OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION
Letter from the Editor
Live... Laugh... Love.... Most of the time, this is the last piece that I put in the magazine. I like to recap the information and give you, my readers, a chance to understand why I chose the stories. However, as I was getting feed last week I picked up two kinds of goat feed. The first was a normal pelleted feed and the second was a new (to me) molasses-based sweet feed. The molasses-based feed was stiff as a board and difficult to handle, while the pelleted feed was flexible and was easily loaded into my vehicle. It immediately reminded me of the situation that our country is in. And, while I am not writing about politics, I am going to make a quick point that being flexible can be an admirable trait -- in feed bags or people. Owning goats can teach us some of the most valuable traits. We learn to live life to the fullest, we learn to laugh at some of the craziest things goats do, and we learn to love our families, livestock families and friends. Lary talks about passion in his message from the CEO. None of us would own Boer goats if it were not for the passion that we have for the animals and the industry. My message this time? Learn to be flexible with others and strive to see the best in everyone. Happy holidays to everyone!
PERCENTAGE REGISTRY UPDATE The new percentage registry changes will be in place and available to you as this issue rolls off the press. I would suggest you familiarize yourselves with all the new percentage rules to help avoid confusion moving forward. For example those of you with a buck with a Record of Pedigree certificate, please note this is not the Certificate of Registration you will receive when you register a percentage buck with full breeding privileges. The (BOD) have approved the conversion of Record of Pedigree bucks who meet the Certificate of Registry requirements for a percentage buck. They also established a fee of $15 to convert a Record of Pedigree to a Certificate of Registry. Please be aware of how this affects your result if you are breeding Purebred 94% females with Purebred bucks, for example with a Purebred 97% buck under the rules that have been driving the old system you would get Purebred 97% kids. Going forward the math is precise, so with the same 94% purebred to 97% purebred mating you would now get a Purebred 95.50% Doe kid or an American 95.50% Buck kid. Another example, would be if you breed a 94% Purebred doe to a 0% listing paper buck and get a doe kid she is eligible for a Certificate of Registration for an American 50%. When the new percentage registry begins the same 94% Purebred doe to a 0% listing paper buck mating will generate a doe kid with an American 47% certificate. Hopefully we have a smooth transition as we make this expansion to the registry however given the magnitude of the project there are bound to be adjustments.
The Boer Goat - 1
2018-2019 AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION
Board of Directors REGION 9: DERIC WETHERELL (EC) PRESIDENT: email@example.com REGION 13: KATHY DAVES-CARR (EC) VICE-PRESIDENT: firstname.lastname@example.org REGION 14: DENISE CRABTREE TREASURER: email@example.com REGION 16: SARA DAVIS (EC) SECRETARY: firstname.lastname@example.org REGION 1: KIMBERLY LIEFER • email@example.com REGION 2: SCOTT PRUETT • firstname.lastname@example.org REGION 3: CLARK HUINKER • email@example.com REGION 4: KEVIN RICHMOND firstname.lastname@example.org REGION 5: KENNY ELWOOD (EC) • email@example.com REGION 6: RANDY DUSEK • firstname.lastname@example.org REGION 7: LINDA WEST • email@example.com REGION 8: ROBERT WASHINGTON (EC) • firstname.lastname@example.org REGION 10: JOSH STEPHANS (EC) • email@example.com REGION 11: JESSE CORNELIUS (EC) • firstname.lastname@example.org REGION 12: KIM MORGAN • email@example.com REGION 15: SUSAN BURNER • firstname.lastname@example.org
*EC DENOTES EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEMBER
2018 AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION
LARY DUNCAN, Chief Executive Officer • email@example.com MARY ELLEN VILLARREAL, Executive Director • firstname.lastname@example.org MARIA LEAL, Registration Support • email@example.com SONIA CERVANTEZ, Accounts Receivable • firstname.lastname@example.org AARON GILLESPIE, Show & Youth Coordinator • email@example.com CIERRA MARTINEZ, Support Staff • firstname.lastname@example.org PAMELA O'DELL, Support staff • email@example.com
ABGA OFFICE HOURS: Monday-Friday • 8:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST)
2 - The Boer Goat
Letter from the President Hello fellow ABGA members, Summer has disappeared, and for a while I was thinking we were skipping fall and going straight to the cold of winter. The sounds of love are in the air as the bucks are very aggressively talking to the ladies. Kidding season has either started, or will in the very near future as we all anxiously await what we planned for in hopes of the next champion, market animal or food for the table. As the majority of the year is behind us we reflect on accomplishments and look forward to the future. The past year has been truly amazing through the excitement of the youth participating in the JABGA Regional Series and also the generosity and support of our breeders and sponsors of the program. The 2018-19 JABGA Regional program is already underway as Area 4 has been completed in Knoxville, TN and Areas 2, 5 and 1 in Stillwater, OK; Abilene, TX; and Red Bluff, CA. If you haven’t been to one be sure to check them out!! Speaking of JABGA members…A BIG congratulations goes out to Will Cornelius and Hannah Kidder for being selected as 2 of the 4 finalists for the goat production National FFA Proficiency Award which they are currently competing for as I write this. Best wishes to them and all of the FFA members this week in all the competitions!!! For some, the long awaited capability to register percentage bucks will be available in early November, barring any more programming complications. While I know this service will not be used by everyone, it will allow those that choose to do so to register 50% and above bucks and 25% and above does with the capability to register offspring from those individuals. Be sure to look for information about that capability and the rules that surround that process. We also continue to work towards implementing the capability to add data tracking for our breed to provide more tools for breeders to evaluate their animals and aid in breeding decisions. While this is still in the infantile stages, our hope is to offer that capability at some point in the near future. We continuously strive to provide new and positive direction for the organization. If you have ideas that could be of value, please relay them to your regional director so they may be brought forward. May we always be thankful for the opportunity to raise these beautiful animals and be stewards of them. May we all be blessed with the bringing of the New Year and best wishes to everyone during kidding and throughout the holiday season!!
Deric Wetherell President ABGA Board of Directors
In This Issue
ABOUT THE COVER OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION
REK3 BSA Rollin N Red enjoys the good life with owner Ashley Jenkins at ASHS Boer Goats in West Virginia. She was bought from Shana Koonsman May's dispersal sale. Ashley said, "She has been a great asset here and we love her dearly."
12 Breed Standouts The Boer Goat
14 Winterizing your herd 16 Calendar of Events 18 Using combination dewormers 21 Body Conditions 22
Breeding for your market
Winter breeding tips
2017 ABGA Financials
Do goats better your health?
36 Photos from around the ABGA
1207 S. BRYANT BLVD. SUITE C SAN ANGELO, TX 76903 TEL: 325.486.2242 FAX: 325.486.2637
AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION KARLA BLACKSTOCK, MANAGING EDITOR & CREATIVE DIRECTOR
INTERESTED IN ADVERTISING?
The next issue of The Boer Goat will be our Winter 2019 issue. Make sure to showcase your ranch or company by advertising in the business card section or by purchasing ad space.
WANT TO SEE YOUR PHOTO IN THE MAGAZINE?
If you would like to see your photo in the The Boer Goat, please submit your picture to editor@abga. org. Please send photos in the largest size you have available and include your name for print. The Boer Goat hereby expressly limits its liability resulting from any and all misprints, errors and/or all inaccuracies whatsoever in the advertisement and editorial content published by The Boer Goat and its said liability is here by limited to the refund of the customer or its payment for the said advertisement, the running of a corrected advertisement, or editorial notice. Notification by the customer of any errors must be made within 30 days of distribution of the magazine. The opinions or views expressed in all editorials are those of the writer or persons interviewed and not The Boer Goat. The Boer Goat does, however, reserve the right to edit or refuse all material, which might be objectable in content. No material or part thereof, may be reproduced or used out of context without prior, specific approval of a proper credit to The Boer Goat.
