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January/February 2016

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Letter from the Editor The starting point.... The starting point of achievement is desire. It’s true. We have to first want something in order for it to become a reality. In putting together this issue, I found two individuals who are willing to put everything they have into achieving success. And, they are not alone in the Boer goat industry. I run across men, women and children (families) at each show or sale whose desire is to be the best breeder that they can be. Remember when you started out down this path in the Boer goat industry? Remember when you bought your first goat and you had no idea what to do with it? We’ve all been there, and it is interesting to look back and wonder, “how did we get to where we are now?” Like most hard-working producers, both of the individuals highlighted in this issue noted that it was their hard work and dedication to the industry that have allowed them to get where they are today. And, they have even higher goals, and I know they will reach them. So when I sat down to add my letter, I actually spent more time reflecting on my goals than my words. I challenge each of you to do the same. Sit down and set yearly goals for your operation. Whether your goal is to become nationally recognized as a show stock breeder or a successful commercial operation, once that goal is clearly set in front of you, the hard work can begin. Good luck to each of you as you set your New Year’s Resolutions or as you sit down to define your industry goals. I leave you this month with a quote from Peter Druker, “What you have to do and the way you have to do it is incredibly simple. Whether you are willing to do it is another matter.”

Karla Blackstock

ANNOUNCEMENTS BOARD OF DIRECTORS MEETING The next face-to-face Board meeting will be held March 11-12 in Texas. Membership Renewal Be sure you have renewed your membership. Renewals can be mailed or completed online. National Show Ring Stewards The ABGA is looking to add new ring stewards for the National Show. Ring Stewards will be selected for a three-year term. Show expenses and a stipend are paid for each ring steward. Applications should be postmarked by or completed online by February 20, 2016. For more information on the rotation and duties, please visit the website. The application is available by visiting http://abga. org/2014/abga-adds-ring-stewards-for-national-show/.

This issue is dedicated to Quincy Edwards and JP Moore. The JABGA has a dedication to Quincy in this issue on pages 8-9. JP Moore from Santa Fe,Texas, loved showing and raising goats. His love of cooking also allowed him to provide recipes for The Boer Goat. His latest, in the September/October issue, was something he put together for the magazine. Both of these men will be remembered by the Boer goat community.

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Board of Directors





LARY DUNCAN, Chief Executive Officer • MARY ELLEN VILLARREAL, Executive Director • CINDY DUSEK, Youth Coordinator • MARIA LEAL, Registration Support • SONIA CERVANTEZ, Accounts Receivable • MARINA ZEMKE, Registration Support • AARON GILLESPIE, Show Coordinator • ASHLEY GUETIERREZ, Member Services • NICOLE PETRELLA, Receptionist •

ABGA OFFICE HOURS: Monday-Friday • 8:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST)

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Letter from the President On behalf of the entire ABGA Board of Directors, I would like to wish all of our members a Happy New Year and good wishes for a prosperous year in 2016! At the beginning of every new year, it’s often customary to reflect on the events of the previous year and make plans for the future. Reflection can provide great insight as to what was accomplished and what you would do differently if you had the opportunity. Without a doubt, 2015 was a year of change for the ABGA. While we were able to accomplish some of our objectives, we have a number of goals left to achieve in 2016. I envision 2016 as a year of growth, development and continued change for the ABGA. Increased membership numbers, in conjunction with the addition of Lary Duncan as CEO, have provided us the base needed for growth in the next 12 months. The Board of Directors, though membership input, have challenged the “ Status Quo”, and the group is diligently working on several innovative programs that will help the ABGA expand its membership base and provide more value and better service to it’s current members. As we continue to focus on our top objectives, this is what is on the horizon for 2016: • Expansive Educational library available on the ABGA website • ABGA Live to allow registrations for AI and ET Kids • First Annual ABGA Judges continuing education program • ABGA Live to become functional on Apple products • Non-Inspection ennoblement process implementation • 3-Judge Scorecard process testing for possible implementation • Construction of ABGA office in San Angelo, Texas • Continued transition to a paperless registration process The March Face-to-Face meeting will focus on creating solutions, not just solving problems. Each board member is challenged to provide 2 items for considerations that will improve the ABGA or expand our membership base. We would love to hear from our members, any suggestions please pass them along. As we head into the new year, this quote by Socrates is fitting: The secret to change is to focus all of your energy, not on fighting the old, but building on the new. Have a wonderful New Year, Cindy Westfall, President ABGA™ Board of Directors © 2015 American Boer Goat Association ®

In This Issue

ABOUT THE COVER Kylee Walker, daughter of Shane and Rachael Walker (granddaughter of Rickey and Susanne Hendrix), was awaiting her turn in the Peewee Showmanship Division in Alexandria, LA.

4 Affiliates Program 5

Calendar of Events


Message from the CEO


Tribute to Quincy Edwards

Photo by Debra Weaver

10 Meet the JUDGE: Sammy Lerena 12 Pregnancy Toxemia 14

Extra Label / Off Label Drug Use

16 Antibiotic Table 17 Dewormer Table 18 What Boer Goats Tell us 22 Breeder’s Spotlight: Ashley Culver 26 Managing Minerals - Sulfur 28 Standouts 30 Markets 31 Classifieds 32 Photo Contest

The Boer Goat CONTACT

1207 S. BRYANT BLVD. SUITE C SAN ANGELO, TX 76903 TEL: 325.486.2242 FAX: 325.486.2637




The March/April issue of The Boer Goat will be our Doe and Wether issue, as well as the issue that will include all the National Show Rules. Make sure to showcase your ranch or company by advertising in the business card section or by purchasing ad space.


If you would like to see your photo in the next issue of The Boer Goat, please submit your picture to Please send photos in the largest size you have available. The Boer Goat hereby expressly limits its liability resulting from any and all misprints, errors and/or all inaccuracies whatsoever in the advertisement and editorial content published by The Boer Goat and its said liability is here by limited to the refund of the customer or its payment for the said advertisement, the running of a corrected advertisement, or editorial notice. Notification by the customer of any errors must be made within 30 days of distribution of the magazine. The opinions or views expressed in all editorials are those of the writer or persons interviewed and not The Boer Goat. The Boer Goat does, however, reserve the right to edit or refuse all material, which might be objectable in content. No material or part thereof, may be reproduced or used out of context without prior, specific approval of a proper credit to The Boer Goat.

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Affiliates Program

Are you looking for a local source of Boer goat knowledge? The ABGA’s Affiliate Program offers clubs that have an increased role of education, marketing and promotion. These local clubs provide an essential role in promoting the industry and educating breeders. Locate your nearest club today!

Boer Goat Association of North Carolina

Snake River Meat Goat Association

Cascade Boer Goat Association

Clara Askew, Secretary/Treasurer 8054 Ustick Rd Nampa, ID 83687 Email: Website: Serving States: Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Montana, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico

Kelly Clark PO Box 36479 Greensboro, NC 27416 Email: Serving States: North Carolina

Crystal Fenton 14352 West Hwy 12 Touchet, WA 99360 Email: Serving States: California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington

Empire State Meat Goat Producers Association PO Box 306 Watkins Glen, NY 14830 607-937-3324 Serving States: New York

Iowa Meat Goat Association 10163 E State Hwy 0 Davis City, IA 50065 601-223-0023 Serving States: Iowa

Keystone Goat Producers Association 106 Carlisle Road Newville, PA 17241 Email: Serving States: Pennsylvania

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Tall Corn Meat Goat Wether Assoc, Inc Vern Thorp 1959 Highway 63 New Sharon, IA 50207 WW Email: Website: Serving States: Iowa

Tri-State Goat Producers Association [TSGPA] 5125 State Route 2 Greenup, KY 41444 Email: Serving States: Kentucky

Send your updates to to highlight your affiliates’ activities.

