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Engineering International, Volume 1, No 1 (2013)

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Engineering International, Volume 1, No 1 (2013)

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EDITORIAL BOARD

Editor-in-Chief

Managing Editor Dr. Alim Al Ayub Ahmed, Executive Vice-Chairman, Asian Business Consortium Associate Editors 1. Dr. Md. Hasanuzzaman, University of Malaya, Malaysia 2. Dr. Bensafi Abd-El-Hamid, Abou Bekr Belkaid University of Tlemcen, Algeria 3. Dr. Halenar Igor, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia Consulting Editors 1. Dr. Md. Amin Uddin Mridha, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia 2. Dr. Vuda Sreenivasarao, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia 3. Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta, University of Roorkee, India 4. Dr. Asma Ahmad Shariff, University of Malaya, Malaysia 5. Dr. sc.Lulzim Zeneli, University of Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo

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Engineering International Blind Peer-Reviewed Journal

Volume 1, Number 1/2013 (1st Issue)

Contents

1.

Development of a Small Scale Concentrating Parabolic trough Solar Collector for Drying Purposes

9-17

Muhammad Aamir khan M.Rahman M. Hanif Muhammad Israr, & S. Fahad Shah 2.

A Survey on Wireless Sensor Networks Architectural Model, Topology, Service and Security

18-26

Tamim Al Mahmud 3.

Effects of Chemical Reaction and Heat Generation on MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Moving Vertical Plate with Suction and Dissipation

27-38

M. Venkateswarlu G.V. Ramana Reddy, & D.V.Lakshmi 4.

Mechanical Characterization of Banana/Sisal Fibre Reinforced PLA Hybrid Composites for Structural Application

39-48

Ravi Ranjan P K Bajpai, & R K Tyagi 5.

The Relationship between Technological Factors and InterOrganizational Information Systems Adoption by Universities in Kenya

49-61

Dr. Stephen Waithaka Titus Dr. Tom Kimani Mburu Dr. Julius Korir, & Dr. Stephen Muathe EI Publishes Online and Print Version Both

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Asian Business Consortium realizes the meaning of fast publication to researchers, particularly to those working in competitive and dynamic fields. Hence, we offer an exceptionally fast publication schedule including prompt peer-review by the experts in the field and immediate publication upon acceptance.

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Development of a Small Scale Concentrating Parabolic trough Solar Collector for Drying Purposes Muhammad Aamir khan1; M.Rahman2; M. Hanif3; Muhammad Israr4; & S. Fahad Shah5 1,2&3

Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Faculty of Crop Production Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan 4&5 Department of Rural Development, Institute of Development Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT A high performance solar collector was developed to modify agricultural building environment such as dairy, poultry farm buildings and greenhouses. Moreover it should be efficiently utilized as a solar dryer for drying various agricultural products and by products. The materials used include steel sheet with high performance of reflecting light, absorber tube, and angle iron and fully insulated drying chamber. A CPTSC was a tilted at 340south (Equivalent to the latitude of Peshawar) Pakistan. A CPTSC a total reflecting surface area was 2.9 m2 respectively. The absorber tube having a surface of 0.376 m2 was fixed in front of the reflector at the distance equal to the focal length. The total volume of drying chamber was 0.3135 m3. An experiment was conducted to enhance the efficiency of the CPTSC and two air mass flow rate treatments were tested with normal and convective mass air flow rate, 0.6 kg. Min-1 and 1.72 kg. Min-1 under the average temperature of the month (January, February and March, 2012). Moreover, the process was replicated three times under the completely randomized design. The result showed that both air mass flow rate and average temperature of the month significantly effected the efficiency of a concentrating parabolic trough solar collector. The new model of a CPTSC increased the efficiency from 8 to 25 % with increase in both air mass flow rates and average temperature of the months. Therefore it is concluded that the solar collector efficiency increased with increasing air mass flow rate. Key word: Solar Energy, Solar Collector, Solar Drier and Collector Efficiency.

INTRODUCTION Solar drying one of the oldest applications of solar energy it was used for different purposes. The first installation for drying by solar energy was found in southern France and is dated at about 800 B.C. It was a stone paved surface and used for drying of crops. [10] The radiation heat loss to the air and conductive heat loss through the insulation plays

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a dominant role in the light-heat conversion. The radiation heat loss is dependent on the cavity wall temperature, the shape factors and emissivity absorptive of the receiver wall temperature and the isothermal boundary condition, the effect of thermal radiation on the natural convection can be neglected and conduction and radiation heat losses can be readily determined. But the determination of convection heat loss is rather difficult due to the complexity of the temperature and velocity fields in and around the receiver. [12] Pakistan receiver solar radiation falls all over the year with great intensity. The intensity flux is very high and it is studied that daily weekly and monthly solar intensity at Karachi and other places of Pakistan have very much bright prospects of solar radiation. In Pakistan it is about 20 MJ. Min-1 of solar insolation with an annual total of 7000MJ. Min -1. Accept monsoon months the solar irradiance is very encouraging. [1] Non-Conventional energy resources are renewable energy resources. Among renewable resource, solar energy has bright prospects for utilization; it is about 1 Cal. cm -2. min-1. Energy is falling on the total area of the country in one min which can be fulfilling the total energy requirement of the country for one day. There is a need to converge it. [6] The technical performance of a solar dryer, Its efficiency in natural (0.015kg. s-1 that the efficiency at normal air mass flow rate 14.5% which increased to 40% at convective air mass flow rate chili and beef were dried in the solar dryer and chilies took 12 hours and beef took 24 hours for drying. [8] The products of agriculture are hygroscopic and drying rate is a mean importance of the product there are two different phase Phase I, the initial constant rate of drying period during which surface is saturated with vapor and the products evaporate takes place always from the surface and to enough water to evaporate. Phase II, the falling rate period, Moisture diffusion is controlled by interior fluid movement while surface becomes continuously depleted in water, secondly the following period, where the moisture content nonstop to reduce while waiting for stability is achieved and the product drying step. [4] Objectives The specific objectives of this study were:  To develop a concentrating type parabolic trough solar collector.  To study the efficiency of the concentrating parabolic trough solar collector.  To study the performance of the parabolic trough solar collector for drying fruits.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Site Selection The CPTSC and the connected drying box was installed on the roof of Agricultural Mechanization building The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan this site was selected because of unobstructed sunshine. a. Parabolic Trough The solar collector was composed of CPTSC. The reflector was made of a shiny sheet 1.21 m wide and 2.4 m long and its thickness was 0.02 m. The reflector steel sheet collector (2.9 m2). The materials used were easily available in the market. The shiny sheet supported and tilted with the help of a frame made up of angled iron arms.

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Drying Chamber

CPTSC

Figure 1: Concentrating Parabolic Trough Solar Collector. i. Focal line of a Concentrating Parabolic Trough. The focal point of a concentrating parabolic trough was calculated using the following equation developed by [3]. (1) Where f is the focal point, w is the width of the parabolic trough, 1.21 m and d is the depth 0.51 m of a concentrating parabolic trough solar collector. ii. Cross Sectional Area of the Trough The surface area of the reflecting trough was calculated using the formula developed by [13]. Art = Drt x Lrt (2) Where Drt Aperture of the reflecting parabolic trough which is 1.21 m and L rt is the Length of reflects trough which is 2.4 m. Putting these values in equation 3 we get a total of 2.9 m 2 surface area of the parabolic trough. iii. Absorber The absorber consists of a black painted steel pipe having 0.05 m diameter. The length of absorber was 2.4 m long. The pipe received air from outside environment which was heated in the absorber and then this hot air was diverted to the drying box. iv. Calculating Absorber Area As the absorber was composed of a steel pipe its surface area was calculated using the formula developed by [13]. Aab = 2Ď€ rab Lab (3) Where rab radius of the absorber which is 0.025 m and Lab is the length of the absorber which is 2.4 m. Putting these values in the equation we get the surface area of the absorber which is 0.382m2. b. Drying Box The drying box was a steel box fully insulated on the inside with the help of polystyrene foam. The box was 1 m high and 0.55 m wide and 0.57 m long. An exhaust fan having a diameter of 0.05 meters was installed on the outlet duct. It sucked the hot air from the absorber in the drying box. The total volume of the drying box was 0.3135 m 3. There was an outlet fixed at the top of the drying box having a diameter of 0.05 m

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Solar Radiation Data The solar radiation data were recorded with the Mechanical Pyranometer. This device gave a data from a chart. This chart reading was multiplied with the Mechanical Pyranometer constant to get the radiation data. 0.88 is the constant value of solar intensity this constant value multiplies with chart value to give the solar intensity data with cal.cm 2.min-1Now this value to convert into standard unit we multiplied a constant value (418) to the data to convert it to (kJ.m-2.hr-1). The solar radiation data were calculated using the formula below developed by [5]. Is = 0.88 x Vc (4) Where Is incident solar Radiation and Vc is the chart value of the Pyranometer. For example on 12th January, Year maximum chart value of solar irradiance recorded by the pyranometer was 0.9cal.cm-2.min-1. Putting this value in equation 2 we get 0.79 cal.cm 2.min-1 which is 330.22 kJ.m-2.hr-1 when converted to SI units. Performance of the Concentrating Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Performance in terms of efficiency and drying rate was evaluated in the months of January to March, 2012. Efficiency of the Concentrating Parabolic Trough Solar Collector The efficiency of the CPTSC was assessed in the months of January to March, 2012 at two dissimilar air mass flow rates; (0.6, and 1.72 Kg. min-1) were convective air mass flow rates. Temperature data were recorded for the months from January to March, 2012. It was recorded in percentage (%). Efficiency was calculated using the following formula developed by [2]. ή = Qo ⁄ Qix 100 (5) Where ή efficiency of the collector in (%), Qo output heat of the collector in (kJ.min-1), Qi input heat of the collector in (kJ.min-1). Heat input gain “Qi” by the collector is calculated by multiplying half of the absorber area to the radiation intensity plus 90% of the value half of the Area of absorber to the product of solar radiation intensity recorded by the mechanical Pyranometer. This input heat was calculated using the formula developed by [2]. Qi = (½ Aab Is) + {(½Aab+ Art) Irt} (6) Qi heat input of the collector (kj.min-1), Aab area of the absorber, Art area of reflecting trough, Is the incident solar radiation intensity and Irt the reflected radiation coming from the trough. The output heat of the collector was calculated by multiplying the flow rate of air, specific heat capacity of the air and the difference between the outlet and inlet temperatures. The output heat was calculated by using the following formula developed by [11]. Qo = F.R air x Cair X ∆T (7) Where Qo heat output of the collector (kJ.min-1), F.Rair the air mass flow rate at outlet (kg.min-1), C air specific heat of air (kJ.kg-1.oC-1) and ∆T difference in inlet and outlet temperature (oC). The flow rate was calculated by multiplying the velocity of air at the outlet, Area of outlet duct and air density. The flow rate was converted to kg.sec -1. To convert it to kg. min-1 then multiplied the value by 60. The flow rate was calculated by using the following formula developed by [7]. F.R air = Vo x Dair x Ao (8) Where F.R air air flow rate (kg.min-1), Vovelocity at outlet in (m.sec-1), Dair density of air at outlet in (kg.cm-3) and Ao the outlet ducts cross sectional area in (m2)

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Moisture Content The moisture content of the fruits and vegetables was measured initially and after each hour of drying. The products were dried to less than 10% moisture content to minimize mold, insects and bacterial assaults. The moisture content was determined by oven method. The temperature of the oven was fixed 105oC for 24 hours. Moisture after each hour in drying was determined by taking the initial mass and mass lost after each hour with the help of an electronic balance. The formula for calculating the moisture lost is developed by [1]. (9) Where Mc moisture content of the product in (%), Wi initial mass and Wf final mass of the productsin (g). Determining Drying Rate of the Products Drying rate is defined as the quantity of water evaporated per gram of dry matter per unit area in unit time. Drying rate was determined for these products by using the formula developed by [9]. (10) Where Dr, drying rate of the product in (g g-1dm .cm-2.hr-1), Wi, initial mass, and Wf, final mass of the product after drying in (g), Dm, dry matter in the product in (g), Ap, cross sectional area of the product in (cm2) and Dt, time of drying (hr). H2O.

Relative Humidity (%) and Temperature (oC) Data of air pumping through Inlet and Outlet Ducts The data of Relative humidity and temperature was recorded with the help of digital thermo-hygrometer. Experimental Design In accordance with the objectives of this study, a two factorial Complete Randomized Design was used to determine the effect of different air mass flow rates (0.60 and 1.72 kg.min-1) and the average temperatures of the months (January to March 2012) on performance in terms of efficiency of a CPTSC. Software named SPSS version 16.0 was used for statistical analysis.

Results and Discussion The performance of a CPTSC using two mass air flow rates has been tested. Temperatures of the atmospheres were inlet, and outlet of the CPTSC. The highest temperature of the absorber tube (140oC) and drying chamber (60oC) were recorded with the help of a thermometer. And relative humidity less than 10% was recorded by mean of digital hygrometer shown in Figure.1. The solar intensity was recorded with the help of pyranometer in the months of January, February and March 2012.

