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Spring 2018

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION


SKY

e h t r o f h c a e R

JAD SRB LUCKY’S SMOKIN COPPER (10749903) 2018 WESTERN NATIONAL STOCK SHOW OVERALL GRAND CHAMPION We believe LUCKY’S SMOKIN COPPER became the first dappled buck to have earned the Overall Grand Champion buck honors at a major livestock show. But it does not stop there as LUCKY’S SMOKIN COPPER has an unbelievable pedigree with LK7 LUCKY DOG *Ennobled for a sire, who is the full brother to LK7 DEVIL SPOTS *Ennobled. However, where we think LUCKY’S SMOKIN COPPER’S pedigree dis�nguishes him from the balance of the dappled pack is on the maternal side which features many of the great sires of the breed including CSB BROKEN S SMOKIN HOT RUGER *Ennobled, AABG STAUS QUO *Ennobled, DCW –BO JANGLES *Ennobled, WARDS CAT IN THE HAT *Ennobled, and SWE MAIN EVENT *Ennobled.

WE WILL BE OFFERING FOR SALE A SELECT SET OF DOES BRED TO SMOKIN COPPER THIS YEAR. SEMEN FROM SMOKIN COPPER WILL BE OFFERD ON VERY LIMITED BASIS IN 2018. Please contact Ken Baty (970) 685-1745 or Ranch Manager Ricky Farmer (970) 342-3824

Ken, Jane & Sydney Baty | Loveland, CO | sakbboergoats.com


If at first you don't succeed...

Letter from the Editor

We are closing in on the 2018 National Show, but more importantly to some kids in our association the Junior Regional Show Series is in full swing. Many of our youth who attended the Region 5 show in Sweetwater have never been able to attend the National show for one reason or another. This set-up gave these kids a different perspective. So many of them are used to grabbing their goat and heading into the ring. The regional show, with the skill-a-thon, public speaking, sales talk, fitting contest and showmanship, allowed a larger set of kids to participate in these events. One mother commented to me that it was a wonderful experience for her shy child. Most parents took on the same concept that I did when I first attended Nationals with my kids. Do EVERYTHING! You may stutter, you may fall, but you are going to get right back up and learn valuable skills. That is what life is about. Like the old saying goes, if at first you don't succeed, try and try again. The same can be true about some other stories in this magazine. Many breeders have tried to breed color genetics and keep coming up with the same traditional Boer markings. I've included a long, but interesting article on color genetics in goats. If nothing else, you can try to plan out the genetics instead of just paring up a dapple with a red. Good luck on that! And last, but definitely not least, is an article on the new ELD and CMV requirements. If you are hauling to and from sales, shows or just moving from pasture to pasture, you need to read this article and keep the graphic handy. I hope I've included a little bit for everyone, but if I haven't just drop me a note. I'd love to hear from you.

Karla Blackstock

Is it your turn to make a difference in the goat industry?

ABGA Judges Certification School June 21-23, 2018 Evans Agricultural Complex Perkins, OK. Contact Sonia@abga.org at the ABGA office for additional information. Deadline to enroll: May 18, 2018 The Boer Goat - 1


2017-2018 AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION

Board of Directors

REGION 9: DERIC WETHERELL (EC) PRESIDENT: dpwether@yahoo.com REGION 8: ROBERT WASHINGTON (EC) VICE-PRESIDENT: robert.washington64@gmail.com REGION 15: SUSAN BURNER SECRETARY: wvburners@comcast.net REGION 14: DENISE CRABTREE TREASURER: adcrabtree@horizonview.net REGION 1: KIMBERLY LIEFER (EC) • kimberly@aaprinaacres.com REGION 2: SCOTT PRUETT (EC) • eieiowefarms@yahoo.com REGION 3: CLARK HUINKER • chuinker@fmtvets.com REGION 4: JEREMY CHURCH (EC) • jeremy.church@live.com REGION 5: KENNY ELWOOD • kennyelwood@hotmail.com REGION 6: PAUL GRAFE • pgrafe@valbridge.com REGION 7: DAWN STEWARD • dawnsteward25332@gmail.com REGION 10: JOSH STEPHANS • jcstephans@yahoo.com REGION 11: JESSE CORNELIUS (EC) • jcornelius@nettleton.k12.ms.us REGION 12: KIM MORGAN • km4881@gmail.com REGION 13: KATHY DAVES-CARR • dxdarlin1@yahoo.com REGION 16: SARA DAVIS • csdavis@oakhollowlivestock.com PAST PRESIDENT: CINDY PRICE-WESTFALL • cindy_price_westfall@yahoo.com *EC DENOTES EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEMBER

2017 AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION

Staff

LARY DUNCAN, Chief Executive Officer • lary@abga.org MARY ELLEN VILLARREAL, Executive Director • mary@abga.org MARIA LEAL, Registration Support • marial@abga.org SONIA CERVANTEZ, Accounts Receivable • sonia@abga.org AARON GILLESPIE, Show & Youth Coordinator • aaron@abga.org NICOLE PETRELLA, Receptionist • nicole@abga.org CIERRA MARTINEZ, Support Staff • cierra@abga.org PAMELA O'DELL, Support staff • pamela@abga.org

ABGA OFFICE HOURS: Monday-Friday • 8:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST)

2 - The Boer Goat

Letter from the President Hello fellow ABGA members, Wow! Awesome!! Exhilarating!!! Exciting!! Incredible!! Stupendous!! All of these are words that I’ve heard and would completely agree with about the beginning of our JABGA Regional Show Series that happened this past Saturday. The excitement on the kids’ faces was something I’ve been working for and waiting to see since we started talking about this last June. I was asked Saturday if I’d probably much rather be somewhere else than in Texas for a jr show on my birthday, and I told her that couldn’t be any further from the truth. I loved to look at the kids expressions as they are feverishly going over a speech in their head just before going in front of the judge or the puzzled look as they are completing their skillathon quiz even though we know they know the answers and finally the look of amazement when their name is announced that they are the winner of one of the contests. I would like to give a huge THANK YOU to everyone that has donated to the JABGA Regional Show Series either with time or money. It wouldn’t be possible without everyone’s support. I look forward to the next 4 regional shows and the final showdown at nationals. It’s going to be very exciting to say the least!! Speaking of nationals, they are coming up very quickly. Entries are due next month. Folks are trying to get goats out to shows prior to nationals despite the crappy winter weather that just won’t go away. Hopefully warmer weather and sunshine is coming soon as well. Preparations for nationals continue as time winds down for the trek to Grand Island. From what I have seen of the sales this year, things are alive and well in the Boer goat world. Prices have been steady to slightly increased in a lot of cases. Congratulations to all the breeders that work hard to present their best offerings and to the buyers looking for their next champion or herd improving animal. I want to send out best wishes to everyone in the show ring this year and in raising all our kids for bigger and better things!! I hope to see and meet more people across the country as we strive to improve our youth!!! Deric Wetherell President ABGA Board of Directors


In This Issue

4

Affiliates

5

CEO's Messge

6

Youth Loans from USDA

8

JABGA Information

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION

ABOUT THE COVER RDO4 MC Cold Winter Night.

Photo by Lorelai Row of Rowdy Acres

14 Fecal Count Procedure The Boer Goat

15 Standouts 16 Commercial Driver License 22 Goat Color Explained 30 Calendar of Events

CONTACT

1207 S. BRYANT BLVD. SUITE C SAN ANGELO, TX 76903 TEL: 325.486.2242 FAX: 325.486.2637

PUBLISHER

AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION KARLA BLACKSTOCK, MANAGING EDITOR & CREATIVE DIRECTOR

32 Mastitis in Goats 35

Classified Ads

36 Photos from around the ABGA

INTERESTED IN ADVERTISING?

The next issue of The Boer Goat will be our Summer 2018 issue. Make sure to showcase your ranch or company by advertising in the business card section or by purchasing ad space.

WANT TO SEE YOUR PHOTO IN THE MAGAZINE?

If you would like to see your photo in the The Boer Goat, please submit your picture to editor@abga. org. Please send photos in the largest size you have available and include your name for print.

The Boer Goat hereby expressly limits its liability resulting from any and all misprints, errors and/or all inaccuracies whatsoever in the advertisement and editorial content published by The Boer Goat and its said liability is here by limited to the refund of the customer or its payment for the said advertisement, the running of a corrected advertisement, or editorial notice. Notification by the customer of any errors must be made within 30 days of distribution of the magazine. The opinions or views expressed in all editorials are those of the writer or persons interviewed and not The Boer Goat. The Boer Goat does, however, reserve the right to edit or refuse all material, which might be objectable in content. No material or part thereof, may be reproduced or used out of context without prior, specific approval of a proper credit to The Boer Goat.

