptake”. Responding

needed her more than her family. It also meant having

in a flash. Never sleeping. By the time I was 16, her

no “true” holiday but Christmas day.

fingertips were glued to her blackberry. Little did

She was a fantastic mother, but growing up it was

she know that maybe speedy responses weren’t as

sometimes hard to always know who came first. The

productive as she may have perceived. Maybe the way

kids or the clients? As I grew up, technology became

she handled the emails were making her job harder?

more advanced, as did her career. This made everything

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DELVE

res earc h aid s I began to look through these books in order to get familiarise myself with social design methods as well as revise some general research methods in design. I found these very helpful in getting a better idea about the order in which this project could be carried out.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DELVE

Expert Co n tact Due to the nature of my audience, I have to accept that I will be unable to attain information, answers, feedback and insights from a big number of lawyers. With over 30 years experience in the legal industry my mother has worked closely with many other lawyers, legal practitioners, senior partners, associates and junior solicitors in numerous different settings. With this experience she is able to offer many insights into the attitudes, behaviours and expectations of lawyers and their clients. She provides me with a hugely perceptive and insightful understanding of my target audience on the whole and the issues that many face with regards to email use in the legal industry.

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primary/s e co n dary

emaillogic.com 1

res earc h ov erv iew to date.

SOURCES SECONDARY RESEARCH SOURCES

VW email block after hours 2

Related work

Other Inbox3, InboxWhizz4, Bloxx Flitering Solutions5

Cause Emailers are in denial about extent of problem19

Email Compulsion (City Lawyers)

Effects “Damages thinking time”

1. http://www.emailogic.com 2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-16314901 3. http://www.otherinbox.com 4. http://inboxwhiz.com 5. http://bloxx.com

Negative impact on productivity and efficiency at work.6

“Email is treated like a phone where instant response is “expected”

Infringes upon work-life balance.7

6. http://www.emailogic.com, “Tools of the Trade - Getting a Handle on Email” By Karen C. Knox. 7. Journal: Information & Management 48 (2011) 88-95, http://www.chatelaine.com/living/after-hours-work-emailscause-woman-guilt-and-stress/ 8. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/people-places-and-things /201301/every-little-interruption-counts 9. http://www.sciencewa.net.au/topics/social-science/item/2015email-induced-stress-investigated-for-cause.html 10. http://www.standard.co.uk/news/workers-suffering-from-emailstress-6605380.html 11. Journal: Information & Management 48 (2011) 88-95 12. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/04/taking-e-mailvacations-can-reduce-stress-study-says/ 13. http://comicsbeat.com/give-yourself-a-present-email-amnesty/ 14. http://leavinglaw.wordpress.com/2012/03/27/good-fences-makehappier-lawyers/ 15. “Tools of the Trade - Getting a Handle on Email” By Karen C. Knox. 16. http://bloxx.com 17. http://bloxx.com 18. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTugjssqOT0 19. http://bloxx.com

PRIMARY RESEARCH SOURCES Elaine Aarons, Solicitor. Partner at Withers LLP. (Over 30 years experience in legal industry in the City)

“Unrealistic expectations of employers, clients & self”

Suggested Action

Interruption proves to be unproductive 8 Causes stress

“Desire to be consientious” Further research

“Job insecurity” “Email amnesty”13 “Lwayers think there is no solution.”

Primary research based on cause, effect & opinions.

Implementation of ground rules 14

“Driven by fear”

Down time/refresh

15

“Fear of an overflowing inbox”

Email filter managagement 16

“Fear of inefficiency”

Dedicated email times/batch emails 17

“Fear of negligence” “ “Fear of loosing a potential client”

“Touch every paper once and that is especially true with email. ” - Andy Pausch 18 “Review or introduce a new email etiquette”

Keeping up with volume of emails in inbox. 9 Obligation to respond quickly 10 Lack of work-life balance 11 Checking emails regularly 12 “Information overload”

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DELVE

Abigail Kleerekoper

[ Final major project: aims ] We have this seemingly intractable problem of clients’

There may be a problem with the expectations of

very high expectations of their lawyers, which is

clients who want their email answered immediately

perfectly understandable.

and don’t understand that this leads to badly thought

This has many effects among which are problems

through emails. (This could be dealt with by the

associated with email and we find that this leads to

lawyers themselves explaining that they are offering

counter-productivity.

a better class of service by implementing the email

So, this project aims to solve problems associated with

policies/system.)

email use. Not so that lawyers will be less effective or

The general aim is not to make the lawyers feel that

lose business but that they should be able to deal with

they are being told to use emails less or to treat

their emails in a healthy way and be more efficient.

their clients with any less efficiency but that they

What we need to do is help the lawyers understand

themselves stand to gain by the proposals and if they

that by treating the emails differently, they themselves

implement them, can expect a competitive advantage

might be more productive and efficient and be able to

over rival firms as well as reducing their stress and

deliver a better class of service to their clients.

getting better quality down time and sleep etc....

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Abigail Kleerekoper

[ Audience questionnaire preps ] After looking closely at my primary and secondary

was relatively limited in responses and gained 10

findings to date, there were certain pieces of

altogether.

information I wanted to confirm. There were also

I designed the questionnaire in the form of multiple

other issues that seemed to widely affect people

choice whilst also giving my audience the option

in the workplace but I wanted to discover how my

to explain their answers. The multiple choice style

audience was directly affected. Through asking specific

questionnaire intended to help the audience feel less

questions, my aim was to identify the needs, feelings

pressured to answer big, overwhelming questions

and behaviours of my audience in the context of work

and could be answered simply with a tick. I thought

& email activity.

that this would be most the most efficient way for me

My mother put me in touch with a few people in

to gain responses from my extremely busy and time

my audience, but due to the busy nature of city

pressured audience.

lawyers and the sensitivity of my mother’s career, I

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Que s tion n aire respo nses

1. How often do you feel the need to respond to an email on a client matter very quickly?

2. When you feel the need to respond to an email on a client matter very quickly, does very quickly generally mean:

3. How often do you regret responding to an email at work too quickly?

A) Occasionally B) Frequently C) Quite often D) Never

A) That day B) Within 24 hours business day D) Longer?

A) occasionally B) frequently C) quite often D) never?

C) By the end of the next

10% Quite often 10% Never

100% Frequently

100% That day

4. Do you feel speed of response is important to clients: A) Always B) Often C) Occasionally D) Never?

70% Occasionally

5. How often do your regret responding to an email at work too slowly?

6. Do you send emails on client matters after 8.00pm or at weekends:

A) occasionally B) frequently C) quite often D) never?

A) occasionally B) frequently C) quite often D) never?

10% Frequently

50% Always

10% Rarely

10% Quite often 40% Occasionally

50% Often 80% Occasionally

60% Frequently

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Abigail Kleerekoper

7. Do you receive emails on client matters after 8.00pm or at weekends:

8. Do you reply to non-urgent emails after 8.00pm or at weekends:

A) occasionally B) frequently C) quite often D) never?

A) occasionally B) frequently C) quite often D) never?

10% Quite often

30% Quite often

10% Occasionally

60% Frequently

30% Occasionally

60% Frequently

11. Does working at a fast pace

A) increase productivity and efficiency

A) Enhance the quality of your decisions

B) decrease productivity and efficiency

B) Damage the quality of your decisions?

C) both?

C) Both

80% Both

12. If you leave a draft email or letter overnight, do you make improvements before it is sent out:

10% Enhances quality of their decisions

60% Increase productivity and efficiency

A) easier B) harder C) both?

20% Easier

10. Does using email

40% Both

9. Do emails make your job

A) always B) often C) occasionally D) never

40% Occasionally

80% Both

60% Always

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Ov erv iew: re s pon s e s

Emails increasing productivity & efficiency

“Fascilitates fast communication.”

Emails decreasing productivity & efficiency

“Further emails will be necessary.”

“Ability to work out of the office.”

“Cannot read long documents on screen.”

“Ability to move matters forward.” “Keeps exchanges short & to the point.”

“Clients expect a fast turn around and get frustrated if they do not get this.”