The Boer Goat - 3
AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION
Boer Goat Association of North Carolina
Northern California Meat Goat Association
Contact: Kelly Clark
Contact: Carl McCosker
PO Box 36479; Greensboro, NC 27416
PO Box 553
Gridley, CA 95948
Serving States: North Carolina
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 530-205-7922
Keystone Goat Producers Association 125 Ivy Drive, Middletown, PA 17057
Tall Corn Meat Goat Wether Assoc, Inc
Contact: James Shepard
Serving States: Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Virginia,
4458 32nd St; Grinnell IA 50112
West Virginia, New Jersey, New York
Email: email@example.com Website: www.meatgoatwether.com
Illinois Meat Goat Producers
Serving States: Iowa
779 CR 800 E; Tolono, IL 61880 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Snake River Meat Goat Association
24617 Cemetery Rd.; Middleton ID 83644
Serving States: Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Indiana
Email: email@example.com Serving States: Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California,
Indiana Boer Goat Classic 7974 East 100 South Elwood, IN 46978 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.indianaboergoat.org
Nevada, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico short description •
Listing on the Affiliate section of ABGA website with description of club’s mission
Listing of club events (shows and educational events) on the ABGA Event Calendar
The objectives of the ABGA Affiliate program include: •
To provide resources at the local clubs level
To provide networking opportunities for the local
Monthly listing of new ABGA members in the Affiliate’s area
Eligibility to receive ABGA promotional and educational material for club events
To attract and retain goat producers
Eligibility for educational funds
To assist with educational opportunities
Eligibility for cost share programs
To cultivate grassroots input from local clubs
Membership matching funds at the end of each year
Opportunities for future programs
Local clubs benefit from joining the group of recognized affiliates by receiving: ..Listing on the Affiliate page of The Boer Goat including a
4 - The Boer Goat
It is always a challenge for me to come up with a decent topic to write these letters about as I am without a doubt left brained and matter of fact. I apologize for any dry or bland letters you have had to endure in the past. I noted in Karlaâ€™s writing that simply being around animals is good for us in a number of ways. I have long recognized and used this to my advantage to help me overcome some of my short comings. The few remaining goats my son owns have been relocated in San Angelo which has been nice for me as I find I often do my best thinking when I am spending time tending for their needs. With a little luck this letter will be an improvement on some of the past as a result. A mother called the office about a week ago with a number of issues, and in our conversation she elaborated on the â€œpassionâ€? her 20-year-old son had for the Boer Goat business. This young man sees goats as his future and has been involved in a number of forward thinking concepts such as in vitro fertilization with some outstanding results. I have been pondering the word passion for a week or so now, and in the next few paragraphs hope to use that word to explain how it drives the ABGA and the Boer Goat business. For me as a child, I was crazy about cattle and obsessed with raising, showing and marketing them. It later became a passion of mine for my son to experience some of this as well, as it is for a number of parents that get their children involved with Boer Goats. I have come to realize that in about an equal number of cases though it ends up being the parent that gets hooked on the Boer Goat business, a mother that enjoys tending to the needs of young Boer kids, or the parent that enjoys the challenge of rearing and exhibiting a competitive show animal. As I see, the passion for a lifestyle that only livestock can afford
us is the catalyst that starts the ball rolling for many of our members. When I look at what compelled potential ABGA board of directors to initially accept or seek out their position I have often thought that many who apply are there because they are passionate about one or two areas of need for which they join to be the catalyst that drives a change in that particular area. If not for passion, why else would someone take a job that pays nothing, requires that you spend hours and hours on the phone as well as away from home in meetings. You have staff who make up the core at the ABGA office that have devoted years to meeting member needs, who go above and beyond the requirements of the job itself to get this job done. When the going gets tough in the busy season they can always be counted on to roll up their sleeves and get the job done. To me this goes well beyond dedication and I perceive this as yet another form of passion in itself. As for myself, I have evolved over the years moving from a parent that wanted to see his child involved in the livestock business only to become hooked on goats myself. Ensuring that we all have a breed association that affords the same opportunities for not only ourselves but our children and grandchildren for years and years to come for the record is my current Boer Goat passion. Another year has come and gone and I am happy to report we will record are third consecutive year of membership growth. Could it be that this passion for Boer Goats that so many of you have is contagious? I myself believe it is and as a result feel good things are in store for all of you and the ABGA for years and years to come as a result. We should live every day like it is a holiday and be thankful, spend time with family and friends, and look hopefully toward the future. Hoping you are surrounded by love and warmth this holiday season.
The Boer Goat - 5
BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION
JABGA Members Respresented at the National FFA Convention Congratulations to JABGA members, Will Cornelius and Hannah Kidder, for being selected as finalists for the 2018 National FFA Goat Production Proficiency Award. They, among others,are competing during the 91st National FFA Convention in Indianapolis. The 2018 Goat Proficiency Award was presented to Will Cornelius. Both Will and Hannah have worked extremely hard on their projects and we congratulate both of you on your accomplishments.
6 - The Boer Goat
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Show Feed Specialists Al Schminke – 217-257-3513 Tadd Knight – 217-653-0528
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Josh Elkins – 979-255-8309 Dave Mullins – 317-766-4132
www.MoorMansShowTec.com 800-217-2007 • AN_ShowFeedHelp@adm.com
The Boer Goat - 7
Editorial Correction: The following individuals were inadvertantly left out of the National Show Champion page.
Sydney Baty Champion Premier Fullblood Exhibitor
JABGA National Grand Champion Best Pair Senior Fullblood Does exhibited by Clint Demmitt
Don't forget about the 20182019 Regional Show Series. Shows and events are being hosted in each region. Don't miss your opportunity to enter the skillathon, public speaking contests, fitting contests, sales talk, showmanship and JABGA shows. These shows have graciously been sponsored by agricultural industry leaders and ABGA breeders. If you are looking for an opportunity to learn more about goats and become more confident, these are great ways to enhance your skills. Also, remember that memberships for juniors should also be renewed before December 31, 2018 for the upcoming year.
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8 - The Boer Goat
in the Boer Goat Industry Congratulations to the breeders and owners of the animals listed below. The following animals have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit.
TST1 WINDY ACRES AFTER BURNER Buck ROOSTER RIDGE CHIPOTLE Buck CJH4 SMOKIN MISS JESSE Doe ROR1 ROYAL DIMENSIONS Buck F&M BOERS FASHION’S LADY LIBERTY Doe EGGS FLASHY DIMENSIONS C522 Doe REIS WASHED IN THE BLOOD Doe OXC OX CREEK PRIDE’S PAINT BY NUMBER Doe OXC OX CREEK PRIDE’S PARTLY CLOUDY Doe BA CSF SMOKIN SOMETHING CRAZY Buck C S B NET INCOME Buck URBG RUM SHOT Buck URBG SMOKE’S RUMCHATA Doe STCRF MAGIC MAN Buck LGF3 ANASTASIA Doe MADI DIRTY MONEY Buck HME BOER GOATS POLLEY Doe GP7 MONY MAKER Doe RDLR LITTLE’S AFTER SHOCK Buck TST1 WINDY ACRES IT’S ABOUT TO GO DOWN Buck FCG ROCK ON Buck 2JW PATRIOT’S CENTER STAGE Doe T F COPPERTOP JOE DIESEL Buck KTM CIRCLE R XTRA SHINEY Doe C S B CIRCLE R “DINERO” Buck JBI MISTER BIG B372 Buck CJR HOT HABINERO Buck
Terry & Sue Taylor Brandon Dugan Joe & Barbie Teel Jeremy & Rachel Mitchell Sarah Brend John Armentrout Joseph Bentley
Terry & Sue Taylor LaDonna Worsing Cameron Horning Samuel Lerena Michelleen & Frank Horning John or Jackie Edwards Joseph Bentley
Julie Stellingwerf Judy Hoffman Roger Rempel Parker Myers John Armentrout Madison Fenton Sharon & Phil Fullerton Thomas & Jacqueline Redden and Ike Redden Heather Entler Guiseppe Paliotta Terry & Sue Taylor
Julie Stellingwerf Chestnut Springs Farm Dr Mark & Sherrie Watkins Parker Myers Parker Myers Terry & Sue Taylor Sharon & Phil Fullerton
Owen Lankey Freddy & Phyllis Groth Josh & Johanna Weir K & Kyran Larner Robert Dunn Circle R Boer Goats LaDonna Worsing Andrew McMullen
Terry & Sue Taylor Freddy & Phyllis Groth Josh & Johanna Weir David J Thomas Circle R Boer Goats Dr Mark & Sherrie Watkins Darcy Brown Gene Leger
Madison Fenton Heather Entler Guiseppe Paliotta Robert & Phillis Little
in the Boer Goat Industry Congratulations to the breeders and owners of the animals listed below. The following animals have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit.
