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We have low freight rates or order for upcoming shows • 1-800-949-9997 • 1-301-689-1966 • Fax: 1-301-689-9727 18059 National Pike • Frostburg, Maryland 21532







Robyn Scherer






Robyn Scherer

Dr. Frank Pinkerton











25 28

ABGA Executive Committee





A new Boer doeling stays close to her dam after playing with her sister. Photo by Robyn Scherer.

WANT TO SEE YOUR PHOTO IN THE MAGAZINE? If you would like to see YOUR photo in the January/February issue, please submit your picture to robyn@abga.org. This month's photos are featured on page 34.

INTERESTED IN ADVERTISING? The Boer Goat is being revitalized, and we are looking for new advertisers! Check out the rates and issue themes on page 39 to learn more!

DON’T FORGET TO RENEW YOUR ABGA MEMBERSHIP! Renewal information has been sent out. Please return your packet to the office, and continue your membership with the largest Boer goat registry in the U.S. The Boer Goat - 3

2013-2014 AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION November/December, 2014 REGION 16 - BRAD MACKEY (EC) PRESIDENT • bradmackey@bmackfarms.com

Dear ABGA Members,

REGION 13 - MARK ANDERSON (EC) VICE PRESIDENT • fandhranch@aol.com

The holiday season will soon be here and with the end of the year, the time comes to renew ABGA memberships. If you haven’t received a membership renewal letter, you will receive one in the near future. When you do receive it, please remember to write your county on the renewal form.

REGION 10 - TRACY DIEFENBACH SECRETARY • tldief@gmail.com REGION 2 - SCOTT PRUETT TREASURER • eieiowefarms@yahoo.com REGION 1 - TERRY BROWN • capriole@pocketinet.com REGION 3 - JOEL R PATTERSON • bobnjr@gmail.com REGION 4 - CECIL SWEPSTON • cecils@brokensranch.com REGION 5 - JOHN EDWARDS • eggstx@aol.com REGION 6 - PAUL GRAFE (EC) • pgrafe@valbridge.com REGION 7 - JAY EARL PEACOCK • earlpeacock@yahoo.com REGION 8 - SHON CALLAHAN (EC) • sdccccranch@aol.com REGION 9 - VICKI STICH • ladyhogger59@hotmail.com REGION 11 - JANIS WESSON • dustydan1@windstream.net REGION 12 - PAUL KINSLOW (EC) • paulsellsindy@yahoo.com REGION 14 - CYNTHIA PRICE-WESTFALL EC cindy-price_westfall@yahoo.com REGION 15 - SARA DAVIS • csdavis@oakhollowlivestock.com ERVIN CHAVANA (EC) PAST PRESIDENT • mengercreek@hotmail.com *EC DENOTES EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEMBER

AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION 1207 S. BRYANT BLVD., SUITE C • SAN ANGELO, TX 76903 MARY ELLEN VILLARREAL, Executive Director • mary@abga.org LAURIE EVANS, Administrative Assistant • laurie@abga.org CAYLA WILDE, Registration Support Staff • cayla@abga.org JESSICA HERNANDEZ, Registration Support Staff • jessica@abga.org CINDY DUSEK, Youth Coordinator • cindy@abga.org MARIA LEAL, Member Services • marial@abga.org ROBYN SCHERER, M.AGR. Director of Marketing & Communication • robyn@abga.org ABGA OFFICE HOURS Monday - Friday • 8:00 AM TO 5:00 PM (CST)

4 - The Boer Goat

We held a Face-to-Face Board of Directors meeting on the 5th and 6th of December in San Antonio, Texas. Thank you to all of the members who attended the meeting. We appreciate your input. DNA testing becoming mandatory on Jan. 1, 2015. Please remember to DNA test bucks you plan to breed with on or after January 1, 2015 if you’re going to register kids out of them. The number of ring stewards for the 2015 ABGA National Show has been increased from three to four. If you would like to help in this capacity, fill out the application that is included in this issue of the magazine. It can be found on page 28. ABGA representatives attended major events this fall. Robyn Scherer manned the ABGA booth at the National Goat Expo in September and handed out information about ABGA. Sam and Mary Lou Abney manned both the ABGA and AGF booths at the Sunbelt Ag Expo in Georgia. They handed out many pounds of goat jerky and goat milk soap, in addition to talking to hundreds of people. Cindy Dusek and Robyn Scherer, along with some of the JABGA members, talked to youth from all over the country at the JABGA booth at the National FFA Convention in Louisville, Kentucky, and signed up some new JABGA members. And last, but not least, I want to personally thank the members who have volunteered to serve on committees. They are: Jason Brashear, Kathy Carr, Mike & Kim Cothran, Lee Dana, Susan Darrow, Ron Dilley, Jeff Gibbs, Cynthia Grafe, Donna Jean Heinrich, Holly Heyer, Kristen Hoffman, Chip Kemp, Sherman Mauck, Carl McCosker, Janet Moraczewski, Dr. Mary Newman, Sheryl Pearcy, Dawn Steward, Terry Taylor, Nan Walker, Deric Wetherall, Cathy Van Wyhe and Kallie York. It’s a busy time of the year for most of us goat producers. Many members already have kids on the ground, and others will have goats kidding in the next few weeks. I hope you can spend as much time as you want with your families during this holiday season and that the New Year will be prosperous for you and yours. Happy Holidays, Brad Mackey, President ABGA © 2014 American Boer Goat Association™

Let ter from the Editor NEW BEGINNINGS I can’t believe I am already on the second issue! You will see some new writers this issues, as well as some new content. I have added a veterinary column, and am very grateful to Dr. Ken Brown, DVM, who is sharing his expertise as a goat veterinarian. This issue Dr. Brown will be tackling the issue of pregnancy toxemia. I have also added a JABGA update, so members can stay up-to-date on what the JABGA is up to. On page 26, you will see a page that highlights the top ABGA goats, which are the goats receiving ennoblements, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit awards. Congratulations to the owners, breeders, and to the goats for these accomplishments! This issue will focus on kidding, with a special section on equipment. Check out the article on prepping for kidding season, kidding and care, as well as the importance of milk to kids. Don’t miss the article on feeding pre- and post-weaning kids, which gives great advice on the nutritional aspect of feeding young goats. There is also a great article on chutes and panels, which is valuable to any producer looking to add a goat handling system to the enterprise. Finally, there is a section on association updates, including the application to be a National Show Ring Steward, information on how Rule 900 complaints are filed, a DNA update and the 2013 ABGA Financials. The user submitted photo section is here to stay, so please continue to send in your photos, especially your kid photos! It’s been a pretty mild fall so far, but we have hit a cold snap here at my farm, as many of you have. I hope all of your goats are well! All of my does are bred, and I am just waiting until January to start kidding.

CONTACT INFORMATION: Cell: 325-812-5593 Email: robyn@abga.org

I do want to thank each and every one of you for your membership with ABGA. I also want to thank the sponsors and advertisers, as well as all of the volunteers. I had the opportunity to travel to a few events this fall and meet members from across the country. I am incredibly thankful to be working on behalf of you to help promote the Boer goat, and to work with your and your businesses. It’s truly an honor. I hope you have a wonderful holiday season, and a Happy New Year! Sincerely,

Robyn Scherer, M.Agr.

ANNOUNCEMENTS December Face-to-Face Board Meeting

Minutes from the December Face-to-Face board meeting will be posted on the website as soon as they are available. The meeting was held December 5-6, 2014 at the Hotel Indigo in San Antonio, Texas.

DNA Testing Reminder

The price for DNA testing increases on January 1, 2015. If you have requested a SAMPLE DNA Test Kit and not sent your sample to UC Davis, please be sure to do that before the end of December.

Membership Renewal

Membership Renewal letters were mailed out the middle of November. If you haven’t received yours, please call the office.

Judge’s Shows

The ABGA Website now has a downloadable pdf file with information on judges – the number of shows they have judged, and the number of goats in each show for the past three years. http://abga.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/ JUDGES-REPORT-FOR-PDF-2014.pdf

AGF Annual Meeting

The American Goat Federation Annual Meeting is being held in Reno, Nevada. The business meeting is on January 27th and there will be a day of seminars on January 28th. As members of ABGA, you can arrange to attend the seminars at no charge. Information is at www.AmericanGoatFederation.org.

The Boer Goat - 5

AMERICAN BOER GOAT ASSOCIATION In recognition of the efforts of local clubs and the impact their activities have on the goat industry, ABGA implemented the Affiliate Program in 2004. With the rapid growth in the meat goat industry, these goat clubs have an increased role of education, marketing and promotion. They provide an essential service in promoting the industry and educating breeders at the local level.

The objectives of the AGBA Affiliate program include:

• To provide resources at the local clubs level

• To provide networking opportunities for the local clubs

• To attract and retain goat producers

• To assist with educational opportunities

• To cultivate grassroots input from local clubs

Boer Goat Association of North Carolina Kelly Clark P.O. Box 36497 Greensboro, NC 27416 KellyClark@triad.rr.com Serving States: NC Tall Corn Meat Goat Wether Assoc Inc Vern Thorp

Local clubs benefit from joining the group of recognized affiliates by receiving: • Listing on the Affiliate page of The Boer Goat including a short description • Listing on the Affiliate section of AGBA website with description of club’s mission • Listing of club events (shows and educational events) on the ABGA Event Calendar • Monthly listing of new AGBA members in the Affiliate’s area • Eligibility to receive ABGA promotional and educational material for club events

• Eligibility for educational funds

• Eligibility for cost share programs

• Membership matching funds at the end of each year of $1/member

• Opportunities for future programs How to become an affiliate:

In order to become a recognized affiliate, a local club needs to complete the affiliate application and submit the annual membership fee of $75. AGBA staff will review the application and notification will be sent to affiliate upon recognition. At the end of each year, ABGA sends each affiliate a renewal notice, and in order to continue as an affiliate, the club will need to return the form with any corrections, along with the $75 membership fee and a current roster, for the membership match.