Feeling the need to respond quickly

Email use at Work

“Top quality service means being as responsive as possible.” “The expectation is that we are all connected 24/7 The days of Jane Austen have passed!” “Pressure of deadlines set by opponents.” “Law has very strict time-limits. It would be negligent to miss them!”

“The response could have been improved.” “Quick emails have more typos that look unprofessional.”

“Could be taken over by new incoming work.” “Helps maintain good relations with clients.”

Regret responding too quickly

Regret responding too slowly

“May get sent to the wrong person by mistake.” “Situation changes and I may need to change my response.”

“The clients get upset if we don’t turn matters around fast enough!” “On an initial introduction, one can lose the client!” “I can miss the chance to make a point because it loses force with the passage of time”

“I hit send and later think of something else to add.” “One can give a better thought out response by waiting a little.”

“Priorities become blurred because of emails.” “People fire from the hip and send red herrings running.” “Cannot always bill accurately with time recording when spending time on emails.” “Causes a problem with time management.” “It means there is no down time. Being constantly on call and having a big lack of down time is bad for productivity.”

“One should always sleep on it!”

“Email is taken over by events.”

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Abigail Kleerekoper

DELVE

I n clearer word s After carrying out the primary research, I have clarified many of the email related issues that I found out from my secondary research. Other interesting and related issues also came to light during this research. I discovered that the lawyers I asked did feel that email has it’s advantages and that it has a positive impact on their work to an extent. It also became very clear that there are issues regarding speed and interruption at work due to emails. There seems to be a pressure to work at a very fast pace and to be as responsive as possible. This evidently leads to interruption from emails and the “need” to respond quickly. This speed also seems to cause an inefficiency in the way emails are being written and sent to important people. There seems to be a lack of professionalism including typos, angry emails and more. This suggests that there is often a lack of thinking time, which could be valuable. What was interesting to me was that the “blurring of priorities” was mentioned. This relates to time management issues, which was also spoken about. The final issue that arose that interested me was that of “downtime”. “Having a big lack of downtime is bad for productivity.”

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A day i n t h e life I asked my mum to send me updates on how many emails she had received and sent during different times of the day. I received updates quite a few times as she began to realise how much more bizarre her job is than she had ever realised!

3 & 4 MAY 2013 “82 emails sent and received on one client matter between 8.00pm and 8.00am” - Elaine A

“Just came out of a 4 hour meeting and 77 emails were awaiting me of which 31 were on client matters.”

“More than 25 emails sent & received on client matters between 8pm -11pm. Going home now!”

“23 emails received between 19:15 yesterday & 21:15 today ”

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W ellbein g Having found out that there may need for more downtime, I looked into what that could involve. Being mentally sound seemed just as important as being physically sound. I was directed towards the “5 Ways to Wellbeing” that was published by the New Economics Foundation. These categories are something to keep in mind when developing the outcome.

“It is important in my job to take care of myself and my wellbeing. I don’t do as well as I could and am not so motivated to do so. Many lawyers find it difficult to think about anything but their job and this could include staying physically, mentally & emotionally well. Being healthy enhances efficiency and sharpens your mind.” - Elaine A

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A lawy er’s i n b ox After finding out the different categories and percentages of my mum’s inbox, I asked her to elaborate further about the various categories of

TIME TAKEN TO RESPOND:

emails that she receives.

“Varies from email to email. An email can

This helped me further understand the general nature

take 10 seconds to reply to or 2 hours or

of her inbox.

more. Some I can delegate to others in

15% Junk

the team.”

15% Internal emails URGENCY:

15% Law updates & Conference invites

65% Emails about client cases

“Depends on the case and the client (you can generally tell the clients with less patience!) but even when not urgent, would try to respond on the day even if just to say when a detailed response will be sent.”

TAKES LONGER IF: “A client attaches complex documents to NATURE:

review.

“Quite a few long internal emails that are

There is a draft email or document that is

important - would prefer hard copies on

sent to me to review and amend

my desk when I arrive in the morning.

The email raises a point of law I need to

“Firm wide emails re: items lost in the

check up on before responding.”

toilets/water cooler etc...”

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Mos t di s rupti v e email s

“When a client or an opponent

“Charity runs/just giving - I often

“Spam email that gets through our

suggests I have got things wrong as

feel I have to give for business

firewall - still too many per day.”

I then need to work out if the attack

reasons. Feels being forced to give.

is justified.”

Takes time & I give charity anyway.”

“The charity emails are internal and external. I get about 4 per week. Donating takes 10 minutes. So that’s 40 minutes every week!!!!!!”

“Out of office replies to say

“Firm wide emails re: items lost in

“Long internal emails that are

someone is out of the office for a

the toilets/water cooler etc...

important - would prefer hard

couple of hours.”

There are less than there used to

copies on my desk when I arrive in

be.”

the morning.”

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W hat does your c lie n t wa n t from you?

“Certainty at the outset as to the

“No signs the lawyer is sloppy (signs

“To know the lawyer/ firm is well

fees they will be charged - clients

being typos, getting the facts wrong,

regarded by other clients and by

hate surprises.”

forgetting what they have already

other law firms.”

told you.)”

“Speed of response can win or

“A crucial skill is to keep the client

“Confidence the lawyer has the

lose the client’s confidence - swift

up to date as to when a piece of

right experience to deal with their

accurate responses wins it, slow and

work will be done. They appreciate

matter.”

sloppy responses lose it.”

knowing where they stand.”

“Responsiveness - turning work

“We are told clients want to feel

“Feeling the lawyer will approach

round efficiently and effectively.”

they are our only client (or our most

the matter in the way they would

important case)”

like.” 29


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A law yer’s a spirat ion s

downfalls due to email

“Efficiency...

“24/7 advice expected...”

good decision making...

“instant communication expected...”

To make the client happy by

“Thinking time is reduced which

exceeding expectations...

effects quality of decisions & quality of advice...” EA

to keep on top of workload... CONTRADICTIONS

“less money made with emails not

to make a good impression...

being time recorded accurately...” EA

to make money for the firm

more mistakes made due to speed...

through productivity...” - Elaine Aarons

InTerruption causes counterproductivity...

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M aj or mot i vator of city law firms. This tells me that at it’s most ambitious, ultimately one

“The league tables are a

would be trying to develop a system where the success

constant reference source

of firms in dealing with email usage actively become

for clients and potential

measured in a league table. Clients would regard firms

recruits. Therefore culturally

who score well as providing the best service (which doesn’t necessarily mean always responding the most

law firms are very driven by

quickly). You could create a concept of a “productivity

competing with each other.” -

& efficiency” league tables according to how each firm

Elaine Aarons

uses the system!” - EA

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DELVE

Chan n el s of commu n i cation I automatically assumed that my outcome would steer clear of digital technology given that this causes the issue. However, after mentioning this to my mother, I found that I had been mistaken!

“A digital based solution would be best suited to your audience. Lawyers are busy and often on the go. You want the “used” outcome to be flexible so that they can interact with the “system” and gain the most out of it! I feel your communication needs to be integrated into my every day computer/Smartphone use. Obviously a campaign targeted at the audience in order to support the idea could be in the form of a leaflet but the actual solution itself should be digital.” Elaine Aarons

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Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Define

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Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Barrier s & Be n efi ts This Define research method really helped me to clarify the needs and attributes of my audience. I found it really helpful in order to understand how I need to take careful notice of my audience in order to develop an outcome that will be suited to their needs. There is no reason in my mind why I can’t use the barriers to shape and enhance an outcome rather than letting them hold me back.

Descriptions/quotes of barriers for users engaging with my solution

Descriptions/quotes of the long-term benefits of increased productivity & efficiency for users engaging with my solution.

Successful results in cases due to increased

• • •

“24/7 advice expected” EA “Instant communication expected” EA Audience is motivated by being busy and under pressure

• • • •

Clients’ high expectations Cannot get rid of email as the audience relies on it The clients will not go away or change Cannot neglect emails

thinking time

“Thinking up interesting and creative arguments” EA

• •

“Regular flow of new work” EA “Aiming for quality decision making & quality advice in order to exceed clients’ expectations and make a good impression.” EA

“Making more money by being “efficient” and “productive”.” EA

“Appreciation from clients and colleagues.” EA

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Stakeh older map Creating a stakeholder map helped me clarify the 3 main groups that affect the behaviour of a lawyer relating to time and email issues.

