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November/December 2015


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Letter from the Editor

I’ve spent hours contemplating on what message to send this month. I’m not going to tell you what’s in the magazine. Instead, I encourage you to read each article. In looking for the perfect inspirational quote for my message, I ran across a saying by Guy Kawasaki. “The best reason to start an organization is to make meaning; to create a product or service to make the world a better place.” I was looking for something from Winston Churchill, Thomas Edison or someone dynamic, but they just didn’t seem to fit. This quote, however, struck a chord with me as I reflect on my own life, which is much better with the addition of Boer goats. They aren’t just goats; they are a lifestyle. For many of us, the ABGA is the organization that brings together the meat goat industry that we all love. Traveling from show to show or from sale to sale offers my family a set of friends, “my stockshow family,” that believe in the same products that we have to offer. We are competitors inside the ring, but many of us are family outside the ring. (And much like our own families, we have moments of frustration.) My message this month is pretty simple. Believe in the product you have to offer, no matter where you fall in the ring, and enjoy the company of those alongside you. These are the friends that will help push us to the next level. We’ve all had a mentor along the way. Thank you to those individuals who take the time to give out a feed ration or a grooming technique that can change a new breeder’s course. You know who you are! Where else, but in agriculture, can you spend weekend after weekend with your stockshow families? I couldn’t have said it any better than Jason Brashear. “Judging every weekend makes for a crazy barn and a messy house, but a pretty nice life,” he said. For more on Jason, read his spotlight in the judges’ corner.

Karla Blackstock


BOARD OF DIRECTORS MEETING The next face-to-face Board meeting will be held December 11-12, 2015 in Las Vegas, NV.

RULE CHANGES Rule 708c has been amended to require an ABGA membership for agents. Rule 212 has been amended to permit a junior member to use the same herd prefix as the adult member/agent that resides within the same household. Ribbons for ABGA Shows in Conjunction with Fairs Shows can now request either monetary support or a ribbon package. This selection must be made at the time the sanction application is submitted. Shows that qualify for monetary support have the option of selecting ribbon packages OR monetary support. The sanction and penalty against Ms. Miranda Dickens has been withdrawn and she is a member in good standing.

In memory of Jack Talley. Jack was born on May 7, 1953, in Burnet County, Texas, and passed away on July 20, 2015. Jack and Mary were married on Jun 4, 1971 and had two daughters, Amy and Stacey. Jack and Mary started raising Boer goats in 1999, and they soon became his passion. In 2006, Jack

became a certified ABGA judge. He

served the Boer goat community as a

breeder, judge, friend and mentor.

To honor his life and love of Boer

goats, the First Annual Jack

M. Talley Memorial Boer

Goat Show will be held on April 16-17,

2016 in Sweetwater, Texas.

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Board of Directors

REGION 14: CYNTHIA PRICE-WESTFALL (EC) PRESIDENT: cindy_price_westfall@yahoo.com REGION 8: SHON CALLAHAN (EC) VICE-PRESIDENT: fourcranch1@gmail.com REGION 10: TRACY DIFFENBACK (EC) SECRETARY: tldief@gmail.com REGION 6: PAUL GRAFE (EC) TREASURER: pgrafe@valbridge.com REGION 1: TERRY BROWN • capriole@pocketinet.com REGION 2: SCOTT PRUETT (EC) • eieiowefarms@yahoo.com REGION 3: LEE DANA • danagoats81@gmail.com REGION 4: JOEL (JR) PATTERSON • bobnjr@gmail.com REGION 5: JOE AIROSO • joeatalc@gmail.com REGION 7: DAWN STEWARD • dawnsteward25332@gmail.com REGION 9: VICKI STICH • ladyhogger59@hotmail.com REGION 11: JANIS WESSON (EC) • dustydan1@windstream.net REGION 12: BRANT KNOTTS • brantknotts@yahoo.com REGION 13: BRAD MACKEY (EC) PAST PRESIDENT: bradmackey@bmackfarms.com REGION 15: SUSAN BURNER • wvburners@comcast.net REGION 16: SARA DAVIS (EC) l csdavis@oakhollowlivestock.com




LARY DUNCAN, Chief Executive Officer • lary@abga.org MARY ELLEN VILLARREAL, Executive Director • mary@abga.org CINDY DUSEK, Youth Coordinator • cindy@abga.org MARIA LEAL, Member Services • marial@abga.org SONIA CERVANTEZ, Accounts Receivable • sonia@abga.org MARINA ZEMKE, Registration Support • marina@abga.org AARON GILLESPIE, Registration Support • aaron@abga.org ASHLEY GUETIERREZ, Member Services • ashley@abga.org NICOLE PETRELLA, Receptionist • nicole@abga.org

ABGA OFFICE HOURS: Monday-Friday • 8:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST)

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Letter from the President As the summer has faded into fall and winter, most breeders are preparing for the upcoming kidding season and making plans for next year. Planning is in full swing at the ABGA as well; we are working on plans for the ABGA National Show, Judges Certification Program, compiling an impressive educational library and taking a long and hard look at the budget for 2016. Prior to joining the ABGA board of directors, I heard persistent rumors of the ABGA’s precarious financial position and possible demise. I have worked in the commercial banking industry for more than 20 years, and from a professional perspective, the ABGA is one of the most financially secure non-profit organizations I have worked with. A strong renewable revenue stream and a very strong financial statement will provide a sound base for moving forward for many years to come. With that being said, is there room for improvement? Yes, there is. While our income levels have remained constant over the past several years, the cost of operations continues to increase. A flat income level, with increasing expenses is not a position you want to remain in long term. As we are all aware, the cost of everything continues to increase, from healthcare to postage to rent, it adds up quickly! We are currently reviewing all of the ABGA programs and looking for savings through negotiated discounts, more efficient processes, electronic solutions and corporate donations. We are making cuts where possible. While our priority is to maintain top-quality customer service and timely registration to our members, we will need to make some tough decisions regarding our National Show, JABGA Programs and overall operational expenses. While the ABGA is a non-profit organization, we need to maintain a balanced budget and adequate income levels to ensure that the ABGA will be here to serve our members for generations to come. As we complete our 2016 budgeting process, we welcome member input. So, please let us know what’s on your mind. As we go through the process of “tightening our belts”, we will all need to do more with a little less. So, if your registrations papers come without a plastic sleeve in the future or we ask that you access information on the web site verses in the mail, the savings associated with those changes are helping to provide for a long secure future for the ABGA. Cindy Price-Westfall, President ABGA™ Board of Directors © 2015 American Boer Goat Association™

In This Issue

4 Affiliates Program 5 Calendar of Events 6 Message from the CEO


Lary Duncan

7 Judges’ Course 8 Meet the JUDGE: Jason Brashear 10 JABGA Update 12 Target Marketing 15 Drugs and Kids 16 Gestation Chart 17 Vaccination Table 18 Vaccines 101 20 Kidding Equipment 21 Newborn Care 22 Breeder’s Spotlight: Brad Laney 24 Trailer Safety 26 Managing Minerals - Copper 28 Standouts 31 Editorial Changes 32 Markets 35 Classifieds 36 Photo Contest

Young Boer kids are playful socialites. They enjoy playing with each other, and as with most young animals, they are curious about almost anything. Photo by Joanne Peters

The Boer Goat CONTACT

1207 S. BRYANT BLVD. SUITE C SAN ANGELO, TX 76903 TEL: 325.486.2242 FAX: 325.486.2637




The Jan/Feb issue of The Boer Goat will have a section on Health and Nutrition. Make sure to showcase your ranch or company by advertising in the business card section or by purchasing ad space.


If you would like to see your photo in the next issue of The Boer Goat, please submit your picture to editor@abga.org. Please send photos in the largest size you have available. The Boer Goat hereby expressly limits its liability resulting from any and all misprints, errors and/or all inaccuracies whatsoever in the advertisement and editorial content published by The Boer Goat and its said liability is here by limited to the refund of the customer or its payment for the said advertisement, the running of a corrected advertisement, or editorial notice. Notification by the customer of any errors must be made within 30 days of distribution of the magazine. The opinions or views expressed in all editorials are those of the writer or persons interviewed and not The Boer Goat. The Boer Goat does, however, reserve the right to edit or refuse all material, which might be objectable in content. No material or part thereof, may be reproduced or used out of context without prior, specific approval of a proper credit to The Boer Goat.

The Boer Goat - 3


Affiliates Program

Are you looking for a local source of Boer goat knowledge? The ABGA’s Affiliate Program offers clubs that have an increased role of education, marketing and promotion. These local clubs provide an essential role in promoting the industry and educating breeders. Locate your nearest club today!