The Boer Goat - 3


AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION

Affiliates Program

Boer Goat Association of North Carolina Contact: Kelly Clark PO Box 36479; Greensboro, NC 27416 Email: KellyClark@triad.rr.com Serving States: North Carolina

Northern California Meat Goat Association Contact: Carl McCosker PO Box 553 Gridley, CA 95948 Email: ncmga@yahoo.com 530-205-7922

Keystone Goat Producers Association 125 Ivy Drive, Middletown, PA 17057 Email: camstoys@comcast.net Serving States: Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey, New York

Tall Corn Meat Goat Wether Assoc, Inc Contact: James Shepard 4458 32nd St; Grinnell IA 50112 Email: dcc3200@gmail.com Website: www.meatgoatwether.com Serving States: Iowa

Illinois Meat Goat Producers 779 CR 800 E; Tolono, IL 61880 Email: dpwether@yahoo.com website: www.ilmeatgoat.org Serving States: Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Indiana

Snake River Meat Goat Association 24617 Cemetery Rd.; Middleton ID 83644 Email: srmga@outlook.com Serving States: Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico

The objectives of the ABGA Affiliate program include: • To provide resources at the local clubs level • To provide networking opportunities for the local clubs • To attract and retain goat producers • To assist with educational opportunities • To cultivate grassroots input from local clubs

Local clubs benefit from joining the group of recognized affiliates by receiving:

Affiliates have the opportunity to apply for funds to conduct educational seminars in their area. They can apply for cost share programs such as a display booth for the club. At the end of each year, membership rosters of the local affiliate will be matched with the membership roster of the association. The affiliate will receive a membership match of $1.00 per match for each person who is a member of both the affiliate and the ABGA. The affiliates are notified of future programs as they become available.

• • • •

Listing on the Affiliate page of The Boer Goat including a short description Listing on the Affiliate section of ABGA website with description of club’s mission Listing of club events (shows and educational events) on the ABGA Event Calendar Monthly listing of new ABGA members in the Affiliate’s area

4 - The Boer Goat

• • • •

Eligibility to receive ABGA promotional and educational material for club events Eligibility for educational funds Eligibility for cost share programs Membership matching funds at the end of each year Opportunities for future programs


show judge. We While reare offering this flecting on my class in the summer beginning with to accommodate the Boer Goat those of you who breed the other had scheduling diffiday, the first culties with the last thing I realized two spring classes. for me was that If you’re looking to it happened a long time ago. from the CEO ... advance your game and have a little In fact, I realized Wether does showing in the JABGA Region 5 Show in Sweetwater, TX. fun doing i, then I that I have now suggest you not miss been involved this year’s class. with Boer Goats for half of my adult life. My son was maybe I want to remind those of you who are utilizing an emeight years old when he started and will celebrate his 26th bryo transfer program this summer to get those donor does birthday this summer. DNA tested. This will help avoid registration problems later. One thing that continues to amaze me is the demand for Donor does have been added to the mandatory list for DNA good quality animals and the prices those good goats consistently bring. I won’t lie. When my son began with his project, I to protect those of you that do flush. We have encountered simply assumed it was a fad, a breeder’s market, and thought a few cases when owners are working in joint flush programs and someone ends up surprised to find out they are raising the high prices goats were bringing might last another two a kid that is not really theirs. Though not a common issue, it or three years at best. I figured we would be lucky if we ever is certainly one of the toughest for us to solve with only sire got our money back. For the record, I was wrong! reference DNA to work with. This new rule should eliminate Breeders have seen strong demand and good prices for this issue altogether. top-quality animals over the last 18 years. At this point, I beIt seems that I've talked about summer dates for DNA lieve if we continue to support our youth who are the driving donor does and a summer course for judging school, but force for much of what makes all this a reality, then there is there is at least one more event this summer that supersedes no reason it will not continue another 20+ years. I have been amazed at the number of breeders, vendors, and enthusiasts all those. Oh yes, it is the 2018 Nationals in Grand Island, Nebraska. We want to see as many of you attend and bring who have stepped up to the plate over the last nine months some extra kiddos for the wether and commercial doe and generously given in support of our new JABGA regional shows that normally would not get to experience a National show program. My hats off to all of you. In addition to keeping our youth thriving in agriculture, we Breeding Show. We want to show these kids how to have a good time, learn about the Boer Goat breed and maybe even also need top-quality judges to help steer our industry in the convert a few kids into breeding show kids and keep them in right direction. And, if the judge’s certification class applicathe industry longer. tions continue to keep coming in at the current pace we will host a class in June. Eddie Holland will return as an instructor. He will be joined by Kurt Henry and Shelby Armstrong for this summer session. This is a prime opportunity to enhance your knowledge and/or prove that you have what is takes to lead this breed into the future by becoming a fully sanctioned Boer Goat

Message

The Boer Goat - 5


Loans for Youth in Agriculture FSA makes loans to individual young persons to start and operate income-producing projects of modest size in connection with their participation in 4-H clubs, FFA, a Tribal youth group, or similar agricultural youth organization. The project being financed with an FSA Youth Loan needs to provide an opportunity for the young person to acquire experience and education in agriculture-related skills. The Youth Loan application requires a recommendation from a project advisor who verifies that he/she will sponsor the loan applicant, has the correct training and experience to supervise your project, and is available to help whenever needed. If you are between the ages of 10 and 20 years at the time of loan closing, parent(s) and/or legal guardian(s) must consent to the loan application. Young people applying for a Youth Loan are personally responsible for repaying the loan. A co-signer is required only if the project shows possible difficulty in repaying the loan or does not meet security requirements.

Purpose of the Loan • Youth loan funds must be used only to pay the expenses associated with an approved proje • Buy livestock, seed, equipment and supplies • Buy, rent or repair needed tools and equipment • Pay operating expenses for the project

Requirements The approved project to be financed must: • be able to produce sufficient income to repay the loan amount plus accrued interest in full; • be related to agricultural; • be educational; • be part of an organized and supervised program not be a noneligible enterprise. In addition to the items listed for project requirements, Youth loan applicants also must: • be a United States citizen, non-citizen national, or qualified legal alien; • have no controlled substance convictions; • have no past due debt problems; • have not caused the Government a financial loss on

6 - The Boer Goat

previous loan assistance; • have not received debt forgiveness from FSA. Youth loan funds may not finance: • exotic animals, birds, or fish not normally associated with agricultural production • non-farm animals, birds, or fish ordinarily used for pets, companionship, or pleasure • market or process farm products, goods or services not produced by the youth loan applicant, even if it might be agriculturally related Repayment periods vary from 1 to 7 years. The length of the loan depends upon the amount of the loan, the loan purpose, and the project. Youth loans accrue at the same interest rate as the Direct Operating loan rate. Loan applicants receive the advantage of always being charged the lower rate in effect at the time of loan approval or loan closing. Interest rates are calculated and posted the 1st of each month. We encourage you to contact your local office or USDA Service Center to learn more about our programs and the information you will need for a complete application. You also should be able to find a listing in the telephone directory in the section set aside for governmental/public organizations under the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Service Agency. Our local FSA offices are happy to help you. https://www.fsa.usda.gov/programs-and-services/farmloan-programs/youth-loans/index https://www.fsa.usda.gov/ programs-and-services/farm-loan-programs/youth-loans/index

Available Farm Loans - USDA Farm Operating Loans Microloan Programs Farm Ownership Loans Guaranteed Farm Loans Lender Tool Kit Targeted Farm Loans Youth Loans Minority and Women

Farmers and Ranchers Beginning Farmers and Ranchers Loans Specialty Loans Emergency Farm Loans Native American Tribal Loans


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8 - The Boer Goat

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Regional Shows Area 1 Red Bluff, CA April 28, 2018 Area 2 Altamont, Il May 26, 2018 Area 3 Springfield, OH May 5, 2018 Area 4 Pendleton, SC May 19, 2018 Area 5 Sweetwater, Tx April 14, 2018

JABGA National Show Grand Island, NE June 10-12, 2018

Find Us on Facebook or at ww.roxwillboregoats.net/ Derek Abrevaya | 937620-8724 derekabrevaya@roxwilboregoats.com The Boer Goat - 9


JUNIOR AMERICAN

BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION

ABGA Membership Age Change By: JABGA Board of Directors

As Junior American Boer Goat Association Board of directors, we have decided it is time for change and to help expand our great junior association. We have decided for the benefit of our future to change the membership age expiration from 18 to 21 years old (age as of January 1st). Coming from the JABGA Board members, we believe that this will not only increase membership, but generate revenue through more members. This will be a gradual process as the board felt this was the best way to make the age change to 21. An increase in the membership age will allow the younger generation of the association more opportunities to gain knowledge through older members. We all know that change is hard, but we also believe that it is a necessity for our organization to bring forth these changes. This has been a controversial topic and there is doubt in the success of the program, but we as a junior board for the organization, believe that in the long run this will be a beneficial change to our program. Some of the reasons that we believe this will be beneficial to the junior program are as follows: An increase in the number of memberships, there is an estimated 300 members between the age of 18 to 21. The new programs coming into play at the Regional and National show level will continue to build in show participation; we believe that the turnout will be much greater than in previous years. We also believe that the older generation of the JABGA will teach the younger generation. It is prominent that our older members continue to teach our younger generation “the ropes”. In addition to the older group staying on longer

our 19-21-year old are able to take on larger tasks as opposed to those that are in the age group 15-17. As well as being able to get out there and talk with sponsors and vendors professionally. With age comes more life experience and we only get better with age. Adding a couple years to the junior age continues to allow kids to develop a passion for doing what they love with their peers before moving on to the ABGA membership. 19-21 year olds have more experience within the organization and the Boer Goat industry. College students are allowed more flexibility to travel and promote the breed and association. This is also a way to keep members involved through college, plus it will help spread the JABGA name. The older members staying on as junior members for a couple more years will not affect the younger members’ ability to show or do contests. Age divisions will still be followed in JABGA contest and events. This age move will then bring us in line with other livestock associations. In this association as our older junior members are just finally getting their Boer Goat programs going, they turn around just too then age out. This prospect scares older midrange members from joining. These are just a few examples of the benefits of the age change. Young members are the future!!! People that are in 19-21-year old group are our future! For more information and beneficial ideas about this program, please contact your area director. Thank You. Sincerely, Junior American Boer Goat Association Board of Directors


• Live Internet Bidding

2018 JABGA OR S N O P S

• Online Webcast of Auctions • Pre-Bidding and Absentee Bidding • Tag/On Farm Sales • Online Only Auctions Be sure to contact us to book your upcoming auction to be broadcast online!