Stakeholder 1: Colleagues Competition at work and impressing colleagues is a major part of this issue. This creates a pressure to work at high speed and turn work around fast for the sake of being conscientious .

Stakeholder 2: Clients

User: City Lawyer These are the main stakeholders to focus on as the nature of these stakeholders is what forces lawyers to aspire to supernatural behaviours!

The clients have a major effect on the email related issues that lawyers face. The lawyer feels high levels of pressure to turn work around quickly in order to produce what they believe to be a “top quality� service!

Stakeholder 3: Family Family influence the decisions of a lawyer. They need attention, care and love. The lawyer will always feel a pull towards the direction of the family and will always feel guilty when work needs to come first.

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segmen tat io n I will mainly be targeting the lawyers who understand the problem but do not believe that there is a solution. After speaking to my mother, my understanding is that there are many people in my audience who don’t think there is a solution and put the “problems” they face to the nature of their job which cannot be changed. She believes that if my audience really knew the true THINKS THERE IS ROOM FOR CHANGE

impact of time and email management through being given a solution, they would co-operate.

THE ONE IN A PICKLE

THE KEEN ONE

TELL ME WHAT

I REALLY WANT

I NEED TO KNOW

TO CHANGE!

IF YOU THINK

HELP ME!

YOU CAN HELP!!

DON’T KNOW FULL DETAILS OF ISSUE

“This issue is widely known about but many people think that it cannot be solved!

KNOW ABOUT THE PROBLEM

THE NAIVE WORKOHOLIC

SELF INFLICTED WORKOHOLIC

Many lawyers find people telling them obvious things that they already know very irritating and most time management training is comprised of statements of the blithering obvious!!!!

I KNOW ALL THERE

I’M FINE THE WAY

IS TO KNOW .

I AM. I DON’T WANT

IS THERE EVEN A

TO CHANGE!

SOLUTION?!

Where they score is when they motivate the lawyers to try harder to change their bad habits!” Elaine Aarons

DON’T THINK CHANGE CAN BE MADE

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Name: Will Harding Age: 43 Firm: Eversheds LLP Job: Family Lawyer Position: Equity Partner

[ Personas: The lawyer ] Phone: Blackberry

more motivated to work for them when they are

Checks emails: On average every 5.5 minutes.

positive. He thrives on helping people in difficulty

Work ethic: “Clients get upset if we don’t turn

and helping them find a way forward. He is

matters round fast enough. It is our responsibility

motivated by successful results in his cases and

to maintain the integrity of the client. At the end of

continuing to help people through thinking up

the day my aims are to be as efficient as possible, to

interesting and creative arguments to help their

make the client happy and to make money for the

case. He worries about having a regular flow of

firm. “

new work but new clients and cases inspire him to

Will becomes engaged through communicating with

continue striving for success. He works best whilst

his clients. He likes to keep them happy through

busy and under pressure.

keeping on top of their cases.

Personal Life: Will has a wife and 4 children. He

He likes to take time over decision making in order

tries his best maintain a work life balance. He often

to give the best advice possible but often finds that

finds himself trapped between his work and his

this time is not granted due to the fast pace of the

family. Although he loves his family, he realises that

technological world.

his clients need him too and he is fearful of not

He likes to be appreciated and strives to exceed the

meeting their very demanding needs. He wishes that

expectations of clients and colleagues.

there were more than 24 hours to each day!

He likes working for nice, friendly clients and is

37


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Name: Max Reed Age: 55 Firm: Big bank! Position: CEO Problem: Accused of Discrimination

[ Personas: The client ] Work ethic: I like to know that the firm I use is well

I like to be kept up to date with regards to when a

regarded and highly respected. I make sure to go for

piece of work will be done. I hate to be left in the

the lawyer with the most experience who will give me

lurch. If my lawyer needs time I want to know that he

attention when I want it.

is doing the work and I want to be kept up to date.

I like to feel that I am cared about. I don’t ever want to

I worry that I will loose all my money through the

be told that someone else is more important than me.

negligence of my lawyer. I worry that I wont get what

After all I am paying a fortune for the service.

I deserve!

I want efficiency. I don’t want any surprises when it

Personal Life: Will has a wife and 2 children. He find

comes to fees. I hope to think that my lawyer will

his job very stressful and demand attention and

produce work efficiently without sloppy mistakes. I

respect from his colleagues and the people who work

respect creative arguments and thorough results.

for him.

38


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Identified behaviour 1 (Opportunity for change)

SPEED

Aiming to be efficient & productive at work by aiming for high speed and creating fast turn around through email. This causes problems with decision making, efficiency and productivity due to expectations, interruptions & lack of thinking time & lack of down time.

The Contradictive triangle of Lawyers’ Aims and Goals Identified behaviour 2 Aiming for quality decison making & quality advice in order to exceed clients’ expectations and make a good impression.

Identified behaviour 3 Aiming to make money by being “efficient” and “productive”.

39


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

?

New behaviour A system put in place in order to create true efficiency and productivity at work. To alter expectations, eliminate interruptions, increase thinking time & down time resulting in top quality service.

The Balanced Triangle of Lawyers’ Aims and Goals Identified behaviour 2 Aiming for quality decison making & quality advice in order to exceed clients’ expectations and make a good impression.

Identified behaviour 3 Aiming to make money by being “efficient” and “productive”.

40


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

?

New behaviour A system put in place in order to create true efficiency and productivity at work. To alter expectations, eliminate interruptions & increase thinking time, resulting in top quality service.

Appealing to the Actions and Motives of the Audience Motives “Competing with other firms in league tables... ...appreciation from clients and colleagues... nice clients...helping people in difficulty and helping them find a way forward... successful results in my cases... thinking up interesting and creative arguments... regular flow of new work... being busy and under pressure.” - Elaine Aarons

Actions Aiming for quality decison making & quality advice in order to exceed clients’ expectations and make a good impression. Aiming to make money by being “efficient” and “productive”.

41


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

posi t i v e dev ia n c e In order to look for some answers or solutions, I went

“My job works by appointment so there are certain types of work at different points in the day.”

in search of a person who doesn’t have the problem that my audience faces. My dad has worked as a GP for the NHS for over 30 years. I wondered if he could enlighten me as to how he stays efficient at work. I was eager to know his views on this matter too. I carried out an interview. This flow chart summarises his thoughts and feelings and actions surrounding this

FIXED TIME

NON FIXED TIME

topic. I found the outcomes of this method interesting. The nature of his job does mean that he gets far less emails than the average lawyer but I found that he has some basic time/email management strategies that could be applied to a system for lawyers to use.

“Works by appointment.

“I work through tasks that

Time with patients is

I have looked at in the

sacred. Not to be

morning. When it comes

disturbed!!”

to emails, I take the following actions:”

OPEN &

“I’m not being asked for opinions

READ

so there is no need for email contact with patients. If I had 2000 patients emailing me, I would resign!!” “They are paying indirectly for a

Flag non-urgent requests to deal with when less busy & finish priorities.

Deal with straight away if it will not take more than a couple of minutes.

service, they don’t expect the same level of attention as someone coughing up 600p/h!!”

42


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Event-driven/In Person Activia Training

“I am not going to bother reading time management documents. It’s nothing

www.emailogic.com

I dont already know! And it looks

www.mesmo.co.uk

I want something I can easily access!

pretty boring and uninspiring to read!!

Something that motivates me to put new and easy solutions into practice! No one wants to hear all the same things at

http://www.mimecast.co.uk

another time management event!!!” - EA

https://www.mavenlink.com

Concurrent Activities

Online/software

Rapportive

Taskforce

Microsoft AtWork

Campaign/Print

Boomerang SaneBox AwayFind

Producteev

Google Apps

Spencer ConsultingTime Management for Lawyers Time Management “Toolkit” by MindTools.com

Lumosity.com www.mindtools.com

The Learning Architect

Rules/Guidance/Training 43


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Concurren t acti v i ties

Event-driven/In Person

vis ual a n alys i s I thought that it could be useful for later on in the project to see what colours are being used in the logos for the concurrent activities. There is a clear trend which is interesting to see!