MIRR SEATTLE SLEW 8881 DBL-D ALLIE CAT C110 MBEL BELLESTAD FIXIT FARRIS BSA STEAL’N THE SHOW PETY ON TAP WILTON BOER GOAT RANCH NO JUSTICE CERT SUN RAIDER
Buck Doe Buck Doe Buck
Megan & Kenny Elwood Lee & Sharon Dana Ruger J Miserlian Austin Pagel Tracy Pettyjohn
Megan & Kenny Elwood Lee & Sharon Dana Madison Bell Shana Koonsman May Tracy Pettyjohn
Guiseppe Paliotta Andrew McMullen
Rosalinda Vizina Nancy Certain Marge Skaggs/Scotty & Jenn Merrill
NEWTON FARMS CROSS YOUR MIND Doe CRA3 BDLF COPPER STILL Buck RJMBG ROCKY ACRE GRINCH Buck JAD SRB LUCKY’S BIG DOG Buck AABG BAB4 FUTURE FAN OF THE MAN Buck MW8 WESTFALL’S KISS ME BABY Doe MMLR FUNKY JUNK Buck
Aaron & Denise Crabtree Thomas & Jacqueline Redden and Ike Redden Ruger J Miserlian Travis Levings Jason Miller Chad & Nancy Steinke Morgan Bridges
Sandra Crawford Ruger J Miserlian Justin, Jared, Jason Dyjak Able Acres Matthew Westfall Morgan Bridges
SIRE OF MERIT Name SGG MONSTROSITY 2DOX AMIGO MW8 WESTFALL’S MAN OF MYSTERY 2M BOER GOATS 2M- WHITE RUSSIAN NEWTON FARMS ASKIN’ FOR TROUBLE
Owner Ryan Throckmorton Leslie Bader-Robinson Matthew Westfall Paul & Kim Morgan Brody Hazelbaker
Breeder Brandon & Amanda Smith Robert Dressler DVM Matthew Westfall Nathan Duncan Marge Skaggs/Scotty & Jenn Merrill
in the Boer Goat Industry Congratulations to the breeders and owners of the animals listed below. The following animals have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit.
DOE OF EXCELLENCE Name CRG4 MONEY’S RED SUN LFC MEGAN 2 ANKNY ANKONY MISS PRIDE Z315 SHOW ME BOERS CHERRY BOMB GSR RIBBONS &BOWS SHRWD SHERWOOD FARMS LOLITA OXC CREEK ANNELIESE SLS3 CALL ME DANGEROUS JTX SKEETER HARMONY HILL SECRET’S OUT JRJSG RED VELVET EAST HERITAGE O U MAKE ME SMILE LGF3 SPICE RBMG DIRT ROAD DIVA TST1 TEEL SO BLESSED 2M BOER GOATS 2M DESTINY PSF4 PRISCILLA GSR CONNECT THE DOTS FIRE BUSH FARM POP A TOP GSR SOMTHIN’ BAD MADI 68/69
John & Jennifer Thompson and Hattie Lloyd Randall & Christina Barker Linda Faye Cullers Linda Faye Cullers Marge Skaggs/Scotty & Jenn Merrill Ankony Farms Chris, Kim, Conner & Emily GlosserTreva & Wess Peterson Terry & Sue Taylor Sarah Brend Jason Miller Madeline Huskamp Julie Stellingwerf Julie Stellingwerf Scott Hughes Scott Hughes Payton Hoffman Gayle Garrett Reilly Butler Jennifer Keys Ryan Throckmorton Eric Hulsmeyer Lisa & Kevin Strohl Lisa & Kevin Strohl Sharon & Phil Fullerton Sharon & Phil Fullerton Thomas & Jacqueline Redden and Ike Kevin Moore Redden Haylee O’Brien Noah Teel Chuck & Brenda Fitzwater Paul & Kim Morgan Leah Tenbensel Leah Tenbensel Mark, Mona, Annie & Matthew Seabolt Sarah Brend Gale Gearhart Larry & Deirdre Hillman Nicholas Pitlick Sarah Brend Madison Fenton Madison Fenton
ABGA Breed Standards 101 Udderly Important
ABGA BREED STANDARD – EFFECTIVE 1/1/2017 III. REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS Any extreme occurrence of a fault is a disqualification.
ABGA BREED STANDARD – EFFECTIVE 1/1/2018
DOES Does should have a well formed udder with good fore and rear attachment, such that the udder is well supported throughout the productive life of the doe, with the floor of the udder at or above the level of the hocks. It is most important that the udder is constructed so that the offspring are able to nurse unassisted. Preferred teat structures consist of either one or two, well-separated, functional teats on each half of the udder. One additional, smaller, non-functional teat (teat without an orifice) located further toward the doe’s stomach is not desirable but is not discriminated against. Acceptable teat structures have no more than two functional teats per side and include: one or more non-functional teats; no more than one split teat with two distinctly separate teats and orifices, when at least 50% of the body of the teat is separated; a teat containing two milk channels with a smooth or rounded end and with no sign of a dimple or division between the orifices; no more than one additional, non-functional teat or protrusion attached to the main teat, as long as it does not interfere with or prevent nursing. Please refer to the TEAT DIAGRAM and pictures for additional information on teat structures. By 24 months of age, does must have kidded or show evidence of visible udder formation consistent with late-term pregnancy. Faults: Infantile or underdeveloped vulva in a doe over 24 months of age; udder and teat abnormalities or defects; poorly attached or pendulous udder. Disqualifications: Any udder or teat structure that prevents a newborn kid from nursing unassisted; more than two functional teats on one half of the udder; split teat, when less than 50% of the body of the teat is separated; additional, functional teat(s) attached to the main teat; more than two milk channels on one teat; bulbous teats; the complete lack of a milk channel on one half of the udder; a doe that has not kidded and is not showing evidence of visible udder formation consistent with late-term pregnancy by 24 month of age.
From the ring to the pasture...
Added de udder atta the udder the hocks
Changed classifica Acceptab Disqualifi Acceptab and Disqu remove g “Question
Clarified d Acceptab
Updated (See belo
Changed requireme to have e showing e udder form with late-t
Added Fa underdev does ove
Added DQ teat struc newborn unassiste by Kyle Tate functiona splits less complete tent by 24. Fish teats such as D1 and D2 and cluster teats such teat on on Udder quality and the ability of the offspring to quickly
and easily gain access to the teats is one of the most important facets of livestock production. An entire year’s worth of time, labor, and expenses can be lost in a matter of hours if the kid cannot gain access to colostrum and milk. Unfortunately, poor maternal traits and excess labor at kidding time are also reasons that help to influence producers to leave our industry. The breed standards regarding teat structure are in place to ensure that does are productive and profitable in real-world settings. Fish teats, cluster teats, and ill-positioned spurs inhibit the kid’s ability to quickly nurse without assistance. This becomes even more critical when you consider that the kid’s ability to utilize antibodies from colostrum is severely diminished by 6 hours, cut in half by 12, and nonexis-
12 - The Boer Goat
as D7, can be large and hard for small mouths to grip and suck. Several blind teats or spurs such as in A1-A2 and A9-A11 can make it difficult for the kid to find the functioning teat. Bulbous teats are outlined in the breed standards as a disqualification. Unfortunately we as breeders and judges don’t focus on these near enough. Large, bottle shaped teats that are 2-3 inches from the ground are even more difficult for small kids to successfully nurse than a small fish teat. It is also easier for these teats to become damaged and infected with mastitis. As a judge, I refuse to use any senior doe with these teats to win a show. Dairy cattle associations have had EPDs for udder quality and teat size/placement for several years. Recently, the
American Hereford Association has developed a scoring system and EPDs for udder attachment quality and teat size. Heritability of these traits is around .30, making them moderately heritable and genetic progress through selection very accessible and quick. The breed standard regarding does who have not reproduced by 24 months is in place to cull females with low fertility. Although fertility has a low heritability, around .15, if not kept in check, problems can manifest after a few generations. These traits can still be quantified into accurate EPDs, such as the American Angus Associationâ€™s Heifer Pregnancy EPD.