Calendar OF EVENTS 2016 Show


January 13 January 17 January 18 February 10 February 11 February 14 February 20 February 27

National Western Complex Will Rogers Memorial Center Will Rogers Memorial Center Florida State Fairgrounds Florida State Fairgrounds San Angelo Fairgrounds Leon Co. Expo Center Lee Civic Center


January - February

National Western American Premier Boer Goat Show Yellow Rose Classic Boer Goat Show Florida State Fair Florida State Fair San Angelo Stock Show and Rodeo ETGRA Cream of the Crop SWFL and Lee Co. Fair

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The Boer Goat - 5


As we begin the New Year, there are changes set to take place at the ABGA. So with this being my best media to reach all of you, I am going to give you the quick rundown of what is set to happen as I understand it. First off, there have been changes made to the Ennoblement process allowing options which will not require a visual inspection for a goat to Ennoble. Effective date 2/1/2016 Ennoblement requirements will be as follows: Animal that has passed visual inspection • A combined total of eighty (80) points from subject animal and progeny is required for ennoblement. • Minimum number of progeny required is 3. • Minimum ABGA points earned by each individual progeny is 5. • Minimum points from the total of 3 or more progeny is 30. • The animal cannot contribute more than 50 points toward its’ own ennoblement. Uninspected animal, including those that are deceased • A total of one hundred (100) points must be earned by the animal and progeny. • Minimum number of progeny required is 3. • Minimum ABGA points earned by each individual progeny is 5. • Minimum points from the total of 3 or more progeny is 100. • The animal cannot contribute more than 70 points toward its own ennoblement. In order to make ennoblement a reality without inspection, if and only upon earning all of the points required you would need to fill out an ennoblement nomination request for point verification and submit a twenty dollar fee for the animal in question to have their records verified. Please note that any of the prior methods to reach ennoblement through the inspection system would still be an option as well. The selection of National Show judges has been changed and going forward a small committee will work to select our judges from a pool of those judges who express an interest in doing the National show. I know before we even start, there is going to be some very mixed emotions over this change. Your board of directors believes this change will benefit you all moving forward. The issue has been that if or when politics get out of balance the shows numbers suffer. The goal moving forward for the committee will be to find a panel of judges where as an exhibitor you feel everyone would have an equal chance of winning the show. I have found over the years that if this is the case the shows tend to be much larger

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from the CEO ... when everyone leaves home thinking they have a chance of winning. Of course naturally we would also love for the best goats exhibited to be crowned champion. Other registries much larger than our own use this system successfully, so I would ask you at least give it a chance before you start screaming the sky is falling. The sanctioned show committee is looking to take this one step further forward by giving consideration to making modifications to our current three person judging system itself. What might change is that each judge would be required to make his placing on a card without exchanging information back and forth with the other two judges. These placing could then be averaged to pick the eventual class winner. This explanation is somewhat simplified as a few more things have to be accounted for, but it at least gives you a general idea. With this said, the committee is looking at doing a test show in April to evaluate if they can pull this off at the 2016 National Show without a hitch. This is not a new idea it has been done before and is still being done regularly with other associations. The goal here is for you to get equal representation of all three judges’ opinions rather than a collective decision of the three where one judge could have more than thirty three percent of the influence if he or she talks a good game with the other two judges. Since, it looks like I might already might be the bad cop depending how you reacted to the prior changes, I might as well put one more out there so you have time to take advantage of the current registration rates before new rate changes go into effect February 1, 2016. The prices for registrations and transfers will be raised to offset some of the ABGA’s own rising cost. The price changes vary with percentage registration priced at (2/1/2016=$12 online) vs (2014 $10 for <15 batch) and with Fullblood registrations priced at (2/1/2016 $15 online) vs (2014 $16 for < 15 per batch). Transfers went up across the board two dollars each. We would have preferred to avoid making this change, but the reality is the cost of doing business is rising. The board has chosen to focus the next face-toface meeting on ideas to grow the business going forward so future increases might be minimized. Hope everyone had a merry and safe holiday season. Respectfully,

American Boer Goat Association C.E.O.

Two years ago, I was given an opportunity to be the youth coordinator of the American Boer Goat Association. Upon reflection, I realize that I did not know what I would be dealing with as coordinator or what an impact the position would have on my life. I thought I would lead a few meetings, send some emails, attend conferences and hopefully inspire youth who loved Boer goats to become involved in the JABGA. Those would prove to be some of my tasks, but there were so many more duties that came my way and challenged me as a person. I never expected my cell phone to ring day and night seven days a week. I have laughed with some of you, and I have cried with some of you. You have touched my life and have helped me see the positive in the most difficult times in this job. It is now time for me to step down as youth coordinator and move on to other challenges in my life, but I wanted to have the opportunity to thank the ABGA board of directors and the ABGA members for giving me this two-year opportunity. The positive experiences of the past two years have outweighed the difficulties that any leadership role typically brings with it. I have enjoyed working with your kids. I cannot express what a tough decision this was. I love the JABGA. I know in my heart that they are the future of this association and we as an association and breeders need to work hard to continue our support of them. I have faith in the JABGA Board of Directors to carry on the hard work and dedication that they have shown me. I am not going to disappear from the scene, but will be refocusing my attention to the Youth Boer Goat Foundation of America. I would like to leave you all with this quote by an unknown author. It’s not enough to have a dream, unless you’re willing to pursue it. It’s not enough to know what’s right, unless you’re strong enough to do it. It’s not enough to learn the truth, unless you also learn to live it. It’s not enough to reach for love, unless you care enough to give it. Men who are resolved to find a way for themselves will always find opportunities enough; and if they do not find them, they will make them.

- Cindy Dusek

JABGA Announcements The 2016 JABGA Director’s Nomination Application will be on line soon. The deadline for filing is March 1, 2016. The following seats are up for election of a two-year term. Director 1A Director 2A Director 3A Director 4A Director 5A The following seat is up for election of a one-year term. Director 5B Watch for the 2016 JABGA National contest to be on line soon. And, the 2016 JABGA Scholarship application deadline is May 1, 2016. It will be at

The Boer Goat - 7

Quincy was loved by his fellow Boer goat industry friends and family. The Boer goat industry is in mourning through the holiday seasons with the loss of one our young JABGA leaders. Quincy Edwards went to be with his Lord on Thanksgiving Day. Quincy was born on December 22, 1998. As just one of the many that loved and cherished him, I hope to do honor with this reflection of his life. I know that the Boer Goat Industry will keep his family in our thoughts and prayers. Quincy Edwards was part of the Boer goat industry from the time he hit the ground. Quincy, at an early age, was a doer and not a watcher. So, it was no surprise he was elected to the JABGA board of director in 2014. The JABGA board spent lots of time together so we bonded like a small dysfunctional family. I can still see Quincy as my co-pilot on our trip to Indianapolis, he was pretty much in charge of the radio and let me tell you, we learned a lot from each other while trapped in a van for nine hours. I was opened to wide array of different music and Quincy knew the words to all of the songs. Quincy was one of those people who just fit in everywhere. Quincy was active and was tenacious to voice his opinions for what he believed in. He would have facts to back them up his ideas. I feel like if he could speak right now, he would challenge everyone to stand up for what you believe and work hard to make it happen. He wasn’t a follower, but a leader with a great big heart and beautiful smile. I could go on and on about this wonderful young man, but I think John’s word can do a much better job. -Cindy Dusek

8 - The Boer Goat

“Quincy was an amazing person and friend. He put everything he had into being the best director and vice-president he could be. I am going to miss him very much and the board is not going to be the same without him!” -Sophie “Best friends carry you when your wings forget how to fly.” - Mikayla “Quincy was probably the most enthusiastic teenager I had ever met, it was an honor knowing such an incredible individual!” -Trevor “Quincy had a contagious smile, and he always had me laughing. He was like my safe place.” - Morganne “Quincy was my best friend.” - Heather “Quincy and I did not talk much outside of the JABGA Board of Directors, but when we got together it was like we never stopped talking and we’re best friends again.” - Bethany “He was a caring and thoughtful person with a loving heart that was shown through not only his words, but also his actions. He always had a smile on his face that showed his kindness toward all people.” - Isaac

FEEL the FEAR and DO IT ANYWAY As a newborn, Quincy was instantly loved and was very loving. His nature was such that we never found him as a burden, but a blessing. He showed me there is a great difference between stubbornness and determination, and that you could be both tough and tender. His friends from the very earliest days and to the end were at first glance an odd assortment of types and personalities, but as a group were spectacular. Rough gruff cowboy types, kids with a fish hook in their eyebrow or a rivet in their nose, silver haired ladies or folks with green spikes, jocks and nerds, every color, nationality, creed, a compilation and complexity of humanity that he loved, supported, and served. Having his friendship was a valued gift. He did make mistakes. While paying the penance, he found new friends, new appreciation for how a community works and a firm resolve to do better. He had no use for mean or petty people. He had the persistence and patience required to be a farmer, goat herder or Shepard. He knew his animals needed him most when the weather was the worst. His discomfort provided his flock with shelter and protection.