1959 Highway 63 New Sharon, IA 50207 neverthorp@aol.com www.meatgoatwether.com Serving States: IA Snake River Meat Goat Association Clara Askew, Secretary/Treasurer 8054 Ustick Rd Nampa, ID 83687 foxtailfarms@hotmail.com www.srmga.com Serving States: ID, WA, OR, CA, NV, MT, UT, AZ, NM Cascade Boer Goat Association Crystal Fenton 14352 W Hwy 12 Touchet, WA 99360 info@cascadebga.org www.cascadebga.org Serving States: OR, WA, ID, MT, CA Keystone Goat Producers Association 106 Carlisle Rd Newville, PA 17241 rzeigler@centurylink.net Serving States: PA Tri-State Goat Producers Association [TSGPA] 5125 State Rt 2

Don't forget to renew your Affiliate Membership for 2015! 6 - The Boer Goat

Greenup, KY 41144 billupsfarms@windstream.net Serving States: KY

OF EVENTS 2014 JANUARY JANUARY 14 National Western Stock Show Denver, CO Erin Dorsey 303-299-5559 JANUARY 18 American Premier Boer Goat Show Fort Worth, TX Stefan Marchman 817-877-2400 JANUARY 19 Yellow Rose Classic Boer Goat Show Fort Worth, TX Stefan Marchman 817-877-2400

JUDGE DIRECTORY ALABAMA Wess Hallman • deadbug@otelco.net

KANSAS Dr. Brian R Faris • brfaris@ksu.edu KENTUCKY Catherine Riley • cmrile4@gmail.com Jason Brashear • jasonbrashear@outlook.com LOUISIANA Chris Shaffett • shaffman01@hotmail.com MARYLAND Robert Dinsmore • dinsmo81@hotmail.com MISSISSIPPI Kipp Brown • kippb@ext.msstate.edu Jesse J Cornelius • jcornelius@nettleton.k12.ms.us MISSOURI Nick Hammett • nick@circlearanch.com Josh Stephans • jcstephans@yahoo.com Beth Walker • ewalker@missouristate.edu David “Chip” Kemp • kempd@missouri.edu NORTH CAROLINA Anton Ward • wardanton@aol.com Roger McSwain • rogermcswain@hotmail.com John Tart III • thelegendjt3@gmail.com

ARKANSAS David Carwell • davidcarwell87@gmail.com Mark A Berry • berrysghfarm@gmail.com

OHIO Kent Davidson • davidson@metalink.net Mike Borsch • ovf@ohiovalleyboers.com

CALIFORNIA Pat Ariaz • patariaz@yahoo.com

OKLAHOMA Jeremy Church • purch_24@hotmail.com Bernhard Bernhard • bryan.bernhard@okstate.edu Brandon Morgan • bmorgan@newcastle.k12.ok.us Mike Cothran • mnkxtremeboers@yahoo.com Morgan Hallock • 641-442-5218 Phil Stacy • stacygoats@gcrosstel.net Danny Thompson • clubgoats@yahoo.com Tom Dugas • tom@padk.com Josh Taylor • lakeviewboers@yahoo.com Joe Teel • joe@teelshowgoats.com Ron Dilley • rdbgfarm@aol.com Kay Garrett • kewlkay@hotmail.com

COLORADO Scott T Pruett • eieiowefarms@yahoo.com FLORIDA Julie Brown • Julie@ExpertCMI.com GEORGIA Sylvester Ridings • 3bll@bellsouth.net Troy Veal* • tvanveal@yahoo.com Rusty Lee • rlee.downeytrees@hotmail.com INDIANA Jesse Kimmel • jessekimmel@hotmail.com Tom Redden • 812-278-4697 Lary Duncan • laryduncan@att.net Anita Messer • redgate@hoosierinternet.com Sherri L Stephens • onrbg@yahoo.com IOWA Mark Henry • 515-290-1754 Douglas D Glosser • doogie4557@yahoo.com

OREGON Shelby Armstrong • Shelbyarmstrong1@gmail.com SOUTH CAROLINA Kathy Daves-Carr • Dxdarlin1@yahoo.com

TENNESSEE Pit Kemmer • pkemmer@frontiernet.net Lance Ward • donaldlanceward@hotmail.com TEXAS Claire Powell • powellholman@yahoo.com John Edwards • eggstx@aol.com Beth Mason • sistersII@wcc.net Dr. Randy Harp • harp@tarleton.edu Kurt Henry • waylocattle@yahoo.com Jackie Edwards • eggstx@aol.com Reggie Phillips • reggie_phillips@eogresources.com Bronc Fleming • broncf@zipnet.us Dr. Frank Craddock • b-craddock@tamu.edu Eddie Holland • eholland@ctesc.net Michael Compton • 325-896-2412 Dr. Fred C Homeyer • ancreek@yahoo.com Coni Ross • crranch@moment.net Becky Sauder • sistersII@wcc.net Charles Seely • CLSeely@aq.tamu.edu Robert Washington • robert.washington64@gmail.com MD Shurley • 325-387-5777 Timothy D Snowden • timothy@snowdenfamilyfarm.com Preston Faris • prfaris@sonoratx.net Joetta Boyd • bgr@wtconnect.com Jack Talley • jmtboers@wtconnect.com Larry Epting • larry.epting@oncor.com Robert Duke Sr. • bdukegoats@gmail.com Terry Taylor • ttaylor.ie@gmail.com Norman Kohls** • nandkranch@aol.com Warren Thigpen • w-thigpen@tamu.edu Josh Lackey • drlackey@yahoo.com Kyran Larner • kyranlarner@yahoo.com Ray Bolinger • rayb.one@sbcglobal.net Lynn Farmer • lynfar@centex.net Mike Wallace • txsaggie94@yahoo.com Sammy Lerena • ktgosteppin@att.net Bruce Lott • lott.bruce@aaa-texas.com Cheryl L Wright • bwright@centex.net VIRGINIA David Carter • dcboers1@gmail.com MEXICO Marcos De Luna • marcosdeluna@hotmail.com Note: There are three categories. * indicates inspections only for judges who do inspections and do not judge shows. ** indicates judges only, who judges shows and do not do inspections. All others inspect for ennoblement and judge shows. The Boer Goat - 7



Story and photos by Robyn Scherer, M.Agr.

For many goat producers, December and January are when the kids will start coming, and this usually continues through the late spring to early summer. The weather may not be warm, so preparation and planning will be vital to kids’ health. Pre-kidding Producers should start preparing their does to kid several weeks before the actual event. It is helpful to know when does are due, but the steps are the same no matter when the kids are due to arrive.

The does should be dewormed prior to their birthing date, and given a vaccination for Clostridium perfringens C and D, and tetanus toxoid, 30 days before they are due. The does should have their feet trimmed and the area around their tail head clipped before they are due to kid. This allows the doe to walk comfortably, and helps the doe stay cleaner when she has her babies. All does, regardless of age, should be monitored for signs of pregnancy toxemia and ketosis. These two diseases are a result of the high energy demand of fetuses in last gestation. Kids require more carbohydrates in the last trimester than either of the first two. When the doe is unable to meet the needs of the growing kids, she metabolizes her fat into glucose, which causes ketosis. Does that are overweight and receive little exercise are at the greatest risk. It’s important to keep does in good condition, but not overly conditioned throughout gestation to help prevent this. As does progress through gestation, the kids grow larger, and the rumen will have less room to expand to accompany feed. Does may need to be fed more frequently in smaller amounts, especially if they are in pens with open does who will eat more. Does generally kid around 150 days after breeding, but that can range from 145-155. If a producer knows the due date, the kidding pen can be set up a few days before the doe hits 145. The pen can be indoors or out, and should depend on the producers location. The doe should have access to a clean, preferably straw bedded area, and fresh water and feed. Some producers Left: Providing heat for newborn kids, especially when it’s cold, is important.

8 - The Boer Goat

Above: Individual pens can make it easier to give attention to individual does.

Above: Puppy pads make the birthing cleanup easier.

don't mind having their does kid with the herd, and others prefer to have their kidding does separate. That decision is a personal preference.


An advantage to leaving does in the herd is that they will not get lonely. One disadvantage is that other does may attempt to steal the newborn kids. Having a doe kid by herself can allowed a producer to give the doe more attention, and relieve stress on the doe because she isn't worried about the other does. However, does that are separated still need a companion in an adjacent pen. If the due date is unknown, a producer should check the doe at least once a day to see if she is getting close. Signs of getting close include fleshy tail head, enlarged sides and udder development. Does may start to fill their udders weeks to just a few days before birth. A doe may have milk, or a milk like substance, for several weeks before she gives birth, so milk is not always the best indicator of impending birth. Once these signs are noticed, a doe should be moved to a kidding pen if a producer chooses to have kid in a pen. A "kidding kit" should also be prepared, that will include all the necessary supplies for kidding. This includes, but is not limited to examination gloves (short and shoulder length), lube, iodine, towels, scissors, rope, milk replacer and electrolytes. Those are the basic necessities, although many producers may include more. Puppy pads are great to use for birthing as well, as it allows a producer to quickly dry the kid and clean up the fluids, and can be thrown away instead of washed.