Online/digital/software

Concurrent Activities

Campaign/Print

Rules/Guidance/Training

44


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Concurren t acti v i ties conclus ion s There are numerous pieces of software to download

inspire motivation in the audience.

that claim to increase efficiency at productivity at

Looking at the concurrent activities has made me

work. These however still do not specifically tackle the

aware that there is a big gap in the market for an

deeper speed based problem that my audience face

event but having spoken to my mother, this route

including issues like interruption and lack of thinking

doesn’t seem like it would be welcome.

time.

Based on the concurrent activities as well as feedback

Mavenlink.com includes concepts that my audience

from my audience, it seems to me that my audience

may need to engage with but like the other apps and

needs to be motivated to use a time and email

software programs, it does not tackle the attitudes and

efficiency system/solution. It needs to appeal to them

expectations of my audience and their clients. This

and it needs to be quick and easy to access and use.

company uses many methods or ideas that I may have

Although there is a gap in the market for an event too,

initially thought of at the ideas generation stage.

it seems pointless for busy lawyers who have “been to

Having come across this company, I realise that I

many useless time management events” before. The

will have to steer clear of the obvious solutions that

need seems to lie in a new system that works in an

have already been done. Hopefully a rigorous ideas

easy, inspiring and non-intrusive manner, encouraging

generation process will help me to solve the issue that

small changes.

my audience face in a new an innovative way. There seems to be information about time and email management online but again, this is not targeted at my audience and their specific needs. The guidance that I did find was extremely text heavy and uninspiring. Many of the websites that I came across were just overloaded with information and there was no clear practical application of the suggestions or guidance. “I wouldn’t bother reading it. I have enough uninspiring documents to read without another bunch of uninspiring paragraphs to add to my pile!!” - EA There is a lot of information being published in a very formal style that doesn’t seem as though it would appeal to any audience! It certainly doesn’t seem to

45


Abigail Kleerekoper

Define

Bigge s t compe ti tion

As mentioned earlier, mavenlink.com seems to offer many tools to it’s audience that could potentially solve some issues that my audience face. Having showed this to my mother, she felt that these tools wouldn’t effectively solve the speed based problems that my audience face. What my audience needs are small, quick and easy solutions that would help them manage their time and email on a day-to-day basis at work or on the go.

46


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Hope s

fear s

I hope that i will be able to

I am worried that the issue is a large

appeal to the audience based

societal issue that cannot be solved

on all the information i have

in just a few weeks.

gathered. I am nervous my outcome will not I hope to solve the problems in a

appeal to the audience in the way

way that will make a difference

that i want it to.

to my audience.

The motivations of my audience seem set in stone and inflexible. I need

I hope to identify small

to work around their needs rather

problems that are feasible to

than trying to alter them.

solve.

47


Abigail Kleerekoper

Define

Chose n c lie n t Invigor8 is an Employee Engagement Performance Consultancy. They help organisations to drive business performance, implement change and engage with their employees. To do this they develop bespoke customer and employee engagement campaigns across various channels. As a Strategy Execution Consultancy they focus on performance improvement to increase profitability. My aim is to target city lawyers using this company as my theoretical client. As of yet, there is no solution that specifically targets this audiences’ issue. Directing an innovative solution at my audience through this consultancy will create an advantage for this project whereby the outcome will hopefully be convincing and feasible.

48


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Inivigor8 - Employee Engagement Performance Consultancy CLIENT

City lawyers who know there is a problem with time and email management but don’t think there is

RECCOMMENDED AUDIENCE

CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION

a solution and do not know how to

Primary (system): Digital (Iphone/Ipad/Computer) Secondary (campaign): Posters, leaflet, booklet etc...

solve it.

Dealing with emails and time in a

The way emails and time are being handled creates problems with efficiency and productivity

PROBLEM

MESSAGE

healthier way can lead to increased efficiency and productivity. In

due to interruptions, lack of

turn this will create a competitive

thinking time, down time and

advantage for you and your firm!

speed. •

The expectations & attitudes of clients & colleagues fuel this issue.

49


Define

Abigail Kleerekoper

Include solutions for increased productivity and efficiency

Help the audience control impulses

Include a promotional material that educates about

Include designed guidance tools for audience to use in

the positive impact that the solutions could have on

MUST

productivity, efficiency and overall success for the user & •

order to increase efficiency and productivity including

COULD

speed-based problems.

firm.

Acknowledge positive aspects of email use

Primarily be delivered in a digital format.

Create a sense of being left behind compared to other firms

Help lawyers identify priorities

Include “Quick fix” behaviours.

Incorporate factors of wellbeing and general health to increase competitive advantage over rival firms.

Endeavour to create a new culture through competition with peer firms and colleagues.

SHOULD

Appeal to audiences’ current motivations and behaviours.

Be fast and easy to use and flexible for needs of audience.

Be appealing for audience to use and engage with as a competitive advantage.

Encourage audience to make small effective changes

Tell audience to make drastic changes or go “cold turkey” on email.

WOULDN”T

Be regarded as a waste of time

Change or affect genuinely urgent matters

Stop audience from being able to keep busy

50


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Develop, deliver, determine impact

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

Quic k fix e s I looked at many different sources for information about time management with the intention of relating my findings to this project. I took solutions and turned them into quick fixes that could potentially aid the solution. I also included a few myself based on existing knowledge. I then placed them into a matrix, assigning them to four relevant categories. In this way I was able to clearly see which quick-fix would help which part of the issue.

O n lin e Sourc e s http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_05.htm http://www.rememberthemilk.com/ http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_94.htm http://northstarpsych.com/files_uploaded/1e6cf43949bf2f55924 f2daf00606720.pdf http://www.bestvendor.com/lists/the-best-email-managementtools http://www.microsoft.com/atwork/productivity/email. aspx#fbid=hklas9h_b0v http://www.cipd.co.uk/NR/rdonlyres/C73D05FC-E686-4B49AD7E-6B5428C7CF89/0/TimeManagementToolkit.pdf http://www.timemanagementforlawyers.com/articlesdownloads/ http://www.coachingforchange.com/TimeManagementHandout. pdf http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/science-andsensibility/201201/how-get-and-stay-organized-part-3

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

Quic k fix e s

Efficiency & Productivity “Thanks in advance”

“Tasks accomplished reward”

Activity Log

Collaborate using Google Docs

“Written agenda when making a call”

liesure breaks Urgent/Important Matrix

Prioritised To-do List & Critical Path

Leave important and non ultra urgent replies for 30 minutes before sending

Task Timeline and Estimated Completion

“Start anywhere approach” “3 Item daily to do list” Action Priority Matrix

2 minute reply rule. “touch the paper once” approach applied to email

Delegate jobs that are not part of your role Initial Meeting: Rules & Intentions agreement

Alter Expectations “Eearly night Wednesday”

Time/Email Management “Quick Fixes” for increased productivity & efficiency

Increase thinking time Interruptions Log

Available & Unavailable Time

Turn buzzer off once a day for an hour Weighing scales (weigh up priorities)

Autoreply With Explanation Use text or email chat for non urgent responses. Anti internal email day. Book by appointment

20 second urgency asessement

Don’t CC everyone in an email unless necessary.

Unsubscribe from newsletters that do not interest you.

Auto file non urgernt emails.

Have updates, blogs and newsletters sent to a different email to check once a day

Eliminate Interruptions

Priority alert system (only check emails that buzz with priority for 3 hours) Filter non urgent & junk emails to eliminate from inbox

53


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

100 s ke tc he s I sketched 100 concepts that could be included in an app to solve the issue. These were all based solely on the “quick fixes� so none of these concepts could stand alone as ideas. After reviewing them with my mother, a few of them stood out as being strong concepts for the content of an app. My aim now was to create a first prototype based on the compilation of the chosen ideas.

54


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

100 s ke tc he s SUCCESSES My outcome was deemed convincing and effective which suggested that my research is thorough and my aim is clear. After having carried out extensive delve and define research, I was happy that this was evident in my first prototype.

SHORTFALLS My outcome was also deemed not to be innovative or attractive. This suggests to me that I have to carry out some rigorous develop research in order to create a concept that is innovative and attracts my audience to using the system.