He was a sucker for orphan kittens, puppies and kids. The Boer goat industry was a large part of Quincy’s social environment. He raised and exhibited many animals that gained national recognition but the trophies and banners were secondary in importance to the fellowship and expanded family of the association. He was on his second term of the board of directors and current vice-president of the JABGA. He took an active role in planning and executing the national show. He looked forward to the heavy lifting; unloading tack, feed, and goats; and welcoming folks to the show. He appreciated the opportunity to serve on the board and was a tireless advocate for the members he represented. Feel the fear and do it anyway. Quincy knew that there are bad and scary things out there and no one is bulletproof, yet you must stand and face your fear. He loathed bullies and would protect other young people that were on the receiving end of that cruelty.  His quiet courage was an inspiration.    He was a good young man.

-John Edwards

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Meet ABGA Certified Judge: Sammy Lerena by Karla Blackstock

Sammy Lerena found his passion early in life. With nearly nine years of goat production and industry experience under his belt, Lerena studied to become an ABGA certified judge. And in 2014, after hard work and dedication, he completed the course. Lerena and his family moved their operation from Northern California to Lipan, Texas, in August 2014, putting him near one of the largest shows in the nation. Lerena is set to judge the Ft. Worth Stock Show’s Yellow Rose Classic on Jan 18. “Having the opportunity to judge Ft. Worth is exciting, humbling and gratifying,” Lerena said. “I am really looking forward to it.” Sitting in the judge’s seat allows Lerena to select goats that he believes will advance the Boer goat industry and that’s not a task he takes lightly. “The most important trait for me to look for in the ring is structural integrity. We really need to focus on production traits that we feel are going to better our Boer goat breed” Lerena said. Before entering the Boer goat business, Lerena and his family raised commercial cattle and horses. As a hobby,

10 - The Boer Goat

Lerena enjoyed Team Roping. Everything changed for the Lerenas, when they attended a local show in California and spent hours watching and learning. Lerena said, “They (goats) were fascinating to me and I was instantly drawn to them. I wanted to educate myself as much as I could.” Nine years later, Red Oak Ranch focuses on fullbloods with some percentages in the mix. They currently are in several production sales each year and rely on an embryo transfer program to increase the size of their herd. “Flushing allows us to increase our numbers at a quicker rate,” he said. “But every operation is different with different goals. In anyone’s breeding program whether you are naturally breeding or utilizing embryo transfer, you choose your donors and breeding stock for their physical traits because we are always looking to improve our stock,” he said. Lerena hopes to make his own operation bigger in the near future. With a current operation of about 150 head, he hopes to grow to about 200 goats.

But he warns, “Don’t get too big too quickly.” Lerena admits that goats are a lot of work and young or new breeders who expand too quickly can get burned out easily. “Go at a steady pace and enjoy raising the type of animal that you like,” he said. It is that advice that Lerena said he enjoys being able to give to young and new exhibitors. After judging in 11 states, he can confidently give young and new exhibitors advice that is valuable inside and outside the ring. After judging both open and junior shows, Lerena said, “I especially Photos submitted by Sammy Lerena enjoy judging showmanship. Kids are a lot of fun to work with. I enjoy being able to talk and interact with the kids, as it almost breaks the ice and you can see them relax and enjoy themselves more.” My advice to young exhibitors to simply enjoy their animals. “Whatever you do, have fun.”


There will be a Judge’s Certification Program on March 25-26. 2016 at Newton Farms in Indiana.

There will be a three-judge scorecard test show on April 23-24 at the Missouri State Fairgrounds in Sedalia, MO. There will be three ABGA sanctioned shows. For additional information, contact Tracy Diefenbach at

The National Show will be held from June 4-11 in Grand Island, NE. The First Annual Judges continuing education program will be conducted during the ABGA Nationals. All Certified Judges are required to attend one continuing education program before 2020.

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Photo by Pamela Schoenbauer

Using Nutrition to Eliminate Pregnancy Toxemia By Emily Acevedo



Emily is a 9th grade student and has been a member of JABGA since 2011.

The principal cause of pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) is low blood sugar (glucose). Ketone bodies are acids made when your body begins using fat instead of carbohydrates for energy. When there is not enough insulin to get sugar from the blood and into the cells, the body turns to fat for energy. When fat is broken down, ketone bodies are made and can accumulate in the body. High levels of ketones are toxic to the body. As producers, we have all experienced pregnancy toxemia in our herds. The loss of productivity cannot be measured to the heartbreak of losing does and kids. Unfortunately, we also know about the vet bills, medicine costs and lost income. My sister and I have been JABGA members since 2011. We share a Boer herd of 60 fullbloods and percentages. In 2013, I conducted a study of pregnancy tests for accuracy as an FFA Agriscience Fair project. I selected this project because it would improve my herd management. The resulting data showed the pregnancy tests were 100 percent accurate from BET Labs and BioTracking/BioPryn. However, the data collected had an unexpected and shocking outcome: does confined with bucks for 60 days

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had a 59 percent high-risk birth rate (3-4 kids) and all but one had toxemia. Field bred does had a 23 percent high-risk birth rate and all had toxemia. The herd high-risk birth rate was 38 percent. When you keep accurate records, the urgency of addressing the cause of high-risk births and resulting toxemia was unmistakable. My research goal in 2014 was to identify the cause of highrisk pregnancies. The research suggested several causes for high-risk births with the most notable cause being nutrition. Body condition was considered a factor initially. I focused my research project on nutrition and how feed management practices affect pregnancy toxemia. The genetic influence of matriarchal families and buck masculinity (male effect) were included to eliminate them as possible causes of high-risk pregnancies. In July 2014, the feed management system was adjusted to include current research on goat nutrition, including energy feeds and supplements of vitamins and minerals. The nutrition program was designed to meet the needs of the pregnant doe in the various stages of gestation and included: â&#x20AC;˘ Feed at 16 percent protein.

• Peanut hay substituted for alfalfa. • Selenium and thiamine in the last 60 days before kidding. • Separating late stage does from the herd 30-45 days before kidding. Late stage does were pulled from the pasture and put into pens adjoining the kidding barn. Does need to be separated because the does eat less in this stage because she has a smaller stomach due to kid size. Late stage does were: • Monitored for ketosis/toxemia. • Provided 16% feed free choice. • Provided plentiful amounts of peanut hay. Changes to the feed program were based on nutrition research. The two supplements, selenium and thiamine, have a direct impact on the health of the doe and fetuses. Selenium is necessary for goats to reproduce, lactate, give birth, urinate and have properly functioning muscles. Selenium also reduces the risk of floppy kids by enhancing muscle development in vitro. BO-SE® is obtained by prescription and is used to provide selenium and vitamin E. BO-SE® was given orally at the rate of 1cc per 100 pounds. This dosage is off label* but per veterinarian instructions since selenium was known to cause abortions in ewes. Oral application allows the body to use the selenium and expel what is not needed. Thiamine, also called B1, is used to convert food (carbohydrates) into glucose. Since pregnancy toxemia is low blood sugar, sufficient amounts of thiamine can offset the development of toxemia. I use a prescription thiamine because vitamin B complex does not have a sufficient amount of thiamine for the late stage does. In my program, thiamine is given intramuscular (IM) at the rate of 1cc to 100 pounds. Peanut hay is very similar to alfalfa. Both are a source of higher energy needed during gestation. The advantage of peanut hay for my herd includes: • 62 percent total digestible nutrients (TDN). • Greater digestibility. • Readily available in the south. • Less cost than alfalfa in my area. The feed bill is the highest cost when raising meat goats. When selecting hay for your area, the TDN is the most important value to consider. Late stage goats need a more digestible, energy-based feed than protein. The local agriculture extension office will have a publication that compares hay nutrition values. The most significant result was the elimination of pregnancy toxemia. There have been no cases of pregnancy toxemia since June 2014. The elimination of pregnancy toxemia is significant for my herd and the goat industry. Additional outcomes of this project include: • Nutrition does affect doe health and pregnancy.