Aaron Tompkins 336-363-4639 atompkin@vt.edu


Oklahoma Boer Goat Association Invites You!! Make plans to join us for our spring show: April 21-22 2018 Pauls Valley OK Part of Silver Series Classic Scholarship opportunities High point buckles Great company!!

Special thanks to the Pauls Valley Tourism Board and Garvin County for their generous donations and use of the barns!! For more information please contact Theodora Behne at 580-583-2050 or visit

www.oklahomaboergoatassociation.com

12 - The Boer Goat


Skill-a-thon Jr-Koltyn Dubose Int- Tassi Jo Fadely Sr- Emma Rethans

JABGA Region 5 Winners High Point Individual Clint Demmitt

Public Speaking Jr- Harlie DeAugustineo Int- Jace James Smith Sr- Clint Demmitt Sales Talk Jr- Harlie DeAugustineo Int- Beth McClain Sr- Clint Demmitt Judging Contest Jr- Harlie DeAugustineo Int- Wyatt Stevens Sr- Kailee Jones Showmanship Jr- Harlie DeAugustineo Int- Tassi Jo Fadely Sr- Katie Clark

$35

4 FULL ISSUES FOR ONLY

First Last Company Email Address City State Phone Number

CASH

CHECK

Zip

CREDIT CARD

Mail completed subscription card with payment or credit card information to: ABGA; 1207 S Bryant Blvd. Suite C; San Angelo, TX 76903. Once your subscription card is received, you will receive an email confirmation from ABGA to verify your method of payment and information.

The Boer Goat - 13


Fecal Count Procedure Modified McMaster Egg Counting For Quantitation of Nematode Eggs.

Fecal worm egg examination methods are based on the principle of differential density. In other words, parasite eggs sink in water, but they will float in various chemical solutions that are more dense than water (technically, they have a higher specific gravity) because the eggs are lighter than the fluid used as a floatation solution. The most inexpensive and easiest floatation solution to make is using table salt. One quart of flotation solution is sufficient for about 30 McMaster examinations. The first step is to collect freshly passed feces that are uncontaminated by soil or bedding. The best way is to use a rubber glove and extract feces directly from the rectum. Alternatively, a feces can be picked up off the ground if done soon after deposited. The collection container should be labeled with the name (number) of the animal and the date of collection. Fresh samples work best, but accurate results can be obtained if the sample is kept refrigerated during the interim. If samples are not refrigerated the eggs will hatch within 12 to 24 hrs. Once hatched, they cannot be counted. 1. Weigh out 2 grams of feces into a 50 ml centrifuge tube and fill to 30 ml with salt solution. a. It is recommended to purchase a small scale and weigh feces, but if you do not have a scale you can still get a close estimation by putting28 ml of salt solution into a 50 ml centrifuge tube first, and then adding feces until a volume of 30 ml is achieved. 2. Pour off approximately 25 ml of the salt solution into another small container keeping feces in the tube (can use tongue depressor). 3. Let soak for a few minutes and mix (soft feces) or break up (fecal pellets) with a tongue blade. 4. Add back about ½ of the salt solution and mix well, breaking up any remaining feces as best as possible. 5. Add back the remaining salt solution and screw the cap back onto the tube. 6. Shake tube vigorously for about 1 minute to disrupt any remaining feces as much as possible. 7. Set tube aside for a few minutes to let bubbles dissipate. 8. Wet McMaster chamber with water and dry top and bottom on paper towels. 9. Rock (don’t shake) tube several times to thoroughly mix solution without causing large air bubbles to form. 10. Immediately pipet (using 1 ml syringe or eye dropper) a sample of the suspension and fill both sides of counting chamber. Work quickly. If it takes more than a few seconds to load the first chamber, the mix fecal solution again and refill pipet before loading the second chamber. 11. Let stand for 1-2 minutes to allow eggs to float to top. 12. Count all eggs inside of grid areas (greater than 2 of egg inside grid) using low power (10x) objective. Focus on the top layer, which contains the very small air

14 - The Boer Goat

bubbles (small black circles, if numerous large air bubbles are visible, remove the fluid and refill). 13. Count only trichostrongyle/strongyle eggs (oval shaped, ~ 80-90 microns long). Do not count strongyloides (oval, ~ 50 microns long), tapeworm eggs (triangular/D-shaped) or coccidia (various sizes). Notations are made as to the presence of other species, but only the trichostrongyle/strongyle eggs are counted. 14. Once filled, the chambers can sit for no longer than 60 min before counting without causing problems. Longer than this and drying/crystal formation may begin. 15. Total egg count (both chambers) x 50 = EPG (eggs per gram). a. Note: This is a dilution technique and theoretically this ratio of feces to flotation solution will not detect infections with less than 50 eggs per gram of feces (1 egg seen on slide), so it is not very accurate for samples with low numbers of eggs. On a practical level this is not important because from a clinical standpoint, slight differences in results when egg counts are low do not matter. Fairly soon after counting is complete thoroughly rinse out the McMaster chamber with warm running water. Doing so will keep the chamber clean and ready it to be used again. If fecal solution dries in the chamber do not soak in soapy water for long periods as this will cause the chamber to become cloudy. If the chamber gets dirty, soak for only a few

minutes in water containing dish soap and then rinse completely with tap water. Other different but similar protocols are routinely used in many labs, so you may see a slightly different procedure recommended elsewhere. The important thing is to use the same procedure each time.


in the Boer Goat Industry Congratulations to the breeders and owners of the animals listed below. The following animals have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit.

SIRE OF MERIT Name LB3 C01 4-L BOER GOATS 4-L REYZER SHARP ERWIN GAMES OVER

Owner

Breeder

Jennifer Johnson Jared Lindenfelser Josh Stephans

Richard & Stacey Bisnett Jared Lindenfelser Maurice & Kim Erwin

ENOBLEMENTS Name

Sex

Owner

Breeder

7PML LYONS 26

Buck

Chad Tiemann

Patrick, Margie & Shane Lyons

URBG SMOKE’S STEPPIN ON FIRE

Buck

Violet Maertens

Parker Myers

SGG WHO’S WHO

Buck

William & Melissa Orsak

Brandon & Amanda Smith

FSE 3051 MAO

Buck

Terry Brown

Jim & Lynn Farmer

RPM4 JJL GOLDEN HAMMERHEAD

Buck

Melissa & Neil Love

Nicholas E Ratkovich

ADVBG UNANIMOUS DECISION

Buck

Aaron & Denise Crabtree

Aaron & Denise Crabtree

MADI UPTOWN FUNK

Buck

Madison Fenton

Madison Fenton

S G R POLAR’S ART 1 ETCHED

Buck

Joshua Tucker

Jeff & Sheryl Pearcy

LSB12 CHOCOLATE EXPRESSO

Buck

Judy Kimbrell

Judy Kimbrell

RSACR WILLIAMS R&S CHA-CHING

Doe

Emily L Williams

Emily L Williams

CAPRIOLE’S H. DAISY

Doe

Terry Brown

Terry Brown

CAPRIOLE’S H. SMART MOVE

Doe

Terry Brown

Terry Brown

URBG JAMISON

Doe

Parker Myers

Patrick W Mullins

WCOR WOOL CREEK’S PORSCHE FOXX

Doe

Robert & Nancy Nichols

Cheyenne Corley

CAPRIOLE’S PRECARIOUSLY POMPOUS

Doe

Terry Brown

Terry Brown

MFR1 2 DOX MUSTA BEEN THE WHISKEY

Doe

Lee & Sharon Dana

Reilly Butler

RRD JADE B471

Doe

Jason and/or Katherine Klug

Rocking R Boer Goats

BEN9 IRRASISTA-BULL

Doe

Heather Bender

Heather Bender

CPB I’M TO BLAME

Doe

Kyle & Sara Mayberry

Kyle & Sara Mayberry

2M BOER GOATS MAE

Doe

Deric,Sheila,Michael & Mikayla Wetherell Paul & Kim Morgan

SHEPHERD CREEK SHOW GOAT

Doe

Jason and/or Katherine Klug

Jason and/or Katherine Klug


Do you need a Commerical Drivers' License or Electronic Logging Device?