It’s finally time for the doe to give birth. Although not every doe will be the same, most does will display some or all of the signs of immanent birth: fleshy tail head, repeatedly getting up and down, vocalization, and vaginal discharge. Once the doe has discharge, she will usually kid within the hour. Does may stand up, or lay down to give birth. When the doe is just about to kid, a fluid filled sac will appear. As the doe continues to push, feet can usually been seen in the sac, followed by the nose. Pushing the kid’s head and shoulders will be the widest and hardest part for the doe, and it may take her a little time. However, if it seems to be taking abnormally long, there may be something wrong. The correct presentation for a kid is front feet first, one slightly ahead of the other, with the head tucked down near them. Kids can be born backwards (breach), but if this is noted it is best to help pull the kid. If the doe takes too long on a breach kid, the kid could suffocate and die. Kids can also have one or more front limbs bent back, and a producer will likely need to help the doe deliver kids that are presented this way. Every situation is different. Seasoned does generally know what they are doing, and have fewer problems during the birthing process. If possible, a producer should try to be on hand for every birth, just in case she runs into trouble. Birth can be a scary time, especially for a maiden doe, as she does not really understand what or why something is happening. She knows she is in pain. The Boer Goat - 9

Instinct should take over, but sometimes a doe needs a little help. If a producer can be on hand for the birth, he or she can assist the doe as needed. The pelvis on a maiden doe may not be as wide as that of a mature doe, because she is not yet finished growing. This could cause the kids to get stuck, and at that point the doe may need assistance. Once the doe passes the head and shoulders, the rest of the kid usually slides out. If you are there for the birth, clean off the kid’s face and nose, and make sure it is breathing. The doe will usually get up and start cleaning off the kid at this point. If it is cold and the kidding is happening outside, make sure to wipe down the kid with a towel, and get it under shelter. It may need to be wrapped in a blanket to keep it warm. The doe will continue to lick the kid, which is vital to the kid/dam bonding that needs to occur. If the weather permits it, the does should be allowed to clean the kids. This helps them both to bond, which is vitally important to her acceptance of the kids. The doe will pass extra fluids, and may try to lick that instead of the kid in her attempt to clean up. If you can, clear these fluids away so the doe focuses solely on the kids.

Post-kidding After the doe has finished kidding, there are still a couple of items that need to be attended to. The kids needs to have their umbilical cords cut if they are really long, (should be a couple of inches) and dipped in iodine to ward off any possible infection. It is best to stay with the doe and kids until all the kids are up and nursing. Kids should be monitored the first few days after birth to make sure they are up and moving (most will be within a few hours), nursing from their mothers, and are in good health. Any kid that is weak or shows signs of disease should be looked at by a veterinarian, and treated as needed. Does may continue to have discharge for a few days after kidding, but should clean up shortly. If you had to go into the doe to pull a kid, you may need to give her antibiotics to prevent infection. You may also need to give her electrolytes if she seems lethargic and isn’t drinking water. Kidding goats is a fairly easy process, if you take the correct preparations. Does usually do a good job of raising their kids, and hopefully your participation in the kidding process will be minimal.

The doe may stop and lay down to have her other kids, and the procedure is the same for each kid. After the doe has passed all the babies, she will then pass the placenta. The doe will likely try to lick/ eat the placenta, so it is best to pick it up and throw it away, because it may attract predators.

Above: Does giving birth should have clean straw for the kids to be born in. 10 - The Boer Goat

Above: If the weather is really cold, dog sweaters can be used to help newborns stabilize their body temperature.

The Party’s in Texas 2014 ABGA National Champion FB Buck

ROR1 Fixin to Party

With a combined total of 2377 ABGA points between Party, his sire and his dam, take the guess work out of the equation and breed to consistent genetics with confidence for success!

Flushes $1,000 Live breeding $500 Semen $100 a straw; 5 straw minimum Sammy Lerena • Lipan, Texas • 530.300.3338 Season’s Greetings!

The Boer Goat - 11



By Trevor Clemens, 2014-15 JABGA Reporter

2014 National FFA Convention October 29th kicked off the 87th annual National FFA Convention, held in Louisville, Kentucky. JABGA was well represented as an exhibitor of the career show held at convention, and offered many educational and promotional items for FFA members and families. Current and future JABGA members from across the nation were offered a membership deal, receiving 50% off membership for the upcoming year of 2015. Youth Coordinator, Cindy Dusek, and ABGA Director of Marketing and Communication, Robyn Scherer, were in charge of the table, occasionally assisted by JABGA President, Bethany Gochenour and JABGA Reporter, Trevor Clemens. The JABGA board would like to thank all future and current JABGA members who stopped by the booth to pick up materials and visit. They would also like to thank Cindy Dusek and Robyn Scherer for all the hard work they put into promoting JABGA!

Upcoming JABGA Board of Directors Face-to-Face Meeting The next JABGA Board of Directors Face-toFace Meeting will be held December 30th-January 4th in Orlando, Florida. The junior board looks forward to reflecting upon events that took place in the year of 2014, and planning the upcoming year. We encourage members to give new educational and fundraising ideas to the board to discuss at this upcoming meeting.

Cookbook Reminder Last but not least, the JABGA board would like to remind all ABGA and JABGA members of the JABGA Cookbook. The cookbook project is a fundraiser for the JABGA. We encourage everyone to send in recipes. Please submit recipes to any JABGA director or the JABGA Advisor, Cindy Dusek at: cindy@abga.org.

12 - The Boer Goat

The JABGA Board of Directors have decided to host a cookbook! We really want to put an emphasis on goat recipes, and we encourage people to send in recipes. Not only goat recipes are needed though. We are accepting recipes of all sorts, and we need as many as we can get! This is not directed to just ABGA or JABGA members, but everyone! Please send recipes to Cindy Dusek, or any other junior board member. Cindy's email: cindy@abga.org Please keep in mind that these cookbooks will be a great fundraiser for the JABGA.

JABGA Spotlight


SHOWMANSHIP CHAMPIONS Macy Meyer was the Champion Pee Wee Showman in the IMGP Buckle Series for 2014. Maya Meyer was the Reserve Champion Pee Wee Showman. Madelyn Meyer (12) was the Junior Showmanship Grand Champion in the IMGP Buckle Series. This series was all year long beginning in March with the first IMGP show at Joliet Junior College in Joliet, IL., and finishing in Sept. at the National Goat Expo. This series spanned 12 individual shows at seven locations across the state of Illinois. Macy and Maya were also Co-Champions in the Indiana Boer Goat Classic series that spanned four shows across the state of Indiana in the summer of 2014. Madelyn Meyer was Reserve Grand Champion Junior Showman.

Above: Maya and Macy Meyers are twin girl who love to show goats. Photo by Robyn Scherer.

Above: Macy Meyer, right, was the Champion in the junior showmanship division, and Maya Meyer, left, was the Reserve Champion in the IMGP Buckles Series this year. Photo courtesy of Rodney Meyers. Left: Madelyn Meyer was the Champion in the junior showmanship division for the IMGP Buckle Series. Photo courtesy of Rodney Meyers.

Macy Meyer Photo by Robyn Scherer.

Maya Meyer Photo by Robyn Scherer.

Want to be featured in the JABGA spotlight? Send your good news to Robyn Scherer, robyn@abga.org.

The Boer Goat - 13


ON A WHIM FAMILY FARM By Robyn Scherer, M.Agr. Photos courtesy of Amy Graber

On A Whim Family Farm, owned by Amy & Lyndon Graber, along with daughters Kaitlynn and Alaina Mincey, is located in Washington, Indiana. They raise 45 head of commercial, percentage and fullblood goats.

1. How did you get started in the Boer goat industry? It depends on which part of the industry you mean, but I think we were unknowingly drawn in over the course of 3 years. In 2011, we started out with 4 percentage does because I wanted something to consume the weeds that my cows wouldn’t. Boer goats seemed like a good option because we could sell them for meat. My daughter Kaitlynn later decided she wanted to show goats in 4H, so we bought a slightly nicer doe and wether for her to show. In June of 2013, I decided that I wouldn’t mind having 2 or 3 goats that were competitive in sanctioned shows. That decision led us to buy a red buck from Jim and Deanna Furman in Kansas. We showed that buck at the Indianapolis shows that

14 - The Boer Goat

August, he did very well, and we were at Tom and Jackie Redden’s within two weeks buying our first show does. A week or so later, we attended our first show away from home, which happened to be the one Mark and Debbie Anderson put on at the Wilson County Fair. We had so much fun at that show that we were hooked on showing.

2. What is your favorite part about raising Boer goats? We have yet to decide if our favorite part about raising Boer goats is the goats themselves or going to shows and socializing with the wonderful people we’ve met. All but a handful of our goats are pets, and the ones that aren’t pets are that way by their choice and not ours. We love how personable goats are, and there is something calming about tending to them, in the evening, after a long day at work. However, Lyndon and I also thoroughly enjoy going to shows, visiting with current friends, and making new ones.