• Nutrition can eliminate pregnancy toxemia. • Maintenance fed does have a lower incidence of high-risk pregnancies. • Flushing rather than body condition in this research was the cause of high-risk births in confined breeding when given full feed access. • Older does have a higher incidence of high-risk pregnancy. • Crossbred goats have a hybrid effect and fewer high-risk pregnancies than fullblood Boer goats. • There is no genetic influence within matriarchal families to the incidence of high-risk pregnancies, based on five years of birth records. • The data does not support the male effect on the incidence of high-risk pregnancies. High-risk births occur in any production herd. Goat producers can use this study to manage the nutritional requirements of their pregnant does in a way that will maintain body condition, reduce loses and increase profits. This research project has presented an effective way to use nutrition at the various stages of pregnancy to manage ketosis without medical intervention and to produce healthy offspring. I would like to thank Dr. Michael J. Fields, UF Professor Emeritus; the University of Florida; Dr. Lee Bruey, DVM; Dr. Ken Brown, DVM and my parents and grandparents. Dr. Fields has been a great mentor and advised me throughout my project including labs to dissect goat reproductive tracks. Thank you to the University of Florida for allowing Dr. Fields to guide me. My parents and grandparents have supported me throughout my goat project. *To use BO-SE® off-label consult your veterinarian.

Emily Acevedo, Starke, Florida

The Boer Goat - 13

Dewormers and Antibiotics

What can you use?


o matter where you turn, there is a lot of discussion about keeping your goats healthy. Both parasites and illnesses can take a toll on any herd. And, both require medical attention. As a producer, you may have already found that treating goats with antimicrobials (antibiotics) and anthelmintics (dewormers) can be frustrating. Fenbendazole (labeled as Panacur® or Safeguard®) is the only dewormer that is labeled for goats. However, there are a number of effective dewormers that can be used off-label or extra-label. Dr. Washburn at Texas A&M University said that the extra-label dewormers are effective; however, many times herds develop resistance when they are over medicated. Resistance is developed when worms survive and multiply, leaving a large number of parasites immune to the dewormer of choice. By deworming often, you expedite this evolutionary process. It’s nothing more than survival of the fittest in parasites. “When you deworm, you kill off the parasites that are susceptible to the dewormer and the resistant ones are left to be dropped for others,” Washburn said. “You end up changing out the population to those that you cannot control. We’ve created the perfect storm in small ruminants,” he said. “There is a misconception with small ruminant producers to deworm every three weeks. That is a good way to make animals resistant. Some [producers] deworm every three weeks and then further complicate it by rotating dewormers.” Washburn added that deworming only when necessary is the best management practice. “We used to go by the rule of thumb that if one needed deworming, then deworm the entire herd. That is no longer the case,” he said. “Now you look at individual cases and deworm only those that harbor a heavy parasite load.” Washburn said that every animal has a tolerable level, and if they are at (or under) that level, they don’t need

14 - The Boer Goat

dewormed. same goats. “We need to try to get folks away from deworming “If your egg count decreases by 90 percent, your once a month, from deworming every animal on the place dewormer is effective,” he said. “If not, it may be time to and from rotating dewormers,” he said. switch. If your goats are tolerating the worm count, they Washburn said that exercising best management will build up some immunity, and that is your goal.” practices can help producers develop a herd that is resistant to parasites. “Theoretically, if you cull strictly on fecal count, you Choices are just as limited when it comes to antibiotics. could have a herd that is pretty immune. After time, you However, Washburn said, the key is to develop a relationmay not need to cull at all,” he said. ship with your veterinarian. Like many other genetic traits, there is some inheritance Drugs are only approved for certain species and within involved in susceptibility to parasites. The progeny of a species, they are approved for a specific diagnosis. However, highly parasitic-resistant animal has a good chance of veterinarians can prescribe antibiotics to be used off- or excarrying that gene. tra-label if the necessary the antibiotic isn’t approved for use. However, like in most market or breeding show indusFor example Washburn said, “Let’s say the animal tries, Washburn admits that selection of genetics is not doesn’t respond to Naxcel®, which is the only approved typically for parasitic resistance. The problem is that the medication for respiratory issues in goats, we can move on one with the high egg count is invariably your daughter’s to more aggressive antibiotics. If we have a microplasm, oldest show goat or your best sire, he said. like pneumonia, we can justify using other off-label But he said, “In large herds where only the strong surmedications.” vive, this type of selection process is inevitable. These larger The only approved antibiotic for goats (Yes, I said the herds are typically the ones that have fewer problems.” only approved one.) is Ceftiofur (brand name Naxcel®). By studying and recording fecal egg counts, producers “The good thing is that Naxcel® is pretty narrow,” can keep track of the herd’s health. Washburn said. “If I diagnose something besides respirato“We have found that 80 percent of the parasites are ry problems, then I can treat with just about anything. The contributed by 20 percent key is the veterinarian’s Valid Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship of the herd,” Washburn diagnosis. There is a lot of said. “The rest are just resistance to Cetiufur and The AMDUCA provisions of the FD&C Act allow collateral damage. Cullyou can almost make a extra-label drug use only on the lawful order of a licensed ing those 20 percent is case from the beginning if veterinarian in the context of a valid veterinarian-clientcritical to your overall herd you’ve seen resistance in patient relationship. A valid veterinarian-client-patient health.” someone’s herd or if it is a relationship has three parts: Washburn said that severe case.” You have assumed responsibility for making medical if your goats are togethWashburn stressed the judgments about the health of an animal, or animals, and the patient-veterinarian relaer, take a fecal count on need for medical treatment. In turn, the client (the owner or about 10 percent of the tionship so that producers other animal caretaker) has agreed to follow your instrucpopulation. He suggested can access medications tions; the following practice to necessary to keep herds You have sufficient knowledge of the animal, or animals, determine your dewormhealthy. to develop a general or preliminary diagnosis of the medical er’s effectiveness and your Legally, veterinarians condition; and herd’s load tolerance. are the only ones who You are readily available for follow-up in case of adverse • Do an egg count can use drugs extra-label. drug reactions or treatment failure. with your local vet Using drugs such as LA-200 Such a relationship can exist only when you have recently or send off the fefrom the feed store and seen the animal and are personally acquainted with its care. cal matter to a lab. giving it off-label or at a This means you have recently examined the animal, have made • Deworm and wait 2 higher dosage are using “medically appropriate and timely visits” to where the animal weeks. the drug illegally, accordis kept (usually the case for food-producing animals), or done • Do another egg ing to strict FDA guidelines. both. count on thos continued on page 24...


The Boer Goat - 15

16 - The Boer Goat Biosol® and other products Amoxi-inject® Polyflex® Pen BP-48® Erythro-200® Nuflor®, Nuflor Gold® LA-200® Albon®




Benzathine Pen G




Procaine Pen. G

Tylan®-200 Chloramphenicol Baytril® 100 Furox® Gentocin® Micotil® Brand Name Aspirin Banamine® Bute


Tylosin Chloramphenicol Enrofloxacin Furacin, Nitrofurantoin Gentamicin Tilmicosin Anti-inflammatory Drugs Aspirin Flunixin meglumine





Brand Name



PO IV or IM PO extra-label 10-20 mg/kg (Do not use in lactating does.) EXTRA-LABEL USE IS PROHIBITED.

100 mg/kg 1.1-2.2 mg/kg

extra-label extra-label













25 mg/lb Day 1; 12.5 mg/lb Days 2-5

10,000-20,000 IU/lb

9 mg/lb

9 mg/lb

1 mg/lb

20,000 IU/lb

5 mg/lb

5 mg/lb

5 mg/lb

0.5-1 mg/lb



extra-label (Do not use in lactating does.) extra-label










1 x Day

1 x Day 1 x Day

1 x Day

1 x Day

1 x Day

Every 48 hours

Every 48 hours

1 x Day

Every 48 hours

1 x Day

1 x Day

2 x Day

1 x Day


144 hrs

120 hrs

96 hrs


72 hrs

120 hrs


60 days

1 day 10 days

30 days

12 days


24 hrs 72 hrs

96 hrs

5 days

16-21 days 120 hrs

29 days

28 days

5 days

30 days

10 days

26 days

3 days

Approx. Withdrawal Time Meat Milk 0 days 0 days

Antibiotics Used in Goat Production

Eprinex® Ivomec® Drench Ivomec® 1% Quest®, Cydectin® drench Cydectin® Injectable


Ivermectin Ivermectin Moxidectin


Rumatel® Levasole®

Oxfendazole Cholinergic Agonists: Morantel Tartrate


8 mg/kg

10 mg/kg

10 mg/kg

10 mg/kg 10 mg/kg

0.3 mg/kg 0.3 mg/kg 0.5 mg/kg; 0.3 mg/kg; 0.2 mg/kg

0.5 mg/kg

0.3 mg/kg










10 days

30 days

14 days

7 days 14 days

14 days 56 days 23 days 14 days 30 days


The drugs listed in this table are commonly used in goats. There are only a few drugs approved by the FDA to be used in goats. Use of drugs listed as “extralabel” is legal only if prescribed by your veterinarian in the context of a valid client-patient relationship. The withdrawal times for various drugs were compiled from different sources. The listed dosages and withdrawal times, as well as drug status and legality of use, is subject to change. Your veterinarian will prescribe the latest, most up-to-date drugs, dosages, and provide the correct withdrawal period. Consult your veterinarian before beginning any treatment.