Let's take a look.

On any given weekend across the United States, goats are being transported to and from stock shows, sale barns and various other locations. And, while some haulers use only their truck with a small popper or a small bumper-pull trailer, others use large gooseneck trailers with or without living quarters. Many of our goat breeders also haul cattle, horses or other livestock and don't even think twice about hooking up to this type of rig and towing it down the road. And, until recently, there wasn't anything wrong with doing just that. However, recent legislation passed at the federal level has made hauling a gooseneck rig illegal without a Commerical Driver License or an Electronic Logging Device. If you haven't heard about the new laws, let's take a brief moment to review them. Beginning in 1986, laws were passed that set the requirements for a Commerical Driver License (CDL). The CDL is overseen by the Federal Highway Adminisration (FHWA). The newly enacted law developed testing standards for Commerical Drivers while operating Commercial Motor Vehicles (CMVs). While many drivers believe that the law applies to professional drivers, the requirments are in fact applicable to any one hauling trucks with trailers that excee the minimum weight. What is that weight? How do I know if I am considered a commerical vehicle? These are all questions that have come up for discussion in the past few months. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) defines a commercial vehicle as the following:

RECOMMENDED • Class A: Any combination of vehicles which has a gross combination weight rating or gross combination weight of 11,794 kilograms or more (26,001 pounds or more) whichever is greater, inclusive of a towed unit(s) with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) whichever is greater. • Class B: Any single vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight of 11,794 or more kilograms (26,001 pounds or more), or any such vehicle towing a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight that does not exceed 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds). • Class C: Any single vehicle, or combination of vehicles, that does not meet the definition of Class A or Class B, but is

16 - The Boer Goat

either designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or is transporting material that has been designated as hazardous under 49 U.S.C. 5103 and is required to be placarded under subpart F of 49 CFR Part 172 or is transporting any quantity of a material listed as a select agent or toxin in 42 CFR Part 73. It is important to remember that the weight currently in tow is not the determining factor in whether your rig is considered a commerical vehicle. The Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR), found on the inside of your truck and trailer will determine if your rig is considered a commerical vehicle. On a new 4WD 4-Door Dually, the GVWR is approximately 14,000 pounds. Combine that with a 4-horse trailer that has a gross weight around 17-18,00, and you're well over the 26,001 rule. Many of our truck/trailers hauling goats fall into the Class A definition of a "Commercial Vehicle." Remember, it isn't the actual weight at the time, it is the gross weight allowable by


the truck and trailer in question. So, you may have passed that test. You are under 26,000 pounds. Not so fast.

• Whether you depend on income from the activity for your livelihood. • Whether your losses are due to circumstances beyond your control (or are normal in the startup phase of your type of business). • Whether you change your methods of operation in an attempt to improve profitability. • Whether you or your advisors have the knowledge needed to carry on the activity as a successful business. • Whether you were successful in making a profit in similar activities in the past. • Whether the activity makes a profit in some years and how much profit it makes. • Whether you can expect to make a future profit from the appreciation of the assets used in the activity. Since the DOT officers will not have access to your tax information (and most likely you won't on the side of the road), proving the difference between hobby and business can be quite difficult. While many goat producers don't make their living solely from the sales of goats, if you travel to a show and you sell an animal at that show, then you have just stepped across the line and into the commercial vehicle category. And, since most of us fill out W-2s when entering shows

According to the FMSCA: Does the exemption in §390.3(f)(3) for the "occasional transportation of personal property by individuals not for compensation nor in the furtherance of a commercial enterprise" apply to persons who occasionally use CMVs to transport cars, boats, horses, etc., to races, tournaments, shows or similar events, even if prize money is offered at these events? Guidance: The exemption would apply to this kind of transportation, provided: (1) The underlying activities are not undertaken for profit, i.e., (a) prize money is declared as ordinary income for tax purposes, and (b) the cost of the underlying activities is not deducted as a business expense for tax purposes; and, where relevant; (2) corporate sponsorship is not involved. Drivers must confer with their state of licensure to determine the licensing provisions to which they are subject. The rule goes further — if you write your truck/pickup or trailer off, if you share expenses with someone you haul with, if you haul a friend's horse for any sort of compensation, if you have sponsors (especially wraps or stickers on your trailer), if you compete for prizes or money, you're considered in pursuit of a "commercial enterprise." Confused yet? The IRS distinguishes between a hobby or business activity by taking into account the "facts and circumstances with respect to the activity." One factor doesn't make the case. Further, the IRS allows deductions for hobbies: Write the red Within certain limits, taxpayers can numbers usually deduct ordinary and necessary below on your hobby expenses. An ordinary expense application is one that is common and accepted for and receive the activity. A necessary expense is one a $10.00 that is appropriate for the activity. discount! Their rule states: Instead of $30 You must generally consider these – pay $20 factors to establish that an activity is a Instead of $20 business engaged in making a profit: – pay $10 • Whether you carry on the activity 5742B in a businesslike manner. • Whether the time and effort you Get details at: https://AmericanGoatFederation.org put into the activity indicate you intend to make it profitable.

JOIN AGF or RENEW MEMBERSHIP NOW

expires 6.30.18

The Boer Goat - 17


or when winning premium money, the commerical stature is undeniable. While trying to deterine when crossing that pervibial line is sometimes difficult, transportation officers say they aren't going after those who haul a few goats around. But, you have sponsors or if you have large advertising on your rig, you might opt to be safe rather than sorry.

Eletronic Logging Device

We've determined that you need a commercial license. You aren't just the occasional hobbyist, you may be traveling with billboards plastered to your trailer and you've checked (and comply with) the gross weight for your rig. The next step is to use a log book to log your mileage. This electronic logging device (ELD) tracks your hours of service you should be keeping a log-book. Who must comply with Hours of Service? – The FMCSA says: Most drivers must follow the HOS Regulations if they drive a commercial motor vehicle, or CMV. A vehicle that is used as part of a business and is involved in interstate commerce and fits any of these descriptions: • Weighs 10,001 pounds or more (which means that every late model dually pickup qualifies) • Has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of 10,001 pounds or more • Is designed or used to transport 16 or more passengers (including the driver) not for compensation • Is designed or used to transport 9 or more passengers (including the driver) for compensation • Is transporting hazardous materials in a quantity requiring placards

What does an ELD do? An ELD syncs with the computer of your vehicle's engine, and logs the time, distance, speed etc. Hours of service rules indicate that when driving you can drive for 11 hours in a 14 hour period, and you must, after 8 consecutive hours, take a 30 minute break. At the end of your day, you're required to take a 10 hour break. Now, should you run out of hours before you reach your final destination, the ELD won't shut down your rig, but it will record the infraction. According to drivers currently using e-logs (ELDs) the infraction can be noted in the device (you may give a reason for the overage — such as, I needed to get to a safe place to sleep etc…). However, the infraction can get the driver cited by the next DOT scale officer should he chose to say, "you broke the rules."

18 - The Boer Goat

The argument in favor of ELDs is that they keep "commercial drivers" from cheating their log-books, because paper log-books allow more flexibility for the sake of safety. Well, surely there are exemptions to CDL requirements and ELDs? Yes, and in case you weren't already confused enough, they are just as confusing. Agricultural use: Drivers transporting 'agricultural commodities,' including livestock, are exempt from the Hours of Service regulations while operating within 150 air-miles (this equates to 172.6 driving miles) of the source of such commodities. Vehicles and drivers are exempt if they are not: • Hauling farther away than 150 miles and not more than 8 days in a 30 day period. To put this in perspective, if you travel to a horse show, and are driving more than 150 miles to reach the show-grounds, your trip there and back counts as driving days. If you stay in a hotel instead of on the showgrounds, any driving to the show-grounds counts as days. In this light, it is pretty easy to consume the 8 days in a 30 day period if you attend more than one horse show during that time, or go to horse shows that last an extended period of time. If you are traveling to horse shows frequently, and drive a dually with a 4+ horse trailer, you are more than likely to fall into the classification where an ELD is required on your vehicle. (Because technically you should have been keeping a log-book prior to this as I understand it). • Drivers of vehicles manufactured before 2000 are not required to implement an ELD. • Drivers will be required to use an ELD if they use a paper log more than 8 times in a rolling 30 day period. (Exceed 12 hours or more than 100 air miles from terminal). Once a driver has exceeded that threshold, they'll have to drive an ELD equipped truck until their 30 day record drops to 8 or less paper log events. Short haul: Short haul vehicles are exempt from the ELD Mandate. There are a few key components required to meet the FMCSA definition for short haul. You must: • Start and return to same location within 12 hours • Drive no more than 11 hours • Have ten consecutive hours off between shifts • Maintain your time clock function. Meaning, employees who are on the clock, punching in and out for work. • Not exceed a 100-mile radius from your starting location Based on the air-miles "exemption" I cannot even take my horse to the vet, here in my home state of South Dakota,


without being out of compliance with the laws. My vet is about 195 miles from the house. While breaking this down, I've come to the conclusion that the CDL requirements are not new, even the log-book requrements are not new. So, why the controvery? The ELD mandate is new, but only because it is not electronically kept and secured for a Department of Transportation officer who asks to see the log. This change allows law enforcement to accurately track your hours of service; thereby, increasing the level of enforcement. There has been a lot of discussion on social media so I've tried to break it down as much as possible in the text, but I've also drawn an illustrion on the following pages that allow you to simply answer a few questions to see what you need going forward. If you are still concerned about these regualitons, fist contact your state DOT office. Further, you should contact your representatives (both senators and congressmen) at both the local and state level. Afterall, they really don't know what YOU believe unless you voice your concern. That is how a republic works.

