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CRITICAL STUDY IN ART AND DESIGN UNIT-6

ABHILASHA SAIKIA


PREFACE

“I

am a student of ARCH Academy of Design pursuing Interior Design course; a final year student. We are given an assignment named Critical Study in Art and Design which demanded to chose three eras and study the buildings or artwork of that period in-depth. I kept Ancient Greek Architecture, Hindu Architecture and Mughal Architecture in my priority. Ancient Greek architecture because we get to see the columns/orders used extensively in modern world used in any complexes and I wanted to know the origin and purpose of it. The purpose of choosing Hindu architecture is is we are being so much globalised and influenced by the western world that we are forgetting our roots. India holds so much beauty in art, culture, heritage, traditions and architecture Third, the Mughal architecture holds the beauty of Persia, with vibrant colours and intricate inlay work, Be it the floral design, the symmetrical geometrical jali work which we can see in the monuments in India have influenced me to opt for this period. I enjoyed the study and earned much knowledge about these eras and I hope this documentation gives the reader comprehensive idea of which the reader is in search for.

This document is intended to analyze critically design eras, movements, styles and techniques to develop, evaluate and improve the reader’s design sensibility. By looking at a work of art’s symbolism, colours and materials we can learn about the culture that produces it. We will also be comparing artwork, which provides different perspectives, and gives the reader a well-rounded way of looking at events, situatons, and eople. By analysing artworks from the past and looking at their details, the reader can rewind time and experience what a time period different from our own was like. This document is basically the research work and selection of my inspiration to develop interior design of a residence with getting immense inspiration. The scenario is to study various art movements, in relation with interior design and draw inspiration to design a residence for a family residing in Mansarovar, Jaipur C 34 6D Engineer’s Colony and have recently bought a new plot. The residence has a 40’ road in the front and 20’ road at the rear side. On both the sides it has 2 similar residences boundary walls. This is a family of husband wife and their sons. The wife is an artist and wants the learner to design their residence while getting inspired with history of art and design culture. The sons are 19 and 21 years old respectively and are very particular about getting their bedroom designed. Client’s requirements: 1. Any wall on the ground floor dining room should de pict a design culture era of the learner’s choice. 2. The learner must prepare a concept for the residence designing with the same design culture era.

ABHILASHA SAIKIA

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

INTERIOR DESIGN VII SEMESTER ARCH ACADEMY OF DESIGN PEARSON-EDEXCEL I am using this opprtunity to express my gratitude to all who supported methroughout this project. I am thankful for their guidance, invaluablycontructive criticism and friendly advice during the assignment. I am sincerely grateful to them for sharing their truthful advice and iluminating views on a number of issues. I express my warm thanks to the institute ARCH Academy of Design and Pearson for giving me the opportunity for such an interesting projectand helping me to expand my genre of knowledge. Along with these I would also like to thank my internal guide Ms. Shweta Saxena, Interior Designer, of Interior Design department of ARCH Academy of Design for guiding me through books that would offer me with required information; and my peer who provided me with conductive and nurturing environment. Thank you, Abhilasha Saikia VII Semester Interior Design ARCH Academy of Design

Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Preface &Acknowledgement


CONTENT

ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE 03-04

HINDU ARCHITECTURE 05-06

MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE 07-08

CONCLUSION & SOURCES 09-10 Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Content


Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Ancient Greek Architecture 03


3 Type of orders

PARTHENON: ATHENS

1. DORIC ORDERS: These are serious and rather mascular.

The supreme example of Doric temple design, the Parthenon was built to house to cult statue of Athena Parthenos. The largest temple on the Greek mainland, it marks the zenith of the Periclean period.