4 days

0 days

120 hrs

120 hrs 120 hrs

9 days 50 days 46 days N/A DNU


Approx. Withdrawal Time Meat Milk 56 days 40 days

Dr. Seyedmehdi Mobini,Georgia Small Ruminant Research & Extension Center, Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA


extra-label APPROVED at 5/mg/Kg; extra-label as recommended extra-label

extra-label extra-label extra-label




Valbazen® Panacur®/ Safeguard® Synanthic®

Benzimidazoles Albendazole Fenbendazole


Brand Name



Dewormers Used in Goat Production

The wide-set eyes, strong nostrils and powerful under jaw ensure that the animal will be wide in the shoulders and wide in the loin and possess a powerful presence. The width between the eyes is directly proportional to the width in the shoulders and the width in the loin.

What Boer Goats Tell Us... by Dr. Fred Homeyer

In one of the seminars that I have given around the country I open the seminar with the statement “Boer goats tell us what they are if we will just learn to listen to them and hear what they are saying.” The Boer goat tells us what they are through their structural confirmation, through their skeletal dimension, through their muscularity and through their physical bearing or attitude. The best ones have a bearing or attitude as if to say “I am the most beautiful goat in the world and you have the privilege of looking at me!” This property is called Eye of the Eagle in South Africa and Aristocratic Bearing in Australia. I

18 - The Boer Goat

am sure you have seen a Boer goat with this property. In the show ring it is the goat that “shows itself”. I hope to assist you in formulating a breeding strategy for Boer goats that will improve the breed. This information is based on a study of the South African Boer Breed Standards and careful observation of the physical properties and traits of the Boer goats that are available, including a study of the genetic background of these animals as well. Through observation of these properties and traits and the study you should be able to make predictions and extrapolations as to the qualities and properties of the offspring

or progeny from matings performed in the Boer goat herd. that enhances a discussion of the standards in that this book While this article discusses phenotype properties, genetics details what undesirable characteristics can be expected and recognition of genotype contributions in the animal when an animal has certain undesirable traits. The experishould also be considered in a breeding program. ence that the South Africans have had raising Boer goats for Since I began writing this article several years ago, I have perhaps a hundred years or more can provide us with insights discovered the writings of the famous South African Animal to improve the Boer goat in the United States. Scientist Dr. Jan Bonsma. I have The calm disposition of the Boer also discovered the website: goat is reflected in the gentle The animal had medium bone and a lot of brown eye and the soft meat on the carcass. The Boer goat was lous ear. An animal with a calm produced by Mr. Gerald Fry from Arkansas. Through their writings, intended to be the meat goat of the world disposition is easy to handle and both of these gentlemen have and has gained wide acceptance all over manage. A goat with a wild eye had a profound impact on me and/or stiff protruding ears will the world as just such an animal. and my study of the Boer goat. be wild and hard to manage. While their writings concern The rounded dark horns with cattle, primarily beef cattle, I am convinced through my adequate separation also contribute to a calm disposition personal observations and development of empirical and a buck that will not break the legs of other bucks when hypotheses that I have made during almost 20 years of sparing and wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get their horns caught in a tree and hang observing Boer goats in the pasture and the show ring that themselves. Flat or bladed horns that flare rapidly from the there may be a strong correlation between all breeds of body indicate a wild animal that is hard to handle. Horns that animals and how they cope with environmental issues in are too tight on the neck will rub the neck and can cause skin their struggle to survive and reproduce. irritation, sores and infections. In addition horns that are too The first set of breed standards for the South African Boer upright predict a rounded bulging forehead and a concave goat was established around 1959 by the South African Boer nose bridge that may result in an underdeveloped lower jaw. Breeders Society. The primary reasons for establishing breed A flat sharp-edged horn is usually too heavy and the points of standards were to assist the Boer goat breeders in setting the horn bend outwards. The forehead is usually too promigoals and guidelines to maintain, improve the breed and to nent with a hollow between the eyes. Does with this type of provide for uniformity in production. horn tend to be too masculine in appearance and the buckâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s I first encountered the South African Boer Goat Breed horns tend to be too close together. Standards at an ABGA judging school in 1997. After reviewing Soft pendulous ears that flow down the side of the head the standards several times and reflecting upon their are desirable. An animal that has short, stiff protruding ears meaning, it occurred to me that what the South Africans may produce an animal that is wild and difficult to maintain. had done was a work of genius. A folded ear with the fold coming from the head is undesirOn a single sheet of paper, they had set forth all the able and can cause an unhealthy situation. If the animal is physical characteristics necessary for an efficient goat meat dipped for external parasites such as lice or mites the South production system in the pasture. They described a goat Africans feel that this type of folded ear can hold moisture that had survivability, adaptability, a calm disposition, ferand create an environment for bacteria and infection. A tility, good mothering ability and made a living under harsh flipped ear or one that is folded at the tip of the ear is not conditions with low quality food. I realized that each of the considered a cull fault because it can be fixed by cutting the physical properties set forth in the standards contributed ligament at the fold or pulling the ear straight shortly after to one of the desirable properties mentioned above. I have birth. Both types of folded ears can be highly inheritable also observed that the Boer goat can be described through a according to discussions that I have had with Professor Wolfcombination of ratios, proportions and angles some of which gang Holtz who heads a genetic research group in northern will be presented in this article. Germany. Professor Holtz is the man responsible for bring The standards described a robust animal that was healthy the Boer goat to Germany from Namibia in 1980. and thrifty. The animal had medium bone and a lot of meat The wide set eyes, strong nostrils and powerful under on the carcass. The Boer goat was intended to be the meat jaw ensure that the animal will be wide in the shoulders and goat of the world and has gained wide acceptance all over wide in the loin and possess a powerful presence. The width the world as just such an animal. between the eyes is directly proportional to the width in the Recently a new publication has come from South Africa shoulders and the width in the loin.