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160

Ambient

Absorbers

Dryier

140

Temperature [°C]

120 100 80

60 40 20 0 9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

5

Time [Hr] Figure 2. Variations of Solar Radiation Ambient Temperature, Absorber Temperature and Solar Dryer Temperature

30

Normal Flow Rate Kg.minˉ¹ High Flow Rate Kg.minˉ¹

25

Efficiency[%]

20 15 10 5 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Months Figure.3 Efficiency of parabolic trough solar collector in the months of January to March The efficiency was found to increase with increase mass flow rate and the difference in temperature (To – Ti). The high thermal efficiency (25%) at a mass air flow rate of 1.72 Kg. min-1, and maximum thermal efficiency (8%) at a mass air flow rate (0.6 Kg. min-1) were obtained. Agenda through analysis of variance indicated that there were significant difference between the mass air flow rate and average temperature of the months. Show in Table 7. Daily drying efficiency of the CPTSC An experiment was conducted to enhance the efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collector and two air mass flow rate treatments were tested with normal and convective mass air flow rate, 0.6 kg.min-1 and 1.72 kg.min-1 under the average temperature of the

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month (January, February and March, 2012). Moreover, the process was replicated three times under the completely randomized design. The result showed that both air mass flow rate and average temperature of the month significantly effected the efficiency of a CPTSC shown in Table 7. The new model of a CPTSC increased the efficiency from 8 to 25 % with increase in both air mass flow rates and average temperature of the months. Apple slices were dried in the CPTSC at a normal air mass flow rate 0.6 Kg.min-1 in 14 hours and at a high air mass flow rate 1.72 Kg.min-1 in 12 in the month of January show in Table 1 & 2. Because at normal air mass flow rate the CPTSC was low efficiency calculated but a high air mass flow rate the CPTSC was high efficiency obtained. Therefore an apple slices were quick dried at a high efficiency CPTSC which was 1.72 Kg.min-1. The CPTSC efficiency was obtained 13 % so the apple slices were dried in 12 hours, with a normal air mass flow rate. The efficiency was also obtained 20% with high flow rate and the apple slices were dried in 10 hours in the month of February 2012. Show in Table 3 & 4 According to the month of March the CPTSC efficiency were obtained 18% with a normal air mass flow rate 0.6 Kg.min-1 and the apple slices were dried in 10 hours. Due to the high air mass flow rate the CPTSC efficiency were obtained 25 % which was the highest efficiency of CPTSC, the apple slices were dried in 8 hours. The results show that the CPTSC when the air mass flow rate increased with increasing air mass flow rates is shown in Tables 5 & 6.

Conclusion The technical performance of the CPTSC was found to be satisfactory. A CPTSC efficiency of 8% and 25 % were predicted for apple in the months of January to March, 2012. Efficiency was 8% when drying apple with normal air mass flow rate 0.6 kg.min-1. While efficiency was recorded 13% with a high air flow rate 1.72 kg.min-1. The solar radiation was recorded 0.5 cal.cm-2.min-1 in the month of January, 2012. Efficiency was 13% when drying apple with normal air mass flow rate 0.6 kg.min-1. The solar radiation was recorded 0.7 cal.cm-2.min-1 in the month of February, 2012. Efficiency was 15% when drying apple with normal air mass flow rate 0.6 kg.min -1. The solar radiation was recorded 1 cal.cm-2.min-1 in the month of March, 2012. The results show that the CPTSC when the air mass flow rate increased with increasing air mass flow rates. Table:-1 Thermal Performance of CPTSC for drying of apple in the month of January, 2012 with a normal mass air flow rate Parameter Unit Apple Air Mass Flow Rate Kg.min-1 0.6 0C Average Temperature of the Month 25 Drying Time Hours 14 Collector Efficiency % 8 Available Solar Intensity Cal.cm-2.hr.-1 0.5 Table:-2 Thermal Performance of CPTSC for drying of apple in the month of January, 2012 with a high mass air flow rate Parameter Unit Apple Air Mass Flow Rate Kg.min-1 1.72 0C Average Temperature of the Month 25 Drying Time Hours 12 Collector Efficiency % 15 Available Solar Intensity Cal.cm-2.hr.-1 0.5

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Table:-3 Thermal Performance of Concentrating parabolic trough solar collector for drying of apple in the month of February, 2012 with a normal mass air flow rate Parameter Unit Apple Air Mass Flow Rate Kg.min-1 0.6 0C Average Temperature of the Month 28 Drying Time Hours 12 Collector Efficiency % 13 Available Solar Intensity Cal.cm-2.hr.-1 0.7 Table:-4 Thermal Performance of Concentrating parabolic trough solar collector for drying of apple in the month of February, 2012 with a high mass air flow rate Parameter Unit Apple Air Mass Flow Rate Kg.min-1 1.72 0C Average Temperature of the Month 28 Drying Time Hours 10 Collector Efficiency % 20 Available Solar Intensity Cal.cm-2.hr.-1 0.7 Table:-5 Thermal Performance of Concentrating parabolic trough solar collector for drying of apple in the month of March, 2012 Parameter Unit Apple Air Mass Flow Rate Kg.min-1 0.6 0C Average Temperature of the Month 30 Drying Time Hours 10 Collector Efficiency % 18 Available Solar Intensity Cal.cm-2.hr.-1 1 Table:-6 Thermal Performance of Concentrating parabolic trough solar collector for drying of apple in the month of March, 2012 with a high mass air flow rate Parameter Unit Apple Air Mass Flow Rate Kg.min-1 1.72 0C Average Temperature of the Month 30 Drying Time Hours 8 Collector Efficiency % 25 Available Solar Intensity Cal.cm-2.hr.-1 0.7

NOMENCLATURES Aab Ao Ap Art Cair CPTSC Dair Dm Dr Dt F.Rair f

Area of the absorber (m2) Outlet ducts of the cross sectional area (m2) Cross sectional area of the product (cm2) Area of reflecting Trough (m2) Specific heat of air (kJ.kg-1.oC-1) Concentrating Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Density of air at outlet (kg.cm-3) The dry matter in the product (g) The drying rate of the product (g H2O..hr-1) Time of drying (hr) The air mass flow rate at outlet (kg.min-1) Focal length of the trough (m)

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Irt Is Lab Qi Qo rab rt Vc Vo Wf Wi X Y ΔT ή π

The reflected radiation coming from the trough (kJ.m-2.min-1) The incident solar radiation intensity (kJ.m-2.min-1) Length of the absorber (m2) Heat input of the collector (kJ.min-1) Heat output of the collector (kJ.min-1) Radius of the absorber (m2) Reflecting trough Chart value of the pyranometer (C.cm-2) Velocity at outlet (m.sec-1) Final mass of the product after drying (g) Initial mass of the product (g) Aperture of the parabolic trough (m) Radius of the parabola (m) Difference in inlet and outlet temperature (oC) Efficiency of the collector (%) Constant

REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

[13]

Ahmed A. G. 2011. Design and Construction of a Solar Drying System, a Cylindrical Section and Analysis of the Performance of the Thermal Drying System. Afr. Jr. Agri-Resh vol. 6(2);PP343-351,18. Aswathanarayana. U., T.Harikrishnan and K.M.T Sahini. 2010. Green Energy. CRC. Press. Taylor and Francise. Balked Books Publishers. India Balbir Singh M. S and F.Sulaiman. 2009. Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia. Belessiotis.V., and Delyannis.E. 2010. Solar drying. Laboratory of Solar & other Energy Systems, NSRC “DEMOKRITOS”, P.O. box 60228. 153-10. Aghia Paraskevi, Greece. Christian. N., J. B. Natowitze.. Our Energy Future. A Johan Wiley and Son. INC. Pub. Press. Dikbasan. T., 2007. Determination of Effective Parameters for Drying of Apples. M.S. Thesis. The Graduate School of Engi. and Sci. Izmir Inst. Tech. Turkey. Ehiem.J.C., S.V.Irtwange and S.E. Obetta. 2009. Design and Development of an Industrial Fruit and Vegetable Dryer. Dept. Agri. Engi, Uni.Agri. Umudike, Makurdi, Nigeria. Fuller, R.J., T. Lhendup and L. Aye. 2005. International Technalogies Centre(IDTC). Deptt. Civil and Envi. Engi.Uni. Melbourne Australia. Henderson and Perry. 1976. Food Processing Engineering. AVI pub. Press. INC. Matthew G. Green and D.Schwarz. 2001. Solar Drying Technology for Food Preservation. Gate information Service gtz, PO Box 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany Radu D. R. 2010. New Trends in Designing Parabolic trough Solar Concentrators and Heat Storage Concrete Systems in Solar Power Plants. J. Solar Energy. 12(3). 277-287. Shuang Y., L. Xiao, and Y. R. Li. 2011.Effiect of aperture Position and size on natural convection heat loss of a solar heat- Pipe receiver. Laboratory of low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and System, Changqing Uni. Ministry of Edu. Changqing 400044, China. Yadav. S. N. 2011. Agricultural Engineering Fundamentals and Application. Bio Tech Book Publishers, Delhi. India.

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A Survey on Wireless Sensor Networks Architectural Model, Topology, Service and Security Tamim Al Mahmud Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT Recent advancement and grown up technologies has enabled the development and implementation of low-cost, energy efficient and versatile sensor networks. Sensor networks are built up with sensors that have the ability to sense fiscal or environmental property. Assumption can be made that Wireless Sensing Network (WSN) is able to sense environmental conditions at Nano and gaseous level. In this paper, first the system architecture of WSN is described. The network may maintain several architectural protocol and topologies. WSN provides some services which are maintained by layered architecture. Another important issue regarding wireless networking is the security challenges. This work guided to a concept of several security issues and discussion to overcome the challenging issues. Keywords — Wireless Sensing Network (WSN), Network architecture, Network topology, Nano sensing nodes, WSN Services, Security and challenges.

1 INTRODUCTION Wireless sensor network has increasingly become a research hotspot as the technology of wireless networks become gradually matured and supported by small, micro-mobile devices. WSN consists of several number of sensor nodes ranging from few tens to thousands and base station or sink node. Each node is capable of storing, processing and relaying the data that are sensed. Base station is responsible for further computation of the data. It has very spread application in many areas, such as in environmental monitoring in the military and national defence, biomedical, remote monitoring dangerous areas and so on. There are several types of traditional network topology namely peer to peer, star, tree and Mesh for development and deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN).But these topologies are not efficient for making data transmission more reliable and efficient because of limited energy and construction limitation of nodes. In this paper we proposed a dynamic topology for WSN for better performance. Our research is focused on integration of wireless sensor networks into existing networks, mainly mobile ones, and stipulation of sensor based and/or enhanced services to remote users. Therefore, we have been working one signing an architecture that utilizes the existing infrastructure to interconnect independent wireless sensor networks and to provide data aggregation and actuator control services Sensor networks by distributed wireless technology are involved in various types of applications. Some of WSN applications

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work without security which decreased Quality of Service (QoS) that caused by resource restriction. In WSN, a mass of wireless sensors are linked together via RF. The quality of working properly of the nodes in WSN application consists of comprehension, gathering and distributing information in the network. Energy is a main issue as the sensors are in general tiny. In addition wireless with restricted memory and quality of working properly given the fact that the batteries have a restricted governing power [1]. Different types of Denial of Services attacks can affect a network or node. If attacked node continues to exchange information or ideas with its neighbours and it led to diminish all its power then the node declares as a dead node which is worst cases [2].

2 ARCHITECTURAL MODE Wireless sensor network (WSN) defines to a collection of spatially autonomous sensors whose purpose is to monitor and record the fiscal situation of the external environment and organize the data at a central location. The environmental conditions that are determined by WSN are temperature, pollution levels, humidity, breeze speed and path, pressure, etc. The WSN is consist of automatic nodes ranging from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where one or more sensor connected to each of the node Each of the network nodes consist of following component: Radio transceiver: Those have connection to some internal or external antenna. Microcontroller: A Small processing unit that interface with the sensor and an energy source, usually an alkaline battery. Mobilizer: That helps to move the sensor node from present position and carry out defined action. The base station requires exact location of the network node which is done by location finding system because the sensor may be mobile. The size of a single sensor node can vary from shoebox-sized nodes down to devices the size of grain of dust. (Automatic WSN).

Figure: Basic Architecture of Wireless Sensor Network. (Ref [04]).

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Figure 3. Components of a Sensor Node (Ref [04])

3 TOPOLOGY In communication networks, topology refers to the description of arrangement of network nodes and the communication link among nodes. There are four basic WSN topologies as follows: A. Peer to Peer B. Star C. Tree and D. Mesh We here simply discuss these four types of topologies. A. Peer-to-Peer Networks allow communication among nodes without aid of central communication hub. It provides communication among network nodes directly. The two communicating nodes can act as client and server interchangeably.

B. Star networks Allow communication through a central communications hub without direct communication with one another. Centralized hub is responsible for all communication among nodes of the WSN. In this network topology hub acts as a server while nodes perform action as a client.

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C. Tree networks Are a combination of Star network and Peer to Peer network. It uses a central hub that refers to the Root node of the network. Next level from the Root node is the h Central hub that constructs the Star topology.

D. Mesh networks Is the most complex type of network that provides node to node transfer of data to make successful transmission. The network to be self-healing it must maintain these properties. Data routed from node to node until it reaches its destination node.

4 WHY DYNAMIC TOPOLOGY Wireless Sensor nodes are energy constraint device. It consumes more power and energy in each transmission. So we must interconnect the network nodes in such a way that consumes less power and energy. If we use the above network topologies then nodes canâ€&#x;t efficiently transmit data due their limited energy. So we now propose Dynamic topology that provide energy efficient data transmission.