Boer Goat Association of North Carolina

Snake River Meat Goat Association

Cascade Boer Goat Association

Clara Askew, Secretary/Treasurer 8054 Ustick Rd Nampa, ID 83687 Email: foxtailfarms@hotmail.com Website: www.srmga.com Serving States: Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico

Kelly Clark PO Box 36479 Greensboro, NC 27416 Email: KellyClark@triad.rr.com Serving States: North Carolina

Crystal Fenton 14352 West Hwy 12 Touchet, WA 99360 Email: info@cascadebga.org Serving States: California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington

Empire State Meat Goat Producers Association PO Box 306 Watkins Glen, NY 14830 607-937-3324 Serving States: New York

Iowa Meat Goat Association 10163 E State Hwy 0 Davis City, IA 50065 601-223-0023 Serving States: Iowa

Keystone Goat Producers Association 106 Carlisle Road Newville, PA 17241 Email: rzeigler@centurylink.net Serving States: Pennsylvania

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Tall Corn Meat Goat Wether Assoc, Inc Vern Thorp 1959 Highway 63 New Sharon, IA 50207 WW Email: windrushia@gmail.com Website: www.meatgoatwether.com Serving States: Iowa

Tri-State Goat Producers Association [TSGPA] 5125 State Route 2 Greenup, KY 41444 Email: billupsfarms@windstream.net Serving States: Kentucky

Send your updates to editor@abga.org to highlight your affiliates’ activities.

Calendar OF EVENTS 2015 Show


Rolling Hills Casino Boeranza Comfort Classic National Western American Premier Boer Goat Show Yellow Rose Classic Boer Goat Show 2015 Sheep & Goat Health & Production

December 5-6 December 19 January 13, 2016 January 17, 2016 January 18, 2016 December 3 (7-9 pm EST)




Rolling Hills Casino Livestock Events Center Kendall County Fairgrounds National Western Complex Will Rogers Memorial Center Will Rogers Memorial Center

916-705-1582 830-456-1599 303-299-5559 817-877-2400 817-877-2400

https://extension.purdue.edu/Fulton/Pages/ article.aspx?intItemID=12615

Be sure your next show or event is on the ABGA calendar. Submit it to the office staff for inclusion in the online calendar, which can be located at http://abga.org/events/category/shows.

The Boer Goat - 5

Message To say it has not been a bit of an adjustment from the farm to an office this last month would be a lie. Yet, I remain both exited

and steadfast in my decision to have done so. With that said, let’s talk a minute about my priority list, created by a survey of your Board of Directors (BOD). It was determined that I needed to address the following: database/ website, the future home of the ABGA, member growth and retention and last, but not least, the 2016 budgets for the JABGA/ABGA. The database/website project has undergone a number of changes in the past year so a fair amount of my free time this month has been spent bringing myself up to speed with what has been done, what remains to be done and setting a plan to accomplish it. Online live, the newest member of our website options, remains a work in progress, but you no longer are required to make additional logins to move through online live into the blue screen to do animal and member searches. We also have set a course of action to make the registration of AI-ET kids a reality in the very near future and last, but not least, a plan to resolve compatibility issues that excludes many of the Apple, mobile devices and browsers. The question is do we allot the funds needed to customize what we now have in Online live or wait a few months and move to the next generation of software that will be offered to us at little to no cost? This upgrade will address the majority of our compatibility problems. There are pros and cons to

6 - The Boer Goat

from the CEO ...

both of these choices, which is why I am taking it back to the board for review. Plans and changes for the 2016 ABGA National Show are being finalized, and as soon as it is completed we will be updating the National Show website with the 2016 information as well. The junior coordinator is currently tabulating points for the JABGA Buckle Series Shows so they can be posted. We are also mapping all the site pages so we can set a schedule to handle all the weekly, monthly and annual updates required on the site to keep it current. Will we always be at 1207 S. Bryant Blvd? I am reasonably sure the answer is no to this one. Ervin Chavana, while serving as president of the board of directors a few years ago, realized that given the ultra-conservative, low-yielding investment options that a nonprofit organization like the ABGA would utilize, it made more sense for us to acquire a new home versus paying rent. As a result, the next boards of directors purchased land to build on, and plans were drawn up. The building committee is in the process of updating the bid to build, shopping for existing structures, and evaluating other lease options to decide the best move for the ABGA long term. As Cindy allowed in her president’s letter this month, the 2016 budget is right at the top of the current BOD’s priority list. How does the budget work at the ABGA? In the past, based on the current year’s income the BOD set an expense budget for the coming year with a modest retention for growth to cover inflation to run the ABGA for the coming year. It is important to understand that if the ABGA is to be here 100 years from now, we all need to

be fiscally responsible in our decisions. I guess what I could say is that we cannot be like the Federal Government and build a national debt, but rather like a State Government that is held to a balanced budget and only spends what we have to spend. We are currently fiscally well positioned for a non-profit organization of our type and simply need to maintain it. Member retention and growth may be the hardest subject I have to address. This is an area of improvement for you great right-brain thinkers and, without a doubt, your input will be welcomed. Feel free to e-mail me with any ideas you may have at lary@abga.org. With that said, one of things that I am investigating would address marketing member’s animals correctly. I believe that lack of marketing is the number one reason many exit the business early. So my idea is to build, lease or acquire an online marketing system that ABGA members could utilize to get their goat offerings in front of the public in an affordable way that would let them reach their full-market value. This may be much easier said than done, as I have identified a prime program that would make this a reality with BOD approval; however, the owner has been very reluctant to price the system. As I said when I started this subject, this is a tough one but the end goal is for the ABGA to find ways within their means to add value to the privilege of you holding an ABGA membership card. Happy Holidays,


Newton Farms 21232 Surface Ave. Lakeville, IN 46536

Comfort Inn & Suites 60971 US 31 S South Bend, IN 46614

$300/person Class limited to 40-45 participants. For more information: lary@abga.org

Application: http://abga.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/2016-Judge-Certification-Application.pdf The Boer Goat - 7

Meet ABGA Certified Judge: Jason Brashear by Karla Blackstock


ason Brashear is no stranger to the goat industry. Although he has only been a certified ABGA judge since 2014, he has been an international judge since 2007 and judging goats in various arenas since 2000. “I started out raising goats at age 8, so basically I’ve been around goats my whole life,” he said. “At 8, I thought they were cute, but I soon realized that they were something that I could economically afford and that I could manage on my own. My love for the industry grew from there.” But, he admits that it’s his love of kids that keeps him in the ring. “I enjoy judging youth shows,” said Brashear, an agricultural science teacher at Perry County Central High School in Hazard, Kentucky. If you’ve been in the ring with Brashear, you probably know that he enjoys his job as a judge. He says that being in the ring should be fun. “I believe that I am consistent with my judging, but I like to have a good time in the ring,” he said. “My motto is let’s have fun, let’s be fair and let’s educate. If I have an exhibitor that tells me afterwards that they learned something, then that is the best compliment I can receive,” he said.

8 - The Boer Goat

Brashear raises mostly commercial and percentage show animals, keeping sound functional animals at the forefront both in the ring and in the pasture. “I like to raise wide-based, extended-fronted, round-ribbed does,” he said. And as for bucks, Brashear said he keeps to the middle in terms of style. “Some people prefer powerful, rugged-fronted bucks. Others prefer super pretty fronted bucks. I like ones that fall somewhere in the middle,” he said. “I like power and bone balanced with style. I like a buck that will add width, dimension and hip to my females.” Brashear admits that there is interpretation of standards and every judge will have his unique opinion, but the ultimate goal is to advance the breed. “We are all trying as judges to pick out the best of the best. We pick different goats, but as a whole we are getting more consistent and trying to make the breed better,” he said. But making decisions in the ring isn’t always easy. Brashear admits that seeing the disappointment on exhibitors faces can be difficult at times, but he tries to turn those times into learning opportunities especially for young exhibitors.

“It’s important, especially with kids, to motivate them and let them know where their goat is good and where they can improve. I try to tell them something like, you have a good goat, but we need to tweak it here and here to move up to the top.” It is important to Brashear that exhibitors walk away feeling good and understanding where their goat’s faults are and how to fix the faults so that they are encouraged. As for his own herd, Brashear said he is in a rebooting process. “I want to get back to the national show and to the top, but I am rebuilding right now,” he said. “ I always see myself having goats. I want to continue to get better. I aspire to get back to being competitive at the national level. I would love to judge junior nationals. That’s my first goal because that is where my heart is.” Every weekend this fall, I was judging somewhere on Saturday and somewhere else on Sunday. It makes for a crazy barn and a messy house, but a pretty nice life.”


Photos submitted by Jason Brashear

REMEMBER: You must renew your membership BEFORE December 31, 2015.