All 50 states have also cracked down on drinking while operatinga commecial vehicle. All states have now set .08% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as the legal limit for driving under the influence (DUI) or driving while impaired (DWI). Howeer, for commercial drivers, a BAC of .04% can result in a DUI or DWI conviction nationwide.

The Boer Goat - 19


Do I need an electronic logging device? By 2020, most Commerical Motor Vehicles (CMV) will be required to use an Electronic Logging Device (ELD).

But, you may ask, Is my Rig a CMV? My vehicle has a Gross Vehicle Weight Ra�ng (GVWR) of more than 10,000 lbs.

No

Yes

I am hauling someone else’s goats and accep�ng money to do so.

No

Yes

I write off my truck and trailer as a business expense.

No

Yes

I haul to show or compete with the intent to win prize money.

No

Yes

I am a professional trainer and use my turck/ trailer for business purposes?

No

Yes

Your Rig is considered a CMV and you will likely need to have an ELD.

No? Your rig is not considered a CMV.

If any ONE of the statements applies to you, follow the blue. - You may need an ELD.

However, there are situations when you don’t need an ELD even if you have a CMV.


Are you driving less than 11 hours?

Yes

Are you taking 10 consecu�ve hours off between shi�s?

Are you star�ng and returning your drive to the same loca�on with 12 hours �me?

Yes

Are you driving within a 100 air-mileradius (as the crow flies) from the normal star�ng work loca�on?

Yes

Yes

You are exempt from the ELD mandate. In general, these rules do not apply to the occasional short-haul transporta�on of goats, ca�le or other livestock if you are not hauling for compensa�on or commerical purposes. If you are hauling for recrea�onal purposes or not showing for prize money, you are exempt from the ELD mandate.

TIMELINE ELD FInal Rule Published 12/16/2015 2015

All CMVs must have either an AOBRD or ELD installed. 12/18/2017 2016

2017 AOBRD or ELD may be installed.

All devices must be ELD compliant 12/19/2019 2018

2019

Only ELD devices may be installed. Con�nue to us AOBRD devices installed.

2020


Goat Color Explained D.P. Sponenberg, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg

The wide range of colors and patterns in goats is part of that makes them so fascinating. A goat’s color can be the “icing on the cake” of an otherwise good goat, and can be an important final touch to a goat’s appearance. Goats have great variation in color and the genetic control can be tricky, although moreso for some breeds than for others. The huge variation in goats color can sometimes lead to some confusion. Color genetics is an intricate and complicated subject, but if it is broken down in to pieces anyone who studies the details can understand the intricacies and use them to good advantage. This might take a couple of readings, but the result should be a better understanding of why your goats produce the colors they do.

Basic Principles of Genetics A goat’s final color results from the interaction of several independent processes, which makes control of color complicated. Interaction of the independent processes results in a wide array of colors. A general rule is that each final color is produced by a single combination of interacting components, although a few colors are exceptions. The interactions can be understood if the basic factors are taken one at a time. The final colors can then be appreciated as various combinations of the factors working together. Genes are responsible for the machinery of life. In goats, as in all mammals, genes occur on chromosomes. Chromosomes can be thought of as strings of genes. Chromosomes occur in pairs and an individual gets one (of the pair) from the sire and the other (of the pair) from the dam. When a goat reproduces it contributes a random half of its chromosomes (one of each pair) to its offspring. The other half of the offspring's genetic makeup comes from the mate. Each gene takes up a specific site on a specific chromosome. This site is called a locus (plural loci), and frequently the genes are described by the locus name. Locus simply means an address for the gene: a specific place it occupies. Each member of a pair of chromosomes has identical loci, which accounts for the genes occurring in pairs. When a gene occurs in more than one form the different forms are called alleles. The alleles of a gene alloccur at the same locus, although each chromosome is limited to having only one allele at each locus. Each goat has at most a total of two different alleles per locus, since it has only two of each chromosome. Goat color

22 - The Boer Goat

varies because individual goats differ from one another in the specific allelic combinations they have at the various loci controlling the components of color. The specific genetic makeup of a goat is called its genotype. The external appearance is called the phenotype, and may or may not completely reveal the underlying genotype. The condition of having two identical alleles at a locus is called "homozygous". When the alleles are different, the situation is called "heterozygous". Alleles at a genetic locus interact in a variety of ways. Some alleles are not expressed unless both doses of the gene in an individual are the same (homozygous). These are recessive alleles (or genes, the terms are often used interchangeably). Dominant alleles, in contrast, are expressed identically whether in one dose (heterozygous) or two doses (homozygous). The dominant allele masks the expression of a recessive allele when the two are paired together. Recessive alleles are expressed as surprises when they are paired up following the mating of two individuals that carry them but do not show them (due to their being masked by dominant alleles). Dominant alleles cannot be carried along in a hidden state like this, and if a dominant allele is present it is expressed. Dominant alleles, if present, show up in each generation. Another interaction of genes is epistasis, which is the ability of specific allelic combinations at certain loci to mask the expression of another locus. It is similar to the relationships of dominant and recessive alleles, but concerns two or more loci instead of only one. The gene that is masked by an epistatic gene (or allelic combination) is referred to as being hypostatic, while the gene or combination causing the masking is called epistatic. Hypostatic genes can pop up as surprises, much as do recessive genes. Genetic loci can be considered as separate little biochemical factories. Each locus controls some unique aspect of the final color. Each locus can be considered to be a switching mechanism. At most loci the choice is either "situation A" or "situation B". The choice at each locus will affect the final color, which is built step by step from all the choices at the various loci controlling color.

General considerations of color in goats Pigments in goats consist of two main types: eumelanin and pheomelanin. These two pigments can be present or


absent in varying combinations. Some genes affect only one of pale end of pheomelanin. Basically, first make the goat totally pheomelanic and then fade the pheomelanin to a very, very the two; others affect both. pale shade until the goat is essentially white. This is a dilution Eumelanin is responsible for black-bluegrey-chocolate mechanism, and pigment cells are present in the white areas brown colors. On most goats eumelanin is only one shade, unless it has become bleached by the sun or changed by some but are simply ineffective at producing pigment. Another other environmental (and therefore nongenetic) factor. There- general mechanism to produce a white goat is to use white spotting - in which the background color of the goat could be fore each goat, where it has eumelanin, is all black, or all chocanything, but superimposed over this is white spotting which olate brown, and not some combination of the two. Brown masks all the color with bright, pure white. White spotting can eumelanin varies from very dark to very light, but the goat is occur as multiple, independent patterns, each of which can one basic color overall. Eumelanin on an individual animal is result in a white goat. White can be a very confusing color, always one basic color, either black, bluegrey or brown. since just looking at a white goat does not tell much about the Pheomelanin is responsible for tan, cream, and red colors. genetic mechanism producing the white. The pheomelanic tans are extremely variable, and unlike euA good basic approach to figuring out a goat’s color, and melanin they frequently vary on an individual goat. Some goats hopefully which genes are present, is to first ignore the white. have dark tan as well as pale cream pheomelanic areas. This If the goat is solid white, this is obviously impossible. The goal makes accurate identification of pheomelanin tricky at times. is to figure out what pattern of tan and black areas the goat Pheomelanin can vary from very dark to very light. At the has, if any. Next, figure out the basic intensity of the tan and light extreme it is nearly white. At the dark extreme it can be confused with the browns of eumelanin. Generally pheomelan- black. Is the tan very dark red, tan, or cream? Is the black diluted to grey or brown? Finally, add the white back on and see ic colors have a reddish tinge. This is in contrast to eumelanin, if the white has any specific pattern that suggests one of the which (when brown) is usually a flatter brown with little red genes adding white. in it. The position of eumelanic and pheomelanic areas determines the basic color of goats, and the classification of goat color depends on the specific pattern of pigmented areas. Unfortunately, white spotting can obscure portions of goats, making it difficult (and at times impossible) to appreciate their pigmentation type and pattern. (since 1982) White regions on otherwise colored goats are not We have the LOWEST PRICE sheep and goat equipment pigmented, and pigment cells are usually completely abon the market and it’s HOT DIPPED GALVANIZED. sent in white regions. This phenomenon is called “white RM6000 spotting”. White spotting is superimposed over any Roll O’Matic Sheep and Goat Table base color, and masks it. White spotting can be thought with Scale Attachment of as painted on to a colored goat, and not the other Only $2395.00 way around. Goats can have many different patterns of Table can rotate past level Our table has double side (includes RM6000) so feet point upward for access doors which can be NEW easier trimming. opened with the animal white spotting, and each of these is totally independent standing or rolled onto its side. 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The Boer Goat - 23


Color Genetics The genetic control of color in goats is complicated, but can be broken down into components that are fairly easily understood. Confusion usually comes from not realizing that final color is the result of the interaction of several different components. Each component resides at a separate locus, and at each locus various choices occur. The sum of the choices made at each locus produces the final color.