-The earliest columns are very slender but later ones excessively thick, with a height no more than four times the diameter at the base. The architrave or the principal beam, which in larger temple usually is made up of 2-3 slabs in depth, the outermost showing a vertical face in one plane.Example of Doric could be seen in Parthenon: Athens. - The Doric entablature has three main divisionsa) The architrave or principal beam, which in larger temple usually is made up of 2-3 slabs in depth, the outermost showing a vertical face in one plane. Capping it is a flat projecting band called taenia and under this, at intervals corresponding to the triglyphs, are strips known as the regulae, each with six guttae or small conical drop below it. b) The frieze, which is formed of triglyphs with two vertical channels (glyphs) and two half channels at each side (so 3 glyphs) alternating with metopes or square spaces sometimes ornamentated with fine relief sculpture, as in the Parthenon. A triglyph is aligned over each column and another centrally over each intercolumiation. A triglyph temple, however, two triglyphs meet with a bevelled edge. c) The cornice or geison, which is the upper or crowing part. The soffit or underside has an inclination approximating to the slope of the roof, and has flat blocks or mutules, which occurs over each triglyph and each metope, and is usually ornamented with eighteen guttae, in three rows of six each. The vertical face, or corona, has an overhanging drip at the bottom. The top is occassionally surmounted by a continuous gutter but this is often omitFig.1: Doric Order in Parthenon. ted. 3. CORINTHIAN ORDERS: These made its first 2. IONIC ORDERS: These capitals are lighter development of the appearance in Greek archtecture in the fifth century BC as a decorative variant of the ionic. It was first used only Doric. Ionic columns including for internal colonnades. Corinthian columns suggest delicapital and base usually between 9-10 times their lower diameter in cacy and feminity. height and have 24-flutes separated Fig.2: Ionic Order with -Vitruvius records the fable that the invention of the capiby flattened arrises. a volute tal was due to Callimachus, a famous sculptor in bronze, -The capital has two pairs of volutes or spirals, about 2/3 who obained the idea from observing a basket over the the diameter in height, one pair on the front of the column, grave of a Corinthian maiden, covered with a tile to prothe other on the back, and joined at thesides by a concave tect the offerings it contained. The perfected type has a cushion, sometimes plains but usually ornamented with deep, inverted bell, the lower part of which is surrounded numerous flutes, fillets and beads.The ionic capital pre- by two tiers of eight acanthus leaves, each surmounted sented difficulties at the corners of a rectangular building by a calyx from hich emerge volutes or helices supporting the angles of the abacus and the central foliated ornaand in such positions a canted angle volutes was used. ments. -The ionic entablature passed through various stages of development. As evolved in the eastern Greek area, it had -Each face of the moulded only two main parts- architrave, cornice; the latter sup- abacus is curved outwards to ported by a frieze of large dentils. It was therefore very the corners, where it either light in relation to the columns, being as little as 1/6 of their ends in a point or in chamFig3.Corinthian Order height, though in some temples such as archaic “Temple fered. Example: The Temples inspired from of Apollo Epicurium of Artemis at Ephesus”. plants, stems at Bassae. & leaves

The PARTHENON is the greatest and the most influential building of all time. It is a thing of immense beauty, as timeless in its appeal as a building can be. A temple devoted to Athena, the Greek Goddess of wisdom and guardian of the city-state Athens. Phidias the sculptor, was given the task of coordinating the rebuilding of the temple which was eventually turned to Architects Ictinus and Callicrates, who spent 11 years perfecting the great Doric temple in their charge. The building is now a ruin, but being of marble (with a timble roof), it has survived in pretty good shape from its completion in 436 BC up until the Venetian attack on Athens in 1687, when Greek was under the control of the Turks. The Turks had turned the Parthenon into a mosque in 1458 (complete with onion dome sprouting incongruously through the roof), and they also used it as a gunpowder store, which blew up. The doric order is used in the supreme temple of Athens. In common with other Greek temples, it is of post and lintel construction and is surrounded by columns carrying an entablature

ARCHITECTURE -Like all architecture, the exterior of the building was much more important than the interior. The climate encouraged the Greeks to spend much time outside meeting one another, so the colonnades were all important. Sunlight played through these and gave the building a depth and magic that conventions bricks and stone walls lacked.

Fig.4: The front view of Parthenon with its Doric orders, architraves & colonnades.