The Boer Goat - 13
Winter Season and Breeding Tips By: Monica A. Korzekwa
Dr. Shawn Ramsey, head for Undergraduate Programs in the Department of Animal Science, is a professor at Texas A&M University, and is also one of the sheep and goat extension specialists for the state of Texas. Dr. Ramsey earned his bachelorâ€™s degree from Texas A&M University in animal science and obtained his masterâ€™s and doctorate degree in animal and range science from New Mexico State University. Dr. Ramsey teaches several classes, and serves as the coordinator of the Wool and Mohair Judging Team at TAMU. Here are just a few tips from Dr. Shawn Ramsey to see what needs to be done to prepare for winter season.
With the cooler winter months getting closer, what precautions are needed to ensure healthy goats?
Heading into the cooler months of the winter season, it is important to be current on vaccinations and following an implemented parasite management program. Proper nutrition, precautions with vaccinations, and good management techniques can make the transition into the busy winter season easier. Internal parasite elimination and/or management is important during this time because the parasite is in the host. Now is the time to work towards cleaning up animals and pastures prior to spring kidding.
What needs to be done to a buck before the breeding season and winter?
Starting off at sixty days prior to the breeding season it is important to run a breeding soundness exam, commonly known as a BSE on your buck(s). This evaluation will be an assessment of the reproductive organs as well as a physical examination. Conducting a BSE allows the breeder to make sure the buck is fertile, has no health issues and is in proper body condition. This needs to be done roughly sixty days in advance of breeding to allow adequate time to resolve any issues and prevent a delayed or missed breeding.
What needs to be done to a female before the breeding season and winter? 14 - The Boer Goat
Before breeding, does need to have a healthy body condition score or BCS for short. The BCS for goats ranges on a 1-5 scale going from extremely skinny and underweight to substantially overweight. The ideal number for a doe is 3 when breeding and kidding. It is important for the doe to have enough nutrients and energy for not only the fetus but herself as well. When a doe is not at a healthy BCS, ketosis can occur. Ketosis can result from under and over nourishment, and it can have quite an impact on pregnancy rates.
How can one increase their chances of kidding twins?
The more reproductively efficient the doe is, the more she is worth. Kidding two is fairly normal. However, a doe having one or three is also possible. To enhance the chances of having multiple ovulations in does, there are a few simple tactics to try within two weeks of breeding. If the doe is in the pasture, give her anywhere from half to a pound of corn to increase energy. The corn will make the body feel like it is achieving a higher BCS. Other ways to increase chances of multiple ovulation include deworming, moving does to a new location and flushing the does. Without multiple ovulations, multiple fetuses are not possible which ultimately might leave the doe reproductively inefficient. Another important factor is selecting replacement females that were born as multiples.
Do you have any advice on how to improve management techniques?
There are many artificial reproductive technologies available to help increase pregnancy rates as well as increase the number of fetuses per doe such as timed artificial insemination, embryo transfer, synchronization of females, and other practices. Upon establishment of pregnancy, ultrasound technology can be used to determine the number of fetuses and relative sizes. By doing so, a breeder can manage his herd to best care for each doe based on what nutritional requirements and attention they might need. Having prior knowledge of which does are reproductively efficient can allow you to plan accordingly to best manage your herd. One can better manage a group with better facilities and proper nutrition when dealing with a uniformed group of does. The management techniques and practices used during these next few months are crucial to the productiveness of one’s herd and the efficiency of their management practices. There are simple protocols to follow to lead to more success and a less stressful winter not just for you, but for your goats as well.
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The Boer Goat - 15
AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION
Calendar OF EVENTS 2018 Show
Location - State
Noember 15 - December 15
Kentucky Exposition Center
JABGA Regional 5 Show
Taylor County Expo Center (Texas)
Big Country Boer Goat Show
Tyalor County Expo Center (Texas)
Green County Fall Show
Cherokee Co. Fairgrounds (OK)
Tehama District Fairgrounds (CA)
JABGA Boernanza Area 1 JABGA Show
Tehama District Fairgrounds (CA)
Comfort FFA Fall Classic
Kendall County Youth Ag & Equine Center (TX)
January New Year's Classic at the South Florida
South Florida Fair
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16 - The Boer Goat
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Combination Dewormers: The Time is Now by Ray M. Kaplan, DVM, PhD, DACVM, DEVPC University of Georgia
Resistance to dewormers is a fact of life, but the situation has worsened greatly in recent years. Surveys indicate that most farms have worms resistant to at least two of the three major groups of dewormers. Many have resistance to all three groups, and some farms now have resistance to all available dewormers. But, having worms in your animals that are resistant to dewormers does not mean that all the worms are resistant. For instance, when all the commonly used dewormers were first introduced, their efficacy was >99%. Once efficacy falls below 95%, it indicates that drug resistance is present. At 95% the drug is still very useful, but once drug resistance is present, it usually worsens over time as more and more doses of that drug are given. As the effectiveness of the dewormer decreases, it provides less and less benefit, and once it falls to <50%, it is no longer useful as a sole treatment. Given this situation, what is the best approach for using dewormers? Contrary to popular belief, rotating between dewormers will not prevent resistance from worsening, and is no longer recommended. Rather, dewormers should be used together at the same time in combination.
How and why do combination treatments work?
Research done in New Zealand has convincingly shown that the best approach is to use several different dewormers all at one time as a combination treatment. In fact, in Australia and New Zealand, there currently are few dewormer products sold as single drugs; most products contain 3, 4, or 5 different groups of dewormers (note: other counties have some dewormers that are not available in the US). There are 2 major benefits to using drugs in combination: (1) You get an additive effect with each drug used, thus the efficacy of the treatment increases with each additional drug given (see Table 1 below); and (2) By achieving a higher efficacy, there are fewer resistant worms that survive the treatment, thus there is a greater dilution of resistant worms by the susceptible portion of the population (see Table 2). Furthermore, as seen in Table 2, the sooner you start using a combination, the better off you will be, since you see the greatest difference in the percent of resistant survivors when efficacy of dewormers is high. The more dewormers that are used in combination, the greater the
18 - The Boer Goat
efficacy of treatment will be. However, if all the dewormers individually have poor efficacy, the combination will not reach high efficacy. As seen in Table 1, once efficacy falls to 50%, even a combination of 3 dewormers will still fail to reach a 90% efficacy. As an illustration of why combinations When I contacted Dr. Kaplan help reduce the deabout using combination development of resiswormers, he cautioned me that tance, but rotation of that there are "increasing numdewormers does not, bers of goat farms where resislet us look at some tance has advanced to the point numbers. If two drugs where use of combinations is no each with 90% efficacy longer effective. So, while this are used in rotation, strategy will provide the best then each time anioption for control of parasites, mals are treated 10% resistance has gotten so severe of the worms survive on some farms that dewormers (the resistant ones). no longer work no matter how In contrast, if these they are administered." same two drugs are used in combination at the same time, then the efficacy increases to 99%. This calculation involves a simple additive function; the first drug kills 90%, and the second drug kills 90% of the remaining
10% [90% + (90% x 10%) = 99%]. Thus the efficacy achieved is now 10X greater and this then yields 10X fewer resistant survivors. Because fewer resistant worms survive at each treatment, there is a greater dilution of the resistant worms among the majority of worms in refugia that are still susceptible. This then will greatly slow the development of drug resistance in the overall worm population. In contrast, if using a rotation of drugs, you would get 10X as many resistant worms surviving each time you treat. Additionally, given the high rates of drug resistance that are known to exist, it is likely that one or more of the dewormers will have poor efficacy, thus you risk rotating from an effective (or relatively effective) dewormer to an ineffective dewormer. By using dewormers as a combination, you eliminate the risk of rotating to a poorly effective drug, and get an additive benefit that maximizes the effectiveness of each treatment given.