JUDGES COMMITTEE Lary Duncan – Chair Scott Pruett Chip Kemp Jason Brashear Jeremy Church Kathy Daves Carr Josh Stephans Eddie Holland JUDGES CERTIFICATION PLANNING COMMITTEE Lary Duncan – Chair Scott Pruett Chip Kemp Shelby Armstrong Eddie Holland Coni Ross Ron Dilley Curt Henry Jeremy Church

The Boer Goat - 9

Junior American Boer Goat Update By Maddie Fenton, JABGA Reporter

During the National FFA Convention and Expo (October 28-31, 2015), Quincy Edwards, Michael Wetherell, Cindy Dusek, and myself had the opportunity to promote the Junior American Boer Goat Association by running a booth in Career Center. Close to 65,000 FFA members and guests attended the Convention, and we are pleased to report that we have handed out almost every promotional material that we brought. At our booth, along with the other species booths, Resource CD’s were offered to every advisor who wished to have information on all the associations in the Livestock Education Center, including the JABGA. Our booth handed out over 1,600 CD’s, and in total over 6,000 CD’s were handed out. Along with multiple FFA members and guests that visited us simply for their interest in Boer goats and our association, we were delighted to welcome and converse with past members of the ABGA Board of Directors and past and present members of the JABGA National Board, along with present members of the JABGA and ABGA. Overall, as the Reporter of the JABGA, the National FFA Convention and Expo was a complete success, and the promotion that entailed was a huge benefit to our association.

10 - The Boer Goat

Above: Maddie Fenton visits with Boer goat enthusiasts. Below: A delegation from Texas stopped by to support the JABGA. Below Left: Michael Wetherell, Maddie Fenton, Mikayla Wetherell and Quincy Edwards proudly represented the JABGA.

Goat Field Day Comes to San Angelo

by Steve Byrns, Texas A&M Agrilife Communications

A sheep and goat field day recently held in San Angelo, Tx, highlighted work done at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center in San Angelo. It was also the inaugural Texas Sheep and Goat Expo at the San Angelo Fairgrounds. “I’d say the first-ever Texas Sheep and Goat Expo was a great success,” said Marvin Ensor, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service regional program director at San Angelo. As is reflected in the industry, Ensor said the expo was designed to meet a very diverse and changing sheep and goat industry by highlighting Texas producers’ four major areas of interest. “We offered concurrent sessions that met everybody’s

needs -- from meat goats to traditional wool sheep to hair sheep to club lamb producers,” he said. “We offered new updates on technology, as well as ways to combat some of the problems we’ve faced for some time such as predators and rising input costs.” Ensor acknowledged while there is much that is new in the sheep and goat industry, there are still major sticking points that have plagued it for generations. “We’re still dealing with a lot of the same issues and we’re always looking for ways to combat some of the things we’ve dealt with over the years,” he said. “So this program was designed to help those in the wool industry talk about reproductive efficiency as a way to improve that area of production as well as the predator issue. Those two were the big issues for that group.” More than 200 attended the event, and many are already inquiring about the date for the next session. “We have a committee that helped put this expo together: AgriLife Extension agents along with a number of industry people, ranchers and others who we brought in to plan this program,” Ensor said. “We’re now looking at the evaluation surveys from participants to see how often we should have a similar event, where it should be and what topics should be warranted so we can make an informed decision in the future.

The Boer Goat - 11

Photo by Alyssa Dugat

Target-marketing: Maximize farm net income

by Dr. Frank Pinkerton, 5461 Hilliard Road, San Marcos, Texas; 512.392.4123; akathegoatman@icloud.com

The prevailing economic situation in the meat goat industry strongly suggests that current returns to labor, management and capital to enterprises (both large and small, commercial and breeding, regardless of location) are mostly considered unsatisfactory. Unfortunately, as discussed in the September/October issue, this situation does not lend itself to increasing herd size or output/farm or output/doe even though the industry is currently supplying only about 50 percent of consumer needs, and imports are increasingly necessary to fill the void. If a producer cannot increase herd output by increasing numbers and weights of kids sold to improve gross income/ farm, perhaps a novel marketing strategy should be considered to generate additional income. I call this strategy ‘target marketing of sales’ so as to increase the price/lb of kids sold. This scheme is made possible by taking advantage of historically evident gyrations in prices of slaughter goats across seasons.

12 - The Boer Goat

The seasonal pattern in slaughter weight of slaughter kids has historically kid prices is highest in cold weather averaged 62-64 lb, but ranges from 50 to and lowest in hot weather. Prices 75 lbs (with farm weights being about 5 begin to rise in early November to a lb higher to ‘allow’ for transit shrink (4pre-Christmas peak, then fall briefly in 8%) farm to auction to packer. early/mid-January only to recover and Birth weights typically average 7-8 lb increase in February and March. The but range 5-10 lbs, or more, depending second (usually higher) peak is just on age, parity, and size of dams. Experiprior to Easter (typically in April). enced commercial breeders can usually Prices fall appreciably in May and even expect kid average daily gain (ADG) to more sharply in June to reach summer Photo by Nathaniel Walters range .30 to .45 lb/day, birth to sale (9 lows in July through October. to 13 lb/month of age… average 11 lb), I first observed this recurring pattern at the nation’s largagain depending on age and size of dams and, of course, est U.S. auction, Producer’s in San Angelo, TX, in mid nineties the quantity/quality of available forage during lactation and (with nearly 200,000 annual throughput, but currently much post-weaning to sale time and whether or not creep-feeding less due to the decline in numbers since 2008). This pattern was practiced. Using these figures (or more precise figures has been reliably repeated since the mid-nineties even during generated on your farm), you can calculate the kidding dates the period of recent higher prices from 2013 to late 2015. needed to get 75 lb kid weights (at the farm) and 70 lb sale The extent (depth) of the summer prices has decreased weights at auction during the winter time period in which relative to the preceding winter prices, even as the rolling you wish to sell. average prices increased across years. Price differentials For convenient illustration, I use an 11-month lead-time for between weight categories and between market grades also breeding, gestation, and lactation in order to hit the chosen have shrunk as supplies have lessened and as prices moved marketing month. In such a scenario, does bred December/ upward. In any case, this pattern will continue for the January would kid in May and June and reach market size/age foreseeable future. This confidence is the rational basis for in November and December. To target the mid/late winter the marketing scheme described in this article. Caveat: as you see, annual, bi-annual, or tri-annual This seasonal pattern is largely the result of the numbers marketing schemes do not permit one to target special of goats being offered for sale in warm weather months. holidays, be they religious or political in nature. Targeting These numbers are the result of producer decisions to breed Muslim holiday needs is particularly difficult in that the goats in late summer/fall (post summer equinox) with subselunar calendar used advances the dates of the holidays quent parturitions peaking December/March with a second, every year. On the other hand, the demand at certain much smaller wave in April/May. holidays may permit the sales of goats in unusually wide The demand from consumers of goat meat does not weight categories. For more information, see www.inclosely follow this pattern of supply, given that imports terfaithcalendar.org and, from Cornell University, Ithaca, necessarily come into the U.S. from Australia to fill our winter PA www.sheepgoatmarketing.info. Contact Dr. Tatiana void of slaughter goats. Australia is in the southern Stanton at tls7@cornel.edu for more detail. hemisphere, and its seasons are ‘opposite’ … thus, they Immigrants from various parts of the world celebrate breed in the spring to kid in the fall, and have kids ready for various cultural events and dates (July 4th, cinco de Mayo, diez y seis) and often seek kids and lambs and sometime sale in the winter. adults of both species as the major festival offering. Local It is an ongoing puzzle that import prices at retail remain civic and church groups can provide more detail as to appreciably lower than our domestic goat meat. (My what-and-when purchasing needs. colleagues and I are trying to get the resources together to In that respect, recent arrivals are taking heavier margo to Australia and see how they can cheaply ship goat meat ket goats (150 +/- 25 lb) and specifying castrated males halfway around the world). as first choice, but they will also take fat does in this weight range. Prices being paid are not much less than those for traditional market kids. Nepalese, Bhutanese The bulk of domestic slaughter kids sold annually are and Senegalese consumers seem to be concentrated in composed of crossbred Boers and crossbred Kikos with Minneapolis, MN and Fargo, ND. The large Latino market fewer numbers of crossbred Savannahs and Myotonics, as takes a variety of weights, grades, and sexes, as do those well as cull Boer and Kiko purebreds. The preferred market of Caribbean origin.