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5 PROPOSED DYNAMIC TOPOLOGY We proposed that there will be a central node and some supporting node same to the central node whose energy, transmitting power, efficiency all are same to the central node and greater than other sensing nodes. At particular time a particular node will active and collecting sensing node information. After activating for a particular time it may transmit signal to the router and continuously losing its energy. A mechanism is provided after each transmission at central node to check their energy level .Nodes is randomly hand over the mechanism of selecting route this process node .Repeating until all the nodes are damage or transmit information Then all other nodes are constructing a tree topology with the selecting central node. After selecting central node all other node are construct tree topology with the central node (fig 5).

The nodes are transmitting information to the central node and it transmits to the router. Sensing node transmit signal to the root node. The root node covers an area supporting by its sensor node. Once the root will damage which serve for transmitting the enter network is not disconnected yet. But root node automatically hand over its mechanism to the other root node which will inactive/sleep moment before and collect/gather information coming from sensing node. Sensing node connect/communicate with each other by knowing its neighbour .The discovery of the neighbour nodes (parent and children) is done by the exchange of advertisement control messages (ADVERT). The first node that starts sending advertisement messages is the sink node (root node describe above). The advertisements are broadcast messages that advertise specific children tree positions. The

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advertisements are sent in the downstream slot of the epoch. When a node (not the sink) is firstly switched on it initialize during the first epoch and sets all the slots of the node in�scan mode� so that to receive advertisements.

6 WSN AS A SERVICE WSN mainly provide two types of Services as follows: Information Provider: Wireless sensor network is first of all provide service as a sensor information provider that offers some fixed sensor information defined by the type of available sensor in the network. Actuation Services: Each WSN provides actuation service that performs some computation or action on the data collected by the sensor and produced the desired output WSN can be classified in two types based on class of target application that uses the services provided by WSN as follows: Proactive: Sensor nodes sporadically sense the surroundings and transmit engrossed data to the application. Reactive: Sensor nodes react to sudden change in the network immediately.

7 ARCHITECTURE OF WSN AS A SERVICE Here we propose a WSN architecture that acts as service provides. It consist of four layer namely Layer 1: Data Provision Layer Layer 2: Data Extraction and Interoperability Layer Layer 3: Composition Layer Layer 4: Application Layer Data Provision Layer: Data provision layer composed of sensor nodes of the network. These nodes are responsible for sensing the external environment and collecting information about surroundings. Sensor nodes can perform only few operations on the sensed information like computation of average, maximum, minimum, etc Data Extraction and Interoperability Layer: This layer consists of sink node which has high energy than sensor node of the low layer. Data collected by multiple sensor nodes of different WSN of the previous layer are extracted in this layer for further operation. It also provides a common interface for accessing the information. Composition Layer: This layer consists of Web Mishaps. Data extracted from different WSN by previous layer are combined by this layer and provides value-added services to the client application. This layer collects data from previous layer through the use of common interface. Application Layer: Application layer is consisting of client application that use the services provided by WSN. It can perform additional computation to these services for efficient and better performance.

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8 SECURITY Attack and Attacker: an attempt to get illegal access to information, services defined as Attacks. Attacks are produced by attackers. They are also known as introducers. There are mainly two board types of attacks Active attack Attacker try to modify or falsify the data transmitted through network. This attack is easily notified. Passive attack Attacker only observes the data without any modification or falsification of data. It is more dangerous than active attack because it is not so easy to detect.

9 ATTACKS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Denial of Service: In WSN, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-ofservice attack (DDoS attack) is defined as an attempt to provide a resist to access machine or network resource by intended user making these machine or network resources unavailable. In WSN, various kinds of DoS attacks performed in distinct layers. At physical layer the Denial-of-service attacks could be tampering and jamming, at data link layer, collision, unfairness, at network layer, homing, misdirection, black holes and at transport layer this attack can be done by DE synchronization malicious flooding. The techniques to protect DoS attacks include pushback, payment for network resources, identification of traffic, strong authentication. Attacks on Information in transit : In WSN, sensors monitor the Changes of specific or values or parameters are monitored by sensors and inform to the sink node in according to the requirement. The information in transit may be spoofed, altered, or vanished, replayed again while sensor sending the report. As wireless sensor communication is attack to eavesdropping, attacker can monitor the traffic flow and get into action to intercept, interrupt, modify or fabricate [22] packets thus, provide false information to the sinks nodes. Since sensor nodes normally have a short range of communication and limited resource, an attacker with greater processing power and larger transmission range can attack several sensors nodes. Sybil Attack: In most cases, the sensors node in a wireless sensor network might require to work together to complete a task, hence attackers can use distribution of sub-task and

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redundancy of information. In such a situation, a node can claim to be two or more node using the identities of other authorized nodes (Figure 1).In this attack where such a node counterfeit the identities of two or more node is the Sybil attack [23], [24] Black hole/Sinkhole Attack: By this attack, a spiteful node acts as a black hole [25] to attract all the traffic in the sensor network. In a flooding based protocol, for routing the attacker listens to requests then replies to the target nodes in which it contains the greater quality or shortest path to the base station. Hello Flood Attack: This kind of attack uses HELLO packets as a keyword to persuade the sensors in Wireless Sensor Network. In this kind of attack an attacker with a high radio communication (termed as a laptop-class attacker in [26]) range and processing power sends HELLO packets to several number of sensor nodes which are spread in a large area within a Wireless Sensor Network. The sensors are therefore convinced that the adversary is their neighbor. Accordingly, while transfer the information to the sink node or base station, the attack nodes try to go through the attacker as they learn that it is their neighbor and are ultimately spoofed by the attacker. Wormhole Attack: Wormhole attack [27] is a critical attack in which the attacker records the packets (or bits) at one location in the network and tunnels those to another position. The tunneling or re-broadcasting of bits could be done selectively. Wormhole attack is an important threat to WSN, because; this sort of attack does not need mutual agreement a sensor node in the WSN rather, it could be accomplished even at the initial phase when the sensors begin to invent the neighboring information. Network Security Services: Network security can provide one of the five services as shown in Figure. These four network security services are related to the message exchanged using the network: message confidentiality, no repudiation, authentication integrity. Authentication or identification is provided by these services. Message Confidentiality: Message confidentiality or privacy means that the sender and the receiver expect confidentiality. The intended receiver is sensed by message which is transmitted. To all others, the message must be garbage. When a customer communicates with his/her bank, she expects that the communication is totally confidential. Message Integrity: Message integrity means that the data must arrive at the receiver exactly as they were sent. There must be no hangs during the transmission, neither accidentally or maliciously. As more and more monetary exchanges occur over the Internet, integrity is crucial. For example, it would be disastrous if a request for transferring $100 changed to a request for $10,000 or $100,000. The integrity of the message must be preserved in a secure communication. Message Authentication: Message authentication is a service beyond message integrity. In message authentication the receiver needs to be sure of the sender's identity and that an imposter has not sent the message. Message No repudiation: Message no repudiation means that a sender must not be able to deny sending a message that is send. The receiver is responsible for proof. For example, when a client sends a message to exchange money from one account to another account, the bank must have proof that the customer actually requested this transaction. Entity Authentication: In entity authentication (or user identification) the entity or user is verified prior to access to the resource of system (files, for example). For example, an employee who needs to access her university resources needs to be authenticated during the logging process. This is to protect the interests of the university and the employee.

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10 CONCLUSIONS Wireless Sensor Networks have great impact on every spheres of life beginning from healthcare ending to the homeland security. Environmental protection is also a great use. In this paper we have discussed about the core concepts of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). This paper also provides knowledge about wireless Sensing Nodes and the network architecture which follows different topologies to form an efficient network in a nutshell. As the security challenges are great issues, this paper also serves a basic idea with respect to network security. Wireless Sensing Networks have enormous services that are also described in this paper. Further research is to be considered to build up other network performance and its criteria such as service quality issues with high energy efficiency and integrated security.

REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] A. [10] [11]

S. M. Metev and V. P. Veiko, Laser Assisted Microtechnology, 2nd ed., R. M. Osgood, Jr., Ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998. J. Breckling, Ed., The Analysis of Directional Time Series: Applications to Wind Speed and Direction, ser. Lecture Notes in Statistics. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 1989, vol. 61. S. Zhang, C. Zhu, J. K. O. Sin, and P. K. T. Mok, “A novel ultrathin elevated channel lowtemperature poly-Si TFT,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 20, pp. 569–571, Nov. 1999. M. Wegmuller, J. P. von der Weid, P. Oberson, and N. Gisin, “High resolution fiber distributed measurements with coherent OFDR,” in Proc. ECOC’00, 2000, paper 11.3.4, p. 109. R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, “High-speed digital-to-RF converter,” U.S. Patent 5 668 842, Sept. 16, 1997. (2002) The IEEE website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/ M. Shell. (2002) IEEEtran homepage on CTAN. [Online]. Available: http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/supported/IEEEtran/ FLEXChip Signal Processor (MC68175/D), Motorola, 1996. “PDCA12-70 data sheet,” Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland. Karnik, “Performance of TCP congestion control with rate feedback: TCP/ABR and rate adaptive TCP/IP,” M. Eng. thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Jan. 1999. J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, “A stochastic model of TCP Reno congestion avoidance and control,” Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, CMPSCI Tech. Rep. 99-02, 1999. Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specification, IEEE Std. 802.11, 1997.

CALL FOR PAPER American Journal of Trade and Policy (AJTP) is an open-access, peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal which seeks articles from any broad theme of international trade. AJTP features reports on current developments in international trade as well as on related policy issues. The digital online version is published by AJTP, and the hard copy (print) version is published by Asian Business Consortium (ABC), USA Chapter. Web: www.ajtp.us

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Asia Pacific Journal of Energy and Environment (APJEE) is a peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary international journal devoted to academic advanced research from the energy and environment arena. It specializes in the publication of comparative thematic issues as well as individual research articles, review essays, and book reviews. APJEE is fully and freely accessible on line. Web: www.apjee-my.weebly.com

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Effects of Chemical Reaction and Heat Generation on MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Moving Vertical Plate with Suction and Dissipation M. Venkateswarlu1; G.V. Ramana Reddy2; & D.V.Lakshmi3 1

Department of Mathematics,V.R.Siddartha Engineering College, A.P., India Department of Mathematics, K.L.University, A.P., India 3 Department of Mathematics, Bapatla Women Engineering College, A.P., India 2

ABSTRACT In this paper, the study of the steady two-dimensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid with heat and mass transfer and MHD heat generation past a moving vertical plate with suction in the presence of viscous dissipation and chemical reaction is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations. These equations are then solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The flow variables are presented graphically. The graphs showed that velocity rises for increasing Grashof number, mass Grashof numer, suction, heat generation and Eckert number while reducing with increasing magnetic parameter, Schmidt number, and chemical reaction parameter and Prandtl number. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and are found to be in an excellent agreement. Keywords: MHD, chemical reaction parameter, free convection, viscous dissipation, heat generation, suction, moving vertical plate.

1 INTRODUCTION Convective flows with simultaneous heat and mass transfer under the influence of a magnetic field and chemical reaction arise in many transport processes both naturally and artificially in many branches of science and engineering applications. This phenomenon plays an important role in the chemical industry, power and cooling industry for dying, chemical vapour deposition on surfaces, cooling of nuclear reactors and petroleum industries. Natural convection flow occurs frequently in nature. It occurs due to temperature differences, as well as due to concentration differences or the combination of these two, for example in atmospheric flows, there exists differences in water concentration and hence the flow is influenced by such concentration difference. Changes in fluid density gradients may be caused by non-reversible chemical reaction in the system as well as by the differences in molecular weight between values of the reactants and the products. Chemical reaction can be modeled as either homogeneous or heterogeneous

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processes. This depends on whether they occur at an interface or as a single phase volume reaction. A homogeneous reaction is one that occurs uniformly throughout a given phase. On the other hand, a heterogeneous reaction takes place in a restricted area or within the boundary of the phase. In most cases of chemical reactions, the reaction rate depends on the concentration of the species itself. A reaction is said to be of first order, if the rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration itself, ( Cussler [1988]). For example, the formation of smog is a first order homogeneous reaction. Consider the emission of nitrogen dioxide from automobiles and other smoke-stacks. This nitrogen dioxide reacts chemically in the atmosphere with unburned hydrocarbons (aided by sunlight) and produces peroxyacetyl nitrate, which forms an envelope which is termed photo-chemical smog. The study of heat and mass transfer with chemical reaction is of great practical importance in many branches of science and engineering. ( Das et al [1994] ) studied the effects of mass transfer flow past an impulsively started infinite vertical plate with constant heat flux, and chemical reaction. ( Anjalidevi and Kandasamy [1999] ) studied effects of chemical reaction, heat and mass transfer on laminar flow along a semi-infinite horizontal plate. More authors intensive studies have been carried out to investigate effects of chemical reaction on different flow types ( Seddeek et al [2007], Salem and Abd El- Aziz [2008], Mohamed [ 2009] Ibrahim et al [ 2008]). Boundary layer behavior over a moving continuous solid surface is an important type of flow occurring in a number of engineering processes. To be more specific, heat treated materials traveling between a feed roll and a wind-up roll, aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, glass fiber and paper production, cooling of an infinite metallic plate in a cooling path, manufacturing of polymeric sheets are examples for practical applications of continuous moving flat surfaces. Since the pioneering work of Sakiadis (1961) various aspects of the problem have been investigated by many authors. Mass transfer analysis at the stretched sheet were found in the studies by Erickson et al. (1966) and relevant experimental results were reported by Tsou et al. (1967) regarding several aspects for the flow and heat transfer boundary layer problems in a continuously moving sheet. Crane (1970) and Grubka (1985) have analyzed the stretching problem with constant surface temperature, while Soundalgekar (1974) investigated the Stokes problem for a viscoelastic fluid wall temperature and heat flux. Raptis and Singh (1985) studied flow past an impulsively started vertical plate in a porous medium by a finite difference method. The fluid considered in that paper is an optically dense viscous incompressible fluid of linearly varying temperature dependent viscosity. Ambethkar(2008) studied numerical solutions of heat and mass transfer effects of an unsteady MHD free convective flow past an infinite vertical plate with constant suction. Alam and Rahman (2006) studied the combined free-forced convection and mass transfer flow past a vertical porous plate in a porous medium with heat generation and thermal diffusion. They also investigated MHD free convective heat and mass transfer flow past an inclined surface with heat generation. Salem (2006) discussed coupled heat and mass transfer in Darcy-Forchheimer mixed convection from a vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium under the effects of radiation and viscous dissipation. Alam and Rahman (2008) analyzed the effects of chemical reaction and thermophoresis on MHD mixed convective heat and mass transfer flow along an inclined plate in the presence of heat generation/absorption with viscous dissipation and joule heating. Paresh Vyas and Ashutosh Ranjan (2010) discussed the dissipative MHD boundary- layer flow in a porous medium over a sheet stretching nonlinearly in the presence of radiation.