ACTIONS I need to look at insentivising and create a system that appeals to my audience based on my research. I need to think about how to solve the issue as a concept rather than confining myself to solving it through an app based on things that have already been done. I will go back to my mum to ask her how she sees the problem being solved. This may give me some fresh ideas as to how to solve this problem as an issue.

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

Us er Jour n e y Mappi n g

AWARE How are users finding out about this system?

This method really helped me to clarify how the

JOIN What is influencing their decision to engage with the system?

system will work from the beginning to the end of the

The awareness of the new system will

process. In this way, I am able to understand what I

be non-existent. A printed leaflet will

need to do for the sake of this project at the moment

be presented to my audience at work

as well as possible routes for future development.

detailing the information about this new system. “It will need to be quick and

They will be urged to join the system through reading the information and downloading the app. This will be merged with the “aware” stage.

easy in order for the user to access the information”. This will have to be made after the system has been finalised so that I am able to accurately inform the user of the system.

USE

DEVELOP

CONTINUE

How are users accessing and using the

How are users using the system to develop

What is motivating the users to continue

system?

their relationship with me or to improve the

using the system?

I aim to make the system as easy and

system? By carefully designing the outcome

simple as possible to use but at the same

After this project I could take this system

to make it as easy as possible to use.

time make it appealing. It aims to be

further by developing the app. This could

Hopefully, the audience would see results

part of the audience’s daily activity and

include tracking the audience’s use of the

in increased productivity and efficiency.

possibly integrated with their inbox. In

app in order to decipher how to improve

In this way, I would hope that they would

this way, it will have a daily impact on

the UX, the content and the UI.

continue using the system and eventually

their productivity and efficiency. I would

come to rely on it for top quality

like to find out how to make it as easy

performance.

as possible to use by looking at UX and existing apps.

56


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

conc ept uali s i n g I went back to my mum and asked her the following: “If anything were possible, how would you solve this issue?� She sent me an extremely long email with lots of long-winded ideas. I condensed these down further to quick fixes and attempted to categorise them into their relevant groups. I found this extremely confusing and frustrating, as I was not sure where to go next!

57


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Breaki n g i t down I realised that I had to break down her suggestions because some of them had already been included in the previous quick fix matrix. The wish list included a combination of conceptual and technical solutions that she wished existed.

WISH LI ST Urgen cy Filter In box status light “read each email once ONly” Non - urgen t email prompt “Inviting a reply?” beep emails read more than once

58


Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

CATEG OR I S I N G After identifying the wish list, I added them to the

Time/Email Efficiency

previous “quick fix” matrix. After doing so I then started Only read each email once

categorising these quick fixes in order to conceptualise

“Tasks accomplished reward”

how they work in digital categories.

“Reply all” stopper

Virtue Log

Collaborate using Google Docs

“Thanks in advance”

Think about emails that invite replies Non urgent email reading time slot

“Reply all” stopper

Limit to 50 per day

Leave important and non ultra urgent replies for 30 minutes before sending

Personal Target

2 minute reply rule.

Activity Log Initial Meeting: Rules & Intentions agreement

liesure breaks

Downtime “Eearly night Wednesday” Sleep Log

Delegate jobs that are not part of your role

Time & email management “Quick Fixes” for increased productivity & efficiency

Software

Client area

Action Priority Matrix

Task Timeline and Estimated Completion

Suggestions

collaborative

Beep emails read more than once.

“3 Item daily to do list”

Prioritised To-do List & Critical Path

Tools

Sent emails log/tracker & feedback

“Start anywhere approach”

“Written agenda when making a call”

Urgent/Important Matrix

Limit to 100 emails per case

Point system that tracks sent emails

Increase thinking time Available & Unavailable Time Mindmapping

Switch off time

“shop” - log, “buy time Turn buzzer off once a day for an hour

Wellbeing Tasks

Weighing scales (weigh up priorities)

Autoreply With Explanation Snooze Button for Work

Email replacement by text

Anti internal email day. Book by appointment

Use text or email chat for non urgent responses. Non-meeting hour

Urgency email filter (contains urgent words) 20 second urgency asessement

Inbox status light

Reduce Interruptions

Thinking timer Don’t CC everyone in an email unless necessary.

Interruptions Log

Unsubscribe from newsletters that do not interest you.

Auto file non urgernt emails.

Urgency Filter Control email with red flashing light.

Thinking time tracker

Priority alert system (only check emails that buzz with priority for 3 hours)

Non-urgent email time slot

Have updates, blogs and newsletters sent to a different email to check once a day

Filter non urgent & junk emails to eliminate from inbox

Interruptions Log

59


Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

CATEG OR I S I N G Arranging them in different groups helped me to

Client area

Tools

Software

clearly visualise which quick fix belongs to which category.

Email replacement by text Autoreply With Explanation Initial Meeting: Rules & Intentions agreement Use text or email chat for non urgent responses. “shop” - log, “buy time

Only read each email once

“Reply all” stopper

Urgent/Important Matrix

Urgency email filter (contains urgent words)

Leave important and non ultra urgent replies for 30 minutes before sending

2 minute reply rule.

Prioritised To-do List & Critical Path

Control email with red flashing light.

Activity Log 20 second urgency asessement

Limit to 100 emails per case Available & Unavailable Time

Action Priority Matrix

Filter non urgent & junk emails to eliminate from inbox

“Start anywhere approach” Interruptions Log

Suggestions

Priority alert system (only check emails that buzz with priority for 3 hours)

Inbox status light

Snooze Button for Work Personal Target

Mindmapping Think about emails that invite replies Liesure breaks

Thinking timer

“Tasks accomplished reward”

Weighing scales (weigh up priorities)

Non urgent email reading time slot

“Eearly night Wednesday”

Task Timeline and Estimated Completion collaborative

“Thanks in advance”

Collaborate using Google Docs

Point system that tracks sent email activity

Delegate jobs that are not part of your role

Sent emails log/tracker & feedback

Anti internal email day. Book by appointment

Sleep Log

“Written agenda when making a call” Unsubscribe from newsletters that do not interest you. Non-meeting hour Don’t CC everyone in an email unless necessary.

Switch off time

Virtue Log Wellbeing Tasks

60


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Sketc h ed prototypes TOOLS I began selecting quick fixes from the categorised lists in order to apply them to an Iphone app. These sketches included a number of tools including tools for controlling how many times the user reads one email. This would be integrated with the inbox and after 3 attempts would transfer the user to the personal target area to set goals as to how many times to read one email.

61


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Sketc h ed prototypes TOOLS CONT...

62


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Sketc h ed prototypes COLLABORATIVE + CLIENT AREA The collaborative area would be for colleagues to communicate and drop important emails, files and messages in order to save time email back and forth. There would also be a client area with case numbers and relevant emails, documents and chargeable hours all in one place.

63


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Sketc h ed prototypes PERSONAL TARGET These targets are based on the ideas from the 5 Ways to Wellbeing by the New Economics Foundation. The “do it”/”done it” buttons are inspired by a social design website called GOOD.

64


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

AUD I ENC E F EE D B AC K & CO - DES I G N I fed the concepts back to my mum and we discussed the value of this outcome for over two hours. After more sketching and conceptualising,

“Texting makes things more complicated!...Let them have control over it. Lawyers like to be in control!

I went away with a clear vision of what needed

Let them be able to customise the

to be done based on her feedback. The most

settings and change them when

important message I went away with was

necessary....I should be able to

“simplify”. It seemed to be the most important step

access my calendar on every page!...

at this stage as the feedback suggested that this

Most importantly, the more tools

prototype had too much going on and was far too

there are, the less it will get used!

busy. I gave her some Iphone templates and she sketched out a vague idea of what she thought the app should include.

65


Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

AUD I ENC E F EE D B AC K & CO - DES I G N Personal

Tools

Software

These are the original quick fix list that I went through with my mum. She reduced them heavily leaving quick fixes that she really thought could

System that tracks sent email activity

Only read each email once

“Reply all” stopper

Urgent/Important Matrix

Urgency email filter (contains urgent words)

work. Switch off time

Leave important and non ultra urgent replies for 30 minutes before sending

2 minute reply rule.

Prioritised To-do List & Critical Path

Control email with red flashing light.