Research shows that combinations are the best approach But â€“ it gets even better. Dr. Dave Leathwick (AgResearch, New Zealand) published a paper in 2015 in the Journal International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and
Drug Resistance, where seven farms previously diagnosed with resistance to at least two groups of dewormers were enrolled in a study where each farm implemented a tailored program of "best practice parasite management." The aim was to ascertain whether the programs, which included the almost exclusive use of combination dewormers, were able to prevent resistance from developing further. Strategies implemented on each farm varied, but had consistent underlying principles to avoid over-use of dewormers, manage refugia (and to ensure that only effective anthelmintics were used, by administering them only as a combination). After five years, they demonstrated an overall improvement in the efficacy of the dewormers (when tested individually), indicating that the use of dewormers in combination, when applied with other best practices designed to reduce use of dewormers and maintain refugia, caused a reversion back toward susceptibility. So, there now is very strong evidence that using combination treatment is the best method for using dewormers and should be instituted on all farms immediately.
Precautions and issues to consider
Finally, before using this approach there are a few precautions to be aware of. (1) In New Zealand and Australia, products are sold that
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contain a combination of dewormers, so only one product needs to be administered. In contrast, in the USA, no dewormers are yet sold in this formulation, so the dewormers need to be bought and administered separately. This increases the cost as compared to the products available in these other countries. Additionally, the different groups of dewormers are not chemically compatible, thus they cannot be mixed together in the same syringe. Rather, they need to be administered separately, but can be given one immediately after the other. (2) All dewormers should be administered at the full recommended dose whether administered singly or in combination. (3) When using dewormers in combination, meat and milk withdrawal times will be equal to the dewormer used with the longest withdrawal time period (4) If using dewormers in combination, it is critical to maintain refugia; thus, one should be using a selective treatment approach based on FAMACHA© (see FAMACHA© section of the ACSRPC website for more information on this method and for further explanations of refugia). The presence of refugia is essential to realize the full benefits from combinations. In fact, if refugia are not maintained then you will not get the necessary dilution of the resistant survivors, and this will then lead to having multiple-resistant worms that can no longer be controlled with the combination treatment. (5) If the efficacy of your dewormers are >80%, it is possible you may not notice any difference in the clinical response of treatments when applied singly vs. in combination. However, the impact on the further development of resistance could be quite large (see Table 2). (6) Any safety precautions that exist for a single dewormer will also exist when used in a combination; however, there are no known additional risks with using more than one dewormer at the same time. Additional information can be found on the American Consortium of Small Ruminant Parasite Control website: wormx.info
20 - The Boer Goat
Why are there fewer worms in winter? Worm eggs need specific conditions to hatch into infective larvae. Daily maximum temperatures need to be at least 12–18ºC (depending on worm species), combined with sufficient moisture (usually about 10–15 mm rain over a few days). If these conditions are not met within 1–3 weeks (again depending on worm species), the eggs will die. >> More information on conditions for development of worms.
Sheep and goats can and will be affected by worms in winter While it may be too cold in some areas for eggs to develop to larvae, the pasture may still be heavily contaminated with larvae that developed in the previous 6 months during warmer times. These infective larvae will be ingested by sheep and goats grazing the affected pastures during winter. Depending on the contamination levels, it is quite possible for the stock to acquire large worm burdens in winter resulting in illness and death. Yet the worm eggs these animals are depositing on the pasture may never be able to develop as it is too cold.
Body condition scoring in goats Author: Katie Ockert, Michigan State University Extension
Body condition scoring is a management tool that can be used to evaluate the nutritional status of animals. Body condition, or fat cover, is an indication of the energy reserves in an animal. Body condition scoring for goats uses a range from 1.0 to 5.0, with 0.5 increments. Healthy goats should have a body condition scoring between 2.5 to 4.0. Goats with a body condition scoring of 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 indicate a management or health problem. A body condition scoring of 4.5 or 5 indicate an excessive amount of condition that could be detrimental to the goatâ€™s health; these scores are very rarely observed in goat herds under a standard management system. Michigan State University Extension advises that itâ€™s important to note that body condition scoring cannot be assigned by simply visually evaluating an animal. The animal must be touched and felt in three specific areas of the body. The first is the lumbar area, which is the area of the back behind the ribs containing the loin. The second is the sternum, or breast bone, and the third is the ribs and intercostal (between the rib) spaces. When palpating the lumbar area, you will be able to feel the lumbar vertebrae, which have a vertical protrusion called
the spinous processes, and two horizontal protrusions called the transverse process. By running your hand over this area, try to gently grasp the processes with your fingertips and hand. Moving to the sternum and the rib cage, you must feel the amount of fat cover in each of the areas. Body condition score (BCS) ratings BCS 1.0 = The goat is visually emaciated and weak. The backbone is highly visible and forms a continuous ridge. The flank is hollow and ribs are clearly visible. There is no fat cover and fingers can easily penetrate into the intercostal spaces. BCS 2.0 = The goatâ€™s backbone is still visible with a continuous ridge. Some ribs can be seen and there is a small amount of fat cover. Ribs are still felt and intercostal spaces are smooth, but can still be penetrated. BCS 3.0 = The backbone is not prominent, ribs are barely discernible and an even layer of fat covers the ribs. Intercostal spaces are felt using pressure. BCS 4.0 = The backbone and ribs cannot be seen. The side of the animal is sleek in appearance. BCS 5.0 = The backbone is buried in fat and the ribs are not visible. The rib cage is covered with excessive fat.
are influenced by the natural production cycle. That is, the typical price pattern during a year reflects that biology drives breeding and kidding schedules for most meat goat operations. Prices are generally higher in the spring when fewer kids are available before the bulk of kidding season. In a typical year, the price peaks are pro-gressively later by weight category, reflecting the additional time needed to grow kids to heavier weights. Figure 1 illustrates the sea-sonal price pattern for San Angelo, Tx for the by Karla Blackstock three primary weight categories for commercial meat goats. Note: Prices are calculated as percent of the annual average price. Prices generally begin to decline after the kidding season. They typically hit the low point somewhere in mid-summer or Marketing commercial meat goats for ethnic holidaysearly is nofall, secret. In fact, youweight are not considering mardepending onifthe category and asyour moreend goats ket then you are most likely losing a couple of cents perare pound whichonultimately results in significantly lower profits. available the market.
Does your breeding season match market demands?
Goat meat is the main course for many holiday meals around the world, including the U.S. Having an established market creates an opportunity for commercial breeders to plan their plan breeding and kidding seasons. Even when some of these holidays occur during a period of seasonally lower prices, prices breeding seasons according to the seasons. When tend to increase for the period two to three weeks ahead of the studying your market and your herd practices, conholiday. While an individual year’s price pattern may vary from the sider shifting the timing of production to market typical seasonal pattern, the seasonal price index provides insight kids of specific weights during periods where prices into long term “normal” price patterns. Knowledge of seasonal are seasonally higher or focus on supplying your price patterns can be utilized to enhance producer marketing strategies, sometimes by adjusting production patterns. For some largest number of goats during periods of high deproducers, it may be feasible to shift the timing of production in mand, regardless of the seasonal price level. And, order to mar-ket kids of specific weights during periods where Figure 2. may Seasonal price chart for two major goat markets; prices are seasonally higher. Other producers may choose to focus while you not be able to control the season or Meat goat seasonal chartanimals by weight category San Angelo, TX and New Holland, PA (20- to 40-pound goats). Figureon1.having suffi-cient quantityprice to market during periods the market, allowing for the supply of goat meat (San Angelo, TX). regardless of the seasonal price level. While of high demand, to match up with the current demand will increase an individual producer cannot impact or control price, the timing of marketing decisions can make an impact on your bottom line. your net return. Just how does the US market look for goat meat? In 2000, participants in an American Religious Identity Survey, were asked to identify themselves with their religion of choice. In the survey, 76% identified themselves as Christian, ofIslamic Agricultural Natural 1.3% Jewish, and .5% Islamic. Data also showed that fromDivision 1990 to 2000, identificationSciences increased byand 109%. However, the growth of non-Christian Americans has continued to escalate. In 2017, Muslims now make up 1.1% of Americans. By keeping a calendar of upcoming ethnic and religious holidays in mind, you can adjust breeding/kidding seasons to match up with market demand. Table 1 below shows the holiday and size of goats that are desired. By cross referFigurethis 3. Seasonal for two major goat markets; encing with theprice tablechart on the opposing page, breeders can project out years in advance, allowing time to adjust San Angelo, TX and New Holland, PA (40- to 60-pound goats). year after year.