3. Who was an inspiration to you and assisted you in improving your knowledge/herd, and how did they help you? Jackie Redden and Sheila Smith both have inspired me because I consider them to be the complete package. They raise beautiful goats, present them well, and are competitive but still have fun showing. They also encourage new members, such as myself, and are constantly looking for ways to improve their goats and the Boer goat industry. I’m sure there are several other seasoned ABGA members that do this; however, these two are the ones that I’ve had the privilege to get to know the best. Jackie and Sheila, along with Tom Redden, Terry Taylor and Paul Morgan have helped us out considerably just by providing valuable advice and information. They have helped in areas such as feeding, vaccinating, treating and preventing illness, showing, clipping, corrective hoof trimming, and genetic pairing advice. The wealth of knowledge provided by these people has been invaluable to us as new breeders in the Boer goat industry.

4. What has been your biggest challenge as a new producer in the industry? The biggest challenge to us is lack of knowledge. When it comes to the Boer goat industry, the devil is in the details, and we’re learning more details every day. There is so much to learn regarding feeding, vaccinating, hoof trimming, prepping and fitting for shows. Plus, there is the diagnosing and treating of illnesses. It seems almost impossible to learn everything, but thanks to the people previously mentioned, I feel we have a good start.

5. What are you most excited for with your herd in the coming year? We are expecting the first kids from our show does and are very excited about that. We are thankful to have had very good luck showing the does we bought; however, our main goal is to produce goats that are competitive at shows. We are hoping that the kids we have on the way will do just that.

6. Anything else you want to add? To new members who want to show: Buy the style of goats you like. Don’t get frustrated if you don’t do as well as you hoped or a judge makes a decision you don’t agree with. There will be another show, with another judge, with another opinion, that will probably differ from the previous one. You pay the feed bill and care for it, so as long as you like your goat, nothing else really matters. Also, if there’s something you don’t know or understand, ask someone that is successful in the industry. If they don’t know the answer, odds are they can direct you to someone who will. To learn more about On A Whim Family Farm, please visit www.onawhimfamilyfarm.com.

The Boer Goat - 15

Vet's Corner

recognizing and treating


Pregnancy Toxemia is a serious disease and should be treated by a veterinarian when possible. Breeding season is over and you have but 4 weeks to go before kidding! You watch your herd carefully and check them daily for any signs of illness of trouble that can be prevented. But underneath a seemingly normal looking pregnant herd can run a silent problem waiting to erupt: pregnancy toxemia and the risk of losing both doe and future babies. Pregnancy toxemia is most common in does carrying multiple fetuses and usually seen in late pregnancy, the last 4 to 6 weeks. During these last weeks, energy requirements rise dramatically with does pregnant with twins or triplets needing as much as 1.5 to 1.8 times more energy and protein than maintenance requirements. They are, literally, almost eating for three (or four). Each fetus can require 30â&#x20AC;&#x201C;40 grams of glucose per day in late gestation to support their growth and is a significant portion of what the doe can produce and is provided to the fetus before the doe. The liver is responsible for meeting energy demands and mobilized fat stores can easily overwhelm the liver's capacity and result in hepatic lipidosis with a subsequent impairment of liver glucose production function. The risk factors for developing pregnancy toxemia include: multiple fetuses, poor energy quality or amount in diet, environmental factors (heat or cold), obesity and general body condition, parasite burden (robbing nutrients), and the actual genetics of having multiple fetuses. The primary cause, however, is inadequate nutrition usually due to insufficient energy density of the ration and a decreased rumen capacity as a result of fetal growth. Does that are too thin or obese (BCS <2.0 or >4.0) and with more than 1 fetus (common in goats) are at most risk of developing pregnancy toxemia. Some goats are subclinical and have other problems that can curtail proper nutrient absorption (parasites, etc.) and can quickly shift from a mild ketosis to clinical pregnancy toxemia if feed intake is curtailed by an event like stress (adverse weather, transport, handling) or another disease (e.g., pneumonia). Several signs can indicate a problem with pregnancy toxemia, including small fecal pellets (poor diet intake), â&#x20AC;&#x153;offâ&#x20AC;? or slowing in eating, 16 - The Boer Goat

reluctance to rise, isolation from the herd, dehydration, infrequent urination, teeth grinding, becoming sluggish, stiff or staggering gait, swelling of the lower limbs. The more the disease progresses, the more signs become evident which can be signs of ketoacidosis (needing daily treatment) and more obvious neurological signs related to the lack of glucose to the brain such as tremors, laying down more often, apparent blindness, staggering gait (ataxia), aimless wandering, stargazing, and eventual recumbency. Not all signs are present at every stage of the disease. When the disease is progressed sufficiently, the fetuses will die and release toxins into the bloodstream and the doe will then die from endotoxic shock. Besides the physical signs listed above, the increased ketone bodies in the blood (often giving a "sweet" odor to the breath) and urine can be checked to help determine if the problem is ketosis (pregnancy toxemia), a thiamine deficiency, or a generalized anemia or hypoglycemia. It is easy to check the urine with ketone test strips purchased at any pharmacy over-the-counter. Because energy intake is low and the fetuses are demanding more energy (glucose) as they grow, a hypoglycemia develops. The hypoglycemia will mimic many diseases and, as noted above, an early sign can be a simple "off" behavior, slight stagger to the gait or a reluctance to rise. It is during late geastation when the majority of fetal growth occurs (80% of it) and the energy demands of the fetus is very high in glucose thereby reducing glucose available for other parts of the body such as the GI tract (why they go off feed), skeletal muscles (why they stop wanting to rise), and even the brain (seen as neurological signs). When calorie intake is low, the doe will start to mobilize energy from other sources, the first being fat (adipose tissue) and why obese does are more prone to pregnancy toxemia. The fat is metabolized by the liver, but is limited and the effort to metabolize the quantity of fat needed to meet glucose demands results in ketone bodies being released into the blood. It is at this point ketoacidosis occurs and signs begin to occur such as depression, or a general dullness, recumbency, rigid arching of the neck and back, and eventually death.

If the doe survives the pregnancy toxemia episode, dystocia and lactational ketosis (insufficient energy intake for milk production demand) are potential problems and the prudent herd tender will be monitoring for both of them. Treatment (based on a 100 pound doe size) Advanced cases of pregnancy toxemia are difficult to treat and are frequently unrewarding. If a goat is already comatose, heroic efforts are rarely useful and treatment should focus on the rest of the herd and preventing further advanced cases. If not comatose, aggressive therapy should be directed against the ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. If the fetuses are alive and within 3 days of their due date, a cesarean section may be a viable option. If the fetuses are dead or too premature, inducing early kidding is an option. An antibiotic such as procaine penicillin G at 30,000 IU/kg once a day is appropriate if the fetuses are thought to be dead. While hypocalcemia and recumbency is often found in cases of pregnancy toxemia, other causes for recumbency should be considered such as hypomagnesemia (also a finding in pregnancy toxemia), polioencephalomalacia (goat polio), pulpy kidney disease, rabies, lead poisoning, chronic copper toxicity, and listeriosis. These can be differentiated based on specific clinical and diagnostic findings. Glucose test strips are available over the counter. However, hypoglycemia is not a consistent finding in pregnancy toxemia cases, with up to 40% of cases having normal glucose levels and up to 20% having hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia can be treated by a single injection of 60–100 mL 50% dextrose IV, followed by balanced electrolyte solution with 5% dextrose (see below). Repeated boluses of IV glucose should be avoided because they may result in a refractory insulin response and make the situation worse. If early discovery of the condition has occurred, treatment can be done by an oral drench of 200– 300 mL of propylene glycol as an immediate energy source to prevent body fat from being metabolized. The drawback is the GI tract must be functioning properly to take advantage of the oral drench. If the disease has progressed and is in later stages (neurological signs), the next option is IV fluids (or bolus as stated above). An IV fluid infusion is the best option as it provides instantly available energy without having to be digested. Glucose (5% dextrose or 50–120 mL of 23% calcium borogluconate solution into a liter of 5% dextrose IV) is the treatment of choice. Ongoing treatment will include adjusting the ration to provide for more energy once the condition has stabilized. It may be necessary to continue with oral supplementation of rapidly mobilized energy.

Note: there are several “recipes” for recovery and calories enhancers, but many are mainly contain oils (fats) and may not be the best solution when it is immediate calories required (carbohydrates). Karo, syrup and molasses are often used as a rapid calorie source and can be appropriate when glucose and gluconate are not available. Calcium gluconate is OTC at many feed stores. Prevention Grandmother was right - an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. The goal of prevention should be directed at maintaining a proper body condition score before, and during pregnancy, identify does with twins and triplets (history or ultrasound) and feed them accordingly, maintain overall health during pregnancy (parasite control, hoof trims, etc.) and possibly adding niacin (1 gram per day) in late gestation via feed. Adequate winter feeding to provide sufficient calories for producing warmth as well as maintaining body condition during gestation is a primary factor in preventing the disease. The last 4 to 6 weeks of gestation will require supplementing calorie intake with a source of carbohydrates such as grain. The amount fed as a supplement will vary according to the forage quality, body weight of the doe, number of fetuses and adult body condition score. Protein must also be balanced so that rumen micro flora can utilize the carbohydrates properly. The herd can also be tested for risk of developing pregnancy toxemia by testing serum levels of BHB. Goats off feed should be feed separately from the herd but in eyesight of the herd to avoid stress from isolation. Other contributing factors such as housing, nutrition, etc. should be corrected for the group and overall feeding practices should be assessed (type, amount, frequency, space for feeding, protection from elements). Feeding less to prevent “large kids” and avoiding dystocia is not an effective strategy for future kid health or to prevent the disease, as genetic factors for large kids or breeding to a large buck, will determine kid size more than actual feeding and the fetus has a priority over the doe for receiving glucose (energy). Caveat: overfeeding can result in large fetsuses, so proper calorie intake (enough, but too much) is important and is a factor to prevent dystocia due to fetal size.