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Muthuraj and Srinivas(2009) studied the influence of magnetic field and wall slip conditions on steady flow between parallel flat wall and a long wavy wall with Soret effect. Ramana Reddy et.al (2012) studied Effects of the chemical reaction and radiation absorption on an unsteady mhd convective heat and mass transfer flow past a semiinfinite vertical moving in a porous medium with heat source and suction. The study of heat generation or absorption in moving fluids is important in problems dealing with chemical reactions and those concerned with dissociating fluids. Heat generation effects may alter the temperature distribution and this in turn can affect the particle deposition rate in nuclear reactors, electronic chips and semi conductor wafers. Although exact modeling of internal heat generation or absorption is quite difficult, some simple mathematical models can be used to express its general behavior for most physical situations. Heat generation or absorption can be assumed to be constant, space-dependent or temperature-dependent. Tania et al (2010) has investigated the effects of radiation, heat generation and viscous dissipation on MHD free convection flow along a stretching sheet. Furthermore, Moalem (1976) studied the effect of temperature dependent heat sources taking place in electrically heating on the heat transfer within a porous medium. Vajravelu and Nayfeh (1992) reported on the hydro magnetic convection at a cone and a wedge in the presence of temperature dependent heat generation or absorption effects. Moreover, Chamkha (1999) studied the effect of heat generation or absorption on hydro magnetic three-dimensional free convection flow over a vertical stretching surface. Viscous dissipation changes the temperature distributions by playing a role like an energy source, which leads to affected heat transfer rates. The merits of the effect of viscous dissipation depend on whether the plate is being cooled or heated. Heat transfer analysis over porous surface is of much practical interest due to its abundant applications. To be more specific, heat-treated materials traveling between a feed roll and wind-up roll or materials manufactured by extrusion. Glass-fiber and paper production, cooling of metallic sheets or electronic chips, crystal growing just to name a few. In these cases, the final product of desired characteristics depends on the rate of cooling in the process and the process of stretching. The work of Sonth et al (2002) deals with the effect of the viscous dissipation term along with temperature dependent heat source/sink on momentum, heat and mass transfer in a visco-elastic fluid flow over an accelerating surface. Chen (2004) examined the effect of combined heat and mass transfer on MHD free convection from a vertical surface with ohmic heating and viscous dissipation. The effect of viscous dissipation and joule heating on MHD free convection flow past a semi-infinite vertical flat plate in the presence of the combined effect of Hall and non-slip currents for the case of the power-law variation of the wall temperature is analyzed by Abo-Eldahab and El-Aziz (2005).Gupta et al (1977) studied heat and mass transfer on a stretching sheet with suction or blowing. Ibrahim and Makinde (2010) have investigated the effects of chemically reacting MHD boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer over a moving vertical plate with suction. This chapter aims to find numerical solutions of the coupled equations that govern the flow by using shooting technique with the forth order Range-Kutta method. In the problem formulation, the continuity, momentum, energy and concentration equations are reduced to some parameter problem by introducing suitable transformation variables. Pertinent results with respect to embedded parameters are displayed graphically for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles and were discussed quantitatively. The local skin-friction coefficient and the heat and mass transfer results are obtained for representative values of the important parameters.

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2 MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS Consider a two-dimensional free convective flow on the steady incompressible laminar MHD heat and mass transfer characteristics of a linearly started porous vertical plate, the velocity of the fluid far away from the plate surface is assumed zero for a quiescent state fluid. The flow configurations are linear. All the fluid properties are assumed to be constant except for the density variations in the buoyancy force term of the linear momentum equation. The magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small, so that the induced magnetic field is neglected. The Hall effects and the joule heating terms are also neglected. Then under Boussinesq‟s approximations, the governing boundary-layer equations that are based on the balance laws of mass, linear momentum, energy and concentration species for this investigation can be written as:

u v  0 x y

u

(1)

u v  2u  B02  v  2  u  g T (T  T )  g  C (C  C ) x y y 

T T  2T Q   u  u v   2  0 (T  T )    x y y  C p C p  y  u

(2)

2

(3)

C C  2C v  Dm 2  kr (C  C ) x y y

(4)

The boundary conditions at the plate surface and for into the cold fluid may be written as

v  V , u  Bx, T  Tw  T  ax, C  Cw  C  bx, u  0, T  T , C  C

as

at y = 0 ,

y 

(5)

Where B is constant, a and b denotes the stratification rate of the gradient of ambient temperature and concentration profiles. We introduce the following non-dimensional variables:

y Ec  Sc 

B

,  x  B f ( ), ( ) 

 B02 T  T C  C ,  ( )  ,M  Tw  T Cw  C B

g T (TW  T ) g C (CW  C ) B2  , Gr  , Gc  , Pr  , 2 2 C p (TW  T ) xB xB 

 Dm

,Q 

(6)

Q0 V kr B 2 ,F  , kr  C p B  B

The velocity components u and v are respectively obtained as follows:

u

  xBf ( ) , v      B f y x

(7)

With this new set of independent and dependent variables defined by equation (6), the partial differential equations (2) to (4) are transformed into local similarity equations as follows: (8) f   ff   f ( f   M )  Gr  Gc  0

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   Pr f    Pr f   Pr Q  Pr Ec( f  )2  0

(9)

   Scf    krSc  0

(10)

The corresponding boundary conditions (5) then take the following form

f (0)  1, f (0)   Fw, (0)  1,  (0)  1 f ()  0, ()  0,  ()  0

where prime denotes partial differentiation with respect to 

(11) (12) .

3 NUMERICAL METHOD OF SOLUTION The set of coupled non-linear governing boundary layer equations (8)-(10) together with the boundary conditions (11&12) are solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order technique along with shooting method. First of all, higher order non-linear differential Equations (8)-(10) are converted into simultaneous linear differential equations of first order and they are further transformed into initial value problem by applying the shooting technique (Alam et al. (2006)). In a shooting method, the missing (unspecified) initial condition at the initial point of the interval is assumed, and the differential equation is then integrated numerically as an initial value problem to the terminal point. The accuracy of the assumed missing initial condition is then checked by comparing the calculated value of the dependent variable at the terminal point with its given value there. If a difference exists, another value of the missing initial condition must be assumed and the process is repeated. This process is continued until the agreement between the calculated and the given condition at the terminal point is within the specified degree of accuracy. For this type of iterative approach, one naturally inquires whether or not there is a systematic way of finding each succeeding (assumed) value of the missing initial condition. The resultant initial value problem is solved by employing Runge-Kutta fourth order technique. The step size =0.05 is used to obtain the numerical solution with decimal place accuracy as the criterion of convergence. The parameters of engineering interest for the present problem are the local skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number, which are respectively proportional to f (0),  (0) , and

 (0) are worked out and their numerical values presented in a tabular form.

4 COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS WORK In the absence of heat generation and viscous dissipation, the results have been compared with that of Ibrahim and Makinde which are shown in Table 1. From this Table1, it can be clearly seen that the results are in good agreement with that of Ibrahim and Makinde (2010). From Table 1 and Table 2. It is important to note that the local skin friction together with the local heat and mass transfer rate at the moving plate surface increases with increasing intensity of buoyancy forces (Gr,Gc), the Schmidt number (Sc), the chemical reaction parameter. However, an increase in the magnetic field (M), magnitude of fluid suction (Fw), heat source/sink parameter (Q) and Viscous dissipation (Ec) causes a decrease in both skin friction and surface heat transfer rate and an increase in the surface mass transfer rate.

5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The governing equations (8)-(10) subject to the boundary conditions (11)-(12) are integrated as described in section 3. The Prandtl number was taken to be Pr=0.72 which corresponds to air,

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the value of Schmidt number (Sc) were chosen to be Sc=0.24,0.62, 0.78,2.62, representing diffusing chemical species of most common interest in air like

H 2 , H 2O , NH 3 and Propel

Benzene respectively. Paying attention on positive value of the buoyancy parameters that is, local temperature Grashof number Gr > 0 and local concentration Grashof number Gc > 0. Throughout the calculations, the parametric values are fixed to be Gr = Gc = Ec= Q= M= 0.1, Sc= 0.62, Pr = 0.72, Kr = 0.5, and

Fw =0.1, unless otherwise indicated.

The effects of various parameters on velocity profiles in the boundary layer are shown in Figs. 1-9. It is noticed from Figs. 1-9, that the velocity is higher near the moving vertical plate surface and decrease to its zero value far away from the moving vertical plate surface satisfying the far field boundary condition for all parameter values. In Fig. 1 the effect of increasing the magnetic field strength on the momentum boundary layer thickness is illustrated. It is now a well established fact that the magnetic field presents a damping effect on the velocity field by creating drag force that opposes the fluid motion, causing the velocity to decease. However, in this case an increase in the M only slightly slows down the motion of the fluid away from the moving vertical plate surface towards the free stream velocity, while the fluid velocity near the moving vertical plate surface decreases. Figs. 2, 3, 4 & 6 depict the variation of the boundary-layer velocity with the buoyancy forces parameters (Gr,Gc) , magnitude of fluid suction (Fw) and heat source/sink parameter (Q) . In both cases an upward acceleration of the fluid in the vicinity of the vertical wall is observed with increasing intensity of buoyancy forces. Further downstream of the fluid motion decelerates to the free stream velocity. Fig. 5 and Fig.9 shows that a slight decrease in the fluid velocity with an increase in the Schmidt number (Sc) and chemical reaction parameter. The effect of viscous dissipation parameter i.e., the Eckert number Ec on the velocity component is shown in Fig. 7. The positive Eckert number implies cooling of the plate i.e., loss of heat from the plate to the fluid. Hence, greater viscous dissipative heat causes a slightly increase in the velocity. Fig. 8. Illustrates the velocity component for different values of the Prandtl number Pr. The numerical results show that the effect of increasing values of Prandtl number results in a decreasing velocity. In general the fluid temperature attains its maximum value at the moving vertical plate surface and decreases exponentially to the free stream zero value away from the plate satisfying the boundary condition. This is observed in Figs. 10-18. From these figures, it is interesting to note that the thermal boundary layer thickness decreases with an increase in the intensity of the buoyancy forces (Gr,Gc) and Prandtl number (Pr). Moreover, the fluid temperature increases with an increase in the Schmidt number (Sc) the chemical reaction parameter (kr) , Magnetic field ( M ), heat source/sink parameter (Q) magnitude of fluid suction (Fw) and Eckert number (Ec) leading to an increase in thermal boundary layer thickness. Figs. 19-27 illustrate chemical species concentration profiles against span wise coordinate Ρ for varying values physical parameters in the boundary layer. The species concentration is highest at the moving vertical plate surface and decrease to zero far away from the moving vertical plate satisfying the boundary condition. From these figures, it is important to reveal that the concentration boundary layer thickness decreases with an increase in, the buoyancy forces (Gr,Gc) , Schmidt number (Sc) the chemical reaction parameter (kr), heat source/sink parameter (Q) and Eckert number (Ec). Moreover, the fluid concentration increases with an increase in the magnetic field ( M ) magnitude of fluid suction (Fw) and Prandtl number (Pr) leading to an increase in thermal boundary layer thickness.