The Boer Goat - 19

A long powerful head with a Roman nose or oval shape nutritional experiment at the Messina Livestock Research from the tip of the horns to the muzzle is an indication of Station in 1937 using a large group of heifers of different breed character. Dr. Jan Bonsma was a professor of animal British beef breeds. Through this experiment Bonsma discovscience at the University of Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. ered that malnutrition was not the problem because there Over a 20 year period he developed a breed of cattle in South were several heifers that thrived much better than others. Africa called Bonsmara. The name of the breed is a combina- Careful observation found that those animals that showed tion of his name and the Mara Research Station where the the least climatic stress (heat stress) thrived best. Those cattle were first bred. Dr. Bonsma has written several books animals that showed signs of stress on hot days had a very and numerous articles concerning high respiratory rate, they panted, the interaction of various species their tongues hung out and they The extra space in the nasal area of the skull dribbled of animals with their environment. profusely. provides extra room where the air can cool The Bonsmara breed is noted for Because Bonsma wanted their functionality and their ability to the blood before it enters the brain. In this to measure every aspect of the thrive in a subtropical desert climate way the animal can better handle the heat livestock that he worked with, while producing fast growing calves and reduce panting which increases energy. he made numerous observations and tender red meat. Bonsma on the animals in his experiment. discovered that one of the physical These included regular weighing, adaptations to a hot desert climate was the Roman nose. 14 different body measurements, body temperature, pulse The extra space in the nasal area of the skull provides extra and respiratory rates, hair count per square centimeter and room where the air can cool the blood before it enters the tick counts. Hair diameters were measured and complete brain. In this way the animal can better handle the heat and hair coats of different types of cattle were shorn off, weighed reduce panting which increases energy. The Roman nose can and put through a felting machine. be seen in many species of African animals including AfrikanThese elaborate tests proved beyond doubt that the hide er cattle, gemsbuck, dama gazelles and of course the Boer and coats of cattle played a tremendous role in the process goat. of heat dissipation, which is of the utmost importance for Professor Bonsma realized that the most important facthe animal to maintain its thermal equilibrium in the environtors influencing cost of production are: ment. He found that “animals that suffer from hyperthermia 1. Fertility - (high calving percentage). have increased respiratory and pulse rates with concomitant 2. Low mortality - (adaptability). metabolic, physiological and endocrinological disturbances.” 3. Heavy weaning weight - (good milk production). Bonsma discovered that animals with a respiratory type of 4. Rapid growth and low food to weight gain ratio. body conformation, a wide-forehead and convex facial pro5. Good conformation - (a high amount of quality meat). file were much better adapted to the tropics and sub-tropics 6. Animals with a placid (calm) temperament, which than those with a digestive type of body confirmation and a makes management easy. dished forehead and profile. 7. Longevity “It has been shown in several critical experiments, and it is As I read more of Bonsma’s writings I am amazed at how only logical, that the larger the surface area of the nasal sinussimilar the South African Boer goat and the Bonsmara breed es, the greater is the surface area available for evaporative of cattle become. When he developed the new cattle breed cooling during panting.” Excess panting takes more energy over a 20 year time period he found that the composite of and generates more heat in the long run. 5/8 Afrikaner and 3/8 British beef breed (3/16 Hereford for It would seem reasonable to assume that cattle with meat and 3/16 Shorthorn for milk production) was the best broad heads and a convex profile (Roman nose) would be combination for being heat tolerant, functional efficiency and able to cool their brain tissue more effectively than those survival under hot desert conditions. Many of his considerwith narrow heads and a concave profile. Afrikaner cattle are ations were the same as the original South African breeders extremely well adapted to hot and arid conditions. That they were in developing the South African Boer goat. also have relative large, broad heads with a convex Roman Before 1940 it was thought that tropical degeneration of profile appears to be of great importance to their physiologthe British breeds of cattle was caused by malnutrition as the ical adaptation, and not merely a fancy point dreamed up by protein content of natural pastures in the Southern hemibreeders. (All of the discussion presented above about Bonssphere is low, reaching critically low levels during the late mara was taken from extracts of “Genesis of the Bonsmara” summer and early winter. Dr. Bonsma began a large scale by Jan Bonsma.)

20 - The Boer Goat

I have included this discussion to show that there seems to be a correlation between many breeds of animals that have been developed over time to thrive in harsh, hot desert climates, particularly Africa. The Roman nose of the South African Boer goat was not an accident rather it was a adaptation over many years of indigenous breeds that make up the modern Boer goats. The Roman nose is a way for the Boer goat to dissipate heat and live comfortably in hot climates without excessive respiration and panting. I suspect that the skin and hair coat as well as the numerous folds of skin down the neck of Boer bucks also contributes to their functionality and survivability related to heat tolerance. Bonsma noted that animals adapted to hot desert climates usually had a dark (usually red) hide that had a sleek short haircoat and the skin had high vascularity and very active sebaceous glands. He noted that the color of the hide was seldom black as black absorbs too much heat. Continuing from “Genesis of the Bonsmara,” “thanks to Bonsma’s unique method of scale photography, the Bonsmara is the only breed in the world that can boast a pictorial genealogy from the very beginning of the breeding work until the new breed was established. It is also unique in that every mating was based on scientific data, where the concept of

“Man Must Measure” (Bonsma’s famous book written in 1983 entitled, “Lifestock Production - Man Must Measure”) was always taken into consideration.” It interesting to note that the Bonsmara breed association in South Africa prohibits showing animals in the show ring, rather they let the production data of the individual animals speak for the animal and the skill of the individual breeders. An animal does not get entered into the registry unless production data set forth in the breed standards are met. A producer will not be admitted into membership in the association until he has registered at least 30 head of cattle. Bonsma felt that it was more important for producers to compete among themselves using production data of their cattle instead of parading pretty animals around a show ring. Perhaps we could learn something from his philosophy considering what has happened to the Boer goat breed as a result of the show ring and emphasis on non-productive and non-functional traits found in show winners. Part 2 will be published in the March/April edition of the magazine. This portion of Dr. Homeyer’s article will discuss the functionality and reasons behind many of the breed standards and conformation of the Boer goat.

We want to thank you, our customers, for your commitment, loyalty, and support. We appreciate you purchasing semen and supplies, as well as using the services we offer. Please contact us if you are interested in marketing your bucks as well. We have exposure in the domestic and international through our parent company Ag World International —

Let BIO-Genics Quality Semen Improve Your Herd Genetics!


BREEDER’S Spotlight


shley Culver is a third-generation sheep rancher and has raised just about every breed of goats. But, she admits, there is something special and unique about Boer goats. In fact when she and Arron Roles were married, they vowed to never judge each other by how many goats were in the pens. Now, that is dedication! But being new to Boer goats has led Ashley down a road her father traveled many years before her. She wants to be nationally recognized for producing top-quality animals. With her goals set high, she and her husband are off to a great start.

1. How did you get started in the Boer goat industry? Let me start off by saying that Culver Family Farm started raising White and Natural Colored Romney Sheep. My grandfather was one of the founding fathers for our Romney Association. At the time, I got started in Boers I was already raising show stock pygmy goats. So about 7 years ago, my best friend and I went the Oregon Meat Goat Producer Spring Show and she was looking for a Boer buck to breed to her two does. There was a Boer doe in a raffle. I thought why not, so I bought one ticket. Well I won, and had to make the dreaded phone call to my dad and tell him I am bringing home another kind of goat, one that has horns! Needless to say he wasn’t the happiest, but he has grown to love them just as much as I do. I bred my doe to her buck and off I started in the Boer goat world. Roxy was my first doe and her first two girls were Tinkerbell and Paris.

goat no matter the color. We love our percentage does. We love to show them; half of our herd is percentage. We do produce market wethers for local 4-H and FFA groups, but we breed for show kids. We are known in our area for bottle babies. We raise about 15 each year and they grow like wildfire. They are in the show ring and win. People call us the bottle baby whisperers. We teach a lot of local seminars on fitting Boer goats and showing them. We work really hard to get the local youth and public involved in Boer goats. I am also judging all across Oregon. I judge meat goats and sheep. I am also the livestock judging co-coach for Benton County and we host live practices at our farm. I recently got married and my husband is very involved in the goats now. Some might even say he can out show me in the ring. He has his own show string and is working really hard on learning the fitting side of the operation. It is great to have the entire family so involved in something.

“There was a Boer doe in a raffle. I thought why not, so I bought one ticket. Well, I won and had to make the dreaded phone call to my dad....”

2. What does you operation look like today? I would like to say that our operation looks pretty good today. We run about 70 goats, along with our 80 sheep. We have focused more on the breeding and show stock side. We have three bucks. One is ennobled with more than 1000 points. Another became ennobled in August. We sell our show does all across the United States. We don’t necessarily breed for colored goats, but when you have a paint buck, color is what you get. We have a saying; a good goat is a good

22 - The Boer Goat

3. What do you enjoy the most about the Boer goat industry? I thing what I love the most is the happiness that goats bring to so many people. When you’re having a bad day or you are sad, you can go into your goat field and see them and they bring you so much joy and happiness. I think what I also enjoy is how we can be competitors in the ring and want to win so badly. Yet in a drop of a hat, the goat community will be there to help. When a fellow goat owner needs something, people are there. It is amazing to witness the generosity and kindness that people have showed toward one another.

4. Who was an inspiration to you or assisted you in improving you herd? And, how did they help you? There are three people that I can say were my inspiration. My dad first off. What girl doesn’t want to make her dad proud? I remember about 2 years after getting started my dad asked me, “So what do you want to do with these goats. What do you want to make your goal?” That was the day I decided I wanted to be with the best. Since then, my dad has helped me build barns, haul me to shows, haul me to go buy more goats and even be there at 3 in the morning kidding my goats out with me. The next person is Becki Crighton with Copper Creek Boers. She took my in under her wing and showed me the ropes. She taught me her ways. I wanted to have goats that looked as amazing as hers did. I wanted to fit like her. Becki has become a close friend of mind and I couldn’t have gotten as far as I have without her. The third, but not least, is Terry Brown from Capriole Boer Goats. Terry has taught me more in the last few years about the Boer goats than I ever thought possible. She has shown me so much. I told my dad from the beginning that I want to be like Terry Brown, I want to have a farm like hers. That is my goal.