Wellbeing Tasks Progress

Interruptions Log Mindmapping Weighing scales (sums up email activity) Don’t CC everyone in an email unless necessary.

Suggestions

collaborative

Priority alert system (only check emails that buzz with priority for 3 hours) Filter non urgent & junk emails to eliminate from inbox Inbox status light

Client area

Delegate jobs that are not part of your role

66


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Sketc h ed prototype 2 This new version of the app has 3 main sections. Email, settings and personal target. The aim would be to customise the way the email works through the settings.

67


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Sketc h ed prototype 2 This illustrates how the inbox could work based on the settings. This includes enabling the inbox to be viewed in the urgent/important matrix and efficiency prompts.

68


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Sketc h ed prototype 2 The personal section includes a notepad, progress area, prioritised to do list, “did� list, priority scales and a wellbeing section. These ideas all sprouted from discussions with my mum about content.

69


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

APP V I S U A L R E S E A RCH I found an assortment of legal apps and presented them to my mother. Her reaction was that most of them were very cluttered and in her opinion, the app I will design needs to be simple and appealing to use. “There is an overwhelming amount of information on most of these screens! I don’t know where to look! Also don’t use fancy gestures! It overcomplicates things!” She did however like the “Create Legal” design. “It looks a bit like a blood donation website but it is nicely designed and seems clear”. “Obviously there will naturally be a lot of content if it’s going to integrate with the emails but make sure you display in a clean and neat way!”

70


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

APP V I S U A L R E S E A RCH I began to look at email screens on the Iphone to get an idea of the way emails should appear on an Iphone. At this point I started struggling because time was ticking and I new I needed to start designing the app. In hindsight I realise that I actually wasted time on the whole by being too hasty. I hadn’t realised that my limited knowledge of the Iphone would hold me back in designing an app for Apple.

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

Bran di n g t h e app Round

Here, I have collected basic elements that I will need

Primary Colour Pallette

to create a form for my app. Reflecting upon the Invigor8 brand really helped me form an idea of the types of shapes and colours that I should be using to design the app. I have also placed colours for the secondary colour palette that had been selected based on visual research that will follow. I discussed naming the app with my mum and we came to a joint decision that the app should be called Invigor8. This name is easy to remember and reflects

Sharp Suqared

the app well in what it aims to do.

Secondary Colour Pallette Round

Sans Serif Typeface Sans Serif Typeface Sans Serif Typeface Sans Serif Typeface Sans Serif Typeface

72


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

St rap lin e s I came up with a few ideas for strap lines and presented them to my mum. She chose one strap line for the app and another for the promotional material.

Opt imi sin g time & email

““Optimising time & email” is quick and straight to the point, whereas “Bringing efficiency to another level” is also convincing but may be too long for a digital app. You could still use it to advertise the app.”

Bringing efficiency to another le vel

COntrolling m y world effic iency b roug h t to life Effic iency i s mone y the digital li ve s aver begin agai n now b e in co nt rol

73


Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Us er Experie n c e I started sketching different possibilities for the layout and UX of the app. I knew I had to keep in mind how the user was going to navigate the app. I wanted to make it as easy as possible for them to use. I presented these to my mum and she chose a very simple layout. “It seems like it would be the easiest to find my way around. Everything is right there where you need it!�

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Us er Experie n c e I began to look at different gestures in order to get clearer idea of the way my app could be use. My mum felt that as it is for business, it should be straight forward to use. She feels “fancy” gestures should be reserved for leisure apps.

“Don’t overcomplicate things with fancy gestures. Make it as simple as possible. The trickier it is to use, the less likely it is that lawyers will use it!” - EA

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

E xhi bi t Based on the research, prototyping and sketching, I mocked up some screens to test. My mum chose the one she preferred and I used this feedback to start developing the app visually.

AT&T FOLDERS

12:34 PM

Jeff Henson

1 May

1 May

1 May

1 May

References to employment tribunals.

Tesco

1 May

Amend documents for meeting today

Amend documents for meeting today

Sarah Jackson

1 May

1 May

Employoment Law Update

1 May

Franko Rodrigo Catch up

1 May

1 May

Sarah Jackson

1 May

Jill Fara

1 May

Tesco

1 May

Introduction: Lawyer needed

Franko Rodrigo

1 May

Franko Rodrigo

12:34 PM

AT&T

WELLBEING WEEKLY

1 May

Jill Fara

1 May

Employoment Law Update

1 May

Tesco

1 May

10% off bananas next week! 1 May

Catch up

Sarah Jackson

References to employment tribunals.

Introduction: Lawyer needed

Catch up

AT&T

1 May

1 May

Abdul Nessa

1 May

Urgent last minute meeting in conference room 6

10% off bananas next week!

Settings

INBOX

Jeff Henson

Meeting in 2 weeks with Tom Harris 1 May

Employoment Law Update

12:34 PM

Amend documents for meeting today

References to employment tribunals.

Tesco

Abdul Nessa

1 May

Urgent last minute meeting in conference room 6

References to employment tribunals.

Abdul Nessa

FOLDERS

Meeting in 2 weeks with Tom Harris

Jill Fara

10% off bananas next week!

AT&T

INBOX

Jeff Henson

10% off bananas next week!

Introduction: Lawyer needed

12:34 PM

Jeff Henson

Urgent last minute meeting in conference room 6

Urgent last minute meeting in conference room 6

Employoment Law Update

FOLDERS

Meeting in 2 weeks with Tom Harris

Meeting in 2 weeks with Tom Harris

Jill Fara

AT&T

INBOX

FOLDERS

Amend documents for meeting today

Sarah Jackson

12:34 PM

AT&T

INBOX

Abdul Nessa

1 May

Introduction: Lawyer needed 1 May

Franko Rodrigo

1 May

Catch up

12:34 PM

AT&T

12:34 PM

Add to list Go for a power walk

Play a game

Email

Do some gardening

Personal Go cycline

Eat lunch in the park with a friend/colleague

Settings

Cook a new recipe

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P rototy pe 3 Based on the feedback, I designed an app from beginning to end and created an interactive pdf in order to show how it would work. It was made up of multiple screens that displayed the content I that had discussed with my mum.

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E art h s hat t eri n g reali ty Before I got the chance to test this on my mum, I had a session at university. Everyone was brutally honest. It was hideous! I hadn’t paid enough attention to researching into Iphone apps and as a result I ended up with an outcome that just didn’t look up to scratch.

“To be honest Abigail, right, well, yeah. It looks like it just walked out of the 1990’s!!” - Shodor Uddin

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

SUGG ESTED ACT IO NS During the session with Joanna, after a bit of a panicked moment, we discussed how I could improve my outcome. I created a list of things that needed to be done based on the feedback from Joanna and the rest of the group. The main piece of advice that I was given was to

switc h to android

switch to Android. I have an HTC and it was going to be much easier to design an app based on my existing visual knowledge of the Android UI and UX. Obviously, it would have been ideal if I could design an app based on the phone use of the audience but

read t hrough developer princ iple s

for the sake of this project, I would design an Android app in order to put across the idea that I intended to convey.

t hink ab out user experience Creat e a map of your proposed app careful at t ent io n to grid ge t rid of all inde sig n effects, Yuc k!

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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An droid researc h I began looking at android apps on my phone. I was taking careful notice of various email apps that I downloaded. I took note of layout, strokes, type/image, iconography, content, navigation and user experience.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

An droid researc h

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

An droid researc h

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

An droid researc h I found more images of android apps that related to the app I intend to redesign. Again, I paid careful attention to strokes, icons, UX etc... I was also looking at top and bottom bars to see how much they varied. One thing that I noticed as I looked through all the examples of apps was that there was a certain consistency. Even though they were all different, they had a similar feel to an extent. I knew I needed to look at Android developer material. Hopefully this would give me some answers.