Logistics: December/April sales

The Boer Goat - 13

high-dollar market, does would need to breed in mid-March to mid-May so as to kid from mid-August and mid-October. There are certain limitations to achieving these schedules. First, some owners may not have the quality of does (or feeding programs) necessary to achieve 11 lb of gain/month. If not, the lead-time, breeding to sale, might have to be extended to 12 months rather than 11 months. Alternatively, creep-feed might be used to improve ADG of kids, provided the cost were ‘economical’ to achieve an 11 month interval, or less. Secondly, does are biologically more inclined toward fall breeding than spring breeding. However, certain crossbreds do have the capability to breed in the spring and these can be identified, retained and propagated over time to fit fall kidding and winter sales schedules. Experience has shown that breeding spring-born doelings at 12-14 months of age can identify fall-kidding animals. Alternatively, there are now legally approved hormone treatments (CIDRs—vaginal sponges) to initiate estrus for out-of-season breeding programs; conception rates are acceptable, as are costs and labor involved. This technique also synchronizes kidding dates. Also, in the southern states, some producers have found that late spring-born kids do no grow as fast as March-born kids. Some producers are using accelerated breeding programs to increase kid off-take from their herds. In this scenario, does kid three times in 24 months and, if they average 150 percent kidding rate each time, the annualized kidding rate is 225 percent that is appreciably better than good managers can achieve, say, 175-185 percent per annum. There are, however, certain consequences to this ‘3/24’ scheme. It is more labor-intensive, and one kidding will generally occur in January (typically not a desirable month); accordingly, their weaned kids will sell at low summer market prices. Contrarily, in this scheme does bred in May and December produce kids for sale during the late and early periods of highest prices, respectively. Some producers find accelerated kidding not amenable to their management (or marital) situations, while other

producers have found that maintaining two ‘separate’ herds is more convenient and manageable. In this scheme, herd A is bred in late spring for fall kidding and winter marketing, while herd B is bred in late fall for spring kidding and late fall marketing. In this scenario, owners spread labor requirements more evenly and generate cash flow twice annually—a good management strategy in itself, and it avoids marketing any slaughter goats in the months of lowest prices/lb. A corollary benefit is that surplus doelings may be selected to fit buyers wanting to pursue similar management and marketing strategies—almost certain to command premium prices for breeding stock. Since the U.S. goat market is undersupplied by about half, selling domestic goats (all weights and sexes) is hardly an issue. Remember, we eat about as many Australian goats as we do domestic goats. For those who might want to process your own goat for the deep-freezer, or perhaps to sell carcass cuts directly to consumers at your farm, I can send you by email a copy of our LSU Meat Goat Selection, Carcass Evaluation, and Fabrication Guide (at your request, no charge). I also apprise you that selling live slaughter goats to buyers coming to your farm can typically raise prices by $40-50/head over auction prices, sometimes more if holiday buyers are looking. I concede those owners of Boers breeding for shows and sales to other like-minded players that breeding dates are primarily determined by the need for certain ages/sizes of animals to fit given the show. These dates may/may not fit commercial sales needs, but this is irrelevant to owners. However, you should be aware that there have been recent developments in marketing those show wethers that don’t stand high enough in their classes to bring the extraordinary premiums. Many buyers of such wethers (typically at some agreed-on ‘floor’ price) are now reselling them as ‘feeder goats’ to entrepreneurs who then ‘finish’ them to higher weights aimed at the developing market for older, larger ‘cut’ goats. Just sayin…

Photo by Julie Stellingwerf 14 - The Boer Goat

GIVING DRUGS TO KIDS by Dr. Fred C. Homeyer, Antelope Creek Ranch

From time to time I pick up a copy of “The San Angelo Family Magazine” that is distributed in the businesses where I live. I am always amazed at some of the thought provoking articles that are included in this little magazine. This article is about one of the “gems” I found in the January 2012 issue. The title of this article “Giving Drugs to Kids” could have several meanings and imply that the article could be about several different things. Since I normally write about goat-related subjects you could have thought that the article was going to be about doctoring sick baby goats and it could have been (and part of it is). I have always heard it said that the best doctors in the world are veterinarians and pediatric (baby human) doctors because the patient in each case cannot tell you what is wrong with them. These doctors have to be better than good.

Photo by Andi Wainscot of Maizen

In the nineteen years I have been raising South African Boer goats I have had to learn to “doctor” many kid goats because making an appointment with the vet every time a goat gets sick or has a runny nose and paying for injections at $15 each or more would rapidly put me out of business. Simply to survive in the goat business you have to learn something about goat medicine and how to doctor your own goats. It is a matter of survival. Of course, some baby goats were not supposed to survive due to sickness, weakness, malformation, etc. and if left to get up and nurse in a pasture environment some would not live. It’s called “survival of the fittest” first described and written about by Charles Darwin.

Because of the extremely high value of the early Boer goats that came to this country many people raised these early goats like “hot house plants” monitoring every breath and movement and being present at every birth to “get in there” and assist the mother with having her kids. We seem to forget that goats having been having babies for tens of thousands of years without human help. When raising “hot house goats” in some cases kids were so weak that they could not get up to nurse so we fed them with a stomach tube for a couple of weeks until they had the strength to walk and two years later the goat is someone’s herd sire and we wonder why some Boer goats have a reputation for being weak and lacking mothering ability. We saved the weak ones that were not meant to live and reversed the survival of the fittest idea by undoing hundreds, if not thousands, of years of selection where only the strongest animals survived. That being said I think that there is still a case to be made for giving medicine to sick kids. Medicine to cure scours, runny noses, cloudy eyes, and congested chests. The more goats you raise the better you may become with administering the proper medicine to bring them back to health. Of course your friendly vet has a very important part to play in this process as well and can provide valuable consultation and assistance in serious cases. They can assist you and supervise you in administering the medicines that you can only get from your vet. So, what about giving drugs to human kids? The kind of drugs described in this article build character and have long lasting effects. Here is the article that appeared in the San Angelo Family Magazine. I hope it makes you think as much as I did – and appreciate the parenting you received in your formative years.

Kids and Drugs

The other day, someone at a store in our town read that a Methamphetamine lab had been found in an old farmhouse in the adjoining county and he asked me a rhetorical question, “Why didn’t we have a drug problem when you and I were growing up?” I replied that I had a drug problem when I was young: I was drug to church on Sunday morning. I was drug to church for weddings and funerals. I was drug to family reunions and community socials no matter what the weather.

continued on page 19... The Boer Goat - 15

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Bred Due Bred Due Bred Due on on on on on on


Based on 151-day gestation. To use the ABGA online calculator, go to http://abga.org/education/gestation-calculator/

Gestation Table

* Some schedules suggest as early as 8 weeks. Adjust booster accordingly. ** If vaccinated earlier than 3 months of age, revaccinate at 16 and 60 weeks of age.


60 and 30 days prior to breeding

Campylobacter (If herd problem)

Caseous ecythma (Sore Mouth - if herd problem)

60 and 30 days prior to breeding

Leptospirosis (If herd problem)


60 and 30 days prior to breeding

X (Booster)

X (Booster)


16 weeks

Chlamydia (If herd problem)


12 weeks



Birth - 1 week






Annual Booster

Annual Booster

Annual Booster

30 Days from Kidding

Suggested vaccination schedules may vary. Table information provided by Langston University, Oklahoma Agricultural Research and Extension Programs.

Vaccination Table

Vaccines 101:Just the Basics by Karla Blackstock

Like all animals, kids are born with all the components vaccines, do not replicate inside the body; therefore, the that are contained in its immune system from its mother. Its immune system does not get exposed to the massive naive body (never been exposed to foreign antigens) does amounts of antigens that are generated by the live vaccines. not have a build up of antibodies to ward off any invasion. Toxoid vaccines are comprised of disease-causing bacteria Colostrum contains antibodies to the major infection that produce toxins that invade the bloodstream. Toxoid disease organisms. These antibodies circulate around the vaccines, such as those for enterotoxemia and tetanus, use immune system, defending the young animals from infection bacterial toxins that have been rendered harmless to provide until the animal is vaccinated. immunity against the toxin. Over time young kids develop their own antibodies as Certain vaccines require additional doses or boosters to they are weaned from their mother. During these weeks, produce a full immune response. Vaccines that induce a short vaccinating for a number of illnesses becomes critical to the period of immunity require yearly booster shots to restore health of the young goat. the immunological response. All vaccines, regardless of species (human, cattle or No vaccine is 100 percent effective as the immune goats), cause the immune system to respond by producing B systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s response depends on the type of vaccine and the cells (white blood cells). These cells produce plasma cells that ability of the animal to respond. in turn produce specific antibodies, or proteins, that increase resistance to certain diseases. Other white blood cells, such as macrophages and T cells, Administration of vaccines (as with all medications) is help by destroying invading diseases. Vaccines for goats necessary component of herd management. Practicing currently are categorized as modified-live, killed, and toxoid. proper sanitation will minimize the introduction of bacteria Modified-live vaccines use live microorganisms that have into medicine vials and prevent or reduce the chance of been weakened. This type of vaccine causes a prolonged spreading diseases from one animal to the next. response of the animalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s immune system. The vaccine for Disposable needles are meant to be disposed of after a sore mouth disease is an example of a modified-live vaccine. single use. Reusable stainless steel needles can be disinfected Live vaccines actually multiply within the body and actibetween animals; however, these needles will become dull vate the immune systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s response. Any animals that have after six to 10 injections and should be replaced. an allergic reaction to live vaccines should not be given the Start by selecting the correct needle size to accommodate same ones again. For these reactions to all medications, Recommended Needle Sizes and Lengths Used with Goats it is important to keep epinephrine on hand. Age Gauge Needle Length Killed vaccines use killed < 4 weeks old 20 to 22 1/2 inch 1/2 inch (inactivated) bacteria or viruses. These vaccines, 4 to 16 weeks 20 to 22 1/2 to 3/4 inch 1/2 inch which include the pneumonia vaccine, are generally 4 to 6 months 20 to 22 1 inch 1/2 inch safer than live vaccines. > 6 months 18 to 20 to 22 1 inch 1/2 inch Killed, or inactive


18 - The Boer Goat

the type of injection. Needle gauge should be selected proportional to the viscosity, or thickness, of the injectable liquid. The needle bore diameter increases as the needle gauge size decreases (e.g. 18G is large than 20G). The length of the needle also is relevant to the type of injection. For subcutaneous, Sub Q or SQ, a ¾-inch needle is appropriate. For intramuscular (IM) injections or heavier animals, 1-inch or 1 ½-inch needles work well. For injections requiring intravenous administration consult the direction of your veterinarian.