5. What has been your biggest challenge as a producer? My biggest challenge is the 2 a.m. vet runs with your favorite goat. While holding them at the vet, you have to make the hardest decision of your life. Everyone says that it is just a goat. The truth is you ask any goat breeder and you will get the same answer. They are never just a goat, they are your children, your life and they hold a piece of your heart. There are days when I want to throw in the towel because I can’t

“What I love the most is the happiness that


goats bring to so many people.” take the pain anymore. I feel like I let my dad down, my goats down and myself down. I put all my money and my heart is in these animals, and it hurts when you can’t do anything

more for them, and you have to let them cross that rainbow bridge. It is heart wrenching when I am in the kidding pen trying to pull a kid out of my favorite doe and it all goes wrong. I can’t help but ask, ‘did I do this?’ Did I ask too much of my babies? The worst part for me is when it is a doe or buck that I just bought and I have to call the previous breeder and let them know that I lost him/her. I feel like failure. That is still the biggest challenge for me to overcome. I don’t know if it will ever get easier.

6. What are you most excited about in the future? Our hope is to one day show at Nationals. My husband and I got ourselves a wedding present in October – a new buck. Arron and I had the great honor of buying one of the most impressive bucks I have seen in a long time from Terry Brown, Capriole’s Valor. We have bred him to some does and we are so excited to see what his babies bring. We hope that his genetics will be the edge we need in taking us to Nationals.

The Boer Goat - 23

...continued from page 15.

Using a number of antibiotics without knowing the root cause is just one of the ways bacteria build up resistance. “We hope that producers can use veterinarians to accurately diagnose problems instead of using the shotgun approach, which ultimately is what causes resistant bacteria,” Washburn said. “We are all looking for judicial and prudent use of antibiotics, but first you need that diagnosis or a good idea of what is going on. When they don’t need it [antibiotics], they don’t need it.” Washburn also cautioned against using drugs that are prohibited for use in goats. “Most drugs that are prohibited are because they are a common human drug and we don’t want microbial pathogen resistance in humans. We are worried about residues in the food chain and about creating super drugs,” he said. “However, some can be fatal if used incorrectly.” It all goes back to the veterinarian-patient relationship. If there isn’t a veterinarian nearby, make the time to visit and talk to a trusted veterinarian so that when an emergency arises, a diagnosis can be made as quickly as possible. Washburn said with advanced technologies, producers and veterinarians can use photos and videos to analyze the animal’s symptoms, but you have to have that relationship to do so. For the FDA’s information on usage of extra-label drugs, reference the Minor Use, Minor Species Act in the September/October 2015 issue or the FDA’s website.

Conditions for Extra-Label Drug Use in Food-Producing Animals Before prescribing an approved human or animal drug for an extra-label use in food-producing animals, you must: Carefully diagnose and evaluate the condition for which you are prescribing the drug; Have an appropriate medical rationale for using the drug; Make sure your client maintains the identity of the treated animal, or animals, in the record; Establish a substantially extended withdrawal period supported by appropriate scientific information. You may

The FD&C Act doesn’t allow the extra-label use of any drug in animal feed.

General Conditions for Extra-Label Drug Use FDA’s requirements limit extra-label drug use in animals to situations where an animal’s health is threatened or where the animal may suffer or die without treatment. Before you can legally prescribe an approved human or animal drug for an extra-label use, one of these general conditions also must be met: There is no animal drug approved for the intended use; or There is an animal drug approved for the intended use,

get this information from such sources as scientific liter-

but the approved drug does not contain the active ingredi-

ature, academia, or the Food Animal Residue Avoidance

ent you need to use; or

Databank (FARAD) disclaimer icon; and

There is an animal drug approved for the intended use,

Take measures to assure that no illegal drug residues

but the approved drug is not in the required dosage form

occur. Your client must follow your established withdrawal

(for example, you need a liquid dosage form, but the ap-

period before marketing food products made from treated

proved drug is only available as a tablet dosage form); or

animals. If scientific information on the safety of food products

There is an animal drug approved for the intended use, but the approved drug is not in the required concentration

made from an animal treated with a human drug or an

(for example, you need 5 mg, but the approved drug is

animal drug that is approved only for companion animals

only available at 50 mg); or

is not available, you must take appropriate measures to

You have found, in the context of a valid veterinarian-

assure that the animal and its food products will not enter

client-patient relationship, that the approved drug is clini-

the human food supply.

cally ineffective when used as labeled.

Remember, you may not prescribe an approved human drug for food-producing animals if there’s an animal drug for the particular extra-label use instead.

24 - The Boer Goat

Source: FDA Website

JUDGEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S CERTIFICATION CLASS March 24-26, 2016

Newton Farms 21232 Surface Ave. Lakeville, IN 46536

Comfort Inn & Suites 60971 US 31 S South Bend, IN 46614

$300/person Class limited to 40-45 participants. For more information:

Application: The Boer Goat - 25

Managing Minerals - Sulfur

by Karla Blackstock

Sulfur is a building block in several amino acids (methoinine, cysteine, and cystine) and B vitamins (thiamine and biotin) along with other organic compounds. In the body, sulfur functions in many detoxification reactions and is required by ruminants for growth and cell function. The major biological function of sulfur is as a component of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfur is important in protein synthesis, milk and hair production, enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin and connective tissues. Sulfur also functions in maintaining bone, cartilage, tendon and blood vessel integrity. While goats can be deficient in sulfur, it is most likely a toxicity that causes harm. Sulfur is found in most feed largely as a component of protein. In diets that have high levels of sorghum forages, mature forages, or forages produced in sulfur-deficient soils, supplementation may be necessary. However most diets rich in forage diets are sufficient in sulfur. The National Academy of Science recommends .14 - .26 ppm of sulfur in a goatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s daily diet. According to animal nutritionists , the margin between the desirable and harmful concentrations of sulfur in a ruminant diet is surprisingly small. As discussed in other minerals artiPhoto by VJ Waddle cles, these nutritional

26 - The Boer Goat

components have a profound affect on one another. The interaction chart to the right, illustrates that sulfur affects copper, selenium, calcium, molybdenum, and zinc absorption.

Toxicity Sulfur toxicity is characterized by restlessness, diarrhea, muscle twitching, and labored breathing. In severe cases, inactivity and death may follow. High sulfur levels can contribute to polioencephalomalacia. Polio in goats is an inability for the rumen to synthesize blood sugars and convert them to necessary energy. Polio is a metabolic disorder characterized by neuromuscular symptoms. While polio is typically onset by a deficiency of thiamine, it can also result from prolonged treatment with antiprotozoa substances such as amprolium, the administration of dewormers, and animals grazing in recently fertilized pasture, and in animals exposed to high sulfur intake. Polio may occur in goats that may already be thiamine deficient. The maximum tolerable dietary concentration of sulfur is .3 percent of dry matter when animals are fed concentrated diets, or .5 percent with high-forage diets (NRC, 2005). High levels of sulfur in the diet interfere with copper and selenium absorption and utilization. Because sulfur interferes with the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s absorption of copper, sulfur should not be supplemented with blocks for para-

site control. Copper will actually bind to the sulfur preventing it from being utilized by the body.


Lower sulfur intakes can reduce feed intake, depress growth and decrease copper levels. Lowered feed and water intake can occur when high levels of sulfur are consumed in drinking water. Reported sulfur deficiency signs are anorexia, weight loss, weakness, hair loss, tearing of th eyes, emaciation, profuse salivation and death. Less severe sulfur deficiencies can reduce feed intake, digestibility, rumen microorganism numbers, and microbial protein synthesis. Lactate accumulation in the rumen and blood can then develop with disruption of rumen microbe populations.