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f (0), (0) and  (0) at the plate with Gr, Gc, M, Fw, Sc for Pr = 0.72,

Table 1: variation of Q = Ec = 0. Gr

Gc

M

Fw Sc

0.1 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 3.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 3.0 0.1 0.1

Table 2: Variation of

Ibrahim and Makinde (2010)

f (0)  (0)  (0)

0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.78 2.62

0.888971 0.695974 0.475058 0.686927 0.457723 1.264488 1.868158 0.570663 0.275153 0.893454 0.912307

0.7965511 0.8379008 0.8752835 0.8421370 0.8818619 0.7089150 0.5825119 0.5601256 0.2955702 0.7936791 0.7847840

0.725392 0.7658018 0.8020042 0.7701717 0.8087332 0.6400051 0.5204793 0.5271504 0.2902427 0.8339779 1.6504511

Present work

f (0)  (0)  (0) 0.889085 0.696036 0.475093 0.687021 0.457782 1.264045 1.867845 0.570745 0.276071 0.893518 0.91237

0.79653 0.837878 0.875269 0.842077 0.881824 0.708798 0.582456 0.56011 0.299108 0.79374 0.784892

0.725477 0.765851 0.802026 0.770165 0.808717 0.640369 1.866548 0.527309 0.296673 0.833984 1.65042

f (0), (0) and  (0) at the plate with Q and Ec. For Gr= Gc= M=

Fw= kr =0, Sc = 0.62, Pr= 0.72. Q

Ec

kr

f (0)

0.1 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.1

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.5

0.89046 0.876567 0.860109 0.888471 0.886012 0.894431 0.898013

 (0)

 (0)

0.720703 0.407081 0.105458 0.626001 0.508875 0.706313 0.704035

0.732828 0.739642 0.74781 0.733596 0.734544 0.886103 1.04547

6 CONCLUSION In this paper the effect of heat generation and viscous dissipation on MHD boundary layer flow of a moving vertical flat plate with suction have been studied numerically. Shooting method along with fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm is employed to integrate the equations governing the flow. Comparison with previously published work is performed and excellent argument has been observed. From the present numerical investigation, following conclusions may be drawn:  The thermal and concentration boundary layer thickness decreases with an increase in the intensity of the buoyancy forces and. Gr Gc.

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     

For increased value of magnetic parameter, the velocity profile decreases but the temperature and concentration profile increases slightly. The fluid temperature and concentration increases leading to an increase in thermal boundary layer thickness. An increase in wall suction increases the boundary layer thickness and decreases the skin friction. In general, the presence of the heat generation term in the energy equation yields an augment in the fluid‟s temperature The velocity, concentration distribution within the boundary layer decreases with the increase in values of the Schmidt number and the chemical reaction parameter. The velocity, temperature distribution within the boundary layer increases with the increase in values of the viscous dissipation.

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Ibrahim and Makinde (2010): Chemically Reacting MHD Boundary Layer Flow of Heat and Mass Transfer over a Moving Vertical Plate with Suction, Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5, No. 19, pp. 2875-2882. Gupta, P. S., Gupta, A. S. (1977): Heat and Mass Transfer on a Stretching Sheet with Suction or Blowing, Can. J. Chem. Eng, Vol. 55, No. 6, pp. 744-746. Ingham, D. B and Pop, I.(Eds.) (1998): Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Pergamon, Oxford. Jain, M. K., Iyengar, S. R. K. and Jain, R. K. (1985): Numerical Methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, India. Moalem .D.(1976) :Steady state heat transfer with porous medium with temperature dependent heat generation, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, 19, pp. 529-537. Mohamed R.A (2009). Double-Diffusive convection-radiation interaction on unsteady MHD flow over a vertical moving porous plate with heat generation and soret effects. Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 13, pp. 629-651. Muthuraj.R and Srinivas.S (2009): Influence of magnetic field and wall slip conditions on steady flow between parallel flat wall and a long wavy wall with Soret effect. Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Vol 6, No 2 . Na, T.Y. (1979): Computational Methods in Engineering Boundary Value Problems, Academic Press, New York. Nield, D. A., and Bejan, A. (1998): Convection in Porous Media, 2nd. Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Paresh Vyas and Ashutosh Ranjan (2010): Discussed the Dissipative MHD Boundary- Layer Flow in a Porous Medium over a Sheet Stretching Nonlinearly in the Presence of Radiation, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 63, pp. 3133 - 3142 Raptis, A. and Singh, A. K. (1985): Free convection flow past an impulsively started vertical plate in a porous medium by finite difference method, Astrophysics. Space Sci., Vol. 112, pp. 259-265. Sakiadis, B. C. (1961): Boundary-Layer Behavior on Continuous Solid Surfaces, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 26–28. Salem A.M and Abd El-Aziz M (2008). Effect of Hall currents and chemical reaction on hydromagnetic fos of a stretching vertical surface with internal heat generation/absorption. Applied Mathematical Modeling, Vol. 32, pp. 1236-1254. Salem, A. M. (2006): Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Darcy-Forchheimer Mixed Convection from a Vertical Flat Plate Embedded in a Fluid Saturated Porous Medium under the Effects of Radiation and Viscous Dissipation, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp.109-113. Seedeek M.A., Darwish A.A and Abdelmeguid M.S (2007). Effects of chemical reaction and variable viscosity on hydromagnetic mixed convection heat and mass transfer for Hiemenz flow through porous media with radiation, Commun Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simulate., Vol. 15, pp. 195-213. Seethamahalakshmi, G.V.Ramana Reddy and B. D. C. N Prasad (2012), Effects of the chemical reaction and radiation absorption on an unsteady MHD convective heat and mass transfer flow past a semi-infinite vertical moving in a porous medium with heat source and suction, IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 028-036. Sonth R.M, Khan S.K, Abel M.S and Prasad K.V (2002) Heat and mass transfer in a viscoelastic fluid over an accelerating surface with heat source/sink and viscous dissipation, Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 38, pp.213-220.Soundalgekar, V. M. (1974): Stokes Problem for Elastic– Viscous Fluid, Rheol. Acta, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 177–179. Tania, S. K. and Samad, M.A. (2010) Effects of radiation, heat generation and viscous dissipation on MHD free convection flow along a stretching sheet. Research J of Appl Sci, Eng and Tech 2(4), pp. 368-377. Tsou, F. K., Sparrow, E. M. and Goldstein, R. J. (1967): Flow and Heat Transfer in the Boundary Layer on a Continuous Moving Surface, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 10, pp. 219–235. Vajrevelu. K., J. Nayfeh (1992): Hydro magnetic convection at a cone and a wedge, Int. Comm. Heat Mass Transfer, 19 ,pp. 701–710.

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Mechanical Characterization of Banana/Sisal Fibre Reinforced PLA Hybrid Composites for Structural Application Ravi Ranjan, P K Bajpai, & R K Tyagi Amity University, Noida, U.P, India

ABSTRACT Advanced technology emergence in the field of petrochemical-based polymers has brought many benefits to mankind. It is validating that the ecosystem is considerably disturbed and damaged as a result of the nondegradable plastic materials used for disposable items. This paper relates the use of hybrid bio-composites, which is eco-friendly and easily degradable. Previous literature related to hybrid bio-composites proves its eco-friendly and excellent degradable properties. In this paper, banana and sisal fibers were selected to execute the hybrid bio-composite preparation with poly lactic as its matrix. Specimens were made with and without fibre treatment and their mechanical properties like tensile, flexural and impact were evaluated as per the standard test procedures. The test results obtained evident that the treated fibers having the best mechanical properties than pure PLA and untreated fibre bio-composites. The chemical treatment also improved fiber matrix interaction by removal of lignin and hemicellulose, which led to the better incorporation of fiber with the matrix. The SEM micrographs of untreated banana/sisal fibre reinforced PLA bio-composites and treated banana/sisal fibre reinforced PLA bio-composites clearly indicated the extent of the fiber-matrix interface adhesion.

INTRODUCTION The worldwide automotive production rate is increasing and estimated to reach 76 million cars annually by 2020. Limited petroleum resources will increase petroleum-based productsâ€&#x; prices in the near future. It is estimated that a 25% reduction in car weight would be equivalent to saving 250 million barrels of crude oil. Composite has emerged as the solution of attaining high strength to weight ratio. Advanced technology in the field of petrochemical-based polymers has brought many benefits to mankind. It is becoming more evident that the ecosystem is considerably disturbed and damaged as a result of the non-degradable plastic materials for disposable items [1]. There is a growing urgency to convert agricultural by products and surpluses of the crops into new, profitable products [2-7]. The need to develop technology allied with environmental preservation has created a renewed interest in the scientific world to study the viability of using natural fibres as reinforcement agents in biopolymer matrices. Such fibre based composites normally show

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good mechanical properties and reduce the dependence on materials obtained from non renewable source (fossil-based), leading to both economic and environmental benefits. The advantages of natural fibres over synthetic or manmade fibres such as glass or carbon are low cost, low density, acceptable specific strength properties, ease of separation, carbon dioxide sequestration and biodegradability [8-13]. Natural fibres may be obtained either from plants or animals. Plant based fibres such as hemp, kenaf, flax; bamboo and sisal have gained many commercial successes in automotive applications [14-16]. Further research on the feasibility study to assess the potential application of natural fibres as reinforcing sheet moulding compounding materials for the use in building applications is also gaining much commercial interest [17]. Fibres obtained from animal sources like silk [18] and wool [19] are also used as reinforcing agents. A study by Sim et al. [20], on the dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of red algae fibre reinforced PLA, bio-composite show improved mechanical strength with increasing fibre loading [8]. Biodegradable polymers like PLA, cellulose esters, poly-hydoxy-alkaoates (PHA) and starch polymers can be reinforced with these bio based fibres to produce environmentally beneficial „„green composites‟‟ [21]. PLA is a natural resourced thermoplastic polymer which can be produced with a capacity of over 140,000 tonnes per year [22]. Increased availability of PLA and the competing petroleum costs are the key driving factors for the polymer scientists to produce novel PLA based biocomposites that can compete with petroleum based plastics available in the market. Biodegradable polymers, such as poly lactic acid (PLA), have been the subject of many studies over the past decade because of the increasing need to reduce petroleum-based plastic pollution [23, 24]. PLA is obtained from fermented corn, has attracted considerable interest in recent years because it is being produced commercially on a large scale at a reasonable price. PLA has been used for many years in biomedical applications, such as sutures, pins, scaffolds, and drug delivery devices. In addition, PLA is used in a variety of fields, and has found applications in fast food service ware, mulch films, and grocery and composting bags, trays, and bottles. Natural fibers as reinforcements to PLA have advantages, such as low cost, renewability, biodegradability, low specific gravity, abundance, high specific strength, and non-abrasiveness [25]. Therefore, bio-composites reinforced with natural fibers appear to be an alternative material to glass fiber-reinforced plastics in some technical applications. Recently, natural fiber-reinforced bio-composites have been used as automotive parts on account of their good mechanical properties and light weight. PLA is a useful material for processing car interior parts owing to its good strength and easy processability. However, it needs further development for most practical applications due to problems, such as low thermal stability and brittle characteristic [26]. The addition of fibers or filler materials has been suggested as a means of improving the thermal and mechanical properties of PLA [23, 24, 27, 28]. In addition, the bonding between the added fiber and PLA matrix was stronger by maleated polylatide (MAPLA) [29]. Flax, jute and hemp are used in the thermoplastic matrix composite panels for internal structures in the automotive industry [30]. Hemp is used to prepare sheet moulding compounds for building applications [17]. The main drawback in using natural fibers is their hydrophilic nature, thereby causing difficulties in adhesion with the hydrophobic polymer matrix [31-33]. Several investigators have studied the fibre-surface treatment methods to improve the fiber matrix adhesion characteristics [6 , 34-36]. Bledzki et al. [3] depicted a two step process extrusion followed by injection moulding to prepare fibre reinforced PLA based compos-ites. This approach is similar to the former studies as

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conducted by Gatenholm and Mathiasson et al. [37, 38] when they tried to study the influence of the processing parameters on and fibrous reinforcement of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhyroxyvalerate (PHBV). Bledzki et al. [4] compounded together PLA with endless fibres through a coating die and cooled to ambient temperature using a twin screw extruder, which was followed by injection moulding to prepare the final composite. Improved mechanical properties with a two step extrusion process were reported in comparison to agglomeration of the compound with twin-rotary mixer, as performed by Shibata et al. [39]. A two step extrusion process facilitates in good dispersion of fibres in the matrix and thereby improves its mechanical properties. Oksman et al. [40] studied the reinforcement of PLA with flax fibre content of 30–40 wt%. The studied composite materials were manufactured with a twin-screw extruder and then compression moulded to test samples. The objective of the study was to test the processing and the material properties and compare it with more commonly used polypropylene flax fibre composites. It was found that addition of flax to the PLA matrix improved the mechanical properties; however there was no further improvement on addition of more loading of fibre possibly due to the same processing condition and fibre orientation. Very recently, van den Oever et al. [41] studied the effect of water content in undried and dried natural fibres. The fibres evaluated were ramie, flax and cotton, containing 6-9 percentages of moisture mass in the undried state and 0.2-0.4 % mass in the dried state.

MATERIALS AND METHOD Two types of fibre used in this work. 1. Sisal fibers are made from sisal plant leaves. The shape of sisal leaves is like sword and is about 1.5 to 2 meters tall. Sisal fibers are smooth, straight and yellow in colour. Sisal is fairly coarse and inflexible, so the sisal fibre can be long or short. 2. The banana or abaca fiber, which is from the banana plant. It is durable and resistant to sea water. Abaca, the strongest of the commercially available cellulose fibres, is indigenous to the Philippines and is currently produced in that country and in Ecuador. Availability of banana fiber is plenty in india. Untreated sisal and banana fibers are shown in figure 1.