-To ensure that their temples looked proportion to the human eye, Ictinus and Callicrates used the technique known as entasis to even so slightly deform the columns and architraves at the fronts and sides of the building. -The temple stands on the conventional three steps below which the foundation platform originally created for its predecessor, remained visible on the west, south and east sides of the building. -The ceiling was of wood, with painted and gilded decoration. Light was admitted, as normally in Greek temples through the doorway when the great doors were opened, but it is now known that there were also windows high in the walls on either sides of the door. Fig.5:. Plan of Parthenon with its columns and division of areas.

COLOUR

- Like most, and perhaps all, Greek temples, the Parthenon was brightly coloured into red, blue and golds. -We have become so used to seeing Greek temples as chaste, honey-coloured ruins in the landscape that we forgot that they were designed to frame and inspire great colourful ceremonies.The open space of the theatre of the temples, gathered in picturesque fashion on the acropolis above the city were busy night and day.

ANCIEnT GREEK ARCHITECTURE PHIDIAS -A sculptor, painter & architect built the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, which was one of the 7 wonders of ancient world (flourished c. 490-430 BC).

- It was said of Phidias as that he alone had seen the exact image of the Gods and have revealed it to man. -When Pericles rose to power in program he initiated a great building program in Athens and placed Phidias in charge of all artistic undertakings. - The four famous monuments of Phidias on the Athenian Acropolis are-The Athena Promachos -The Lemnian Athena -The Colossal Athena Parthenos for the Parthenon -The Zeus for the Temple of Zeus

ARCHITECTS & SCULPTORS

Fig.6: The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about 42 ft (13 m) tall, made by Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia, Greece, and erected in the Temple of Zeus.

Fig.7: The shrine of Goddess Athena at the Temple of Lemnian Athena created in original Bronze during 450440 BC.

-An architect, one of the most celebrated of Athens, known for his works on-The Parthenon on Acropolis -The Temple of the Mysteries at Eleusis -Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae

Fig. 8: Telestrion hall at Eleusis showing the extra interior supported columns, which were to be reduced. A project of Ictinus.

-The Telestrion hall, where the Eleusinian Mysteries were performed, was a square hall with rock cut seats. Ictinus probably worked at Eleusis about 430 BC, sometimes after he had completed his work on the Parthenon. -Ictinus’ design for the Telestrion at Eleusis is a project never completed. It was to reduce the number of interior supports so that there moulds have been more unobstructed space than ever before for witnessing the more secret rites of the Mysteries.

ancient GREEK ARCHITECTURE

In the early fifth century BC, the Athenian Acropolis was sacked by invading Persians. Although the populance vowed not to restore the site, the influencial politician perikles led a campaign that would transform the Acropolis into an iconic symbol. By the time it was finished in 433/2 BC, the Parthenon was the grandest, most extravagent temple in the Greek world.

The Greek Architecture used three types of columns in the temples and buildings: Doric Order, Ionic Order and Corinthian Order.

Remarkably, although the Parthenon looks perfectly symmetrical and striaght, none of its angles are right angles, each horizontal line rises in its centre and every vertical column is thicker in the middle than on the top and the bottom. When seen by the human eye from a distance, however, this distortions are reconciled, attesting both to the Greek notion that true perfection is ultimately an illution and to the sophistication of Athenian Engineering and Architecture. Made of marble, a light reflecting material with thinner columns than the prominent temples that preceded it the Parthenon had something of a heveanly aura about it. At the same time, its predominently horizontal design rooted the building firmly in the human world. In the pediments and on its other solid surfaces, the Parthenon was ornamented with relief sculpture originally painted in opulent colours. Among the scenes where the Amazanomachy and the Centauromachy, both visions or order triumphing over chaos.

ICTINUS

-Ictinus was involved in the rebuilding and elargement of the of the Telestrion hall at the temple of Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis in collaboration with Coroebus, Metagenes and Xenocle.