Table 1. Various Holidays and Celebrations Where Goat is Typically Served.
Size of Kid
Easter (Western) Easter (Eastern & Greek) Cinco de Mayo (Hispanic) Independence Day Caribbean Holidays Start of Ramadan (Muslim)
Late March/Early April Mid to Late April May 5 July 4 August Based on lunar calendar, changes each year Based on lunar calendar, changes each year Based on lunar calendar, changes each year Late September/Mid-October
20 to 50 pounds 20 to 50 pounds 20 to 35 pounds 20 to 35 pounds 60 pounds 45 to 120 pounds
Date varies Date varies
45 to 120 pounds
60 pounds optimum
Eid al Fitr (Muslim) Eid al Adha (Muslim) Dassai (Hindu)
Bucks only Less than 12 months old
Yearlings, blemish free Male goats only: size varies
For more information about ethnic holiday dates visit http://www.sheepandgoat.com/articles/ethniccalendar.html
22 - The Boer Goat
cate 2 an USD weig con Not of h to s pric spri in N ann see
prev How of th sevdem
ties the as t spe
Muslim Growth in the United States
Percentage of Americans
1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
• Live Internet Bidding
Religious Breakdown of the United States 80 70
60 50 40 30
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The Boer Goat - 23
Controlling Sore Mouth in Meat Goats Dr. Susan Schoenian
Soremouth is the most common skin disease affecting sheep and goats. It is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus in the "pox" family. Soremouth goes by many names including contagious ecthyma, (contagious) pustular dermatitis, and orf. In Australia, it is commonly called "scabby mouth." The distribution of soremouth is worldwide. The disease is widespread in the U.S. sheep and goat population. In a 2001 USDA NAHMS* survey, 40 percent of U.S. sheep operations reported having soremouth in their flocks during the previous three years. Soremouth affects all breeds of sheep and goats. The disease tends to be more severe in goats than sheep. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some breeds may be more susceptible than others (e.g. Boer). Soremouth is a zoonotic disease meaning animals can transmit it to humans. As many physicians may be unfamiliar with the disease, be sure to tell your doctor if you've been exposed to infected or recently vaccinated sheep or goats.
In flocks that have never had soremouth, nearly all animals exposed will develop the disease. The virus is transmitted to susceptible animals via direct contact. The virus penetrates through small abrasions in the skin. Even very minor damage to the skin may allow the virus to enter. Abrasions caused by forage are usually adequate for infection to occur. Carrier or chronically-infected animals may also serve as reservoirs for infection. Soremouth can be spread via infected equipment, fences, feed, and bedding. Serious outbreaks can occur in artificially-reared lambs and kids, as they share the same nipples. Showing and exhibition increases the risk of acquiring soremouth, as livestock frequently have nose-to-nose contact and judges may spread the virus as they examine the teeth and mouths of animals in a class. Vaccinating a virus-free herd will introduce the disease to the herd and premises. Because they have not likely been exposed to the virus and their immune systems are still developing, young animals are the most susceptible to soremouth. Older naive animals can also be affected. Animals that have recovered from natural infection have some resistant to reinfection. However,
24 - The Boer Goat
there are different strains of soremouth, and it is possible for previously infected animals to become infected with soremouth more than once in their lifetimes. Infections usually occur several years apart and repeat infections tend to be less severe.
Once in the skin, the virus begins to multiply. About two to three days after exposure to the virus, vesicles, pustules, and finally scabs appear. Soremouth lesions occur primarily on the lips and nostrils of affected animals, but may also develop on other parts of the body: e.g. ears, eyes, feet, limbs, udder, and genital areas. Soremouth affects mostly non-woolly areas. While it can grow in the upper digestive tract of the animal, it cannot spread through the body. During the course of the disease (1 to 4 weeks) the scabs drop off and the tissues heal without scarring. Sometimes, the scabs harbor secondary bacteria (such as staphylococci) or invite blowfly infestation (screwworms, maggots). Nursing lambs and kids can spread the disease to the teats or udders of their dams (or other females that they nurse). Teat lesions which develop secondary bacteria can lead to serious mastitis, potentially resulting in loss of the affected udder half and premature culling of the infected female.
Diagnosis is usually based on clinical signs, along with the contagious nature of the disease. Diagnosis can be confirmed in the laboratory by identifying the antigen in tissue or blood samples. There are several other diseases (some serious and reportable) whose symptoms may resemble soremouth: foot-andmouth disease (FMD), sheep and goat pox, and bluetongue. Veterinary assistance should be sought when a differential di-
agnosis is needed and a more serious disease is suspected.
Treatment of soremouth is usually unrewarding. Because it is a virus, soremouth does not respond to antibiotics. Nor is it usually necessary to treat the lesions unless secondary bacterial infection or maggot infestation occurs. Treatment does not speed the course of lesion regression, which is usually about one month. Affected animals may recover only slightly quicker if the lesions are treated. Treatment of individual animals usually consists of applying salves or antibiotic creams to the lesions. Systemic antibiotics can be used if secondary bacterial infections are severe. It is recommended that the crusts not be removed, as this may delay healing, promote scarring, and increase the handler's chance of acquiring the disease. Ewes and does whose udders become infected should receive special care. An udder salve will help to keep the scabs on the teats pliable. In worst cases, the lambs and kids should be removed for artificially feeding. They should not be cross-fostered onto other females as they may infect the udders of clean females. Intramammary antibiotics can be used to prevent mastitis. Soremouth is rarely fatal, though it can cause significant economic loss. Soremouth lesions are painful to the affected animals, especially young stock. While most adult animals with lesions on their lips continue to eat and produce milk, it may be too painful for young lambs and kids to suckle or eat dry feed. Left unattended, these lambs and kids will become undernourished and more susceptible to secondary diseases. It may be necessary to artificially feed such lambs and kids.
Soremouth is best prevented by maintaining a closed and virus-free herd. New animals should be quarantined until soremouth can be ruled out. Unfortunately, some animals can serve as carriers and slip into a flock without detection. Never knowingly purchase affected (or apparently unaffected) animals from a known infected flock. After a herd is infected, it is difficult to eliminate the disease because the virus can remain stable in the crusts. Scabs that fall from the animals have long been incriminated as thesource infection to other animals months or even years later. The virus is a tough one. It contains proteins that interfere with the hosts immune and inflammatory responses.
The soremouth virus can survive for months, possibly years, away from the sheep. Scabs on pasture are not likely to survive the winter, but may survive in barns, pens, and on troughs, feeders, gates, and walls. The virus contain in dried scabs can be infectious for years if maintained in a cool, dry environment. The vaccine may be used in outbreaks. Affected animals can be isolated, while unaffected animals can be vaccinated to reduce the severity of new cases and shorten the course of infection. If the disease is already well-established, this strategy may not be successful.