Figure 1 Untreated Sisal fibre & Banana fibre

FIBER CLEANING AND ALKALI TREATMENTS Banana and Sisal fibers were cut into an approximate length of 20 cm then soaked separately in water for a week. After that, the fibers were washed with water in order to remove small barks and dirt. The fibers were dried in an oven at 60ºC overnight, and then the fibers were carded to separate as fiber filaments. After that, the fibers were cleaned with 2 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 2 hrs to eliminate hemicelluloses. The fibers were washed with water several times and dried in an oven at 60ºC overnight. These fibers were called “cleaned fibers (CL)”.

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Treating fibres with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at elevated temperatures, results in the removal and degradation of hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin and waxes. The removal of these materials allows the reactive hydroxyl (OH) groups on cellulose to be exposed, allowing effective bonding between matrix and fibre or coupling agent. This debonding also allows fibrils to be released from their fibre bundles, increasing the surface area for interfacial bonding with the matrix material. The Banana and sisal fiber was then washed several times with water containing acetic acid. Finally, the Banana and sisal fiber was washed again with distilled water and oven dried at 70℃ until it completely dried and reached constant weight. Treated chopped sisal and banana fibers are shown in figure 2.

Figure 2 Treated chopped Sisal and Banana fibres

MANUFACTURE OF BIO COMPOSITES Composites were produced by compounding chopped fibres and PLA pellets in a twinscrew extruder, and the extruded composites were then granulated for the injection moulding for the material preparation. The injection moulder melts pre-formed short fibre reinforced composite granules in a screw driven barrel, sending composite melt to the machine nozzle. It then injects a measured amount of melt into the mould. The mould unit, which has two sections, a moving and a stationary section, encapsulates the injected composite within its form in which is cooled, creating a final component. The resulting specimens were put into an oven and were annealed at different temperatures for varying time periods. The resulting composite specimens were analysed to evaluate various physical attributes, such as strength, Youngâ€&#x;s modulus, crystalline and thermal stability. The schematic fabrication process for biocomposite is shown in figure 3.

Figure 3 Composite parts preparation Tensile Testing Instron universal testing machine (UTM, model 5565) with a load cell of 5 kN, a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min, and a gauge length of 80 mm was used to evaluate tensile and flexural properties. The ASTM standard test method for tensile properties of fiber resin composites has the designation D 638. The tensile test specimens are shown in figure 4.

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Figure 4. Tensile test specimens Flexural Testing The three-point bend flexural test was conducted in accordance with ASTM D 790 method. For flexural analysis the specimens of dimension 125 mmĂ— 10 mm Ă— 5 mm were used (figure 5). Span length was fixed at 50 mm and the test was conducted at the constant strain rate of 2.54 mm/min. The flexural stress was applied till the failure of the sample and load-deflection curve was obtained.

Figure 5. Specimens for three points bend test. Impact strength In this work Charpy impact test was used to measure the impact strength. All test samples were notched. Low velocity instrumented impact tests are carried out on composite specimens. The tests are done as per ASTM D 256 using an impact tester. For each plate corresponding to a given volume fraction, 10 specimens were machined with a 2.54 mm deep notch, angle of 45o and a tip radius of 0.25 mm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) A lower magnification with the optical microscope does not reveal the fine scale microstructure. Scanning electron microscopy was required to observe the fine microstructure of the tensile, flexural and impact fracture morphology of the composite samples Gold-coating of the fractured specimens was done with asputter coater (S150B) in argon gas and at 3 m bar.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of treatment on composites properties The mechanical properties of natural fibers vary considerably depending on the chemical and structural composition, fiber type and growth conditions. The mechanical properties of composites are influenced mainly by the adhesion between the matrix and fibers.This can be explained due to the presence of chemical treatment and modification which provided a stronger adhesion between fibers and matrix these results agree well with it. It is observed in treated composites which indicated stronger adhesion between natural fibers and (matrix, banana fibers) resulted higher tensile strength than untreated composite. Bio-composite materials with good strength properties can be produced when the fiber is uniformly dispersed and distributed in the matrix. Interaction and adhesion between the PLA and the banana/sisal fiber can be improved by the addition of a

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plasticizer, which softens the PLA matrix. The morphology of the fractured surfaces from tensile testing was also examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Effect of Fiber Treatment (NaOH ) on Tensile properties The results for tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength of pure PLA, untreated bunana/sisal hybrid composites are shown in figure 6, 7 and 8 respectively. Based on the readings found out from the table-1, table-2 and table-3, Treated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites (NaOH) showed the cleanest fiber surface which has improved the interfacial bonding by providing additional sites of mechanical interlocking, which promotes more resin/fiber interpenetration at the surface. The alkaline treatment also improves the fiber surface adhesion characteristics by removing natural and artificial impurities, thereby producing a rough surface topography. It has been reported that alkali treatment leads to fiber fibrillation, breaking down of fiber bundles into smaller fibers, which increases the effective surface area available for contact with the matrix. The value of tensile modulus increased after the fiber was treated with NaOH concentration. It is clear that the modulus of a well-bonded composite arises from the fact that the load transfer between the fiber and matrix occurs through the strong fiber/matrix interface. The tensile modulus of the chemically treated composites exhibits higher modulus values than untreated composite. It can be seen that this is due to the presence of a strong interface between the treated fiber and matrix.

Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa)

Ultimate Tensile Strength of Test Specimen Pure PLA

60 40

Untreated Banana Sisal Composites

20

Treated Banana Sisal Composites

0 0

2

4

6

Sample

Figure 6 Tensile strength of the developed hybrid composites Effect Of NaOH treatment on flexural and impact properties Based on the readings found out from the table-1, table-2 and table-3, Treated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites (NaOH) showed that The alkali treatment can cause an increase of the fibre surface free energy. The adsorption of the PLA resin on the banana/sisal fibre surface increases, which is a prerequisite condition for creating the interphases. Moreover, the alkali treatment can make the fibre surface become „cleanâ€&#x; due to removal of waxes, hemicelluloses, pectin and part of lignin. The removal of these substances enhances the surface roughness. Therefore, the mechanical interlocking at the interface could be improved. An inter phase can be formed in composites with thermoplastic PLA matrix due to preferential adsorption of resin components onto the surface of the fibres, resulting in a gradient of cure and mechanical properties .The fibre surface treatment before introducing the matrix material can modify the interphase region and alter the adhesion between the fibre and the matrix. Flexural strength and flexural modulus was observed, more in Treated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites (NaOH) compare to well with untreated composites.

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Flexural Strength (MPa)

Flexural Strength of Test Specimen 80 60

Pure PLA

40 Untreated Banana Sisal Composites

20 0 0

2

4

6

Treated Banana Sisal Composites

Sample Figure 7 Flexural strength of the developed hybrid composites It is clear that the scatter on the measured values of the impact strength of the in Treated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites (NaOH) is quite. The impact resistance of fibre composites is highly influenced by the interfacial bond strength.

Impact Strength (KJ/M2)

Impact Strength of Test specimen 100 80

Pure PLA

60 40

Untreated Banana Sisal Composites

20 0 0

2

4

6

Treated Banana Sisal Composites

Sample Figure 8 Impact of the developed hybrid composites

Figure 9 SEM image of untreated banana/sisal hybrid composite Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides an excellent technique for examination of surface morphology of fibers and fracture surfaces of fiber composites. The SEM Micrograph of the surface of untreated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites. Figure.9 shows

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that there was no interfacial adhesion between fibre and matrix which was found in untreated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites Figure.10 shows the fracture surface of the untreated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites with 30wt% of fiber content. It is possible to see from the microscopy picture that there are many fibers pulled out.

Figure.10 Fibre Pull out and Fibre matrix adhesion Besides, the fiber surfaces are shown clean which indicated poor adhesion between the fibers and the PLA matrix. Figure 14 shows that there was good interfacial adhesion between fibre and matrix which was found in treated banana/sisal reinforced PLA composites there by strength of composites will increase.

CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that banana/sisal fibre reinforced PLA biocomposites with good mechanical properties could be developed using banana/sisal fiber as a reinforce, and PLA as a matrix. The results of the study revealed that  Sodium hydroxide fibre treatment improves the compatibility between the PLA matrix and banana/sisal fibre.  The tensile strength properties of the treated banana/sisal fibre reinforced PLA biocomposites materials were significantly higher than those of untreated banana/sisal fibre reinforced PLA biocomposites.  It is believed that the fibre treatment improved the interfacial interaction, thus resulting in good strength and stiffness of the biocomposites materials.  The SEM micrographs of untreated banana/sisal fibre reinforced PLA biocomposites and treated banana/sisal fibre reinforced PLA biocomposites clearly indicated the extent of the fiber-matrix interface adhesion.  It has been noticed that the mechanical properties of the banana and sisal fiber composites such tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength etc. of the composites are also greatly influenced by the fibre treatments.  The fracture surfaces study of banana and sisal fiber reinforced PLA composite after the tensile test, flexural test and impact test has been done. From this study it has been concluded that the poor interfacial bonding is responsible for low mechanical properties.  Thus we conclude that the systematic and persistent research in the future will increase the scope and better future for banana and sisal fiber reinforced PLA composite.  The alkaline treatment of fiber gave the better tensile strength and flexural strength of the composite.  The chemical treatment also improved fiber matrix interaction by removal of lignin and hemicellulose, which led to the better incorporation of fiber with the matrix.  The Construction Material Subcategory includes product applications containing biobased adhesives, such as plywood and finger jointed lumber; oriented strand board, medium density fiberboard, and hardboard; engineered wood building

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 

components, e.g., laminated beams, trusses, finger jointed lumber, oriented strand lumber; moldings and trim; and decorative composites. Construction products include round wood; lumber; composites; and plastic-wood composite lumber and panels such as plywood, oriented strand board, medium density fiberboard, and hardboard that contain agricultural or wood-based materials. Bio-composite components can be shaped to have high geometric stiffness to meet deflection limits while minimizing material use. Recent work has shown that the properties of hybrid natural/glass composites with only ~6 wt.% glass fiber loading have been found to be an effective way to improve mechanical properties and dimensional stability (moisture, temperature, etc.) of the composite.

SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK There is a very wide scope for future scholars to explore this area of research. The possibility of improving the outdoor properties of natural fiber-reinforced composites should be studied. Although many authors have done several pre-treatment of natural fibers in order to improve the interfacial adhesion between the fiber and the matrix, thus improving the mechanical properties of the resulting composite, quite a few studies have been done on how to specifically reduce the water absorption in natural fiber-reinforced composites.

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Lu Y, Weng L, Cao X. Carbohydrate Polymers.2006; 63, 198-204. Barbosa V, Ramires EC, Razera IAT, Frollini E. Indust Crops Prod. 2010; 32-305. Bledzki AK, Jaszkiewicz A. Comp Sci Technol. 2010; 70-1687. Bledzki AK, Jaszkiewicz A, Scherzer D. Compos Part A. 2009; 40-404. Brahmakumar M, Pavithran C, Pillai RM. Compos SciTech. 2005; 65-563. Chattopadhyay SK, Khandal RK, Uppaluri R, Ghoshal AK. J Appl Polym Sci. 2010; 3-119. Krishnaprasad R, Veena NR, Maria HJ, Rajan R, Skrifvars M, Joseph K. J Polym Environ. 2009; 17-109. Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT. J Polym Environ. 2002; 10-19. Bajpai PK, Singh I, Madaan J, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 2012, 31, 1712-1724. Bajpai PK, Singh I, Madaan J, Materials and Design, 2012, 35, 596-602. Singh I, Bajpai PK, Malik D, Madaan J, Bhatnagar N, Advanced Materials Research, 2012, 410, 102-105. Bajpai PK, Singh I, Madaan J, Journal of Natural Fibers, 2013, 10, 244-256. Bajpai PK, Singh I, Madaan J, International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation, 2012, 3, 247-258. Summersclales J, Dissanayake NPJ, Virk AS, Hall W. Part1-Compos Part A. 2010; 41-1329. Summerscales J, Dissanayake N, Virk A, Hall W. Part2-Compos Part A. 2010; 41-1336. Holbery J, Houston D. J Miner Metal Mater Soc. 2006; 58-80. Hapuarachchi TD, Ren G, Fan M, Hogg PJ, Pejis T. App Compos Mater. 2007; 14-251. Scheibel T. 2004; http://www.microbialcellfactories.com/content/3/1/14. Blicblau AS, Coutta RSP, Sims A. J Mater Sci Letter. 1997; 16-1417. Sim KJ, Han SO, Seo YB. Macromol Res, 2010; 18-5. Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT, Selke SE, Hinrichsen G. Macromol Mater Eng. 2000; 276-1. Shen L, Worrell E, Patel M. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref. 2009; 4-25. Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT. J Polym Environ. 2002; 10:19-26. Huda MS, Drzal LT, Misra M, Mohanty AK, J Appl Polym Sci.2006;102: 4856-69. Czarnecki L, White JL. J Appl Polym Sci. 1980;25:1217-44. Huda MS, Drzal LT, Mohanty AK, Misra M. Com-pos Sci Technol. 2006; 66:1813-24.