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An droid researc h

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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D EVELO P ER R E S E A RCH Looking at the developer material for Android really helped me get a clearer idea of what I needed to keep in mind in order to design a convincing outcome. I read through all the material and selected a few pieces of “advice� in order for me to refer back to when designing the app.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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D EVELO P ER R E S E A RCH

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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D EVELO P ER R E S E A RCH I was very happy to see that there was a set font for me to download and use. I often struggle with choosing an appropriate typeface and considering this was the first time designing an app, I felt out of my depth as far as typography was concerned.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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ANroid De v elopme n t I began playing around with the action bar, icons and strokes. I wanted to keep the colours the same as these were based on the Invigor8 brand. I played around with the homepage and inbox in order to create a basis for the visual style after exhibiting and choosing one route. After mocking up some screens, I presented them to my mum. She chose the ones she thought were most suitable and gave her reasons. “I like this style for the inbox. It is subtle and clean. This homepage is just really nice and striking. It’s visually stronger than the other options.�

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

ANroid De v elopme n t

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

A Nroid De v elopme n t

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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t es t i n g I downloaded some screens onto my phone to test the colours, strokes and font size. I had to make a few alterations after testing it as I could see that it appears slightly different on the handset as it does on the computer screen.

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App Tree I created a tree of the proposed app in order for me to design it with consistency and clarity.

EMAIL

Back

Urgent/important matrix

Homepage

Folder Add new Drawer

Drawer

New View (same as inbox+)

Prioritised to do list

All messages Pop up

Back

Inbox

Draw

See did list

Favorites

Back

Back

Inbox

Draw

Calendar

Send

Trash

Filters

Drawer

Sent

New email

Search

Drafts

Homepage

Attached

Prioritised to do list

Unread

PERSONAL

Notepad Back

To-do list

Prioritised to do list

Progress

Opening emails

Calendar

Back

Priority Scales Wellbeing

Calendar

Drawer

Back Drawer

Emails 8pm-8am Improving emails

Progress

Drawer

See did list

Back

Progress

Back

Prioritised to do list

Pen

Share

Colours

Drawer

Stroke Type

Drawer

Share

Personal

Back Drawer

Emails at weekends

Back

Personal

See benchmark

Benchmark

Back

Personal

Priority scales

Drawer

Diarise

Calendar Back

Wellbeing

Drawer

SETTINGS

Back Prompts Email setup Device setup Filters

Back Drawer

Homepage

Back

Settings

“Key words�

Important + urgent

Key words

Not important + urgent

Current client matters

Important & not urgent

E-filing

Not important + not urgent

Back Drawer

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HTC Super s o n i c I decided to choose a vector of an HTC model, as this is the phone that I have. I thought that it would be the most appropriate option given my existing knowledge of the HTC and the navigational behaviours.

12:00 PM

When designing the app, I realised that the menu button could have the option of displaying more actions for example “refresh” in the email inbox. For this reason, I didn’t overload the drawer icons with too many actions because I knew that in reality, the menu button on the handset would also work to display actions and functions.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Fin al outcome After a lot of playing around with the icons, strokes and typography, I finally settled for a style for this app. Once I had finished designing it from beginning to end, I went back to my mum to ask her what she thought. She mentioned two things. 1. Make sure your lines are not too thick. 2. What about the key word filters? Regarding the second point, I had created a visible section in the setting called filters but I hadn’t actually made it active. She thought it would be a good idea just to demonstrate how a key word filter with manual input may work. We also discussed her e-filing system at work and how I should show that there could be an option to integrate that into the app.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Fin al outcome I kept making the strokes more and more subtle and as thin and as light as I made them, they still seemed to be too bold. I carried on persisting and experimenting with different tints and strokes and eventually I found a stroke that seemed to fit the bill.

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Fin al outcome

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

pres e n t i n g th e app To begin with, I created every page with an individual sentence at the top. I tested this on 3 people including my mum. The feedback I received regarding the navigation of the PDF was that it was not smooth enough. It became evident that it was frustrating for users to keep referring back to the directions. It would be easier if I placed a simple symbol or dot on each page directing the user where to click. I tested it again using this technique and the users seemed to be much more focussed on the content of the app rather than the technicalities of a frustrating navigation system.

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

Vary i n g Platforms For the sake of this project, I have developed this app for Android. In an ideal situation, this app would be developed for numerous platforms including desktops and tablets as well as being developed for apple.

Email

Personal

Personal

Settings

Settings

Email

Personal

Settings

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Promot ion al material/ v is ual res earc h I began carrying out visual research by collecting a variety of promotional material related to the legal sector. I took note of the colour, shapes, layout, elements, formats, typefaces etc in order to gather inspiration.

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Promot ion al material/ v is ual res earc h

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Define

Promot ion al material/ v is ual res earc h

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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Legal adv erti s i n g I looked at a few legal adverts for inspiration. The Jeff Davis adverts are relatively simple but contrast striking imagery with bold colours creating strong outcomes. The angular shapes create an illusion of depth.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Legal Campaig n s It was interesting to look at the various type and image used in these campaigns. Although I was not designing a campaign for this project, I could still take inspiration away from these campaigns posters.

NOT SEEN  AND  NOT  HEARD   -­  HOW  CHILDREN  AND  YOUNG  PEOPLE  WILL   LOSE  OUT  FROM  CUTS  TO  CIVIL  LEGAL  AID A  report  by  Sound  Off  For  Justice  and  JustRights  on  the  impacts  of   the  proposed  Legal  Aid,  Sentencing  and  Punishment  of  Offenders   Bill  on  children  and  young  people

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Legal Campaig n s

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

Clien t v i s ual re s earc h I found some existing case studies that Invigor8 had published. Looking at these helped me gain more of an idea about the brand’s visual feel. The brand’s colours and use of white space is evident and makes the whole look seem consistent. I didn’t want to copy what they had already done. I wanted to create something fresh using the brand colours so that it is still recognisable as being part of the Invigor8 brand.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

A pp promot ion al res earc h After looking at general promotional material from the legal sector, I gathered promotional material relating to apps. I wanted to see how the information was displayed. I took note of various layouts, visual styles, typography etc... Most of these images were found on app promo websites. Some were also digital images that were being circulated on social media websites. A few of the examples I collected were designed for print. Although most of these were created for digital purposes, there was no reason why I couldn’t combine the inspiration taken from these visuals together with inspiration gathered from the legal material.

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Abigail Kleerekoper

Develop, deliver & determine impact

A pp promot ion al res earc h

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

Vi s ual A Nalys i s

Imagery

Photographic Style

Having carried out visual research, I consolidated everything I had observed and created some guidelines for designing the leaflet. I would most likely stick to the primary colour palette, as this is a strong representation of the Invigor8 brand. I decided to use the typeface I had used for the app, as the visual style is clean and would represent the app well.

ROBOTO typeface typeface Primary Colour Pallette

Secondary Colour Pallette

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Format s I played around with different formats and presented them to my mum. She chose a simple two fold style.

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Develop, deliver & determine impact

Abigail Kleerekoper

Co n t e n t I went back through my delve and define research in order to create content for the leaflet that would describe the app accurately and convincingly.

the inv igor8 app

Te s t imonial

The Invigor8 app provides you with suggestions to make small

“The struggle with email management has intensified over the

changes to your daily routine and email tendencies. It can

years to the point that we now not only face relentless email

automatically prioritise emails and tasks and urges you to

traffic but the quality of output is also suffering. Just as we are

think about your emailing habits, e.g. reviewing important draft

at breaking point, an app has arrived on the scene that simply,

emails before sending. The app also enables you to track your

thoughtfully and effectively addresses the issues. Imaginative

progress. This can provide useful data for appraisals.

and on point this long overdue work aid is very welcome and has the potential to be transformative. Well done to the designers.” - Elaine Aarons, Equity Partner, Withers LLP

how it works Simply gain access to your inbox when on the go or at work! The settings give you the ability to customise the way you deal with emails and helps you prioritise. It’s tuned into your schedule through the calendar which means that prompts are tailored to fit your needs. The “Personal” area enables you to tailor the app to your needs, keep track of your goals and progress and ultimately, help you feel more in control.”

Bac kground Emails are a good form of communication but clients’ very high expectations of their lawyers have given rise to bad habits. Time management has deteriorated and the pressure to reply rather than think has affected the quality of outputs. By thoughtful email use, you could stand to not only be more productive and efficient but also to deliver a better class of service to your clients.

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Ske tc hi n g I began by sketching layouts in order to get a few variations out on paper. I also played around with the icons from the app to see if I could implement them into the leaflet.