Commercial vaccines labeled for sheep and goats are available and may be advised on farms where soremouth is edemic. According to a 2001 USDA NAHMS1 sheep study, 5 percent of U.S. sheep producers vaccinate their replacement ewes for soremouth and 14 percent vaccinate nursing lambs. The vaccine is made from live virus isolated from groundup scabs of "modified" soremouth infections. The virus is treated in a way so that it will not cause serious disease, but will produce a mild form of soremouth. Unfortunately, the vaccine does not produce a strong or long-lasting immunity. Vaccination may not always prevent animals from becoming infected, but it may reduce the severity or duration of the disease. The live virus is infectious to humans. Protective gloves should be worn when handling the vaccine or recently-vaccinated animals. The vaccine should not be used on farms where soremouth has never been known to occur, as it will introduce the disease to the premises and necessitate annual re-vaccination. Recently-vaccinated animals should not be co-mingled with other sheep and goats, as this will spread the virus. Pregnant females can be vaccinated two months prior to lambing or kidding to prevent natural soremouth from occurring during the nursing period. Vaccinated ewes and does should be moved to a fresh area for lambing and kidding. The occurrence of colostral immunity in vaccinated animals is disputed. If the vaccine does impart immunity, it is most likely very short -lived. Work with sheep has suggested that vaccinating at the time of drying off may be preferable to vaccinating late in pregnancy. Newborn lambs and kids can be vaccinated if the risk of disease is high. In herds where buying or showing of animals occurs regularly, vaccination helps to prevent occurrence of a soremouth outbreak during the show season. Animals should be vaccinat-
The Boer Goat - 25
ed at least six weeks (preferably two months) before the start of the show season, so that the vaccine scars will be gone before the first show. Flocks with soremouth are excluded from exhibition until the lesions have cleared up. Health papers will not be issued to farms with active soremouth infection. Vaccination is usually done on the inside of the thigh of young animals and behind the elbow in adult animals. A woolless area is sought. In goats, the underside of the tail is frequently used. The area is scratched to make a raw (not bleeding) area. The vaccine is applied to the raw area. A raised reddened area should result in a few days.
Side note from the editor: Sore mouth is one of those diseases that no one likes to talk about, but it happen on every farm. Even breeders who vacinate against the virus find themselves with the occasional case. For a couple of years now, my husband and I have been testing our own theory on sore mouth treatment and while it is not scientific research, the treatment has been effective on OUR place. When talking with Dr. Schoenian about her article, I ran my hypothesis by her. While she agreed that I was correct, she believed the method would be difficult to prove and even more difficult to sell and market. Which leads me to to sharing with you all in hopes of keeping cases of sore mouth minimal. When a nasty cold sore popped up from stress, John would reach for the L-Lysine. Why? Lysine is an essential amino acid that your body doesn't naturally produce. Webmd says that consuming more lysine may help with certain health benefits. And according the US FDA, Lysine is an effectve treatment (NOT CURE) for the herpes simplex virus, which is credited for cold sores, the Epstein-Barr Virus, and, you guessed it, sore mouth. So, we started disolving 1,000 mg of Lysine in a small amount of water. We drenched the affected goat(s) 1,000 mg twice a day. The result was that the sore mouth ran its course much quicker. We have shared this treatment with a few breeders (who may have thought we were crazy) and they experienced the same results. To be effective, catching and treating the virus quickly and consistently is critical. Since the virus can be transferred to humans, using gloves and safety precautions is extremely important. Good luck to you in reducing this viral outbreak on your place. I'd love to hear your success stories.
26 - The Boer Goat
When using the soremouth vaccine, the manufacturer's directions should be closely followed. Fresh vaccine, which has been stored properly, should be used. The vaccine has a short life, only 10 days.
People can get infected with the soremouth virus when they come into contact with infected or recently-vaccinated animals. Handling the live vaccine can also result in infection. People handling infected animals or vaccinating sheep and goats should wear protective gloves at all times. Hands should be washed immediately after handling affected animals.
As with animals, soremouth can cause painful lesions in people. The lesions are usually on the hands. The sores may last for two months and usually heal without scarring. In rare cases, soremouth causes serious illness in people. Orf is self-limiting in hosts with normal immune systems. However, skins lesions can resemble more serious infections, such as cutaneous anthrax. A laboratory test for soremouth is available at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
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Winterizing your Herd Use the following three methods to ensure that your livestock operation is prepared to weather the cold. 1. Winterize Barns, Stables, and Outbuildings Your barn, stables, coops, and other ranch buildings hold your most valuable assets—livestock, feed, and equipment—so they need to be in tip-top shape for the cold weather. Things to check: Roofing: Check the shingles to make sure they are in good condition. Also, look for existing leaks or potential areas that could cause leaks. All leaks should be repaired before the snow and cold arrive because the problem will only get worse in wet, cold conditions. Insulation: Most livestock in Texas aren’t accustomed to frigid temperatures, so it’s important to keep them warm and comfortable by insulating your barns, stables, and coops. Some animals, especially poultry, can experience stress due to unusual weather changes. The more normal their environment feels, the better. Check for potential internal hazards: Tangled ropes and cords, holes in the floor, chemicals, medications, and sharp objects should be safely stored away from the reach of livestock. In addition, make sure all fire hazards are identified and removed, such as flammable products, wires and extension cords, portable electronic equipment, and appliances. External hazards: Clear any brush, overhanging tree branches, and equipment away from barns and other outbuildings
that could be damaged during high-wind storms. 2. Stock Up on Feed Cold, snowy winters severely limit foraging opportunities. It’s important to properly store hay and grains during cold weather to supplement natural feed, especially for livestock that live in warm environments—such as Texas—and are accustomed to foraging. Take the following steps to minimize feed waste during the winter months: Use feeders to provide hay in smaller-than-normal amounts. This will cut down on the feed that gets wasted from being soiled and trampled. Feed livestock in a dry environment to reduce the chance of mud and moisture that can contaminate hay and grains. Feed hay stored outside to livestock before you use the feed stored in barns. This will lessen the
The Boer Goat - 27
amount of feed that spoils. In addition to stocking up on feed, you also need to ensure livestock have access to a constant source of clean water. 3. Keep Supplies & Equipment on Hand Preparing for the unknown can save you a lot of time and hassle once the cold weather arrives. Here are just a few of the supplies you should have on hand this winter: Sand and rock salt to help break down ice buildup and eliminate slippery surfaces. This is less important for poultry, but hooved livestock have little to no grip on slippery surfaces, making them prone to injury. Medical supplies: You never know when an animal might get injured and become sick. Keep these essential items on hand at all times and you’ll be prepared to handle basic medical situations: Vet wrap, gauze, and alcohol prep pads Scissors and tweezers Disposable non-latex gloves Epsom salts Thermometer Topical antiseptic and antibiotic ointment Vet contact information Duct tape (or another durable tape) A generator: You don’t want to be without power in the dead of winter, which will eliminate your ability to supply heat or fresh water to your livestock. Winterizing your livestock ranch will save you time and money in the long run. With content livestock, less feed waste, and a safe environment to weather the cold, your operation will be ready to withstand the elements.
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Youth: Tuesday, February 26 – 8 a.m. Open: Wednesday, February 27 – 8 a.m. NRG Center, East Arena • Open Show Entry Deadline: Jan. 5, 2019 • Late Entry Deadline: Jan. 15, 2019 28 - The Boer Goat
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American Boer Goat Association
Consolidated Statement of Financial Position December 31, 2017 ASSETS Current Assets: Cash and Cash Equivalents Certificate of Deposits: Short-Term Accounts Receivable Investments Available for Sale Other Receivables Prepaid Expenses Total Current Assets
Property and Fixed Assets: Property and Fixed Assets at Cost Less: Accumulated Depreciation Net Property and Fixed Assets
1,078,034 103,558 20,749 269,437 510 4,518 1,476,806 270,627 (176,890) 93,737
Other Assets: Certificate of Deposits: Long-Term Total Other Assets
American Boer Goat Association
TotalofAssets Consolidated Statement Financial Position (Continued) December 31, 2017 LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS Current Liabilities: Accounts Payable Accrued Liabilities Credit Balances-Accounts Receivable Deferred Revenue Total Current Liabilities
41,006 203 121,016 118,258 280,483
Net Assets: Unrestricted Temporarily Restricted Total Net Assets
1,649,791 6,255 1,656,046
Total Liabilities and Net Assets See accompanying notes.