Kenneth R. Brown, DVM, is a veterinarian practicing in North Florida with Rural Veterinary Services and Rural Veterinary Outreach, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. His practice includes most animals found in rural areas and farms, but has a special fondness for goats, of which he has a herd of 70. The Boer Goat - 17

the nutrients of life:

THE IMPORTANCE OF MILK Story and photos by Robyn Scherer, M.Agr.

The kidding process itself can be stressful, but once the kids are born, they are not yet out of the woods. The first few hours of life are the most important, and ingesting milk is crucial to kid survivability. All does should have milk when they kid. This first milk produced after birthing, colostrum, contains a concentrated amount of immunoglobulins (IGGs or antibodies), which help the kid to develop immunity. Kids are born with no immunity, and without colostrum, can become susceptible to disease. It is best that they are nursing within an hour of birth. If possible, a breeder should monitor the nursing habits of all kids that are born. Kids should be nursing often, and the first 24 hours after birth this nursing is critical. A breeder should make sure the kid is up and nursing often. Some does produce more milk than others, and the kids should be checked regularly to make sure they are receiving enough milk. Some may need to be supplemented, especially if the doe is a maiden, or she has more than two kids. In some instances, a doe may reject one or more of her kids and won’t allow them to nurse. If the doe

is unsure about nursing, and keeps kicking the kid off, the producer can hold her leg off the ground, therefore allowing the kid to nurse and the doe is unable to kick. After several minutes the doe should get the idea, and her foot can be gently lowered back to the ground. It may take as little as a few minutes to a few days of this for the doe to be able to accept her kid. If the doe will not accept her kid, the doe should be milked, and the milk fed to the kid so it receives the colostrum. In rare cases, does can die during labor, leaving their kids without a dam. Another doe with a single kid may adopt the abandoned kid due to death or rejection. If this is an option, it should be explored before committing the kid to a bottle. Make sure kids that go to the bottle have colostrum first, even if it’s commercial. If the kids die during labor, a breeder should milk the colostrum from that doe and freeze it for later use. Is it best to freeze this colostrum in ice cube trays and then store in a freezer bag, so little bits can be defrosted at a time. That way only what is needed is defrosted at one time. Bottle feeding a goat is time consuming, and can cause kids to be overly attached to their caretaker. This is usually fine when they are smaller and younger, but as the kids get older they can get very pushy.

Nursing within the first hour after birth is very important, as the first milk is colostrum, and vital to kid survival. 18 - The Boer Goat

It is best to always have milk replacer or other goats milk on hand if needed, just in case. A producer may never use it, but if he or she needs it, then it’s there. Commercial milk replacers may be used, as well as fresh or frozen goat’s milk.

Some Boer goat breeders keep a few dairy goats, and freeze the milk after that does kids are weaned. If a breeder has the freezer space, freezing gallons of milk in quart or half gallon freeze bags is a good way to make sure milk is on hand at all times if needed. For breeders who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t own their own dairy goats, many areas have dairy goats, and a Boer goat producer may be able to purchase milk from these operations to feed their orphaned kids. If this is an option, this milk will be better for the kids than replacer. Producers should check to make sure the dairy herd is free from disease first, however.

first to lactation and then to growth, so if a doe does not receive adequate nutrition, this may stunt her growth. This is especially true for does who kid for the first time as yearlings. The body condition score of the doe will affect her ability to nurse. A doe that is too fat, especially a young doe, will deposit fat into her mammary system, which can inhibit her ability to produce milk.

Maiden does generally do not produce as much milk as a seasoned doe, and her feed intake will be especially important to combat this. Maiden does are still growing, and so their energy needs include growth, lactation and Freezing extra milk can be valuable reproduction. The does will in the case of a doe death or generally partition their energy rejection of a kid.

Consequently, any animal that is too thin will have trouble nursing, as she will be unable to meet the nutritional needs of her kids through milk production, and keep weight on herself. Does generally lose weight while nursing, so having a doe at a low body condition score will affect her ability to nurse. Milk ingestion is very important to kidsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; survivability, and growth, from birth to weaning. Make sure kids have access to a solid supply of milk, and the kids will thrive.

The Boer Goat - 19

Nutritional Requirements & Feeding Practices for

Pre-weaning and Post-weaning Boer Kids by Dr. Frank Pinkerton

Preface The nutritional requirements for Boer kids are shown in the book, Nutritional Requirements of Small Ruminants, published by the National Research Council (NRC). Its’ Table 5, Growing doelings and castrated males, is used by all nutritionists, including me, for formulating daily dietary needs for goats weighing from 22 to 88 lb, and, by extrapolation, to the heavier weights commonly achieved by 4-H Project animals. I recognize that actual feeding practices for Boer kids intended for the show ring and 4-H project activities are somewhat different from those kids (bucks and does) intended for the breeder markets and commercial meat goat production. Nevertheless, both practices used are based the published NRC requirements. (Readers should understand that when growing replacement doelings and buck kids, economical daily gain is more important than maximum rate of gain). Introduction As typically practiced, project wethers are fed for maximum daily gain (ADG) from birth to show time. To achieve this rapid ADG, gestating does are properly fed so as to produce kids of desirable size that are capable of consuming maximum quantities of milk early on and, subsequently, to consume ‘creep-feed’ as soon as possible (14-18 days of age). Commercial creep-feeds are usually fed in the form of TMRs (total mixed rations, pelleted) to be offered once or twice daily ad lib. Typically, such commercial feeds contain high levels of crude protein (16-18% CP), TDN (75-80% total digestible nutrients) and crude fiber (4-6% CF), as well as sufficient (or surplus) levels of minerals and vitamins. They usually contain de-wormers and may contain antibiotics, both used to promote maximum health of kids. Such formulations are usually more expensive that those offered as dairy and beef calf starter feeds. Some companies offer additional ‘specialized supplements’ to be added to their creep-feed to encourage daily feed intake and improved feed conversion efficiency (FCE), and thus even faster ADG. (I have seen no research justifying such 20 - The Boer Goat

products, nor, for that matter, have I seen research showing that expensive kid creep-feeds are better than cheaper calf starters for maximizing kid ADG). Feeding practices for project wethers Most project kids are usually purchased from breeders at 8-10 weeks of age. Purchase weights will vary due to genetic worthiness, to the management of the dam and the suckling kid, and to buyer preference. Typical weaning/purchase weights range 30-40 lb, occasionally more, for kids getting sufficient milk and creep-fed. To minimize kid stress at purchase time, they should be offered the same, or very similar, creep-feed, in adequate housing with adequate exercise area. Some owners have found that adding/keeping a second animal of similar size to be helpful (competitive feed intake, exercise). Caveat: typical creep-feeds presented as pellets may not have enough fiber, or not have fiber of sufficient length, to sustain proper rumen function. Dr. Rick Machen, TAMU small ruminant extension specialist, recommends offering good quality hay ad lib at the Sunday pm feeding (without pellets) so as to protect against recurring digestive problems such as depressed feed intake, scours, or bloat. (If this single feeding proves inadequate, one could repeat the procedure on the Wednesday pm feeding). And, yes, hay is admittedly not as high in energy as concentrate, but this is not an issue… its use does not appreciably lower daily rate of gain across the feeding period; in fact, it may well help it. As the project kid grows, he will consume increasing amounts of feed/day (DFI). At 44 lb or so, DFI will be about 1.6 lb; at 66 or so lb it will be about 2.3 lb; at 88 lb about 3.4 lb; at 110 lb about 4.5 lb (book values). As a result, his ADG will also rise. However, as he grows, he converts more and more of the feed into fatty tissue rather than into muscle tissue. Because it takes 2.25 times as much feed to make a pound of fat as it does to make a pound of muscle, the feed conversion efficiency decreases (more lb of feed/lb of gain). Also, part of this reduced FCE with growth is due to the increased body weight requiring a larger portion of the daily feed intake for maintenance rather than for growth.