Subcutaneous Injections

Subcutaneous injections are normally administered by pinching the skin into a “tent” and inserting the needle carefully not to penetrate both sides. Common sites for subcutaneous injections are the extra skin under the foreleg area or behind the elbow, over the shoulder blade, in the flank area, and on the side of the neck. Do not give more than 5 cc (ml) of any liquid at one side; divide the amount necessary in multiple sites.

Intramuscular Injections

IM medications should never be given in muscles that correspond to valuable cuts of meat, such as the leg or loin. Tissue irritation and reactions to injections can manifest as abscesses and scar the meat. This can be detected at slaughter and compromise meat quality.

...continued from page 15 I was drug by my ears when I was disrespectful to adults. I was also drug to the woodshed when I disobeyed my parents, told a lie, brought home a bad report card, did not speak with respect, spoke ill of the teacher or the preacher, or if I didn’t put forth my best efforts in everything that was asked of me. I was drug to the kitchen sink to have my mouth washed out with soap if I uttered a profanity. I was drug out to pull weeds in mom’s garden and flower beds and cockleburs out of dad’s fields. I was drug to the homes of family, friends and neighbors to help out some poor soul who had no one to mow the yard, repair the clothesline, or chop some firewood, and, if my mother had ever known that I took a single dime as a tip for this kindness, she would have drug me back to the woodshed. Those drugs are still in my veins and they affect my behavior in everything I do or say or think. They are stronger than cocaine, crack or heroin and if today’s children had these kind of drug problems, America would be a better place. God bless the parents who drugged us..” Reprinted with permission from “San Angelo Family” magazine, January 2012 issue – www.sanangelofamilymagazine.com Bravo to San Angelo Magazine! I can remember experiencing a lot of these “drugs” when I was growing up. Thanks to my parents for the drugs they gave me. Until next time....

Photo by Karla Blackstock

The Boer Goat - 19

Facilities and Equipment for Kidding Time It is critical to prepare your facilities and equip your toolkits before your first kids are born. You’ve heard of spring cleaning, but fall/winter cleaning before kids arrive is a good time to disinfect kidding pens and ensure that you have adequate paddocks or large runs for kids. Wash with a disinfecting solution or treat the ground with lime before putting down clean bedding. This practice helps remove bacteria and other pathogens from the facilities. You can also place portable pens in the sun for a couple of days. Make sure the shelter you plan to use is protected from drafts but has good vitalization. Check heat lamps to make sure they are working and place them where needed if you are kidding in winter or early spring. After ensuring that your facilities are clean and ready for kids, stock your kidding toolkit and make sure that it is readily available for the first kids of the season. This can be an exciting time, but for many new breeders it can be filled with anxiety. Be sure your toolkit has the following items to ease the stress of kidding.

Kidding Toolkit

Flashlight- Ensure that you have a source of light for late-night kidding. You never know when kids will decide to arrive. Be sure you keep extra batteries in the kit also. Towels - Towels will come in handy for assisted and unassisted deliveries. If kids are born with the sac over their nose and mouth, first-time mothers may not be quick to clean off the sac. Towels also come in handy if you have need to pick up slippery kids by their legs to get their airways cleaned out. Scissors - Keep sharpened scissors in your toolkit to cut the umbilical cord off before dipping it in iodine. Iodine 7% - Iodine is used to cover or dip the umbilical cord in to fight off infection. Nutra-Drench - This supplement can be given to newborns to give them energy to get them to nurse quicker. Small glass jar - Keep a small, clean jar with a lid in the kidding box to milk colostrum in case the kid doesn’t begin nursing. Latex gloves / Lubricant- Gloves and lubricant should be used if you have to assist with the birthing process. Scale / Record Keeper - If you are keeping records on birth weights, be sure to have your scale, records and pen handy. Small syringe and feeding tub - A syringe can be use to feed colostrum to a weak kid. Put a little on their tongue to stimulate their nursing reflex. Continue to supplement if necessary if they haven’t nursed on their own withins the first 90 minutes or 2 hours. Keep a feeding tube in your kit for kids too week to suck. Plastic bottle and nipple - If strong kids haven’t nursed within their 2-hour window, it may be time to put some colostrum in a small bottle and have them get the necessary nutrients. Oxytocin - If the doe does not shed her afterbirth within 24 hours, Oxyticin can help expel the placenta. 20 - The Boer Goat

Care and management of newborn kids You have your facilities clean and your toolkits are ready. Now, the wait begins. When your kids begin to arrive, you will also need to know how to care for them to reduce any potential losses. First, make sure the newborns are breathing. While a doe should clean up her own kid, she may become busy with a twin birth, so it is important that you are ready to remove any material from around the mouth and nose. Clean and dry the newborn kids with a clean towel from your kit. A piece of straw gently inserted up the nasal passage will stimulate breathing in a weak newborn. Keep newborns in a warm, dry location. Providing a clean, dry and soft bedding area will ensure that kids are warm and dry. If the bedding gets wet, change it or add more to keep it warm and dry. If kids are in a pen, a heating lamp can be installed, but be sure to secure it safely and correctly; do not let animals chew the cord. Cut the umbilicus (naval cord) to 1.5 inches in length and spray it with tincture of 7 percent iodine to lower the chance of infection getting into the body. Make sure that you keep newborns with their mothers so there is adequate opportunity to develop a maternal bond. This bond between kids and their mother is extremely important. Newborns should nurse within 1.5 to 2 hours after birth to get adequate colostrum. If the newborn is not interested in nursing or the dam is not interested in the kid, supplementation of colostrum may be required.

Bottle feed colostrum to kids if does are not producing enough or nursing is hindered. If kids are not able to stand up and nurse, the does should be milked and the kids tubed or bottle fed. Kids should receive colostrum equal to 10% of their body weight during the first 24 hours of life. For example a six pound kid (96 ounces) should receive 10 ounces (roughly 300 ml) of colostrum within 24 hours of birth. Extra colostrum can be refrigerated and fed later by warming (100-102 degrees F or 38-39 C) it just before feeding. Clean the bottle and nipple before and after each feeding. Colostrum feeding must start quickly after kids are born and repeated four to five times for the first 24-hour period. Kids will get enough immunoglobulin if 2.2 – 2.8 ounces per lb live weight (140 – 175 g colostrum per kg of live weight) is fed within 24 hours of birth. Avoid overfeeding because it may overwhelm the kids’ digestive system and cause diarrhea. The best thing to do is to satisfy kids’ appetite but not to force them to drink. Lastly, keep the premises clean, well lighted, and ventilated. This will minimize the chance of infection.


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877-320-8203 ElectricHoofKnife.US The Boer Goat - 21

BREEDER’S Spotlight


rad Laney knows what he wants. He’s been raising goats for nearly eight years and knows that the Boer goat industry is what he loves. Learning from family and friends has made it possible for Laney to propel his herd into the spotlight at ABGA shows and production sales.

Laney said his day job keeps him on the top of his game. By managing a 1,200 sow farrow-to-finish operation, he said he learns to stay focused on selecting only the genetics that he wants to pass along in his own herd.

How did you get started in the Boer goat industry? My grandpa raised about 60 head of Suffix sheep when I was 12 years old. I remember attending the local stockyard and purchasing my very first Boer-type doe from money I had earned by mowing my neighbor’s yard. Grandpa immediately fell in love with how the doe grazed on the grass and always stayed fat and slick. Less than two weeks later, he dispersed all of his sheep and we went into the goat business. As I grew older and began attending more production sales and ABGA shows, I quickly began to realize that I wanted to show goats and produce high-quality animals.