Agouti locus

Most of the variation in goat color occurs at the Agouti locus. This locus controls the distribution of eumelanic and pheomelanic areas. The intermediate alleles at this locus result in patterns with distinctive striping patterns on the face, and this characteristic is very helpful in establishing the Agouti locus as the cause of these patterns. The pattern of dominance at the Agouti locus is that all pheomelanic (tan) areas are expressed. When a goat has alleles for two different patterns, each is demonstrated in the final color as the tan areas of both patterns. The patterns are superimposed, with all the tan areas being expressed. This can result in some very interesting combinations, and some wonderfully appealing patterns. Two patterns at the Agouti locus cause difficulties. One of these is the recessive “no pattern” allele, which is completely eumelanic. This is usually black, and can be thought of as “recessive black”, when considering the Agouti locus. Such goats are completely eumelanic with no stripes, so this is not intuitively assigned to the Agouti locus. At the opposite extreme is an allele “white or tan” which causes wholly tan (or white) goats. Again, stripes are missing. The “white or tan” allele is dominant to all the others, for it codes for a uniformly pheomelanic color. Whether the goat is stark white, cream, gold, or dark red (or something in between) is determined by genes not at the Agouti locus, so these color types are equivalent when considering the Agouti locus. While the Agouti locus alleles can produce both black and white goats, there are multiple genetic mechanisms can account for both solid white and solid black goats. The specific mechanism behind a black or white goat cannot be determined by just looking at the goat. The Agouti alleles are one of many mechanisms for these colors, and are the usual mechanism in goats. Most black goats are black because they

24 - The Boer Goat

have the correct Agouti locus allele (Pygmies and black Oberhaslis are good examples). A white goat is generally white because it has the “white or tan” Agouti locus allele (Saanens and Cashmere goats are good examples). The Agouti patterns are listed in the next table and are somewhat in order of dominance or tan-ness. Each is described as if eumelanin is black, and pheomelanin is an obvious tan. Don’t let the names on these patterns make this more difficult than it is. Some of the names are very, very poor choices, but these are the names used by most geneticists when communicating with one another. Another tactic for naming patterns is to use breed names if patterns are especially common in certain breeds. That can be confusing, too, though, since many of these patterns occur in several breeds. For example, the blackbelly pattern is the usual pattern of the Oberhasli, and so that would be a good name for it. This pattern is very, very common in a

number of breeds - just that it is the usual one in the Oberhasli. Swiss markings, likewise, is uniform in the Toggenburg but is


present in many breeds. The point of the digression is that the names of the patterns do not imply a breed of origin - they only imply that a specific pattern is usual in a breed, probably secondary to specific selection for that pattern.

Brown locus

Another major source of variation goats is the Brown locus. This locus acts to switch eumelanin from black to brown. This means that anywhere a goat could be black, it is now brown instead. Brown varies from dark chocolate brown, light brown, or a medium brown (confusingly called “red” by Pygmy owners, but lacking the real redness of the darker tans and much more like the liver color of dogs). The Brown locus does not affect tan colors, only black, and causes any black on the goat to be brown instead. The result, on Agouti patterns, is an interplay of tan and brown instead of tan and black areas. As an example, Toggenburg goats have the “toggenburg” pattern at the Agouti locus, with the “light brown” change at the Brown locus. The result is a distinctively patterned brown goat, still easily recognizable as having an Agouti pattern. Brown combinations of Agouti patterns are common in many goats. In some breeds both a dark and light brown are present, and some also have a medium brown were also present. The brown combining with tan is especially pretty on some Agouti patterns. The dark browns can be confusing, as these are born nearly black. They are so dark at birth that they can easily be misidentified as black instead of dark brown, but become more obvious at a few weeks of age. The alleles at the Brown locus likely include:

Other loci that affect color directly are poorly documented in goats. Most species have a number of loci that act to reduce the intensity of tan areas caused by pheomelanin. These modifiers cause tan areas to be pale, and can cause the tan regions of the Agouti patterns to be yellow or cream instead of tan. Some of these modifiers are likely to be important in the production of patterns such as the Toggenburg goat, on which the pheomelanic areas are so pale as to appear to be white. These are also important in white goats based on the white or tan allele. In general (with some exceptions) the paler tans tend to dominate the darker tans and reds. In some families the switches between “dark tan” “medium tan” and “light tan or white” seem to be very simple, and may be at a single locus.

Pheomelanin can also be intensified to a deep reddish tan, or even a dark red. The shade of pheomelanin can drastically affect the overall appearance of the Agouti patterns. When pheomelanin is very dark and eumelanin is changed to brown it can be very, very difficult to appreciate that Agouti patterns are present, simply because the “tan” and “brown” areas end up being so similar in color. This is the “trick” used to produce many of the reddest breeds, for example the Rove goat of France and the Boer goat of South Africa. In those breeds the tan is taken to dark red, and the black is taken to chocolate brown. In these breeds the red is based on relatively dominant mechanisms, and so other patterns and even black goats will occasionally segregate out as recessives. This is not really all that surprising once the basics of color genetics are understood.

Moon Spots

Moon spots are those interesting tan or pale round spots that can be superimposed over any other color or pattern. They are very, very common in Nubians and in some Spanish goats. The extent of the moonspotting and the final color of these is variable. They are random, as opposed to the strict symmetrical appearance of the Agouti patterns. Most of them are distinctly round - inspiring the name. Most moonspots are fairly dark in newborns, and then become distinctly paler later. This is so pronounced that they could be missed on some kids, even though they might be very obvious later.

White and Black of Angoras

Angora goats have a few genetic variants that are rare or nonexistent in other breeds. This provides for some potential confusion when selecting Angora goats for colored fleeces. In the usual Angora, white is dominant but is not at the Agouti locus. The result is that the white of Angoras is very, very persistent in crossbreds. And, it seems to be truly white (probably from a white spotting mechanism) rather than the diluted tan that is typical of most other breeds. This is due to an allele called white angora at the White angora locus (WhWh). So, all colored goats lack this allele, and the only difficulty is encountered in whites, especially Angoras, as if this is present it masks all other color information.

Colored Angoras are rare, and most of these are either a faded red, due to the white or tan allele at Agouti, or are black. The black of most Angoras is not at the Agouti locus, and is instead a dominant allele at the Extension locus (ED). The importance of this is that this black is dominant rather than recessive, and can cover up all of the Agouti patterns. Where confusion can come in is that in some populations The Boer Goat - 25


(usually Angoras) both the dominant Extension black and the recessive Agouit black are present. In those populations the black goats can be very confusing, although the intermediate Agouti patterns still follow all the expected rules.

White Spotting

Several different patterns of white spotting occur in goats, with each under separate genetic control. That is, each pattern is controlled by a separate locus. At each of these loci the choice is “patterned” or “not patterned” (which means unspotted, unless some other locus kicks in with a pattern). White patterns in goats, each most likely at an independent locus: Each of these patterns can vary from minimally to extensively spotted, and this can be a source of confusion. The confusion is especially possible at the extremes of the patterns: those goats with very little white or very extensive white. Belted goats vary from those with a small spot on the side (usually low on the side), to those with full belts, to goats that are nearly white with dark heads and dark legs. The spotted type is more random than the belted, and is sometimes difficult to distinguish from belting. Spotted goats usually have white on the legs and head, and patches of white and color on the body. The typical spots of this pattern are smooth edged and round. Minimally spotted and minimally belted animals can be very similar, although usually “spotted” involves the head and feet.