Eventually, reduced FCE will lower ADG even as DFI continues upward. This occurs in projects goats as they go beyond 80-90 lb. With regard to FCE over the duration of the feeding program, experience has shown that it requires at least 5.5 lb of TMR feed to make a pound of gain. Accordingly, a kid growing from 40 lb to 110 lb at Show time would gain 70 lb on about 385 lb total feed (70 X 5.5), say, 400 lb making allowance for some waste. If this 400 lb cost $400/ton, the feed cost for the Project would be $80 (4 cwt x $20/cwt). In this scenario, each lb of gain would cost about $1.10 (5.5 x $.20). Feeding practices for doelings and bucklets These animals may be offered creep-feed during the suckling period, or not. The decision depends on management objectives: maximum ADG regardless of cost, or, alternatively, slower, more economical ADG by using only milk and forage to weaning time. Offering grain post-weaning is yet another management decision. Some owners do, some do not; much depends on price of grain relative to that of hay or pasture. Readers should note that feed conversion efficiency is better by younger kids than older ones. Accordingly, feed cost/lb of gain is cheaper for younger goats. Again, management objectives are the decisive concern. For instance, if one is selling breeding stock at young ages, creepfeeding cost, though higher, may result in more profitable sales to targeted buyers. Over the years, I have noted that numerous purveyors of Boer breeding stock prefer to creepfeed ad lib during the suckling period and thereafter feed 1-1.5 lb of grain/day, plus hay and/or pasture, until breeding age. They may or may not continue grain feeding during early gestation, but they generally feed a pound or more/head/day during late gestation. Such animals do very well and have considerable ‘bloom.’ This body condition can be a substantial selling point, particularly to novice buyers. Contrarily, I do sometimes see what I take to be overly conditioned young stock in this scenario. Such excessive conditioning (fattening) can cause breeding problems for individuals; proceed carefully. Concluding observations Youth 4-H projects are rationalized by participants and their parents and by University Extension personnel as being desirable activities that teach useful interpersonal social skills and personal responsibility as well as rudiments of proper animal care. As currently practiced, however, a meat goat project typically demonstrates the ancient agricultural truth that farming endeavors are rather problematic as to creating profitable returns

to labor, management, and capital. Indeed, some would say that such projects teach, inadvertently, how to gamble—in that the selling price received for the goat may well not cover the expenses incurred. In the earlier discussion, I used $80 as a typical feed cost for a project goat, to which one would also add the costs of necessary show accessories, facility costs, travel, etc. for a total outlay of perhaps $150. To this figure, however, one has to add the cost of the kid. If its cost were, say, $100, the sum of $250 would have to be recovered to breakeven… for a 110 lb goat, the selling price would have to be $2.75/ lb (250/110). Actually, this calculation ignores two ‘selling costs’: commission charges (about 5%) and hauling shrinkage (about 4%), farm to auction). One would need to get about $3.00/lb to cover these items. Could a participant get $3.00/lb? No, not likely. Auction prices in Texas and elsewhere commonly document that over-weight, over-conditioned project kids bring appreciably less/lb than 60- 80 lb goats and also less than sharply-discounted goats over 80 lbs. The price depression for show kids typically ranges thirty to forty cents/lb. Lower prices are paid by packer buyers who know that the dressing percentage of show kids will be substantially less that that for smaller, less fat animals. Packers also know that consumers discriminate against fatty, ‘wasty’ carcasses; accordingly, they necessarily pay less/lb for show kids so as not to lose money. Contrarily, readers who observe current 4-H project enterprises are well aware that ‘club kids’ cost appreciably more than the $100 figure used in the calculations above. Texas prices range $300500 and higher with some up to $1,000, or even more. The only possible way to recover this sort of ‘investment’ is to sell the kid into a contrived market, i.e., one that is economically irrational. The solution to this problem is to hold post-show auctions of project goats to buyers who willingly pay irrational prices. Such buyers pay hundreds, occasionally thousands of dollars. Accordingly, the cost of a pound of goat meat for the buyer may be truly astounding. This cost, however, is not a concern to buyers who loyally support such educational projects. Parents, grandparents, pools of friends, and local business people pay with an open heart, good will, and perhaps an eye to IRS deductions. Thus do the game players perpetuate this project activity which continues to expand. And who among you would want to say nay? (Full disclosure: in the decade after my retirement in 1993, I sold Boer/Boercross Project goats for $150-200 at well above slaughter market prices—pleasingly profitable; I, too, was a player in this game). The Boer Goat - 21

How to Choose the Proper

Chutes & Panels by Ashley Hassebrook Photos courtesy of Kansas State University

With herds getting larger, handling systems are becoming more and more important for producers. However, a handling system is not a piece of equipment that producers can just pick off the shelf, like a pair of hoof-trimmers. “The first thing a producer should consider [when purchasing a handling system] are their needs,” said Gordon Shelangoski at Premier 1 Supplies, a livestock equipment company based in Washington, Iowa. Basically – what do you need most? Do you need a full blown handling system with multiple holding-pens, squeeze chutes, a tilt cradle and ultra-sound chute? Do you need a better way to move animals between pastures? Do you need a more manageable way of giving animals vaccinations or trimming hooves? Do you just need a loading chute to get your 300-pound buck into your trailer, without smelling like you had a wrestling match with him? Handling systems are not like other essential pieces of our producer tool belts – with several different options and price points, but all doing approximately the same service. While a handling system, at its core, is essentially used to get animals from one place to another, there are so many different components to the system that can be interchanged or eliminated, it really allows producers an unparalleled level of customization – from tilt cradles and working chutes to scales and

Goats load into a chute system. Photo courtesy of Premier 1 Equipment ultra-sound chutes. According to Brian Faris, an associate professor at Kansas State University who specializes in sheep and meat goat production, handling systems are different from a lot of equipment in that they are like Lincoln Logs or Erector-sets, you put the pieces that you want, in a way that best suites your needs. “Many different options exist in handling systems,” said Faris. “For many producers it simply isn’t cost effective to spend $10,000 or $20,000 on handling equipment.” Because handling systems are so customizable, as Faris and Shelangoski both adamantly contend, there is no reason why all producers cannot have a great animal handling facilities, because handling systems are all about taking the stress off of you, your family and your animals. “When you and your family are less stressed, your animals are less stressed,” said Shelangoski.

Note the solid sides of chute at Kansas State Facilities, this prevents the animals from being distracted by surroundings and allows them to move easily through. 22 - The Boer Goat

understanding of their power. Having appropriately placed gates within your system can make moving and sorting animals infinitely easier. Being able to sort animals in multiple directions at once increases your productivity and decreases stress on the animals as you want a system with as few touch points as possible. • Shadows: Shadows are another important consideration when moving animals. Systems should be assembled going East/West as opposed to North/South in order to avoid shadows. Sheep and goats have poor depth perception, and a shadow on the ground could appear more like a hole that the animal will fall into. This can result in animals becoming stressed and difficult to move through the remainder of the system.

Close-up of working chute. While a brand-new, shiny, portable aluminum system might be a great choice for some, Faris says that if you know someone good with a cutting torch and welder, designing and making something yourself might be a better, more cost-effective option. Once you decide that a handling system is a good investment for your operation, Shelangoski recommends starting with a Google search to see the various products that exist on the market or to find plans to make your own. A lot of the available plans and equipment on the market now were originally designed for sheep production, and in many cases, the equipment is interchangeable or requires only minor modifications.

• Geography: Understanding how animals move over the landscape is also essential knowledge. If the system cannot be assembled on a flat area, then it should be assembled in a way that moves animals up-hill as opposed to down hill. Again, panels and chutes should be a minimum of 42 inches tall. However, if you intend to run kids through the system, and you or someone you work with is less than six feet tall, it is advisable to either invest in a chute with a drop-down side that brings the height down to 36 or 34 inches or purchase a

Some things Faris says to consider are that goats have an easy time bailing out of shorter chutes. Therefore panels must be a minimum of 42 inches but preferably 45 inches to accommodate for larger athletic goats. So when considering panels, choose taller systems where extensions can easily be added on after. Also, ally ways may need to be widened to accommodate for pregnant does or shorter, wider animals in general. Faris explains that understanding how animals think and move is also integral to putting together a proper system for handling them. • Solid-sided Chutes: Goats, like most prey animals, are like gases – they move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. They are also not overly fond of areas where their vision is limited. Therefore animals will move down a chute better when the sides of the chute are covered and they cannot see people or dogs working on the outside. • Gates: have enough of them and have an The Boer Goat - 23

Ultrasound chute solid 36 inch panel that can be brought in to replace the taller panel. Faris explains, that this way you or your help won’t teeter-totter on top of the chute if you need to reach to the kids in the chute. Faris also suggests if you are handling different ages of animals, or sheep in addition to goats, make one side of the alley and chutes permanent and the other adjustable. He also recommends making the gap at the bottom of the chute no taller than 3 inches so small animals cannot wiggle underneath. For basic animal handling facilities, four crowding pens are pretty standard, though far from required. With crowding pens, it is suggested that animals are allotted four to five square feet per animal. Holding pens allot for larger amounts of room for animals with around ten square feet per animal. Your price will depend on what your system will be made of and if it is permanent or portable. Painted steel is a good option from a price standpoint. It has good durability and is heavy enough that large animals will not be able to easily bang it out of position. However, in humid or persistently wet areas, or areas where urine and manure are present for long periods, paint can flake off, causing the steel underneath to rust. Galvanized steel has all the benefits of steel construction with the added bonus of being rust resistant – no paint to flake off, no touch-ups to do. Durable construction and easy maintenance are also on the side of galvanized steel. However, hot-dipped galvanized steel can galvanize your budget as well, Shelangoski explains. 24 - The Boer Goat

Crowding pens at Kansas State. Shelangoski went on to say that aluminum is among the priciest options on the market. It is light, portable, rust resistant and easy to maintain. Aluminum, however, is a lighter metal that may dent, move or bend if a large animal decides to be uncooperative. Producers should also decide if their system will be permanent or portable. Faris explains that this is very important with so many producers leasing land, Depending on applicable state laws, any structures built on leased land might end up belonging to the land-owner not the renter. “Helping producers develop a handling system is one of my favorite parts of my job,” said Faris. “If they are close enough I can visit their facilities. Or if they are too far away to visit, I can use Google Earth to look up their address and help them develop their system that way.” When developing a handling system, there are a lot of considerations to take into account, but, there are also a lot of resources out there to help. Colleges with goat programs or sheep programs often offer handling demonstrations. Premier 1 Supplies, Lazy JV Ranch, Sydell and many others have online catalogues where you can see what is available on the market. There are a variety of other plans available through homesteading manuals, blogs or other experienced ranchers to help with the process of designing your own, personalized, animal handling facilities.