What does your operation look like today? What once was a 30-acre farm dedicated to Pilgrim’s Pride turkey houses and Suffix sheep has been transformed into a living area for more than 100 head of goats. One of the

22 - The Boer Goat

16,000 square-foot turkey houses is now housing 50 head of goats. The other houses are used for storing tractors, hay and other farming equipment. I currently have six donors in my flush program and facilitate two flushes annually. I have about 10 to 15 show goats and run 30 to 35 recips. My facility has 16 runs and four feedlots. My Grandpa has about 50 to 60 meat goats on the upper end on our farm.

What do you enjoy most about the Boer goat industry? I enjoy many aspects of the Boer goat industry, but what I enjoy the most is the show and production sale environment. This is where I have met many close friends. This year in itself I have really enjoyed watching a particular little five-year-oldgirl show a few does I sold to her family. Tinley Summit won her first of many shows with her overall champion doe at the NC Mountain State Fair show. Watching the smile on her face after she won with my genetics is one of the things I thoroughly enjoy about this business.

Who was an inspiration to you or asWhat has been your biggest challenge sisted you in improving your herd? And, as a producer? how did it help you? When I began the My biggest inspiration who has allowed me to grow into the farmer I am today is my Grandpa. He was the one who has been there board-by-board, nail-by-nail and built what we have today. His guidance and support has been extremely helpful

I quickly began to realize that I wanted to show goats and produce high-quality animals. from my day job managing a 1,200 sow farrow-to-finish hog farm, to coming home and tackling our daily chores on the goat farm together. This year he was recently diagnosed with Multiple Myeloma, which has hindered his ability to help me on the farm. He keeps his head high and faith strong to one day be able to do what he loves again, working on the farm. Brad Mackey has assisted me with knowledge of the breeding process. We are particular while brainstorming what we want the perfect Boer goat to look like. He has been there for me whether itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a quick 30-second phone call about how a particular cross will work or a 30-minute in depth conversation. Carolina Connections, the Bell and Eubanks families have opened doors and opportunities for me to be a part of some of the best production sales. This has enabled my genetics to go as far as California and Nebraska.

business, my biggest challenge was finding the right type of feed that would grow my animals to their fullest potential. It took years of trial and error to eventually find the right feed that would excel my program.

Tinley Summit

Watching the smile on her [Tinley Summit] face after she won with my genetics is one of the things I thoroughly enjoy about this business.

What are you most excited about in the future? I am most excited about my next kid crop of course. If you are not excited about that, then you are in the wrong business. Every kid that comes out is unique, and it is very exciting to wonder what their potential is going to be. Our second annual Heart of Dixie sale is coming up. Being one of the four board members, we strongly feel that we have put together a sale that has some of the top producers to make it successful.

Photos submitted by Brad Laney

The Boer Goat - 23

Keeping your livestock and your family


oving goats from one location to another is inevitable. And, whether you are headed to a show, to the vet or to a sale or auction, it is necessary to take precautions so that you and your livestock are safe. Goat producers use several means of transportation to move animals from point A to point B. Goat boxes, stock trailers and horse trailers all have unique safety requirements, but they all have one thing in common -- they are moving precious cargo.

Small transporter

Small animal boxes are convenient to move a small number of animals. Most boxes fit between the wheel wells of a pick-up. If you are loading and unloading heavy animals into a tote, be sure to have a ramp to safely walk animals into the transporter. Open boxes may need an additional cover. Tarps can be used as protection from sun and wind; however, it is critical that these items be secured to the box and checked throughout the trip. Boxes also may need to be tied down depending on the weight and style of the tote. Regular vehicle maintenance should apply whether using a box or a trailer to transport animals.

Small Trailers / Horse Trailer

Longer excursions or for hauling a larger number of animals requires a horse or stock trailer. Trailer safety,

24 - The Boer Goat

including proper maintenance and operation, is critical to the safety of everyone on the road. Not only is it important to protecting the animals, but it also important because our image as producers rests on the operation of well-maintained trailers. Family operations make up the largest percentage of goat production and according to Amanda Wickman, program manager at the Southwest Ag Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention and Education, accidents happen when inexperienced or young helpers on family farms are not trained properly. “Young people who help hook up a trailer need to be trained on hand signals and communication,” she said. “This has to be a slow process, and when you are hitting the gas - brake - gas - brake, there is a lot of room for error.” Wickman recommends lining up trailers from outside the danger zone to prevent being crushed. “We see so many people get crushed when someone uses the wrong pedal. You can always pull up and back up again, but once you’ve pass the point of no return, it is too late.” Recognizing other pinch points is also critical to your own safety. Cut gates should be secured open or closed to prevent accidental injuries. “If you can tie or secure animals from the outside of the trailer, you minimize the risk to yourself.” If you are carrying tack, be sure to secure the tack so that it doesn’t shift or fall on animals or you when you open doors. Safety for trailers also includes knowing the legal limits of a trailer load. If you are involved in a vehicle accident with

safe on the road by Karla Blackstock

of nowhere in the middle of the dark. Be sure you carry the appropriate jack and tools for these types of on-the-road fixes. Be sure to know who you can call to complete your haul or stall your animals if the repair will take longer than expected. If a breakdown prohibits you from reaching your destination, be sure you have bedding and an adequate source / means of providing water to stressed animals. Finally, be sure that your trailers have adequate ventilation. Exhaust from vehicles and heat can cause toxicity or heat strokes if animals do not have proper air flow.

General Safety

a loaded trailer, you could be at fault if you do happen to exceed the trailer’s load limits. Also, all trailers must be in good condition and have plenty of tread on the tires. A sound trailer with working lights, safety chains, working hitch and good tires is critical when moving livestock. Below is a list of items that should be checked for safety. Spare: Periodically check the age of all tires, including the spare. The last four digits of the DOT number on the sidewall indicate the month and year of the tire was manufactured. Even if a tire has never been used, it can be unsafe. Dry rot and other issues can cause a tire to deteriorate over time. Most manufacturers recommend replacing tires more than seven years old regardless of wear. Before heading out for a long road trip, check the tire pressure on all tires. Safety Chains: Make sure safety cables and chains are securely latched and connected. Working hitch: Always double check that the trailer hitch is securely latched and that the correct-sized ball is used. Lights: Ensure that the electrical connection is plugged in and secured. Bumpy roads can cause a disconnect if not secured. Check lights to be sure that all turn signals and running/perimeter lights are working properly. Brakes: Be sure that all brakes and the brake controller is working properly. The majority of the United States requires a controller when a trailer exceeds 3,000 lbs, but some are as low as 1,000 lbs. Check your state regulations regarding your requirements at https://drivinglaws.aaa.com/. Remember that breakdowns do happen. And, you are not alone if you believe these only happen to you in the middle

If you are hauling livestock for another breeder or owner, be sure you understand your insurance policy and confirm coverage on the trailer and the animals that you are hauling. Load and unload livestock carefully to minimize stress. If animals appear unhealthy, do not load them. Chances are that the stress will have a greater impact on their health. Also check for additional blind spots. Putting either a box on the bed of your truck or a trailer behind it will cause additional blind spots.

“Accidents happen when inexperienced or young help on family farms are not trained properly. Young people who help hook up a trailer need to be trained on hand signals and communication.” Finally, consider your own emotional state of mind. “Most of the time, accidents happen when someone is in a hurry,” Wickman said. Exhaustion, frustration or agitation also can lead to an aggressive driver. Be sure you give yourself plenty of time to reach your destination so that you are not stressed. And, if your trip takes you in the night hours, be sure you know your own limitations. You can find additional information and youtube video on goat safety, as well as cattle and horse trailer safety at http://www.swagcenter.org/resourcesvideos.asp.

The Boer Goat - 25

Managing Minerals - Copper is Key by Karla Blackstock

As we discussed in the September/October issue of the magazine, managing minerals is a yearround process. But it is also a balancing act. Too much of one mineral or not enough of another can cause a chain reaction. Copper is a metallic mineral that plays a critical role in the overall health of goats. It is an essential nutrient required in small amounts. Although it is an essential nutrient that can have serious consequences if not enough copper is ingested; however, copper can also be poisonous if ingested in amounts that exceed the animal’s requirement. The formation of red blood cells, hair pigmentation, connective tissue and enzymes is dependent on copper. It plays an important role in normal immune system function and nerve conduction. Copper is also important for parasite resistance in goats. Copper deficient goats have been proven to be less able to fight off parasite infestations and are more prone to ailments caused by parasitism. If your goats look scruffy and you can’t seem to get ahead of the parasites, then look toward copper supplementation as a key to their health. Goats are robust hardy animals by nature, but upsetting the balance of trace minerals can be detrimental, even deadly. “If goats ingest large amounts of other minerals that interact and impede copper absorption, by definition they are copper deficient,” said David Van Metre, DVM, DACVIM at Colorado State University. “But, they are simply out of balance, and so the primary management issue isn’t about copper.” Copper deficiency in a diet may be caused by inadequate copper intake, a lowered copper-molybdenum ratio, or excessive dietary sulfur. “The sulfur in volcanic ash, for example,” Van Metre said, “ causes soils in some parts of the country to be low in copper.” One of the biggest problems, he said, is that “when people look at nutrients they jump onto a trace mineral and incriminate it before they understand what caused the deficiency.” In addition to sulfur, Kevin Washburn, DVM, DACVIM, DABVP from Texas A&M University said, “high dietary molybdenum can depress absorption of copper.” According to research, there should be at least four times as much copper as molybdenum in the diet. Other heavy metals, Washburn said, can also inhibit copper, which is why it is critical to keep all feeds and supplements species-specific. Almost without exception, test results have shown that the legume plants contain more molybdenum than other forages. This is particularly true of ladino clover, bur clover, birdsfoot, trefoil, and several species of melilotus. Alfalfa contains abnormal amounts of molybdenum, but not as much as the other legumes. Van Metre said that many times a copper deficiency looks like many other textbook deficiencies.