PARTHENON

Around the upper wall of the temple ran a frieze that many scholars believed to represent the annual procession that took place during the Panathenaic festival held in honour of the city’s patron Goddess Athena. In the building pediments scenes of Athena’s birth from the head of Zeus and her contest with Poseidon for control of the city. The Parthenon itself was dedicated to the goddess and colossal, gold-drenched statue of the Athena Parthenos by the scuptor Phidias.

While the Doric order is mascular and way too simple, the Ionic order is feminine and volutes are curvy. In the Corinthian order, the use of leaves and flowers are extensive and could have used wisely only at the corners. My interpretation of Ancient Greek Architecture is that they were very aggressive in the usage of colours, works on the pillars yet humour during that period. The systamatic use of columns inside and outside the buildings is the significance of this architecture. As the dramas and skits of Greek culture were used to be played in the amphitheatres of the Greece and when amphitheatres had been introduced to the people by the Greek thinkers, philosophers and sculptors, I wished to see same drama and the usage of artistic creativity in the monuments and the amphitheatres as well. However, the concept of amphitheatre and acoustic design is still used by the contemporary architects and design thinkers and have not been replaced by any other form.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS

This is an architectural marvel till this date, considering the machinery restraints it had in the fifth century BC, yet achieving maximum of visual and engineering accuracy. Fig.9: A view of Eleusis.

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Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Hindu Architecture 05


VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE

INTRODUCTION

temple structure During the first millennium BC, the broad spectrum of religious modes known as Brahmanism or Hinduism almost certainly included the worship of gods in the form of images. The early shelters for such images must have been made of perishable materials, like the humble shrines still built today all over the countryside. As image worship came to predominant in organised religion, monumental masonry temples began to be built, remains of brick structures surviving from the early centuries AD. A huge growth and flowering of temple builting to place between the seventh and thirteenth centuries. From this time Muslim invasions disrupted many of the regional traditions but the Vijaynagaran Empire from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries and the Nayaka rulers for further two centuries, patronized vast temples and complexes in south India. Survivals and revivals have also occured at various times in other regions and temples are still being built today in traditional way. Temple architecture of the Jains (also consider themselves as Hindus in a broad way), in a given period and region, is not fundamentally different from Hindu temple architecture, often being the work of the same architects and craftsmen, and even patronized by the same rulers.

- A monument such as the great eighth-century Virupak- lared hall is believed to be Krishnadevaraya’s (the sha temples, contains a whole family of different aedicular then king of Vijayanagar Empire) addition to this forms at different scales. temple. So is the gateway tower giving access to the inner courtyard of the temple. It is the oldest temple - The architect/ builder of this temple is lakkan Dande- which is still used for worshipping in that region. sha. The moulding sequence had in the parapet, the shikhara moulding represents a thratched roof, the griva (neck) the habitable verandah, the vedi a railing, the -The most awe inspiring aspect of vyalamala ( band of mythithis temple is the massive Gopura cal vyalas and makaras) the (entrance structure of the South Inends of joists over the kapodian temples). ta, a thatched cave. -The gopura of Virupaksha temple is - At present, the main temple about 165 feet tall, 150 feet in breath consists of a sanctrum, three and 120 feet in depth. Ante Chambers, a pillared hall and an open pillared hall. -This is one of the tallest Gopura in A pillared cloister, entrance South India and it is in 11 tiers. This gateways, courtyards, smallGopura has been built in such a maner shrines & other structures ner that an inverted shadow of the surround the temples. Gopura falls on the western wall of the temple through a small hole ad-The nine-tiered eastern joining the sanctum sactorum. Fig. 4:Plan of Virupaksha temple from its entrance gateway, which is the largest (gopuram) (a) at the bottom followed by the first at 50 meters, is well-propor-There are two other gopura in this courtyard (b), the triple headed nandi (c) , the midtioned & incorporates somedle of the courtyard (d) and the ranga Mandapatemple complex. The northern Goearlier structures. It gives ac-(e). pura is constructed with five tiers and cess to the centre court con-The northern Gopura (f) is located at the right side.another Gopura in the inner eastern taining many sub-shrines. side is constructed with three tiers.

gopuram

Fig.1: Ancient Hindu temple layout according to body of the God.