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[27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41]

Huda MS, Mohanty AK, Drzal LT, Schut E, Misra M. J Mater Sci. 2005; 40:4221-9. Chow W, Lok S. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009; 95:627-32. Plackett D. J Polym Environ. 2004; 12: 131-8. Brahim SB, Cheikh RB. Compos Sci Technol. 2007; 67-140. Arib RMN, Sapuan SM, Hamdan MAMM, Paridah MT, Zaman HMDK. Polym Polym Compos. 2004; 12-341. Mohanty S, Varma SK, Nayak SK. Compos Sci Technol. 2006; 66-538. Wang W, Sain M, Cooper PA. Polym Degrad Stab. 2005; 90:540-545. Jiang L, Chen F, Qian J, Huang J, Wolcott M, Liu L, Zhang J. Indust Eng Chem Res. 2010; 49-572. Rao KMM, Prasad AVR, Babu MNVR, Rao KM, Gupta AV. J Mater Sci. 2007; 42-3266. Lee SH, Wang S. Appl Sci Manufact . 2006; 37(1):80-91. Gatenholm P, Kubat J, Mathiasson A. J Appl Polym Sci. 1992; 45-1667. Gatenholm P, Mathiasson A. J Appl Polym Sci. 1994; 51-1231. Shibata M, Ozawa K, Teramoto N, Yosomiya R, Takeishi H. Macromol Mater Eng. 2003; 288-35. Oksman K, Skrifvarsb M, Selinc JF. Compos Sci Technol. 2003; 63-1317. Van den Oever MJA, Beck B, Mussig J. Compos A. 2010; 41-1628.

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The Relationship between Technological Factors and Inter-Organizational Information Systems Adoption by Universities in Kenya Dr. Stephen Waithaka Titus1; Dr. Tom Kimani Mburu2; Dr. Julius Korir3; & Dr. Stephen Muathe4 1

Lecturer, Communication and Information Technology Department, Kenyatta University, Kenya Manager, Training and Programs, Africa Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi, Kenya 3 Lecturer, Economics Department, Kenyatta University, Kenya 4 Lecturer, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya 2

ABSTRACT Kenya government, in collaboration with other stakeholders involved in enhancing teaching and research in the learning institutions have constructed a terrestrial fiber-optic network that connects most institutions of higher learning to enable them integrate their facilities for the purpose of sharing resources. Despite these efforts, adoption of Inter-Organization Information Systems (IOIS) by universities in Kenya is far from being realized. This creates the need of finding out the relationship between the IOIS technological factors and the IOIS adoption. This study filled this gap by analyzing IOIS technological determinants of IOIS adopting in the universities in Kenya, given the mixed results from empirical evidence on IOIS adoption generally. A logit regression procedure was used to analyze the collected data. Two factors were found to hinder the IOIS adoption, while one factor was found to motivate IOIS adoption. Keywords: IOIS adoption, Technological factors, Universities in Kenya

1 INTRODUCTION Inter-organizational information systems (IOISs) are internet based information systems that electronically link organizations together to automate information flows between them Bakos (1991) and they include such technologies as electronic data interchange (EDI), Web-based EDI and Internet-based supply chain management systems, among others. In Kenya, Inter-Organization Information system (IOIS) is mainly used in electronic commerce (Magutu et al., 2011) and in supply chain management though at low levels. By electronically linking organizations together, IOIS enables them to exchange business information, which makes them gain competitive advantage by increasing their bargaining power, and by raising the switching costs of trading partners (Johnston and Vitale, 1988). It also enhances organizational quality and timeliness of information (Silverman, 1990), improves efficiency (Kaefer and Bendoly, 2000) and enables entire supply chains to reduce wasteful inventories by reacting more effectively to customer demand and jointly planning product introductions and promotions (Soliman and Janz, 2004).

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2 LITERATURE REVIEW The IOISs has also been used to link pharmaceutical wholesalers and pharmacies in the Republic of Ireland and Australia, respectively, to create efficiency in ordering and delivery processes between the wholesalers and pharmacies (Bekking, 2004). In Kenya, IOIS is found in the banking industry, where the IOIS allows internet banking to take place (Gikandi and Bloor, 2012), mobile banking service (Nyangosi and Arora, 2009) and in electronic commerce (Magutu et al., 2011). By electronically linking organizations together, IOIS enables them to exchange business information, which makes them gain competitive advantage by increasing their bargaining power, and by raising the switching costs of trading partners (Johnston and Vitale, 1988). It also enhances organizational quality and timeliness of information and improves efficiency (Kaefer and Bendoly, 2000) and it also enables entire supply chains to reduce wasteful inventories by reacting more effectively to customer demand and jointly planning product introductions and promotions (Soliman and Janz, 2004). From a customerâ€&#x;s perspective, the IOIS enables organizations to be more responsive to customerâ€&#x;s orders, which improves the relationship with its business partners. From a broad view, the IOIS benefits are categorized into operational, managerial and strategic benefits (Rahim and Kurnia, 2004). Differing IOIS benefits are realized depending on the way the IOIS technology has been implemented in an organization. Operational benefits are directly influenced by IOIS integration with back-end systems and IOIS transactions ratio. Managerial benefits are influenced by strong cooperation from the business partners, and strategic benefits are realized when appropriate changes in relevant business processes are introduced in conjunction with IOIS adoption (Rahim and Kurnia, 2004). However, for an organization to realize these benefits, a strong support from the senior management in the adopting organization is required because they must allocate necessary resources, facilitate integration process changes and take the initiative to secure cooperation from the trading partners with which to establish electronic relationships. The need for IOIS adoption cannot be over-emphasized, since business competition has shifted from the simple firm to firm model, to competition between extended supply chain networks that are achieved by IOIS implementation. In reference to the institutions of higher learning, the Kenya Government has recognized the contribution of ICTs in the social and economic development of the nation. As a result, an ICT policy was developed to provide affordable infrastructure to facilitate dissemination of knowledge and skill through e-learning platforms in order to create the awareness of the opportunities offered by ICT as an educational tool in the education sector, through the sharing of e-learning resources between institutions (Republic of Kenya, 2006). Electronically linking universities together or with other organizations through the IOIS enables the universities to share electronic services such as e-learning, e-library, e-research and other electronic services (eservices). In the twenty first century education system that is ever changing with changes in technologies used to deliver the teaching materials, the need for IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya is exacerbated by the fact that university students are now increasingly demanding for advanced methods of information acquisition, manipulation and application, and they show active preference for universities with greater access to Information System (IS) based resources (Adogbji and Akporhonor, 2005). Hence, universities that adopt the IOIS gain competitive advantages over the non-adopters. 2.1 Research motivation Several studies conducted in the past to establish the technological factors influencing the adoption of IOIS have focused on developed countries, with limited studies being done for developing countries. The findings of these studies do not have a common agreement on

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factors influencing IOIS adoption in organizations (Almaxighi, 2009). Little research has been done to establish the technological factors that determinants IOIS adoption in Kenya (for example, see Gikandi and Bloor, 2010; Macharia and Nyakwende, 2010; Magutu et al., 2011). In the institutions of higher learning, the use of internet based systems such as the IOIS are still in their early stages in developing countries like Kenya, and many issues regarding their adoption have not been fully addressed (Macharia and Nyakwende, 2010). Kashorda, Waema, Omosa and Kyalo (2006) found out that higher education institutions were not yet ready to effectively use Information and Communication Technology (which is the underlying infrastructure of the IOIS) in teaching, research and management of these institutions, and the factors that influence these institutions to embrace the ICT and its related innovations are not yet established. The government of Kenya is conscious of the benefits that can be realized through IOIS adoption in institutions of higher learning (mainly the universities), and as such, has developed an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy that would help to establish networks for sharing training resources and developing strategies to support research and innovation in Kenya (Republic of Kenya, 2006). The implementation of this policy can be achieved through the adoption of the IOIS in the institutions of higher learning in Kenya. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between technological factors and IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya. 2.2 Research Hypothesis This study collected and analyzed data to test the following research hypotheses:

HO1 : Availability of Internet factors had no relationship with IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya. HO2 : Security of information sent over the IOIS link factors had no relationship with IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya.

HO 3 : Complexity of IOIS technology factor had no relationship with IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya. HO 4 : Perceived cost of IOIS factor had no relationship with IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya. 2.3 Research Framework Figure 1 presents the research framework examined in this study, which represents an integration of the four independent variable that are hypothesized to influence the adoption of the IOIS, which is the dependent variable.

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3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study used a combination of cross-sectional descriptive survey and explanatory research design. A descriptive research gives a thorough and accurate description survey by determining the “how” or “why” the phenomena came into being, and also what is involved in the situation. This is achieved by portraying an accurate profile of the events and situations (Robson, 2002), which Sunders et al. (2007) considered as an extension of, or forerunner to an explanatory research. On the other hand, an explanatory study goes beyond description and attempts to explain the reasons for the phenomena that the descriptive study only observed (Cooper and Schindler, 2003) by seeking to establish a casual relationship between variables (Sunders et al., 2007). Therefore, a descriptive study would look at what is going on, while an explanatory study seeks to explain why it is going on (Sekaran, 2003). The researcher uses theories or hypothesis to account for the forces that caused a certain phenomenon to occur (Cooper and Schindler, 2003). A cross-sectional study seeks to measure the relationship of variables at a specified time, either to describe the incidence of a phenomenon or how variables are related (Sunders et al., 2007. The population of interest (universities in Kenya) was thoroughly investigated in their places of operation so as to freely give more information without the manipulation of unfamiliar environments in order to understand the factors that influence IOIS adoption in these institutions of higher learning. 3.1 Theoretical Framework of the Model The factors influencing the adoption of IOIS in this study were determined using the logistic model, also known as logit model. The model calls for the analysis and prediction of a dichotomous outcome. Traditionally, this could have been addressed by either ordinary least squares (OLS) regression or linear discriminant function analysis. However, both techniques were found to pose challenges in handling dichotomous outcome due to their strict statistical assumptions such as linearity, normality and continuity for OLS regression, and multivariate normality with equal variances and covariances for discriminant analysis (Cabrera, 1994; Lei and Koehly, 2000). An alternative model that could have been used was the linear probability model or the probit model. However, the logit model was used in this study since it is easier to use. 3.2 Model specification The logit model used in this study is specified as follws:

 P  ln  i   Z  XB  u   0  1 X i1   2 X i 2  ...   k X ik  ui 1  Pi  Where:

X i1... X ik i

are the explanatory variables β1 – βk are the coefficients from the log of the odds ratio function. μ = a vector of random terms 3.3 Definition and Measurement of Variables The independent variables stipulated in the empirical model are categorized into organization factors, inter-organization factors, technological factors, environmental factors, perceived benefits factors and perceived cost factors. They are operationalized and hypothesized to influence IOIS adoption positively, negatively or indefinite as depicted in Table 3.1.

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Table 1.1: Operationalization and Measurement of Variables and Hypothesis

The study was conducted on universities in Kenya that are established under the Kenya Government universitiesâ€&#x; Act of Parliament 5 of 1985 (Republic of Kenya, 2010), and accredited by the Commission of University Education in Kenya. This included: public universities; constituent colleges of public universities that were established in 2007 by a Legal Order under the Act of the universities; chartered private universities that have been fully accredited by Commission for University Education in Kenya; constituent colleges of private universities; universities with Letters of Interim Authority from the Commission for University Education in Kenya to offer degree level of education while receiving guidance and direction from the Commission for University Education in order

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to prepare them for the award of Charter; and registered private universities that were offering university level education before the establishment of the Commission for University Education in 1985 and were issued with Certificates of Registration in 1989 by the Commission for University Education in Kenya. 3.4 Target Population and Study Area The target population for this study was the universities Kenya. A list of the universities in Kenya was prepared as shown in Appendix D. The universities in Kenya were selected since they are known to have established links between themselves and the commercial banks to create an efficient procedure of fee payment by the students to the universities bank accounts, and the fee information is relayed electronically to the universities databases. Another factor that made the universities in Kenya to be considered in this study was due to the fact that Kenya Education Network (KENET) has put efforts to construct a terrestrial fiber-optic network that connects most institutions of higher learning, allowing them to integrate their facilities for the purpose of sharing resources (KENET, 2009). The universities that were considered to have adopted the IOIS are those that have established inter-organizational or inter-departmental IOIS integrated. 3.5 Sampling Technique and Sample Size A census was done on the universities in Kenya. Since there were only 67 universities in Kenya, this number was too small to sample since the logit model estimation requires a minimum sample size of about 50 samples according to Agresti (2007). In addition, a census was considered as being able to allow the researcher to collect data from all the categories of the universities in Kenya. 3.6 Data Collection Instruments The study made use of both the primary and secondary data. The secondary data was collected by conducting a detailed review of various literatures such as strategic plan, research and training plans and reports of the various universities. This was expected to reveal factors that influence IOIS adoption in these institutions. Primary data was collected by use of semi-structured questionnaire as used by Ssewanyana and Busler (2007). The use of semi-structured questionnaire was deemed necessary to enable the researcher to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured questionnaire and interviews were administered to the ICT managers of each university. 3.7 Reliability Tests In this study, Cronbachâ€&#x;s Alpha, which is a reliability test that indicates how well items in a set are positively correlated to one another, was used to measure internal consistency. As stated by Straub (1989), high correlations between alternative measures or large Cronbachâ€&#x;s Alphas are usually signs that the measures are reliable. Cronbachâ€&#x;s Alpha was computed in terms of the average interconnections among the items measuring the concept, and the closer the measure was to 1, the higher the internal consistency reliability (Independent variables on the dependent variable). Generally, reliabilities of 0.7 and over are considered acceptable as done by Muathe, Wawire and Ofafa (2010). The actual value for Cronbach's alpha realized in this study indicated a high level of internal consistency for the scale used. 3.8 Validity Tests A pilot test was carried out with tertiary institutions to test the data collection instruments before the main survey. This enabled the researcher to check the validity of the data collection instruments and estimate with some accuracy the average completion time. The tertiary institutions in the pilot study were not included in the final sample. To complement the pilot test, this study made use of expert opinion to attest the content

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validity of the instrument (Straub, 1989). The feedback was used to improve the data collection instruments by eliminating any ambiguities and inadequate terms. 3.9 Data Collection Procedure Data was collected over a period of four months. First, the researcher sought permission from Kenyatta University to start the process of collecting data which was granted. Afterwards, the researcher recruited and trained five research assistants to enable quick and timely collection of data. Before commencing data collection, the researcher sought an appointment with the ICT managers of the target organizations under study, after which the research assistants proceeded to self-administer questionnaires to the managers and staff involved in the IOIS transactions in the organizations, under the supervision of the researcher. The researcher administered the interviews to the ICT managers and the staff of the universities. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed to ensure that the data was collected and used accurately. After collecting data, it was edited to check for completeness, consistency and reliability. Afterwards, the data was transferred to the STATA for analysis. 3.10 Data Analysis and Reporting The first step involved coding the responses in the coding sheets by transcribing the data from questionnaire by assigning characters symbols (numerical symbols). This was followed by screening and cleaning of data to make sure there were no errors. Afterwards, data was analyzed based on the objectives of this study. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions, mean and percentages. Open-ended questions was analyzed by first identifying themes or topics such as ideas, concepts, terminologies, behaviors or phrases used, then organize these themes into coherent categories that summarize and bring meaning to the text as suggested by Ratcliff (2002). The binomial logit model was used for empirical analysis, to draw inference about the population.