26 - The Boer Goat


So what symptoms indicate deficiency? In adult goats, you can see that their hair becomes very long and bushy. The goat may also begin to look sun bleached. Rough, faded hair is a sign of a copper deficiency, especially on the red coat. If your goats are late shedding, then they may need some added copper to help give them a boost. Another sign of copper deficiency is if the goat’s tail tip is bald. If the hair separates at the end of the tail into a “fish tail” look, then copper is definitely needed. Copper deficiency may cause locomotor difficulties in goats in two distinct ways. Abnormal bone growth with increased bone fragility can predispose animals to fractures of long bones. Independently, a neurological condition known as enzootic ataxia or swayback develops. In this case kids in utero may be copper deficient at or shortly after birth and can result in permanent spinal cord degeneration. “If you have a wide-spread copper deficiency, you may have kids born that are really lax, meaning that their tendons and ligaments are so loose that they lay down on their hocks or pasterns,” said Washburn. Dr. Washburn said that kids may show signs of copper deficiency before their dam. “Even if the dam has no clinical signs, you can see signs in newborns because the milk is low in copper or their nutrient intake wasn’t high enough in utero,” he said. If you have kids born with loose ligaments, copper deficiency or otherwise, Washburn said the best remedy is activity. “Most people want to splint the kids, but if you splint a loose ligament, it gets worse and loosens,” Washburn said. Overall, Van Metre and Washburn agreed that copper deficiency should be a concern for all goat breeders, but supplementation should be done in moderation to avoid toxicity, which is incurable in most instances.

He went on to say that single ingestion of these feeds is not harmful, but continued or on-going access can be deadly. “An animal with copper toxicity will go off feed and the whites of their eyes will become yellow,” Van Metre said. “They will be jaundice looking.” Unfortunately, he said, the signals are too late if it is true copper toxicity. Most of the time, the culprit is found during the necropsy. “When the lysosomes in the liver release copper into the blood stream, it causes sudden liver dysfunction and destruction of red blood cells,” Van Metre said. “By then, it is too late for the animal.” Washburn said that goats, as a species, are one of the most sensitive to copper. However, the are not nearly as sensitive as sheep, he continued. Because of this sensitivity, supplementation should be provided using species-specific minerals and supplements.


To keep your minerals in balance, make sure that the goat’s overall diet contains between 15-20 ppm of copper. Copper boluses are available, but Dr. Washburn cautions that using any single mineral supplement should be done only after having a clinical analysis done to ensure that the goats do not become toxic. “You can do blood tests to see if the herd is copper deficient. Unfortunately, the best sample is a liver biopsy, which is more costly,” Washburn said. “But it is important because there is a delicate balance between enough copper and too much copper. ” Washburn recommends working with your local veterinarian if you have concerns over copper supplementation. If you are interested in finding out the level of copper in your soil, you can contact your local USDA or Extension office.

Copper in Counties of the Conterminous States


While goats are relatively tolerant of high copper levels, toxicity in goats is something for which to watch. Van Metre said that grazing goats in pastures that have been fertilized by poultry manure can have excess copper levels and is one of the ways goats can ingest too much copper, but that the biggest concern for smaller producers is feeding complete feeds meant for other species. “Other species can tolerate much more copper so the risk is to not feed poultry, swine or horse feed to goats,” Van Metre said. “You can co-mingle your animals, but feed For an interactive map of copper concentration by county, go to: http://mrdata.usgs.gov/geochem/doc/averages/cu/usa.html them separately.”

The Boer Goat - 27

in the Boer Goat Industry Congratulations to the breeders and owners of the animals listed below. The following animals have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit in October 2015.


Reg. #






Marshall & Janet Griffith




Mike & Maureen Reis




Carol S Lloyd




Nancy Certain




Kenneth Baty




Burl & Robin Graham




Mike & Maureen Reis




Eric Taylor & Jim Jenkins




Brett Lindsay




Kathie & Katie Diemer




Alan & Pamela Motta




Erica Ashby




Mike & Maureen Reis







Thomas & Jacqueline Redden




Brandon Duncan




Kirk & Vanessa Phillips II




Jennifer Keys




Sophia Stice

Chris Radloff

Information on the requirements for each of these awards is listed to the right. For a full listing of each requirement, visit the ABGA website.

in the Boer Goat Industry Congratulations to the breeders and owners of the animals listed below. The following animals have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit in October 2015.


Reg. #






Bailey Bergherm




Thomas & Jacqueline Redden

Reg. #







Bobby, Jodie, Skyler & Maggie Brite




Thomas & Jacqueline Redden




Katie Mayne




Joe & Barbie Teel


The ABGA ennoblement program is open to ABGA American Purebred and Fullblood bucks and does. Ennoblement requirements are as follows: For an animal that has passed visual inspection: • A combined 80 points from the animal and progeny. • At least three progeny must pass visual inspection and earn least five points each. • Minimum points from the three (or more) visually inspected progeny is 30. • The animal cannot contribute more than 50 points toward it’s own ennoblement. For an uninspected animal, including those that are deceased: • A minimum of 100 points must be earned by at least three progeny who have passed inspection. • At least three progeny must pass visual inspection and earn at least five points each.

Doe of Excellence

The Doe of Excellence Award Program is open to ABGA registered Percentage (50%-88%) Does. Point requirements are as follows: • The doe will be required to have a combined total of 100 points earned by the doe and her progeny. • A minimum of 15 points must be earned by at least two progeny with a minimum of five points each. • Points earned by male progeny through ABGA Performance Tests will be awarded to the doe.

Sire of Merit

The ABGA Sire of Merit Award is open to American Purebred and Fullblood Bucks. Point requirements are as follows: • A Fullblood Buck or an American Purebred Buck cannot contribute individual points toward this award. • The eligible percentage progeny of a sire will be required to earn a total of 100 points. • A minimum of 5 female progeny must earn a minimum of 5 points each.

WE DID! We heard that you want to stretch your advertising dollars. We heard that we arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t being timely. We are offering a FREE e-blast for every ad (1/4 page or larger) you place in 2016. We are posting all issues online by the first of each month. We are moving our printing schedule so you receive each issue quicker.

? w o n s u r a e h u o Can y 30 - The Boer Goat

Contact editor@abga.org to schedule your marketing needs.

We Are Making Some Changes

We’ve spent some time listening to you, our valued readers. It is always important to make editorial and advertising decisions that have a great impact on readership and to know that there is always room for improvement. We understand that sale dates are important, and you want to know that your advertising dollars will reach your targeted audience in a timely fashion. This is why we are adjusting our printing schedule. In the past, our print dates have been in the middle of our bi-monthly schedule. However, beginning in 2016, The Boer Goat will arrive before the first month of each cycle. For example, you should have your March/April magazine by the first of March. Of course, there will always be anomalies, and that is why we will post each issue on-line before the first of each month during that cycle. We also know that advertising is not cheap – no matter where you place your ad. To mitigate some of these costs, we are offering you a free e-blast with each advertisement that you place in the printed magazine. All ads, quarter page and above, will be eligible for a single e-blast during the twomonth cycle. You must request this option when you submit your ad and work with our editor to schedule the email as we are sensitive to our readership’s email in-boxes.

Kent Nutrition Group, Inc.





The Boer Goat - 31

The Healthy Choice! Three quarters of the world’s population eats goat meat. This trend is rising in the United States as well. Goat is surprisingly healthy compared to the usual meats we consume, even chicken! Goat meat is 50 to 65 percent lower in fat than similarly prepared beef, but has a similar protein content. The U.S. Department of Agriculture also has reported that saturated fat in cooked goat meat is 40 percent less than that of chicken, even with the skin removed. Nutritional Information for Goat Meat for 3 oz of meat include: Calories: 122 Fat (g): 2.59 Saturated Fat (g): 0.79 Protein (g): 23 Iron (g): 3.2

What’s cooking tonight?

A recipe for you...