Fig. 2: Doodle of the plan of typical Hindu Temple

Differences are a matter of iconography rather than form and style. The same is true of the different cults of Hinduism of which the main division is between those worshiping Shiva as supreme divinity, and those for whom Vishnu holds the place.

- The smaller eastern gateway leads to the inner court is with its numerous smaller shrines. A narrow channel of the Tungabhadra river flow along the temple’s terrace and then descends to the temple-kitchen and outthrough the outer court.

Fig. 3: Kailashanathar Temple in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu.

-The gopuram towards north known as the Kanakgiri with subsidiary shrines and evenually to the river Tungabhadra. -The inner east gopura of the Virupaksha complex is the prototype of the later sixteenth-century gopu-

- The most ornate of all structures in the temple, central pil- ras. It is not the oldest of the gopuras at Hampi.

HINDU ARCHITECTURE nagara architecture

dravidian architecture

-The Gupta milieu in Central India gave rise to proto-Nagara monuments such as the fifth-century brick temple at Brhitargaon, Uttar Pradesh. Once the family of forms defining the Nagara ‘language’ had been established, these arose, in addition to the early Latina type with its simple sikhara (tower), various ways of arranging these forms, various modes of organisation, notably the Valabhi, the Shekhari and the Bhumija.

- The emergenge of South Indian or Dravida temple architecture from earlier pan, Indian traditions can be traced from Ajanta and the Buddhist traditions of Adhra Pradesh to sixth century rock-cut architecture in the south.

- Through the seventh and early eighth centuries, the full development of Dravida ‘language’ for structure temples can be observed in the area around Badami in northern Karnataka, capital of the Early Chalukyas, followed y related de-Very broadly speaking, general stylistic zones of Nag- velopments in Andhra. In parallel, with much interaction, ara architecture can be seen to emerge from around the Tamil version of Dravida came to fruition under Pallathe seventh century: most importantky western India vas. and, closely related, central India; eastern India (principally Orissa); the Deccan (Maharastra, Karnataka, -Dravida temple architecture also spread to Kerala, and unAndhra Pradesh). The types and sequential stratifica- der the Cholas, the predominant dynasty in Tamil Nadu betion of horizontal mouldings are largely common to tween the ninth and thirteenth centuries, to the different modes and different stylistic zones of Sri Lanka. Nagara temple architecture. - The simplest form of Dravida temple is the -The smaller Shiva Temple, Kiradu, Rajasthan, alpa vimana (minor Shrine), with roots has mouldings from ground level to the base traceable back to one of the shrine types of of the tower. This developed, eleventh Buddhist Gandhara. century shrine has almost the ful complement of mouldings available at its time. -Derived from wood-and-thatch prototypes, this type when rendered in -In pillar design there is no single Nagara masonry has a moulded base, order, but many types have capitals in walls-usually with pilastersthe form of the purnaghata ( brimming enclosing the square sanctum, an vase). overhanging canopy or roll cornice (kapota) and a crowning domed pa-The Shekhari mode of Nagara ap- vilion (kuta), usually square. peared during the tenth century in western and central India, where for -Alpa Vimana of the temples are centuries it remained the predomi- rectangular, crowned by a barrelnant type among the grander roofed pavilion (shala) and apsidal temples. The exquisite little (gajapristha ‘elephant-backed’), Ambamatha temple, Jagat, crowned by an apsidal shala. Rajasthan, dedicated in 960, is basically of the simple Shekhari -An early example of kutaform, with the addition of topped alpa vimana built around three secondary aedicular the beginning of the seventh components frontiing each century is a small, sandstone central projection. shrine, fronted by a porch, south of the Ravana Phadi cave temple at Aihole Karnataka. Fig.5: Sketch of Nagara Style Kandariya temple, Madhya Pradesh.