26 - The Boer Goat

The barbari pattern is an odd one, but does occur occasionally in the USA in several breeds. This pattern is obvious when extensive, since it provides for symmetrical white areas on the sides, neck, and head, all of which retain small flecks of color. The legs and topline seem to be the last to go white, and so extensively dalmatian goats have dark legs, tops, and speckled sides, necks, and heads. These have small spots from birth, in contrast to ticking discussed below. Flowery is very distinctive consists of small white flecks. In minimally marked animals these are usually on the barrel. Extensively marked animals are nearly roan and very pale, though nearly always with dark legs and top of head. An entire breed of goat, the Florida Sevillana (flowery goats from Seville) is this pattern, which can be very eye-catching. It is present as a rarity in several breeds in the USA. Roan is a relatively even mixture of white hairs into any base coat. The white and colored hairs can make up varying percentages, and so the overall effect on the color varies. Roan can modify any base color and is most striking on darker background colors. The roaning usually spares the legs and head, which can lead to very dramatic patterns. The algarve pattern is typical of a Portuguese breed of that name. These goats have dark ears and yepatches, and then varying extents of variably-sized, ragged spots of white and color on the remaining body. The goulet pattern first was documented in the Tennessee Fainting Goats of Judy Goulet. The pattern consistently has white ears, usually colored eyepatches, and usually a white lower face. The tail is white. The body pattern varies from nearly white to nearly black, but always consists of a somewhat ragged interplay of white and colored areas. The nigerian pattern is common in Nigerian Dwarf goats in the USA. These generally have colored legs and color on the head. The body is nearly all white, but has fairly round roan spots scattered over it. In addition, it is common to have a few larger, round non-roan spots on the body and especially over the croup. Goats with one dose of the gene are usually dramatically and beautifully marked. With two doses they tend to have white bodies without the roan spots. Frosted is common in Nubians, Pygmies, and a host of other breeds. This only affects the ears and nose, and results in these being roan or almost white. It is clearly a dominant trait, and is so routine in Pygmies and Nubians that It is reasonably rare to find a nonfrosted goat in those breeds. Finally, some goats with white spotting devel-


op small spots of color in the white areas. This occurs with age, usually around a year or so. This spotting is called ticking, and varies from lots to a little. When “ticks” are numerous, they merge and the effect can nearly be roan. This pattern is a sort of reverse of the “flowery” pattern, and could be confused with the barbari pattern. The key is whether the spots were present at birth or not. On extensively spotted goats the tick marks can be relatively large (up to a few inches), and very round. Ticking is probably dominant.

What color is your goat?

The final color of a goat is the result of a combination of the effects of all these different loci, each with a few choices. By taking each locus in turn it is possible to decide what is present and what is absent. If the factors that are present are dominant, it is likely that the goat is masking some recessive genes as well, and could pass those along to offspring. If the goat only shows recessive factors, then it will breed true if mated to a similar goat, or will pick up the dominant genes from the mate and those will be expressed in the kids. First, ignore the white spotting and save it for later. A good basic sequence of questions is: Is the goat solid black or solid white? If black, then the choice is either dominant black or recessive black. In nearly all breeds except the Angora, the answer here will be recessive black. If the goat is white, then have a choice of extensive white spotting, Angora dominant white, or the Agouti white or tan. No one can tell these apart just by looking, so it is important to have more information about breed or parent colors. The next question is whether or not an intermediate Agouti pattern is present. On most goats it is possible to tell which patterns are present - even if the animal is heterozygous for two different patterns. This is because the tan areas consistently show up. Generally the Agouti patterns have stripes, and so it is possible to lump these intermediate patterns as “striped goats,” and these hide very little genetic information. Then the next question is whether the eumelanic areas black, dark brown, light brown, or medium brown. This pegs the Brown locus choices. Are moon spots present? This is not always easy to tell, but is generally a

clean “yes or no” aspect of color. The above questions should sort through the color genes present in the goat. The only difficulty will be with black goats, white goats, extensively spotted goats, or dark red goats on whom it is difficult to decide if an intermediate Agouti pattern is hooked up with dark brown. An example is in my own herd, where a bezoar, a badgerface, and a

“tan” buck, all three have dark brown eumelanin. Each buck appears dark red, but they each throw very different patterns as the Agouti and Brown variants segregate out in their kids. After figuring out the basic color it is time to figure out the white spotting patterns that might be present. This can be difficult, especially if the goat is minimally or maximally spotted, or if multiple patterns are present. My own herd suggests that some of the combinations of belted and spotted can be very, very white! The “shwarzhal” pattern of a dark head and white body can be especially misleading, since it can hide multiple spotting patterns. The overall summary for goat color and its genetic control is that goat color is complicated! It is made easier by taking the color one step at a time. And remember - dominant genes can hide surprises, while recessive genes cannot!

The Boer Goat - 27


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TRV/MADI Black N Sassy (10775792) She Sells!

KHBG1 WLDW PARTY HOO (10749656) She sells with 50 ABGA Points!

SHOW ME BOERS OUTLANDISH DESIGN (10706648) Offspring Sells!

SGR MYSTERY'S BEST GAL (10706350) She sells with 52 ABGA Points!

WCAG LIEUTENANT LUCY (10729499) She sells with 49 ABGA Points!

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The Boer Goat - 29


AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION

Calender OF EVENTS 2018 Show

Date

Location - State

Contact

May

Sunshine State Classic

May 4-5

Southeastern Livestock Pavilion

Amanda Durham

Bedford County Classic

May 5

Bedford Co. AG Ext

Kathy Simmons

Boers de Mayo

May 5-6

Payette County Fairgrounds

Koben Shigeta

JABGA Region 3 Show

May 5

Clark County Fairgrounds

Jill Harvey

KMGA Spring Prairie Circuit

May 5-6

Saline County Livetsock & Expo`

Teresa Simmons

9th Annual Spring AR Meat Goat Show

May 5

Arkansas State Fairgrounds

Anita Savage

The Buckeye Boer Bash

May 6

Clark County Fairgrounds

Jill Harvey

Lookout Mtn. Goat Show

May 12 13

Dekalb County Fairgrounds

Anita Ramsey

IBGC Summer Series at Ripley Co.

May 12

Ripley County Fairgrounds

Adrienne Kidder

Spring Fling Meat Goat Show

May 12

Lucas County Fairgrounds

Nikki Thummel

John Morrow Memorial Shows

May 12-13

Muskingum County Fairgrounds

Mary Morrow

Goats on Midway - Spring

May 12

Bond County Fairgrounds (IL)

Casey Adamick

Knoxville FFA Alumni Goat Show

May 13

Marion County Fairgrounds

Megan Moore

WV Boer Goat Blitz

May 19-20

Jefferson County Fairgrounds

Susan Burner

IBGC Summer Series at Carroll Co.

May 19

Carroll County 4-H Fairgrounds

Adrienne Kidder

State Line ABGA Show

May 19

Calhoun County Fairgrounds

Jason Gleason

JABGA Region 4 Show

May 19

T Ed. Garrison Livestock Arena

Jason Brashear

Heart of IN Boer Goat Show

May 20

Johnson County 4H & Ag Fairgrounds

Hannah Goeb

Northeast LIvestock Expo

May 20

Windsor Fair

Scott & Denise Williams

Southern Showdown

May 20

T Ed. Garrison Livestock Arena

Jason Brashear

TSGPA Mid-Summer Showdown

May 25-27

Boyd County Fairgrounds

Corey Billups

Poweshiek Co. Boer-Nanza

May 26-27

Poweshiek Co. Fairgrounds

Rose Shepard

SD End of School Year Blowout

May 26-27

Tripp Fairgrounds

Jennifer Martinez

JABGA Region 2

May 26-27

Effingahm Co. Fairgrounds

Deric Wetherell

NY Boer Breeders Expo

May 26-27

NYS Fairgrounds

John Riley

OMGP Spring Shows & Pen Sale

May 26-27

Yamhill County Fairground

Cary Heyward

IMGP Regional Round-up

May 27

Effingahm Co. Fairgrounds

Deric Wetherell

IBGC Summer Series at Hancock

June 2

Hancock County Fairgrounds

Adrienne Kidder

Northern Indiana Premier Boer Goat

June 2

Elkhart Co. 4-H Fairgrounds

Robert Kelly

New England Boer Bash

June 2-3

Topsham Fairgrounds

Ramona Stinson

Wayne FFA Spring Classic

June 3

Wayne County Fairgrounds (IA)

Riley Brown

ABGA National Show

June 9-16

Fonner Park

ABGA

June Show

30 - The Boer Goat


Show

Date

Location - State

July

Contact

Pike County Boer Goat Classic

June 16

Pike County Fairgrounds (OH)

Timothy Humble

IBGC Summer Show Series at Marshall

June 16

Marshall County Fairgrounds

Adrienne Kidder

June 23

Jackson County Fairgrounds

Adrienne Kidder

Boers of Summer

June 23-24

Payette County Fairgrounds

Koben Shigeta

Butler County Boer Goat Classic

June 23-24

Butler Co. Fairgrounds

Jackie Ponder

Keystone Classic ABGA/JABGA Shows

June 23-24

Elizabethtown Fairgrounds

Susan Burner

Henry County Fair

June 23

Henry County Fairgrounds

Jay Hofer

10,000 Lakes Boer Goat Show

June 23-24

Henry County Fairgrounds

Henry County Fairgrounds

Firecracker Classic ABGA/JABGA

June 30 July 1

Jefferson County Fairgrounds

Susan Burner

Champaign County Classic

June 30

Champaign County Fairgrounds (OH)