ABGA DNA PROGRAM Since the DNA Testing Program began in April 2014, there have been 1,076 Sample Kits emailed or mailed to members. As of October 31, UC Davis has received and processed 558 DNA samples. These numbers are impressive; however, 518 of the Sample Kits that ABGA has sent out have not been mailed to UC Davis with DNA samples for testing. This is almost half of the sample kits requested. Sample Kits were emailed from UC DAVIS for all requests that listed email addresses. If you requested a sample kit and have not received it, the kit could have gone to your junk/spam mail box. Please contact the ABGA office as soon as possible if you have requested a sample kit and not received one. The fee for DNA testing increases slightly in 2015. The current price is $28, and it will increase to $33 after Jan. 1, 2015. If you are one of the 518 people

2014-15 ABGA

UPDATE who’ve received sample kits but haven’t sent in the DNA sample, be sure to do so before the end of the year to avoid having to pay extra fees. The breakdown by month of DNA samples processed by UC Davis is: May 57 June 64 July 79 August 101 September 102 October 155 TOTAL:


DNA test results are mailed out by the ABGA Office. Many members did not realize what they were and have thrown them away. When you receive it, file it in a safe place.


Thank you to the following members, who volunteered their time to serve on committees. Family Membership Committee: Cindy Westfall – Chair, Carl McCosker, Cindy Dusek, Kristen Hoffman, Mark Anderson, Shon Callahan, Terry Brown Finance & Investment Committee: Susan Darrow, Cindy Westfall, Paul Grafe, Paul Kinslow, Scott Pruett Judges Committee: Cathy Van Wyhe, Chip Kemp, Donna Jean Heinrich, Jason Brashear, Ron Dilley, Mark Anderson, Scott Pruett Score Card for Judging National Show Committee: Scott Pruett – Chair, Cathy Van Wyhe, Sheryl Pearcy, Cecil Sweptson, Cindy Westfall, Paul Grafe, Shon Callahan Redistricting Committee: Jeff Gibbs, Mary Ellen Villarreal, Brad Mackey

National Show Committee: Lee Dana – Co-Chair, Vicki Stich – Co-Chair, Cathy Van Wyne, Dawn Steward, Deric Wetherall, Ervin Chavana, Holly Heyer, Janet Moraczewski, Mike & Kim Cothran, Nan Walker, Sheryl Pearcy National Show Ring Operations Planning Committee: Vicki Stich – Chair, Brad Mackey, Cecil Swepston, Janis Wesson, JR Patterson Public Relations Committee: Cindy Westfall – Chair, Janis Wesson, Mark Anderson, Robyn Scherer, Scott Pruett Youth Committee: Shon Callahan – Chair, Cindy Westfall, Cynthia Grafe, Dawn Steward, Kallie York, Kathy Carr, Dr. Mary Newman, Sherman Mauck, Paul Grafe, Terry Taylor

The Boer Goat - 25

Congratulations to the breeders, owners and animals who stand out in the Boer goat breed. The following have received the awards of Ennoblement, Doe of Excellence and Sire of Merit from June 2014-October 2014. Ennoblements: The ABGA ennoblement program is open to ABGA American Purebred and Fullblood does and bucks. Ennoblement Requirements are as follows: • For an animal that has passed visual inspection: o A combined total of eighty (80) points from subject animal and progeny is required for ennoblement o Minimum number of progeny required to pass visual inspection is 3 o Minimum ABGA points earned by each individual inspected progeny is 5 o Minimum points from the total of 3 or more visually inspected progeny is 30 o The animal cannot contribute more than 50 points toward its’ own ennoblement • For an uninspected animal, including those that are deceased o A total of one hundred (100) points must be earned by the progeny. o Minimum number of progeny required to pass visual inspection is 3 o Minimum ABGA points earned by each individual inspected progeny is 5 o Minimum points from the total of 3 or more visually inspected progeny is 100. Name June 2014 Bucks RDBG LONGEVITY DOES C S B CINNAMON July 2014 BUCKS AABG AS GOOD AS IT GETS WTRL WHATEVER C S B TYPHOON BB14/AABG/NBD “MAYHEM” MCR WUTCHA SMOKIN’ STONEY POINT FARM SLASH DOES EGGS Z255 ROELING CHANCE BG GRANDMA’S PEARLY CAT BAB4 SPECIAL K BSA BLONDE BOMBSHELL BG BOERS BONNET’S LIL PEEP MCR DREAM CHASER REIS EVE KTBG SOCKS LYNX HOLLOW Z-01 JDF JO ANN

Registration Number





Karl Herman



Roger McSwain

10562055 10562576 10495246 10533510 10509809 10531156

9/15/11 12/30/11 3/7/10 3/2/11 4/22/10 3/20/10

Nathan Duncan Deric, Sheila, Michael & Mikayla Wetherell Kirk & Vanessa Phillips II Bryan Fountain & Blakely Clements Terry Brown Michael & Tracy Rine



A Bar Boer Goats

10524139 10482406 10403034 10548975 10494992 10546647 I-10514131 10496000 10444266

12/16/10 9/13/09 9/5/07 5/7/11 2/4/10 5/10/11 4/30/09 1/18/10 2/13/08

Lacey Roe Bailey Bergherm Lowell Peterson Burn & Robin Graham Ervin J Chavana Joseph Bentley Alan & Pamela Motta Richard Norman & Sandy Hemminger John & Gale Parrish

6/24/11 12/4/10

Thomas & Jacqueline Redden Nate Baribault

9/8/11 12/21/10

Cecil & Sharon Swepston Wayne & Becky Word


September 2014 The September report was unavailable for this issue. Those animals and owners will be recognized in the Jan/Feb issue. We apologize for this inconvenience. 26 - The Boer Goat


10560626 10556428 10537468

9/17/11 6/25/11 2/28/11

Iris, Deanna and Samuel Lerena Cheryl & Chuck Withey Shannon Pettit

10521578 10522588

12/6/10 10/30/10

Matthew Westfall Rodney & Lori Meyer

Percentage Doe of Excellence The Percentage Doe of Excellence Award Program is open to ABGA registered Percentage (50% through 88%) Does. Point requirements are as follows: • The percentage doe will be required to have a combined total of one hundred (100) points earned by the doe and her progeny. • A minimum of 15 points must be earned by at least two progeny, with a minimum of five (5) points each. • Points earned by male progeny through ABGA Performance Tests will be awarded to the doe. Name June 2014 TDH1 HUDSON’S W109P

Registration Number





Toni Hawkins


10560831 10606660 10621725 10414248 10432509

12/7/11 12/1/12 2/5/12 4/25/07 12/22/05

Matthew Westfall Buckeye Illini Genetics Criswell Club Goats Tom/Cassie Weatherhead/Family Alyse Armstrong


10516581 10496445

2/21/10 2/17/10

Carol S Lloyd Caleb, Kevin & Janet Westfall

September 2014 The September report was unavailable for this issue. Those animals and owners will be recognized in the Jan/Feb issue. We apologize for this inconvenience. October 2014 RED2 RED GATE SU-Z-Q LAND OF GRACE D5 ROSIE SVFS PUMPKIN

10489225 U-10489621 10525941

5/22/09 6/15/08 9/8/10

Chestnut Springs Farm Sharon Fullerton River Bluff Farm

Sire of Merit The ABGA Sire of Merit Award is open to American Purebred and Fullblood bucks. Point requirements are as follows: • A Fullblood Buck or an American Purebred Buck cannot contribute individual points toward this award. • The eligible percentage progeny of a sire will be required to earn a total of one hundred (100) points for the sire to earn this award • A minimum of five (5) female progeny must earn a minimum of five (5) points each of the one hundred (100) total points required. August 2014 S G R POLARIZED PDF HIGH ROLLER

10474417 10549295

6/6/09 6/2/11

Chesnut Springs Farm Michael Correia

September 2014 The September report was unavailable for this issue. Those animals and owners will be recognized in the Jan/Feb issue. We apologize for this inconvenience. October 2014 4-M MUGSY’S 9091-SLKY SON OF A GUN 10492102 J6 AABG NBD REYZER 10556901

12/12/09 9/2/11

Bob Seelke McKensey Maddox

The Boer Goat - 27

NATIONAL SHOW RING STEWARDS PROGRAM ROTATION SCHEDULE Revise the ring stewardship program for the National Show to allow for broader participation by interested and qualified members. Make it have rotational terms just like the directorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; terms. The rotation will be as follows: In October 2014, remove one ring steward. At the March 2015 board meeting, add two new ring stewards, which will make the total number of stewards equal four. Assign numbers beginning with the two senior stewards, the most senior getting #1, and the next senior getting #2. The two new stewards will be #3 and #4, respectively, using their last names in

alphabetical order to determine who is 3, and who is 4. At the December 2015 Board meeting, ring steward #1 will be replaced with a new steward. At the December 2016 Board meeting ring steward #2 will be replaced. Then at the December 2017 Board meeting ring steward #3 and ring steward #4 are replaced, and each subsequent year at the December board meeting, the next ring steward will be replaced, following the same numerical order, 1, 2, 3, and 4, and then beginning again with 1.