DRAVIDIAN ARCHITECTURE

VIRupaksha temple

- The Dravidian style of Hindu Architecture represents the south Indian temples. The rulers of that period- Vijayanagaras, Pallavas and Cholas built temples to show their power, wealth and the love for art and worship towards Lord Shiva.

-The impressive thing about Virupaksha temple that the layout has been designed in such a way that the river Tungabhadra flows along the temple’s terrace and then descends to the temple-kitchen and out through the outer court.

-The first thing that strikes my mind is why only temples? They had made/built temples and invested so much wealth dedicated to the God. But only temples are left to study when they could have invested their talent in making other monuments or buildings as well.

-The carvings done on the exterior and the interior depict episodes of Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata and Lord Ganesha which have been done so beautifully but the mono-colour pale yellow, which had been used to paint the walls have ruined the sculptures and because of one colour these sculptures have not been highlighted.

-All the Dravidian temples have garbhagriha which is the place where the idol is placed and around it has the prakaram- the circumumbutory passage which had been made so beautifully and spaciously to get the feel of worshipping to the devotees. -The temple involved the sculptures of Nandi (bull), deities etc.. that were very labourous works as it was wholly on stone carving. Instead of such labourous work on whole of the temples only the gopura and shikhara could be carved on stone and marbles (granites). -Most of the then temples were unfinished and rocky from exterior which do not attract people and make them boring.Also there are so many elements in the temples which make it difficult for a person to remember and could have been reduced.

Critical analysis

-Towards the end of the Dravidian style architecture of that era, it started losing its significance by taking elements from other type of architecture and started to be known as Late Karnata Dravida.

Fig.6: Sketch of Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal,Karnataka.

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Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Mughal Architecture 07


INTRODUCTION

MATERIALS, FINISHES & ELEMENTS

-Mughal architecture is anarchitectural style develped

by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in Medieval India.It was an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkic and Indian Architecture.

-The decoration of the buildings was basically doe withceramic tilework, pietra dura inlay with coloured and semiprecious stones and carved and inlayed stonework. Carved stonework is another interesting feature in the Mughal architecture, ranging from shallow relief depictions of flowers to intricate pierced-marble screens known as jalis.

-Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets, at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways and dedicated ornamentation.

Fig 1: A sketch of Humayun’s Tomb, Agra.

-The Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. His grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. -Some of his accomplishments were Humayun’s Tomb, Agra Fort, the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri & Buland Darwaza. Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar bagh in Kashmir.

-The trabeate stone construction, shallow arches made out of corbels rather than voussairs and richly ornamented carved piers and columns are some typical Hindu features that have been incorporated in the Mughal architecture.

-The great period of Mughal building, however followed the accession of Akbar. Indian craftsmen under Persian masters built the Tomb of Humayun, Delhi (1556-66), set in a formal garden intersected by a grid of canals and path and entered through monumental gateways on each axis.

Fig 4: Colour palette of Mughal architecture

Fig5: Jharokha made in the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, a concept taken from Hindu architecture.

- Other constructions like the chhatris- a domed kiosk resting on pillars, chajjas and jarokhasa projecting balcony supported on corbels with a hood resting on the columns became a part of Mughal characteristics.

- Akbar the Great moved his capital southwards from Delhi, the city his father had lost and recovered. Early in his reign he began the task of rebuilding the Red Fort, Agra (1564-80) on the banks of the Yamuna.

Fig 3: Sectional elevation of Humayun’s Tomb showing the concept of two domes inside and outside.

- Skilled labour was available to form every possible profile to cut elaborate stone grills as windows or screens. These techniques gave the builders the opportunity to produce stone structures of unparalleled lightness.

-The stone quite often associated with the Mughal architecture is white marble, which can be seen in the magnificence of the Taj Mahal.

-Mughal architecture reached the zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed- Jama Masjid,Red fort, Shalimar garden in Lahore and Taj Mahal.

Fig.2: Plan of Humayun’s Tomb along with Charbagh.

den, divided into four and the four- centre point arch and the use of domes are the features borrowed from the Persian architecture.