Sulfur-containing mineral blocks are often used to control external parasites in goats. However, sulfur blocks

Kent Nutrition Group, Inc.


have no proven effect on the control of flies, ticks, fleas, mosquitoes or other external parasites in livestock, including goats. However, direct supplementation with these blocks can provide excessive amounts of sulfur, which can result in a number of problems. Many now believe this sulfur supplement can contribute to polio and bind up necessary iron and copper in the goatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body. Additionally, these blocks can prohibit goats from consuming free-choice minerals that do have the proper ratio of minerals. The bottom line is that these types of blocks do not offer balanced mineral supplementation and can possibly cause adverse effects on the overall health of your herd. If you are unsure of the sulfur content in your environment you can test your water source and forages. However, the USDA does not have current soil tests by county that allow for producers to review online.



The Boer Goat - 27

in the Boer Goat Industry Congratulations to the breeders and owners of the animals listed below. The following animals have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit.


Reg. #






Cecil & Sharon Swepston




Cecil & Sharon Swepston




B-Mack Farms LLC




Rick and Misty Allen




Scott Hughes

PPW 6B82



Robert & Phillis Little

Reg. #


10567097 10523779

4/03/2012 8/24/2010

Reg. #





OWNER 4-L Boer Goats Maggie Bartenslager


OWNER Irving & Mary Hefner & Family

Information on the requirements for each of these awards is listed to the right. For a full listing of each requirement, visit the ABGA website.

Purple Ribbon Saturday, March 26, 2016 Interstate Center Mini Expo Building 1106 Interstate Dr., Bloomington, IL 61705 Wether Sale: Noon Winners from the 2015 Wether Goat Sale State: 3 Class Winners County/ABGA: 5 Overall Grand Champions 3 Overall Reserve Champions 8 Grand Division Champions 4 Reserve Division Champions 10 Class Winners

Reference Sires include:

WTRL WhateverSire of AFB2 Marlboro Man and 2013 NAILE Grand Champion Buck

Breeding Sale: 1:00 pm Winners from the 2015 Breeding Goat Sale Nationals: Several Class 1st - 6th placers State: 4 Overall Grand Champions 2 Overall Reserve Champions 5 Grand Division Champions 2 Reserve Grand Division 10 Class Winners County/AGBA: 32 Overall Grand Champions 28 Overall Reserve Champions 40 Grand Division Champions 16 Reserve Division Champions 45 Class Winners

TRBK Leap of Faith Reserve Fair Jr. Show ReserveCh., Ch., Illinois State Fiar Grand Champion, St. Clair 4-H Show

AABG Tital Rave AFB2 Marlboro ManMulti-Champion Buck in 2014 2015 JABGA National Grand Champion Buck Sired by AABG Pumped Up Kicks & Tsunami

RMA2 Carly Grand Doe at LaSalle County and Kendall County

Kerianne Short, Sales Manager 217-737-7373 | Sale Committee: Kerianne Short, 217-737-7373, Rick Allen, 217-493-6729 Deric Wetherell, 217-898-9358

Showcase Broadcast Online thru DV Auction at

AFB2 Color of Luv 3 Grand Champion Fullblood Doe 1 Reserve Grand Champion Fullblood Doe

USDA AMS Report Montgomery, AL Mon Dec 7, 2015 Total receipts: 90 Last week: 0 Year ago: 226 Sold per head unless noted.

Des Moines, IA Wed Dec 9, 2015 Receipts: 261 Two Weeks Ag0: 157 Year Ago: 135 Goats sold per head unless noted.

Slaughter Bucks/Billies (#2) 70lbs $125.00; 80-100lbs $135.00; 100-150lbs $155.00-165.00.

Slaughter Kids (#1) 40-42lbs $85.0087.50, 54-57 lbs $127.50-135.00, 61-66lbs $150.00-155.00, 78 lbs $180.00-190.00, 85lbs $192.50-205.00, 90lbs $210.00, 115lbs $245.00.

Feeder Kids (#1) 40-50 lbs $95.00102.00, 50-60 lbs $105.00, # 2 20-30 lbs $70.00, 30-40 lbs $72.00-82.00, 50-60 lbs $80.00-85.00, 60-70 lbs $90.00; 7080lbs $97.00. Replacement Nannies/Does (#1) 100200 lbs $150.00-155.00, (#2) 20-70 lbs $82.00-102.00, 70-100 lbs $115.00-135.00, 100-200lbs $137.00-150.00. Centennial Livestock Auction Ft. Collins, CO December 09, 2015 Goat Receipts: 642 Last Week: 557 Year Ago: 0 Slaughter Kids (#1) 47-48 lbs $105.00110.00, 52-57 lbs $120.00-127.50, 64-69 lbs $140.00-152.50, 75 lbs $160.00, 80-88 lbs $175.00-190.00, 90-95 lbs $190.00200.00, (# 2) 20-25 lbs $45.00-50.00, 4049 lbs $85.00-97.50, 50-55 lbs $107.50115.00, 60-67 lbs $125.00-137.50, 72-74 lbs $147.50-152.50, 83-88 lbs $160.00170.00, 95 lbs $170.00-175.00, 100-105 lbs $185.00. Nannies/Does: (#1) 120-175 lbs $170.00190.00, # 2 90-170 lbs $145.00-165.00. Bucks/Billies: (#1) 165 lbs $265.00285.00; 205 lbs $330.00. Wethers: (#1) 130-160 lbs $270.00295.00, # 2 125-145 lbs $230.00-250.00. 30 - The Boer Goat

Slaughter Kids (#1-2) 80-82 lbs $145.00175.00. Slaughter Nannies/Does (#1) 195lbs $235.00, (#1-2) 115-120 lbs $140.00150.00, (#2) 87-102 lbs $130.00-145.00. Slaughter Wethers (#1-2) 101 lbs $190.00, 101-102 lbs $195.00-200.00. Loup City Commission Co December 4, 2015 Receipts: 439 Last Month: 560 Last Year: 354 Slaughter Kids: (#1) 40-50 lbs $87.0097.50; 50-60 lbs $112.50-115.00; 60-65 lbs $122.50-140.00; 70 lbs $162.50; 80-85 lbs $165.00-185.00; 90 lbs 200.00. Slaughter Wethers: (#1) 105-165 lbs $170.00-220.00. Feeder Kids: (#1-2) 20-25 lbs $35.0042.50; 30-40 lbs $57.50-80.00. Replacement Nannies: (#1) Exposed 90-120 lbs $180.00-190.00; 130-165 lbs $185.00-240.00. Slaughter Nannies: (#1) 100-130 lbs $145.00-170.00. #1-2 75-105 lbs $100.00140.00.

New Holland, PA Dec 07, 2015 Goats sold per CWT unless noted. Slaughter Kids: (#1) 40-60 lbs $140.00175.00; 60-80 lbs $170.00-215.00. Wethers (#1) 80-100 lbs $190.00220.00, 100-120lbs $260.00-265.00. #2 40-50 lbs $95.00-135.00; 50-60 lbs $130.00-160.00, wethers $142.00-160.00; 60-80 lbs $150.00-185.00. Slaughter Nannies/Does: # 1 80-130 lbs $185.00-210.00; 130-180 lbs $190.00230.00. #2 50-80 lbs$ 140.00-155.00. Slaughter Bucks/Billies: (#1) 80-100 lbs $250.00-305.00; 100-150 lbs $355.00410.00; 150-250 lbs $455.00-570.00. Slaughter Wethers: (#1) 100-150 lbs $30.00-365.00. (#2) 80-100 lbs $220.00235.00; 100-150 lbs $255.00-265.00. San Angelo, TX Tue Dec 08, 2015 Goat Receipts: 2832 Last Week: 1368 Year Ago: 393 Goats sold per CWT unless noted. Slaughter Kids: (#1) 40-60 lbs $250.00278.00, few $280.00-290.00; 60-70 lbs $243.00-248.00. (#1-2) 40-60 lbs $234.00-250.00; 60-80 lbs $228.00240.00; 80-100lbs $200.00-226.00. Does/Nannies: (#1-2) 80-130 lbs $138.00154.00; 130-200 lbs, $134.00-156.00. Bucks/Billies: (#1-2)70-100 lbs $172.00212.00; 100-150 lbs $150.00-192.00 Feeder Kids: (#1) 25-40 lbs $264.00278.00. # 1-2 30-40 lbs $238.00-256.00.

Slaughter Billies: (#1) 115-150 lbs $165.00- Replacement Does/Nannies: (#1-2) 60125 lbs $152.00-194.00. 185.00; # 2 115 lbs $75.00.

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