The Boer Goat - 29
American Boer Goat Association
Consolidated Statement of Activities and Changes in Net Assets For the Year Ended December 31, 2017 UNRESTRICTED NET ASSETS Support: EHB Program Junior Program Member Services Memberships National Show Income Registrations Transfers of Ownership Registration Total Support
Revenues: Interest Income Dividend Income Realized and Unrealized Gain on Investments Recoveries of Bad Debt Total Revenues Total Support and Revenues Net Assets Released from Restrictions: Net Assets Released from Restrictions
Expenses: Salaries and Benefits Travel Advertising and Promotion Annual Meeting Support Board Meeting Expense Depreciation DNA Evaluation Internet Expense Investment Expense Junior Support Magazine Expense National and Regional Show Expense Office and Occupancy Expenses Office Supplies and Equipment
30 - The Boer Goat
11,306 9,648 6,103 199 27,256 1,371,593 -
Total Unrestricted Support and Revenues
See accompanying notes.
10,915 8,083 187,831 376,700 164,431 448,620 147,757 1,344,337
1,371,593 421,852 53,307 6,775 359 21,849 10,328 83,953 3,072 2,615 37,916 64,244 169,957 47,770 117,185
American Boer Goat Association
Consolidated Statement of Activities and Changes in Net Assets (Continued) For the Year Ended December 31, 2017 Expenses (Continued) : Professional Services Sanctioned Shows and Ribbons Software Support and Maintenance Total Expenses
Change in Unrestricted Net Assets
36,623 22,550 45,171 1,145,526 226,067
TEMPORARILY RESTRICTED NET ASSETS Support: Research Donations-Boer Goat Total Support
Net Assets Released from Restriction: Total Net Assets Release from Restriction
Change in Temporarily Restricted Net Assets
Combined Change in Net Assets
Net Assets at Beginning of Year
Net Assets at End of Year
ABGA TATTOO LETTERS: 2019 Tattoo Year Letter: J 2018 Tattoo Year Letter: H 2017 Tattoo Year Letter: G 2016 Tattoo Year Letter: F
ABGA REFERENCE DATA CHANGE IN NET ASSETS $78,859 – ANNUAL AVG. 1997-2017 $132,990 -- 2016 $226,349 – 2017 COMBINED MEMBERSHIP (JABGA / ABGA)
Don't forget to renew your membership by December 31, 2018 for the 2019 year.
2015: 6917 2016: 7118 (increased by 3% vs 2015) 2017: 7622 (increased by 7% vs. 2016)
See accompanying notes.
The Boer Goat - 31
Studies show that owning pets better your health?
But, what about owning livestock? by Karla Blackstock
On the left, (in blue) are 8 points illustrating how pets have a postive affect on their owners. From fullfilling humans need for touch to adding in a touch of exercise, pets have a way of bettering the health of their human owners. As I sat at the VA hospital, I read an article on a recent study and I started thinking. Is my health better as a result of raising Boer Goats? I challenged the same eight points using Boer Goat examples and came to the conclusion that rasing livestock, while stressful and challenging at times, does have a positive affect on our health. I hope you enjoy this light-hearted read. A special thanks to Katherine Klug of Shepherd Creek and Chelia Demmitt of Sandy Creek Boers for the use of their photos.
1. They lower blood pressure: Research has shown that found that petting animals, or even simply being in their presence, can be positively correlated with a drop in blood pressure. 2. They increase cardiovascular health: A comprehensive review of scientific data on pets and cardiovascular response published in Current Directions in Psychological Science, indicated that pets have a positive impact on heart health. 3. They inspire us to exercise more frequently: Studies have shown that pet owners, on average, get more exercise, and that helps reduce both stress and depression. This is more the case with dog owners, who walk their dogs outside, but cat owners also get additional exercise from daily play
32 - The Boer Goat
1. They lower blood pressure: Right away, this is where simply owning pets and owning livestock differ because there are times when livestock, especially goats, can be extremely stressful. Boer Goats can raise your blood pressure during breeding season, kidding season and, well, year round. Ask any married couple who has tried to work livestock together - now that definitely doesn't lower your blood pressure. This buck decided that breeding season needed to start a little earlier than planned. 2. They increase cardiovascular health. Agreed! Certainly lugging around tons (I know that this is NO exageration for many breeders.) of feed has to be healthy. However, I will recite my doctor's comments. "Feeding animals doesn't get your heart rate up for more than 30 minutes." To which my response was, "Come feed for me tomorrow morning. I will be waiting." 3. Exercise more often, yes. How many tons of feed do you load/unload/ feed each week? Yet, studies show that playing with a cat is exercise? I do believe that goat owners have that
with their pets.
4. They make us feel less lonely: Humans are social beings; loneliness is a common source of stress. Our pets provide companionship, which not only decreases loneliness, but also encourages friendlier interactions with other people, further reducing stress.
4. They make us feel less lonely: I have to admit that the only things that keeps me from feeling lonely in the Boer Goat world are my fellow breeders, whether it is through shows, sales or social media. How many of your neighbors and friends truly understand that you can't go to a school function because you have to get your does out of the fence literally or that your child's wether has hung himself off the gate by ramming the panel through the ear tag hole?
5. They help us live in the moment. Pets reduce the tendency to focus on past mistakes or worry about future problems. Studies show that something as simple as a game of fetch with your dog can keep you tethered to the present moment, reducing the stress associated with past and future. 6. They fulfill our need for touch: Psychologists have long understood the importance of touch to psychological health. A recent article in Psychology Today, for example, notes that physical touch decreases violence, builds trust, boosts the immune system, and reduces stress. All pet owners reap the benefits of touch, but itâ€™s especially important for the increasing number of those who live alone. 7. They increase feelings of self-esteem: A recent
5. There is nothing like living in the moment, especially when you see those healthy babies still wet all over. How many of you enjoy sitting in the kidding barn or out on the back porch with a nice cold drink and enjoy the kids playing? And if you think about it, something as simple reaching in to turn a breech kid around so that it can properly enter the world, can keep you tethered to the present moment. I cannot count on that reducing stress, but it will keep your focused on the present moment. 6. They fulfill our need for touch. Agreed. Petting animals may decrease violence overall. This moment of Joy Gunn with Gunn1 Kong had everyone at the 2017 Comfort Classic understanding how wonderful animals can be - even when we just need a hug. Meanwhile, back at the farm, feeding a pen of hungry does is the best opportunity
The Boer Goat - 33
study from researchers at Miami University and Saint Louis University found that pet owners had better self-esteem than nonpet owners. They also were less fearful and less preoccupied, all of which contributed to a decrease in overall stress levels. 8. They make us laugh: According to the Mayo Clinic, laughter relieves our stress response and reduces tension.
to practice anger mangaement. As for building trust, its true. I can trust that my most precious show doe is NOT going to stand still when the moment comes. 7. They increase feelings of self-esteem. I genuinly agree with this point. No matter if you have a commerical herd, show stock or both, animals have a way of teaching our youth the self-esteem that is necessary for a healthy future. If you haven't attended one of the new regional shows being hosted around the US, you are missing out on some great opportunities to help your child, grandchild, niece or nephew gain a wealth of knowleege and selfesteem from the contests. 8. They make us laugh: According to the Mayo Clinic, laughter relieves our stress response and reduces tension. So before you walk out of the ring or pasture, remember to enjoy each moment. Life is too short. (Dedicated to the memory of Scott Gleeson and Bryan Owens)
34 - The Boer Goat
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Check us out under our Facebook page: MVF Boer Goats
PARKER SPOTTED GOATS Offering high fertility breeding stock with pasture raised hardiness & high meat production. Fullblood and percentages. Paula Parker, Harper Texas (830)459-7428
Photos from Around the ABGA Leah Maertens
Shane Merriman Julie Carreiro
Lindsey Marlowe Kristi Hubler 36 - The Boer Goat
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