- The peak of Akbar’s building activity was the creation of a new town, Fatehpur Sikri (1569-1580). It has survived almost as built, having been deserted by the court as a result of the problems of supplying water to a larger population on a hilltop site.

- Extensive use of tilework, the iwan as a central feature in mosques, the charbagh or gar-

Fig 6: Close up of Frescos at Wazir Khan Mosque

The palace buildings or pavilions with wide-eaved lower storage and the upper floors are mere platforms carried on slynder columns surmounted by further platforms and ultimately by domed roofs, also with wide eaves.

Mughal Architecture Wazir Khan Mosque- Lahore Introduction

Decorative Elements

- The Wazir Khan Mosque is a Mughal era mosque in the city of Lahore. The mosque was commissioned during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in 1634 C.E. and completed in 1642. - This mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era Mosque”. Wazir Khan Mosque is renowned for its intricate faience tile work known as kashikari, as well as its interior surfaces that are almost entirely embellished with elaborate Mughal-era frescos.

Fig 7: A colourful eave of Mughal architecture seen in Wazir Khan Mosque

-The mosque’s interior was richly embellished with frescoes that synthesize Mughal and local Punjabi decorative traditions, while the exterior of the mosque was lavishly decorated with intricate Persian-style Kashikari tile work. -Wazir khan’s mosque was a part of a large complex that included a row of shops traditionally reserved for calligraphy & bookbinders in front of the mosque’s main entrance

-Wazir Khan mosque is renowned for its elaborate embellishment in a style which draws from the decorative traditions from several regions. While other monuments feature intricate kashi-kari tile work, none matched the enormous scale of the Wazir Khan Mosque. TILE WORK- Bricks facing the mosque’s exterior are richly embellished with Persian-style tile work known as kashi-kari. -Persian-style coloured used include cobalt blue, white, green, orange, yellow and purple, while Persian-influenced motifs including star-shaped flowered and grapevines. FRESCOES- Walls facing interior spaces are plastered and adorned with highly detailed buon frescoes.

Architectural Embellishments -The arched niche at the mosque’s entrance facing Wazir Chowk is richly decorated with floral motifs, and features one of Lahore’s first examples of a muqama- an architecture element found at Alhambra, Spain. -The low domes over the prayer hall reflects the style of the earlier Lodi dynasty which ruled Lahore prior to the Mughal era. - The mosque’s prayer hall lies at the westernmost portion of the site, and is approximately 130 feet long and 42 feet wide. It is divided into five sections aligned into a single long aisle running north to south, similar to the prayer hall at the older Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum.

-The interior decorative style is unque for Mughal-era mosques, as it combines imperial Mughal elements with local Punjabi decorative styles.

Critical Analysis

Fig 8: A colourful eave with full of floral motifs inspired from Persian style in Wazir Khan Mosque.

- Mughal Dynasty is the largest dynasty who ruled the then India for many years. During their times, they built up many monuments, mosques, tombs, mousoleum which have left its impression forever as Mughal Architecture. -My interpretation of Mughal Architecture is nothing but blend of Persian Architecture and Indian especially Rajasthani architecture. The Mughals brought architects and builders from Persia to India for building the monuments. To have a feel of Indianity, they had added some elements of India so that the people could connect them with the architecture. The elements include chhatris and jarokhas. -I personally love the intricate and minute detailed works of any architecture. Mughals have not left any chance to not impress me with it. They used intricate jali work, kashi kari work, pietra dura work intensively on the walls (interior & exterior), ceilings, niches, pillars and main chambers. Wazir Khan Mosque and Tomb of Humayun are examples of these. But sometimes this extensive use of intricate work makes the monuments or complexes look bulky, no space to breath to the eyes, way too much colour make the rooms darker and monotonous. -If we talk about the geometry, symmetry, uniform pattern and axially of Mughal architecture it is number one in it. But wait..! Is it its origanal? If we see Mughal architecture is master in blending Persian and Indian architecture and gets its identity as Mughal due to this characteristic. -Apart from these, the concept of four gardens (charbagh) has taken my heart as it has well-represented and executed the four rivers that flow in jannat, the Islamic concept of paradise. The two bisecting central water channels, reflecting the four rivers. This has inspired me and gave an idea how to extract inspiration and execute it. Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Mughal Architecture 08