Karen Price

WCMGB ABGA / JABGA Shows

June 30-July 1

Southeast Weld County Fairgrounds

Jennifer Johnson Seltzer

Schuyler Co. Fair

June 30

Schuyler County Fairgrounds

Deric Wetherell

Little Sioux Showdown

June 30-July 1

Clay County Fairgrounds

Lori Wickman

49th Jubilee ABGA/JABGA Shows

July 7-8

Calaveras County Fairgrounds

Alicia O'Connell & Tim Mathies

OBGA Summer Classic

July 7-8

Garvin County Fair Barns at Wacker Park

Theodora Behne

Empire State Showdown

July 7-8

Deleware County Fairgrounds

Brittany Scofield Constable

Summer Sizzler 2nd Annual Show

July 14

Cloud Livestock Facility

Tammy Eliis

Get Your Kicks on Route

July 14

Wyoming County Community Fairgrounds

Stacey Peterson

Buckeye Classic

July 18

Ohio State Fair

Phil Grover

California State Fair

July 19

Cal Expo

Sandi Hurtgen Montiero

Ohio State Fair

July 19

Ohio State Fair

Phil Gorver

The Summer Jam Shows

July 20-22

Rockingham County Fair

Stephanie Gorman

NETGRA Summer Sizzlin

July 21

Rusk Co Youth Expo Center

Cheryl Isbell

Weld Co. Fair

July 23

Island Grove Park

Jennifer Johnson Seltzer

PYSA Showin for Sports

July 28-29

Mineral Wells Expo Center

Ashley Hamilton

Bay State Boer Wars

July 28

Franklin Co. Fairgrounds

Richard Dicey

North Dakota State Fair

July 28

North Dakota State Fair

Jason Mongeon

Ozark Empire Fair

July 30

Ozark Empire Fairgrounds & Event Center

Cassie Reid

Wisonsin State Fair

Aug 2

Wisconsin State Fair Park

Jennifer Dabbs

WCMGWA ABGA & Open Meat Goat

Aug 4-5

Washington County Fairgrounds – Iowa

Chris and Ron Grier

Goats on the Mid-way

Aug 4.

Bond County Fairgrounds (IL)

Casey Adamick

Sonoma County Fair

Aug 8-9

Sonoma County Fairgrounds

Heather Borck

The Spirit of Maine

Aug 9

Topsham Fairgrounds

John Wilcox

Wyoming State Fair

Aug 11-12

Wyoming State Fairgrounds

Jennifer Johnson Seltzer

Boone County Fair

Aug 11

Boone County Fair

Betsy Muehleip

Battle of Bolton

Aug 11-12

Bolton Fairgrounds

Richard Dicey

Hocking HIlls Caprine Classic

Aug 11

Hocking County Fairgrounds

Bonnie Harris

SD Back to School Bash

Aug. 11

Tripp Fairgrounds

Jennifer Martinez

Delmarva Classic

Aug 12

Delaware State Fair

Maida Graves

Missouri State Fair

Aug 14

Missouri State Fairgrounds

Edna Vollmer

County IBGC Summer Show Series at Jackson Co.

Aug. 1- Aug 15

The Boer Goat - 31


Mastitis in Goats

Maria Lenira Leite-Browning, DVM, Extension Animal Scientist, Alabama A&M University

Introduction

Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland (udder) that causes a chemical and physical reaction in milk produced by goats. It is more frequent in dairy and meat goats raised under intensive and semi-intensive management practices. Depending on the severity of the disease, mastitis could result in decreased revenues for producers. Mastitis is generally associated with poor hygienic practices and caused by the bruising of mammary tissue or teats from traumas, nursing, fly bites, or other wounds to the skin that provide an important barrier to infection. Mastitis is also associated with viral, bacterial or fungi and their toxins. Under stressful conditions such as extreme temperatures, muddy and wet living conditions, or a sudden change in diet, a doe's immune system is compromised and has a difficult time fighting off the invasion of foreign bodies that cause diseases like mastitis. Another predisposing factor is the abnormal anatomy of the udder or teat. Infection occurs when infectious agents reach the mammary gland. The infectious agent enters through the milk canal, interacts with the mammary tissue cells, and multiplies. Some microorganisms release toxins. The mammary tissue reacts to these toxins and becomes inflamed. Does can contract infection after birth, but infection can also occur during lactation and after dry periods. The most common bacteria that causes mastitis in goats are: Coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. uberi, S. dysgalactia, and S. caprae Mycoplasma capricolum; Enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli coliforms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Clostridium spp.) The caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) causes mastitis in goats. In addition, mastitis can result from yeast infection, and it appears to be associated with the frequent use of penicillin, along with the prolonged and repetitive use of systemic and intra-mammary infusions.

Clinical Signs

The acute systemic form of mastitis comes on suddenly with an elevated fever above 105° F and an accelerated pulse. A doe may move slowly, experience depression, and lose its appetite. Typically, the mammary gland is hard, swollen, and

32 - The Boer Goat

reddish in color. It may also be hot and sensitive to touch. Milk secretions are watery and yellowish in color. A doe's milk may also flake and clot. In most severe cases, mastitis can be fatal. The acute form, however, can be easily diagnosed by the signs and presence of white blood cells in the milk. The chronic form of mastitis occurs as a persistent and incurable infection. The udder may have hard lumps as a result of bacteria forming colonies and reactions occurring in the mammary tissues. In chronically affected halves, agalactia, which is the lack of milk, may occur. The subclinical mastitis causes the most concern among producers and veterinarians because there are no visible signs of the disease. There is no swelling of the udder or detectable abnormalities in the milk to indicate the presence of mastitis. The sub-clinical form can eventually develop into the chronic clinical form of mastitis.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on signs and history of the herd. A microbiologic milk culture, a somatic cell count (SCC), or an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) test are used to diagnose infection. However, the microbiological culture is the most reliable source of diagnosis of mastitis of goats. Research data suggest that microbiologic culture of a single milk sample is reliable for detection of causal agent of the infection. The SCC and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) are the most common tests used to diagnose mastitis in dairy goats. However, research has shown a lower significant relationship between the SCC and mastitis in goats. The CMT is used to detect subclinical mastitis. The test is based on the reaction between the CMT reagent and the DNA genetic material of the somatic cells. A higher concentration in somatic cells leads to a higher CMT score. CMT scores are directly related to average somatic cell counts. The following table shows how they are related: N = (Negative) T = (Trace) indicate Subclinical Mastitis 1 = Subclinical Mastitis 2 = Serious Mastitis Infection 3 = Serious Mastitis Infection

Treatment


Improve milking techniques; disinfect teats and dry with paper towel before and after milking by immersing teats in an aseptic solution. Cull chronically infected goats from the herd. Purchase animals from a known source and palpate mammary glands. To dry off a mammary gland, simply stop milking the affected half. The lack of mechanical stimulation will cause the half to dry off. This procedure helps to reduce treatment costs and increase the efficacy of the drug to prevent reinfection. Isolate infected does from the herd and treat and to prevent transmission to other animals. Consider using 1 percent iodophor or 4 percent hypochlorite as a post-milking teat dip after milking; then dry with paper towels. Watch for does that have aborted and treat for uterine infection. The same microorganisms that cause abortion in does can also cause mastitis. Test dairy herds for tuberculosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. Note: Treatments involving extra-label drug use require milk and meat withholding periods. Consult local veterinarian for using extra-label drugs.

The treatment should be based on the results of the microbiologic culture obtained from milk samples. Dry off the affected half, and apply a commercially intramammary infusion of 2 percent chlorhexidine solution into affected half twice at 24-hour intervals. Treatment during the dry-off period is an efficient method for the cure of subclinical mastitis and for control of somatic cell counting. Drugs should be administered for a period of 5 to 10 days to allow efficacy of the product. The use of antibiotics or corticosteroids are recommended in some cases. Antibiotics like benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, cephalonium and cefoperazone, erythromycin , tylmicosin, kanamycin, penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, or tetracycline have been recommended to treat mastitis. However, cure rates may vary from animal to animal and according to the severity of the case. After treating goats with antibiotics, it is necessary to withdraw drug treatment to prevent antibiotics from building up in the milk, and meat that can be hazardous to humans. Dairy goat owners are advised to test milk from treated animals before readmitting them back into the milking program. Glucocorticoids, an be administered early in the course of disease. Administration of dexamethasone in the mammary gland has been reported to reduce swelling. In addition, intramammary infusing with ointments used to treat mastitis among dairy cows is effective among goats as well. However, observe tissue Serving irritation after administration intramammary antibiotics.

Prevention

Improve hygiene of the barn, milking practices, and utensils used for milking. Provide a clean environment with minimum stress for the goat herd. Dairy goats should be dehorned to avoid accidents and trauma to mammary glands. Kidding pens must be disinfected and bedding removed daily. Prevent foot rot and foot scald since foot infection has been attributed to mastitis. Treat wounds and drain abscesses properly; particularly watch for caseous lymphadenitis abscess in the udder.

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The Boer Goat - 33


DNA TESTING

LAC-TEK LAMB & KID FEEDERS

DNA Test Results for all sires of kids conceived by either natural service or using semen collected on or after January 1, 2015 must be on file at ABGA in order for the kids to be registered. The Sample Test Kit includes instructions on how to pull hair for a DNA test. Effective January 1, 2018, DNA testing will be required for does before offspring are eligible for registration when the offspring is a result of embryo flush occurring after January 1, 2018.

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34 - The Boer Goat


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Photos from Around the ABGA James Fisher

Mathew Shoenbauer

Jason Hog ue Miranda Wood

Rachel Smith

Lorelai Row Cindy Jackson

36 - The Boer Goat


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