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Exhi bi t I mocked up around 50 prototypes based on the visual research. I presented them to my mum and asked for her opinions. She gave the following feedback: 1. I like the ones with really solid, bold colours. 2. The one with photography on them are nice but I think it’s too much. A bit overwhelming. 3. I really like the ones with angles, they are nice and striking.

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Chos e n Ou tcome She chose the following two outcomes and after persuasion she picked the one on the left as the final outcome. Her reason was that although the one on the right was nice and bold, it didn’t say “here’s an app” straight away. This leaflet would be distributed in law firms. They would be left on the desk of each lawyer in offer for them to gain direct access to it.

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Platforms

There are also TV screens near our lifts, you could advertise the app there too! - EA

Introducing the app

12:00 PM

12:00 PM

Email

Personal

Notepad

To-Do List

Progress

Calendar

Priority Scales

Wellbeing

Optimising time & email

Settings

[

BRINGING EFFICIENCY TO ANOTHER LEVEL

[

12:00 PM

that brings efficiency [ TESTIMONIAL ] “The struggle with email management has intensified over the years to the point that we now not only face relentless email traffic but the quality of output is also suffering. Just as we are at breaking point, an app has arrived on the scene that simply, thoughtfully and effectively addresses the issues.

to another level.

Imaginative and on point this long overdue work aid is very welcome and has the potential to be transformative.” - Elaine Aarons, Equity Partner, Withers LLP

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reflections

Abigail Kleerekoper

[ Looking back: My reflections ] Looking back on the last few weeks of the FMP, I can

ability to think straight and produce the best outcome

identify some successes and some shortfalls.

possible.

I was really happy with my primary and secondary

I feel that overall, I learnt a lot with regards to

research. I felt that I really put my all into finding out

new research methods as well as learning about a

about the topic. Although I struggled with defining the

completely new field of design.

project, I also feel that I succeeded in understanding

I feel that I did push myself throughout the project

and identifying the precise issues that my audience

and experimented with new methods that were

were facing.

unfamiliar to me.

As far as the development of this project goes, I do

On the whole, I feel that my delve and define research

feel that I improved the outcome over time but I felt

was the strongest.

very out of my depth, considering that this was the first

The fact that my mum was my main audience contact

time I have ever come into contact with designing for

meant that I was limited in the project. I would hope

digital applications. I felt quite limited, after reading

that in the industry, I would have better access to a

the developer rules. I didn’t feel that I had room to

wide variety of audience members.

push my creativity because everything was confined by

I do however feel that she represented the audience

specific requirements.

well for the sake of this project.

I tried to manage my time as best as I could but felt

Overall, although an outcome can always be improved,

a little rushed towards the last couple of weeks. I felt

I feel that a really gained a lot from my last project at

a lot of pressure and I may have let this affect my

the LCC.

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Bibliography

Abigail Kleerekoper

Bi b liograph y BOOKS Ambrose, G, (2008) The Production Manual. AVA Publishing Berger, J (2005) 1oo Habits of a Successful Graphic Designer: Insider Secrets from Top Designers on Working Smart and Staying Creative. Rockport Chatfield, T, (2012) How to Thrive in a Digital Age, The School of Life Dean, Jeremy, (2013) Making Habits, Breaking Habits: How to Make Changes That Stick, Oneworld Publications Harkaway, Nick, (2013) The Blind Giant: How to Survive in the Digital Age: Being Human in a Digital World Human Centred Design Toolkit (2011) IDEO Innovating with People, the Business of Inclusive design, (2010) Norwwegian Design Council Lupton, E and Cole Phillips, J (2009) Graphic Design the New Basics, Princeton Architectural Press Lupton, E, (2011) Graphic Design Thinking, Princeton Architectural Press Mcchesney, Robert (2013) Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy, The New Press Noble, I and Bestley, R, (2011) Visual Research; An Introduction to research methodologies, AVA book production O’Reily, J and Linkson, T (2009) Recharge your Design Batteries. Rotovision Publishers Roche, Steve, (2012) Internet and Technology Dangers: The Wake Up Call Every Parent Needs, Dragonwood Sandler, Corey (2010) Living with the Internet and Online Danger, Checkmark Books Shea, A, (2012) Designing for Social Change: Strategies for Community Based Graphic Design, Princeton Architectural Press Solomon, Phyllis, (2009) Randomized Controlled Trials: Design and Implementation for Community-Based Psychosocial Interventions, OUP USA Trautschold, M (2010) Crackberry; Trie Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse. Apress Visocky O’ Grady, J abd Visocky O’ Grady, K (2006) A Designer’s Research Manual.

ARTICLES Epstein Henry, D (2007) Business Development in a 24/7 World, Diversity & the Bar Epstein Henrey, D (2007) Stepping into your shoes, Its time for job shares in law firms, Diversity & the Bar Epstein Henrey, D (2007) facing the Facts: All firms lawyers within the billable working model, Diversity & the Bar Epstein Henrey, D (2008) The Elusive Balance: Tips to assess and meet your work-life needs, The Woman Advocate Epstein Henrey, D (2010) Three Keys to Selling and Achieving Work/Life Balance in Today’s Legal Market, The Bencher Epstein Henrey, D (2012) Work llife balance is an issue facing all lawyers during the $pan of their careers, The Student Lawyer Kirscher Goodman, C (2011) Cellphones raise workplace issues, The Miami Herald

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Bibliography

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Makri, S (2008) A study of lawyers’ information behaviour leading to the development of two methods for evaluating electronic resources, UCL Making email less stressful, Business and Finance Leadership Academy Action Learning Project, Leadership Academy, Renaud, K and Ramsay J, (2010) Whitepaper: Email filter, why we need it?, Bloxx

WEBSITES https://secure.csi.edu.au/site/Home/Blog.aspx?defaultblog=https://blog.csi.edu.au/2012/01/what-is-social-design/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=p8YHa1W_neI http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demography_of_the_United_Kingdom http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/population/ageing/older-people http://www.realestateforum.com/real-estate-information/25813-2011-rent-vs-buy-infographic-choose-best-real-estate-investment.html http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/33579/10-Social-Media-Risks-MOST-Companies-Are-Too-Afraid-to-Take.aspx http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2236208/How-Facebook-social-networking-sites-used-child-abuse-gangs-groom-victims-sex-parties. html#axzz2JwkLfUlg http://www.google.co.uk/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=social+media+awareness+campaign&oe=UTF-8&redir_esc=&um=1&ie=UTF-8&hl=en& tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=Rj0QUZaXOJS6hAejloCADQ&biw=1440&bih=703&sei=Sj0QUYO0GsqphAeu1YHYBw#imgrc=EFQcS2DzhOj8M%3A%3B8PO-2kLnwXHMvM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fandreeaoctavia.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252Fsocial-media-prism. jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.andreeaoctavia.com%252Fsocial-media-marketing-online-marketing%252F%3B1024%3B958 http://www.wsbtv.com/news/news/local/channel-2-explores-dangers-social-media-and-your-k/nMfPZ/ http://newyorkdivorcenews.com/the-dangers-of-social-media-post-divorce/331396/ http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/33265.asp http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/counterintelligence/internet-social-networking-risks http://www.pacific.edu/Campus-Life/Safety-and-Conduct/Safety-and-Security/Online-Social-Networking-Dangers-and-Benefits-.html http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/woman/4758139/Dangers-social-networking-sites.html http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/woman/4758139/Dangers-social-networking-sites.html http://www.4mat.com/blog/the-danger-of-social-media-blog-12529918478 http://www.optimum7.com/internet-marketing/social-media/dangers-of-social-networking-sites.html http://www.securelist.com/en/analysis/204792113/The_Dangers_of_Social_Networking http://www.webmd.com/parenting/features/4-dangers-internet http://education.purduecal.edu/Vockell/CAI/Cai5/cai5dangers.htm http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/internet/9637676/The-internet-can-be-a-dark-and-dangerous-place.html http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/mobile-phones/9719067/The-anti-social-network-.html http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/9779193/Teenage-girls-arrested-for-drugging-parents-to-use-the-internet.html

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Abigail Kleerekoper

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Final major project research document  

Research document that takes you from the beginning to the end of my final major project.