CONCLUSION

“I

have taken Ancient Greek Architecture, Hindu Architecture and Mughal Architecture to study in depth for this assignment. After researching on the three eras, I chose Hindu Architecture for further development, of which Dravidian architecture inspired me. The purpose of choosing Dravidian period is that this part of art and architecture is least explored when it comes to interior design. This era holds many elements which we are unaware of and could be purposefully used in interiors. The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion. Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of India’s global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its millennia-old past. The architectural methods practiced in India are a result of examination and implementation of its established building traditions and outside cultural interactions. The temples of South many seem to be very complicated and complex to understand but they have very much importance technically and structurally. The Hindu temple architecture is an open, symmetry driven structure, with many variations, on a square grid of padas, depicting perfect geometric shapes such as circles and squares. Essential elements of the style are precise and harmonious geometry when viewed from all four sides and above, the square form and grid ground plans, soaring towers, and elaborate decorate sculpture which includes gods, worshippers, erotic scenes, animals, and floral and geometric patterns. Also, the sculptures, the murals, carvings and paintings are so elegant and meaningful that many inspirations could be drawn of. Why only Hindu architecture? One more important reason for opting for this era is we are being so much globalised and influenced by the western world that we are forgetting our roots. India holds so much beauty in art, culture, heritage, traditions and architecture. As we are given to design a residence of a typical Indian family, we can expand the knowledge of Indian temple architecture through it. Hindu architecture evolved over the centuries from simple rock-cut cave shrines to massive and ornate temples which spread across the Indian sub-continent and beyond, forming a canonical style which is still adhered to today in modern Hindu temples across the globe. I want to revive this era into my designs and come up with a residence not as a typically inspired house of temples but by implementing few elements into it giving an essence of South Indian temples. The first materials used were wood and terracotta, but architects gradually moved on to brick and stone, especially sandstone, granite, schist, and marble. No mortar was used in the older temples and so precise cutting of dressed stones was required. So I can use these materials and the techniques to develop the designs of the residence. There has also been a resurgence of appreciation for Indian art, craft and architecture; it would definitely enhance the interior. So, my motive is to implement the concept of Dravidan tradition into the contemporary times making it traditional modernism.

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Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Conclusion 09


ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE (03-04) • THREE TYPES OF ORDERS: The History of Architecture- 20th Edition; The Story of Architecture. • PARTHENON- ATHENS: The History of Architecture20th Edition; The Story of Architecture. • ARCHITECTS AND SCULPTURES OF PARTHENON: Encyclopedia Britannica. • CRITICAL ANALYSIS: Self

HINDU ARCHITECTURE (05-06)

SOURCES

• INTRODUCTION : The History of Architecture- 20th Edition • VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE: The History of Architecture- 20th Edition; The Dravidian Temples. • NAGARA AND DRAVIDIAN ARCHITECTURE: The History of Architecture- 20th Edition • CRITICAL ANALYSIS: Self

MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE (07-08) • INTRODUCTION : The History of Architecture- 20th Edition (Moghul India); Wikipedia (Mughal Architecture); www.indianetzone.com (Features of Mughal Architecture) • MATERIAL, FINISHES & ELEMENTS :The History of Architecture- 20th Edition (Moghul India) • WAZIR KHAN MOSQUE - LAHORE: The History of Architecture- 20th Edition (Moghul India); The Architecture of Mughal Era- Catherine Blandard • CRITICAL ANALYSIS: Self

Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design/Sources 10


Abhilasha Saikia/Interior Design/VII Semester/Arch Academy of Design/Edexcel-Pearson/Unit -6/Critical Study in Art and Design

Critical Study in Art and Design  

It is a documentation of research work on 3 design eras namely, Ancient Greek Architecture, Hindu Architecture and Mughal Architecture. It i...

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