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Descriptive statistics 4.1.1 Response Rate The overall response rate from both the public and private universities in Kenya is presented in Table 2, before providing analysis based on the research objectives of this study. Table 2: Distribution of respondents in each sampled university Type of Universities Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Public universities 7 10 15 Public universities constituent colleges 19 28 40 Chartered private universities 13 19 28 Registered Private universities 2 3 4 Private universities with letter of 6 9 13 interim authority Total 47 69 100 Missing 21 31 Total 68 100 As presented in Table 2, the percentage of the total number of respondents from the private universities (Chartered private universities, Registered Private universities and Private universities with letter of interim authority) was 39 per cent, which was lower compared to percentage of the total number of respondents from the public universities

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and the public universities constituent colleges, which was 50 per cent. The total response rate was 89 per cent, which compares well with the response rate of 70 per cent recommended by Yun and Trumbo (2008. The response rate depicted in Table 4.1 could be explained by the nature of the sensitivity of the information sought from respondents. 4.1.2 LEVEL OF IOIS ADOPTION BY UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA The level of IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya is summarized in Table 3. Table 3 Level of IOIS adoption in the Level of IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya IOIS Frequency Percentage Valid Percentage Adopted 8 11 17 Not adopted 39 58 83 47 69 100 Total Missing 21 31 68 100 Total It can be observed from Table 3, that 83 % of the respondent indicated that their universities had not adopted the IOIS, while 17% had adopted. This shows that the IOIS adoption is low in the universities in Kenya, as justified in the reviewed literature. This finding supports Kashorda and Waema (2009) study, which found that universities in Kenya are still at low levels of network access. 4.1.3 IOIS TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS The third objective of this study was to investigate the influence of IOIS technological attributes on IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya. Among the technological factors that were considered included: technological support infrastructure necessary for IOIS adoption; security of information sent over the IOIS link; and complexity of the IOIS technology. 4.1.4 Technological Support Infrastructure Necessary for IOIS Adoption Technological support infrastructure necessary for IOIS adoption, mainly the availability of internet connection that is used to link the organization in an IOIS cluster, is an integral factor that is expected to influence IOIS adoption in an organization. Table 4 summarizes perception of the respondents with regard to the availability of internet connection that was reliable and fast to motivate a university to adopt the IOIS.

Whereas 76% of the respondents disagreed that the available internet connection was reliable and fast to motivate their university to adopt IOIS, 20% of the respondents were of the opinion that the availability of internet connection that was reliable and fast motivated their university to adopt the IOIS. This finding explains the fact that availability of internet connection that is reliable and fast is able to motivate an organization to adopt the IOIS. The findings are supported by Kashorda et al. (2006), who found that the state of internet connection and speed in the universities in Kenya was so poor to an extent that 75% of the students considered cyber

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cafĂŠs to provide better speeds than the campus networks. They found that all of the users considered the internet speeds to be frustrating and slowing down their academic work. 4.1.5 Security Guarantee of Information sent over the Internet The entire purpose of adopting IOIS is to transact information between organizations that have established an electronic link between themselves. Given that the IOIS link mainly uses the internet, the main concern is the internet security. The security guarantee of information sent over the internet from unauthorized access, theft or modification is crucial and is expected to motivate an organization to adopt the IOIS. Table 5 summarizes the perception of the respondents in terms of security guarantee of information transmitted over an IOIS link motivating a university to adopt the IOIS. Table 5 Security guarantee of information sent over internet

From Table 5 it can be observed that 72% of the respondents indicated that there was no security guarantee of information sent over the IOIS link, while 13% were in agreement that security guarantee of information sent over the IOIS link motivated them to adopt the IOIS. The findings reveal that the failure of most universities to adopt IOIS was owing to the fear of their confidential information being accessed by unauthorized persons rather than by universities/organizations in the IOIS cluster. These findings are in line with the study of Gikandi and Bloor (2009), who found that internet security concerns was a hindrance to the adoption of electronic banking (a type of IOIS) in the commercial banks in Kenya. Magutu et al. (2011) also found that internet security was a barrier to the adoption of electronic commerce (a type of IOIS) in Kenya. 4.1.6 Perception that the IOIS is Complex The perception that the IOIS technology is complex is likely to hinder an organization from adopting the IOIS. Figure 2 summarizes the perception of the respondents on the complexity of the IOIS.

Figure 2 Perception on the complexity of IOIS technology

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As presented in Figure 2, a total of 57% respondents were of the view that the IOIS technology was complex to understand and use, while 34% were of the contrary opinion. This high percentage of respondents with the perception that the IOIS was complex could possibly explain the low level of IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya. The study contributes towards the existing literature on IOIS technology adoption in Kenya. In particular, the study creates an understanding on the factors influencing IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya. This becomes a source of knowledge for the education institutions and other organizations in Kenya that will intend to adopt IOIS. The results of this study would also enlighten the policy makers in the education sector in Kenya on the possible policies that could be implemented to enhance IOIS adoption in the education sector so that the quality of teaching and research could be improved. Finally, the study will add knowledge to the existing empirical literature in information system, by informing about the factors that influence IOIS adoption in developing countries. 4.1.7 PERCEIVED COST FACTOR The fourth objective of this study was to determine the influence of IOIS perceived cost factor on IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya. The perceived cost factor considered in this study was the overall cost of the facilities necessary for IOIS adoption, which are likely to influence the decision of a university to adopt IOIS. Figure 3 summarizes the perception of the respondents with regard to the overall cost of the facilities that are necessary for IOIS adoption.

Figure 3 Perception of overall cost of IOIS From Figure 4.4, it can be observed that 74% of respondents perceived the overall cost of IOIS to be unaffordable. This could be a part of the of the universities in the study that were found not to have adopted IOIS, On the other hand, 26% of the respondents perceived the overall cost of IOIS to be affordable. These could be universities that were stable financially, such as the large-sized public and private universities, and those with external financial sponsors. The universities that could have perceived IOIS to be unaffordable could have been the small public and more likely the newly accredited private universities by Commission for University Education, which had low student population and lacked the network facilities. This finding is supported by Almazighi (2009), who found that large organizations with stable financial bases were more likely to adopt the IOIS technology.

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4.2 Regression Results The explanatory variables that were considered included internet infrastructure support to adopt IOIS, perceived security of data offered by the IOIS technology, perceived complexity of the IOIS technology and perceived overall cost of the IOIS technology. The results of the logistic regression are presented in Table 6. Table 6: IOIS Adoption Logistic Regression Results

Log Likelihood (LR) test gave a value of 46.21 which was statistically significant at 1% level. This implies that the overall logit model that was estimated was statistically significant, that is, there was a significant relationship between the log of odds ratio and the explanatory variables. From Table 6, the Pseudo R squared of the regression was 0.76, which implies that the included variables explained only 76 per cent of the variations in the adoption of the IOIS among the universities studied. The remaining 24 per cent was explained by other explanatory variables not included in the model. The coefficient of the perceived complexity of the IOIS technology was negative (-5.4103) and significant (p = 0.021). This implied that the adoption of IOIS by the universities in Kenya is inversely related to the complexity of the IOIS technology. This finding is in conformity with the argument of Dykeman (1997) that operations complexity of Internet Bases Information Systems (IBIS) technology are issues of concern that are unique to the environment of conducting electronic commerce (EC) over the Internet and can hamper its adoption. The coefficient of perceived cost of the facilities necessary for IOIS adoption was negative (1.03201) and significant (p = 0.008) this implied that the IOIS adoption was inversely proportional to the perceived cost of the facilities necessary for its adoption. This means that the universities that perceive the cost of the facilities necessary for IOIS adoption to be unaffordable are less likely to adopt the IOIS that the universities that perceive the cost of the facilities necessary for IOIS adoption to be affordable. This contrary to the findings of Rahim et al. (2007) who found out that the cost of IOIS adoption was hindrance to its adoption. The positive (4.17959) and significant (p = 0.019) coefficient of Internet infrastructure was as expected in this study. It means that in the universities where the Internet infrastructure is fast and reliable the likelihood of IOIS adoption is higher than in the universities where the Internet infrastructure is slow and unreliable. These finding are in agreement with the findings of Soliman and Janz (2004) who found out that the Internet is a promising platform that allows technological adoption that allow exchange of information along the business channels, and Vadapalli and Ramamurthy (1997) who found the internet to be a key factor for quick diffusion of technological innovations among organizations. However, Lastly, the coefficient of the perceived security of the IOIS technology did not have the expected positive sign but a negative sign, and it was not significant at 1 per cent, 5 per cent or 10 per cent levels of significance. This could be attributed to the fact that the majority of information transacted between universities are educational in nature, which does not call for serious security address.

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5 CONCLUSION The study found out that there is significant relationship between IOIS adoption and IOIS technological factors. Two technological factors (perceived cost and complexity of IOIS) were found to hinder IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya. However, one factor (availability of Internet infrastructure) was found to motivate IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya, while one factor (perceived security of data sent over the IOIS link) was found not to have any relationship with the IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya. For the country to realize the national economic goals stipulated in Kenya Vision 2030, there is need for the education sector, and mainly the institutions of higher learning such as the universities in Kenya, to provide quality teaching and research as a means of achieving a high standard of education. This can be realized through the adoption of the IOIS by the universities in Kenya. The significance of the current study is that it presents new insights on the relationship between the technological factors and IOIS adoption by universities in Kenya, which can be used by policy makers in the universities in Kenya to suppress the factors that hinder IOIS adoption and emphasize on the factors that motivate IOIS adoption. This would encourage the adoption of IOIS in the universities in Kenya. Since the internet is mainly the media used to link the universities together, the universities in Kenya should, through the Ministry of Information and Communication and other nongovernmental bodies such as Kenya Education Network (KENET) should ensure that universities enjoy a subsidized cost of internet connection that is reliable and fast. This would enable the universities that cannot afford to pay for a high cost of internet connection to have internet connection in their universities. This will consequently enable the universities to adopt the IOIS due to the availability of a reliable and fast internet connection. The universities in Kenya should jointly enforce standards and uniformity on the Information Technology (IT) degree offered in the universities in Kenya to ensure that they are of high quality. This will ensure that the students who graduate with such degrees will have adequate skills and knowledge in IOIS adoption, and will not view it as a complex technology. This is necessary since the complexity of IOIS was found to be significant in hindering the IOIS adoption in the universities in Kenya.

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Adogbji, B., and Akporhonor, A. B. (2005). The Impact of ICTs (internet) on research and studies; The experience of Delta state university students in Abraka Nigeria. Library HiTech News, 1 (10), 17-21. Agresti, A. (1990). Categorical Data Analysis. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 24-32. Alimazighi, Z. and Bouchbou,T K. (2009). A framework for identifying the critical factors affecting the decision to adopt and use inter-organizational information systems. International journal of human and social sciences 4:7 2009, 509-511. Cabrera, A. F. (1994). Logistic regression analysis in higher education: An applied perspective. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, Vol. 10, 225–256. Cooper, D. and Schindler, S. (2003). Business Research Methods, 7 th Edition, Boston, McGraw-Hill. Gikandi J.W. and Bloor C. (2010). Adoption and effectiveness of electronic banking in Kenya. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 9 (2010), 277–282. Johnston, H.R., and Vitale, M.R. (1988). Creating Competitive Advantage with Interorganization Information Systems. MIS Quarterly (12: n), June 1988, 153-165. Kaefer F. and Bendoly E. (2000). The adoption of electronic data interchange. A model and practical tool for managers. Decision Support Systems 30, 23-32.

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