• 1 boneless, rolled and tied leg of goat (approx. 3lbs)

• • • •

2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons olive oil 4 cloves minced garlic 1 teaspoon kosher salt

Roast Leg of Goat

Courtesy Sara Davis - Posted on ABGA.org

• 1/2 teaspoon coarse ground black pepper

• 1 tablespoon lemon juice • 1/2 teaspoon Italian seasonings

Heat 2 tablespoons butter and 2 tablespoons olive oil in cast iron pan. Add 4 cloves minced garlic and sauté over medium heat. Rub kosher salt and coarse ground black pepper on roast. Sear roast on all sides and drizzle with 1 tablespoon lemon juice. Top with Italian seasonings, add 1/2 cup water to pan and cover roast loosely with aluminum foil. Place in preheated 275 degree oven until roast reaches an internal temperature of 145 degrees. Remove roast from oven and allow to rest for 10 minutes before slicing across the grain.

Be one of the first to list your farm in the Boer Goat Breeder’s Directory. One-year listing (up to 40 words) is only $150.00. Add a photo for only $25.00.

Fill out the form below and mail to the ABGA office with payment. Include all information that should be listed in the directory. Name: Address: City: State: Zip: Email Address: Website: Phone: Card Number: Payment Method: CVV Number: Exp date: / / Name on Card: Billing Address:

Check Credit Card

Mail to: ABGA 1207 South Bryant Blvd, Suite C. San Angelo, TX 76903 32 - The Boer Goat

USDA AMS Report Montgomery, AL Mon Oct 26, 2015 Brewton, AL Receipts: 102 Last Week: 23 Year Ago: 66 Slaughter Kids (# 1) 40-50lbs $73.00; 6070 lbs $93.00-96.00; 70-80 lbs $97.50 Slaughter Nannies/Does (# 1) 80-130lbs $90.00; 130-180lbs $150.00 Feeder Kids (# 1) 50-60lbs $73.00 Feeder Kids (# 2) 30-40 lbs $50.00-57.00; 50-60 lbs $52; 60.00-67.00 lbs $63.67 Replacement Does (# 1) 70-100 lbs $99.00; 100-200 lbs $117.00 Replacement Does (#2) 70-100 lbs $67.00-68.00; 100-200 lbs $79.58

Centennial Livestock Auction Ft. Collins, CO - Wed Oct 28, 2015 Goat Receipts: 647 Last Week: 699 Year Ago: 523 Sold per head unless noted. Slaughter Kids (# 1) 30-39 lbs $ 65.0077.50; 43-49 lbs $95.00-105.00; 54-59 lbs $117.50-127.50; 75-78 lbs $160.00-175.00; 84-88 lbs $187.50-195.00; 93 lbs $220.00; 113 lbs $240.00 Slaughter Kids (# 2) 35 lbs $45.00-47.50; 41-45 lbs $82.50-85.00; 53-55lbs $95.00-110.00; 60-69 lbs $122.50135.00; 70-78 lbs $140.00-155.00; 80-88 lbs $155.00-170.00; 91-94 lbs $170.00185.00; 100-103 lbs $202.50-215.00 Nannies/Does (# 1) 115-180 lbs $180.00195.00; (# 2) 100-160 lbs $135.00-150.00; (# 3) 80-135 lbs $100.00-115.00 Bucks/Billies (# 1) 145-210 lbs $280.00290.00; (# 2) 155-175 lbs $220.00-230.00; (# 3) 115-145 lbs $190.00-205.00 Wethers (# 1) 120-170 lbs $265.00285.00; (# 2) 110-125 lbs $220.00-240.00

Des Moines, IA Wed Oct 28, 2015 Kalona, IA Sheep & Goat Auction Receipts: 118 Last Week: 165 Year Ago: 197 Sold per head unless noted. Slaughter Kids (# 1) 50-55lbs $130.00142.50; 72 lbs $177.50; 80 lbs $190.00 Slaughter Kids (# 2) 35 lbs $65.00; 46 lbs $105.00; 50-58 lbs $112.50-127.50; 65 lbs $150.00-160.00 Slaughter /Does (# 2) 100 lbs $132.50 Slaughter Bucks (# 1) 95 lbs $175.00; 110 lbs $175.00; 160-195 lbs $200.00-255.00 Slaughter Wethers (# 1) 105-110 lbs $225.00; 95-115 $190.00-200.00 Replacement Bucks/Billies (# 1) 105-185 lbs $175.00-250.00 Loup City Commission Co Loup City, NE Sat Oct 03, 2015 Receipts: 510 (numbers include sheep) Last Month: N/A Last Year: 371 Slaughter Kids (# 1) 40 lbs $100.00102.50; 50-55 lbs $122.50-130.00; 60-65 lbs $135.00-152.50. (#2) 40-45 lbs $82.5095.00; 50-55 lbs $107.50-115.00; 60-65 $127.50-142.50; 70-75 lbs $132.50-135.00; 80-85 lbs $135.00-140.00 Wethers (# 1) 85-100 lbs $177.50-185.50 Stocker/Feeder Kids (# 1)1 20-30 lbs $47.50-55.00; 35 lbs $75.00-77.50 Replacement Nannies (# 2) 125-130 lbs $165.00-170.00 Slaughter Nannies (# 1) 125-195 lbs $145.00-150.00; (# 2) 85-115 lbs $120.00127.50 Replacement Billies (# 1) 105 lbs $240.00; Slaughter Billies (# 1) 105-195 lbs $195.00200.00

New Holland, PA Mon Oct 26, 2015 Receipts: 1554 Last Monday: 1920 Year Ago: 1198 Sold per head unless noted. Slaughter Kids (# 1) 40-60 lbs $155.00170.00; 60-80 lbs $205.00-225.00; 80-100 lbs $240.00; (# 2) 40-60 lbs $140.00160.00; 60-80 lbs $165.00-172.00 Slaughter Nannies/Does (# 2) 80-130 lbs $157.00-175.00; 130-180 lbs $185.00195.00 Slaughter Bucks/Billies: (# 1) 100-150 lbs $230.00-275.00; 150-250 lbs 245.00290.00; (# 2) 80-100 lbs $160.00-185.00; 100-150 lbs $205.00-235.00; Slaughter Wethers (# 1) 80-100 lbs $290.00-330.00; (# 2) 60-80 lbs $255.00290.00

Producers Livestock Auction Co San Angelo, TX Tue Oct 27, 2015 Receipts: 2255 Last Week: 3379 Year Ago: 2429 Sold per CWT unless noted. KIDS (# 1) 40-60 lbs $235.00-250.00; 6080 lbs $236.00-252.00 Slaughter (# 1) 25-40 lbs $224.00-236.00; 40-60 lbs $224.00-234.00; 60-80 lbs $220.00-236.00 (# 2) 25-40 lbs $200.00-220.00; 40-60 lbs $190.00-220.00; 60-80 lbs $180.00220.00; 80-100 lbs $180.00-192.00. Does (# 1 and 2) 80-130 lbs $100.00114.00; 130-210 lbs $80.00-106.00 Bucks (# 1 and 2) 70-100 lbs $160.00190.00; 100-150 lbs $130.00-168.00, yearlings $170.00-195.00; 150-250 lbs $130.00-156.00

The Boer Goat - 33

















TEXAS Advertise your business in the classifieds! Only $150/year for a black and white ad or $300 for a color ad. Book yours today! Contact: editor@abga.org

Tips for successful tattooing of your goats Tattooing your ABGA animals is a necessity. Here are a few rules to make sure you get a clean imprint. • Restrain the goat and clean the area with rubbing alcohol. • Insert the correct symbols in the pliers and press the thin rubber sponge pad down very firmly over the needles. • Check the correctness of the symbols by making a mark on a piece of paper. • Smear ink on the skin. Place the symbols parallel to and between the veins or cartilage of the ear. The accidental piercing of a vein may spoil the tattoo. Green paste is much better for permanent tattoo identification, particularly where the tissue receiving the tattoo is black or very dark. • Make the imprint with a quick, firm movement and immediately apply more ink and rub vigorously and contin-

uously for at least 15 seconds to insure penetration (an old toothbrush is excellent for working ink into the tattoo area). • Baking soda can be rubbed into the holes for a good “set”. • Rinse and dry the rubber pad on the tattooer. The sponge rubber pad should be replaced when it begins to lose its elasticity. Rinse the needle in rubbing alcohol and dry. • Do not disturb the area until the healing process is complete, which may be from five to twenty-one days. • Keep a list of tattoo numbers with names of animals and enter it in your private breeding record. • To read the tattoo in a dark-eared animal, hold a lighted flashlight against the outside of the ear.

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Mail completed subscription card with payment or credit card information to: ABGA; 1207 S Bryant Blvd. Suite C; San Angelo, TX 76903 Once your subscription card is received, you will receive an email confirmation from ABGA to verify your method of payment and information. The Boer Goat - 35

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