ABGA National Show Ring Steward Application *Please fill out the questions (use additional sheets of paper as needed) and mail them to the ABGA office: 1207 S. Bryant Blvd, Suite C, San Angelo, Tex, 76903. Application is also available online by visiting http://tinyurl.com/ringsteward Ring Stewards will be selected for a three year term. Show expenses and a stipend are paid for each ring steward. Name: Address: Telephone: Email: Why do you want to be an ABGA National Show Ring Steward?

Please detail your previous experience as a ring steward.

Why do you think you should be selected as an ABGA National Show Ring Steward?

Can you commit to attending the next four ABGA National Shows, no matter the location? (Yes/No) 28 - The Boer Goat

DUTIES 1. Prior to the show, the ring stewards coordinate with JABGA coordinator for any special needs or issues pertaining to junior show, and coordinate with the National Show Committee Chairman (NSCC) to outline any final minute changes, adjustments, etc. It is the ring steward’s responsibility to notify the other stewards and the NSCC of any information about special circumstances they may be aware of. 2. Upon arrival at the national show site, the ring stewards will assist with the unloading of office equipment, setup, putting up flags. 3. The ring stewards will review the unloading plan and check-in plan as a group with office staff and the show committee. 4. The ring stewards are responsible for assigning all pens prior to exhibitor arrival. 5. The ring stewards are responsible for assisting with the unloading for the exhibitors at check-in, and/or supervising others who have been assigned to assist with that task. 6. The ring stewards coordinate any needed issues with the NSCC and facility manager such as checking show-ring layout, PA system, verifying times for health inspector arrival, unloading times, and when facility will be open and available on move in day. 7. The ring stewards are responsible for set-up of all ribbons and awards for each day, and/or the supervision of others who have been assigned this task prior to the start of each days show.

14. Upon completion of judging, the ring stewards verify tattoos of all animals in class that are eligible for points. 15. The ring stewards record results for placings in each class and turn them in to the recording secretary and announcer. 16. The ring stewards distribute awards in each class and/or supervise others who have been assigned this task. 17. The ring stewards monitor the progression of the show and make recommendations to the NSCC if schedule changes and adjustments are needed. 18. The ring stewards are responsible for being completely familiar with the National Show rules and monitoring for compliance throughout the show. 19. Ring Stewards are responsible for reminding exhibitors and spectators of the show rules in cases where minor violations occur. For repeated problems, or serious violations the ring stewards are responsible for notifying the NSCC. 20. Upon completion of each day’s judging, the ring stewards are responsible for returning all unused awards, materials, coolers, and other items to the office.


8. The ring stewards are responsible for verifying that ring sheets and run sheets are ready for each day’s shows, prior to the beginning of the shows. 9. When the show begins, the ring stewards are responsible for any class breaks which must be done in coordination with office staff. 10. The ring stewards responsible for checking goats in at the gate by exhibitor number as each class begins, and/or supervising others who have been assigned this task.




11. The ring stewards manage show ring as directed by national show judges. 12. The ring stewards assist judges as needed for holding, catching, walking goats in the show ring and catch pen. This may also include dismissing animals as requested by the judges. 13. The ring stewards line goats up as they are placed by the judges.



www.CallicrateBanders.com The Boer Goat - 29


900 & 901 By the ABGA Executive Committee

In practically every human organization - family, church, school, club, and business - we find discipline expressed in rules and regulations. The American Boer Goat Association, too, is an organization of people. The bylaws of the ABGA provide a framework within which the Board of Directors conducts the business of the association. Over the past twenty years, the ABGA Board of Directors has established a Code of Ethics and a set of rules of conduct for members, as well as nonmembers who attend and/or take part in ABGA sponsored activities and programs. The rules were written for the benefit of all to help maintain a healthy association, protect the registry herd books, protect members, project a professional appearance to the public and make attendance at ABGA events a positive experience. They are not meant to restrict the rights of anyone. WHAT IS RULE 900 FOR? Rule 900 deals with conduct that is deemed harmful to the registry, herd books, the association or members. It provides a way for any member or employee of ABGA to make a complaint to the Executive Committee and the Board of Directors. WHAT IS RULE 901 FOR? Rule 901 deals with conduct by ABGA licensed judges that is deemed harmful to the registry, herd books, the association, or members. Any member or employee of ABGA would make a complaint about a Rule 901 violation to the Executive Committee and the Board of Directors, following the guidelines under the Rule 900. IS THE ABGA BOARD OF DIRECTORS REQUIRED TO FILE A RULE 900 COMPLAINT IN ORDER TO TAKE ACTION? No. The ABGA Board of Directors operates under the Articles of Organization and Bylaws of the ABGA. When an incident involves a situation a director encounters in their official capacity, or when a director personally witnesses a problem, there is no need for an official filing since directors on the board already have first-hand knowledge. However, the person being accused of such action must be informed and given time to comply, which is determined by the board. According to the bylaws of the ABGA, it is entirely up to the board as to what action they take, and they have full discretion as to how they will handle reported violations of the Code of Ethics, Rules and Bylaws.

30 - The Boer Goat

WHY IS THERE A $250 FEE FOR EMPLOYEES OR MEMBERS TO FILE A COMPLAINT? Rule 900 deals with serious issues, and the fee is meant to discourage the filing of complaints that are not based on factual events or evidence, and that could harm the reputation of the person whom the filing has been made against. The Executive Committee investigates all 900 complaints and reports the results of the investigation with recommended action to the Board of Directors. HOW DOES THE EXECUTIVE INVESTIGATE A COMPLAINT?


The Executive Committee may follow a number of routes when investigating a Rule 900 complaint, which will include requesting information from the person the complaint was filed against, and giving them a set number of days to respond. The Executive Committee can request additional documentation from the person who filed the complaint, and they can interview witnesses, and take any other action necessary to determine the merits of the complaint, including assigning an outside agent to do the investigation if they deem it appropriate. When the investigation is complete, the Executive Committee will take the matter to the full Board. If there are not sufficient grounds to proceed, and the Board does not send the matter back to the Executive Committee for additional information and agrees with the findings, both the person who filed the complaint and the person the complaint was filed against are so notified and no further action is taken. In cases where the investigation shows merit to the complaint, and the Board agrees, then the Rule 900 will proceed to a hearing.

WHY CANâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T THE BOARD ACT ON SOMETHING SOMEONE SAYS THEY HEARD ABOUT? Rule 900 deals with serious issues that can be harmful to the association, the registry or members. Rule 900 filings are very time consuming and can cost the association money, which the members have provided through their membership and registration fees. It would be irresponsible for ABGA to allow complaints to be processed that have not been lodged through the formal 900 procedure, and are not backed up by first-hand information and sound evidence that a rule has been broken. Telling a director does not satisfy the requirements for the Board to take action. Too often misinformation

is repeated so many times that people begin to believe it. It would be a disservice to the members for the Board to consider anything other than those complaints that have been formally filed. WHY DOESNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T THE BOARD MAKE ALL OF THE DETAILS ABOUT THE 900 COMPLAINT PUBLIC? The Board strives to publicize only those details about a 900 complaint that members need to know. Both the complainant and the person against whom the complaint was filed and upheld have received all of the details. What information they choose to make public or share with other members is entirely up to them.

ABGA 2013 FINANCIALS Operating Revenue

Operating Expenses

EHB Ennoblement Program


Salaries and Benefits


Junior Program




Member Services


Advertising and Promotion


Annual Meeting and Board Meeting Expense




National Show Income


Registrations & Transfers


Professional Services Reimbursement



Bad Debt Expense




I.T. and Internet Maintenance and Support


Junior Support


Magazine Expense


National and Junior Regional Show Expense


Occupancy Expenses


Member Services & Office Operations Expense


Professional Services


Sanctioned Show Support & Ribbons $42,244.00 TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES $1,015,528.00 NET PROFIT


The Boer Goat - 31

Please Make All Payments Payable To: ABGA


Completed Subscription Cards Mail To: 1207 S. BRYANT BLVD., SUITE C SAN ANGELO, TX, 76903




Pit Kemmer, Auctioneer 931-335-4628 www.kemmerranch.com

32 - The Boer Goat




VERN THORP/641-660-1390 SUSAN THORP/641-660-1388

www.windrushboers.com | windrushia@gmail.com 1959 HWY 63 | New Sharon, IA 50207 IOWA











ERIK AND SUSAN GRILL 304.832.6194 P.O. Box 152 - Lindside, WV 24951 gramacfarm@hotmail.com www.gramacfarm.com

Are you interested in writing for The Boer Goat, the official publication of the American Boer Goat AssociationTM? The Boer Goat is looking to add additional, high quality writers to our publication. Please send cover letter, resume and three writing samples to Robyn Scherer, Director of Marketing and Communication, robyn@abga.org

Add your business card to the classified section of The Boer Goat, and be seen in all six issues for one low price! $150 for black and white â&#x20AC;˘ $300 for color Email your business card to robyn@abga.org today! The Boer Goat - 33



Photo Contest

Stephen Gatti Leslie Bryant Crossroads Boer Goats

Marla Helms


BIJO Boer Goats

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Debbie Gailey

Advertise in The Boer Goat Be seen by more than 6,000 A BGA members each issue Issue Themes

January/February Health Issue Nutrition Section

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