Energy Manager Magazine November 2016

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November 2016


Hydrodynamic Steam Traps





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Heat Recovery on the Rise

ABB chooses EMEX for UK launch of dedicated HVAC drive


November 2016

Hydrodynamic Steam Traps See Page 14 14

November 2016

Hydrodynamic Steam Traps


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Heat Recovery on the Rise

ABB chooses EMEX for UK launch of dedicated HVAC drive



Large heatpumps are the only scalable renewable heating technology capable of becoming zero carbon by 2050


Assured Performance Process


Could energy guzzling transformers be wasting significant amounts of energy on your estate?


Aura Light Extends Lighting Rental Scheme to 7 years to Aid Cash Flow


Ventive C900 – The Inventive Solution to Natural Ventilation


Water deregulation could lead to great savings for business

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Energy Manager Magazine • November 2016


ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE PUBLIC ATTITUDE TRACKER - WAVE 19 Introduction In March 2012 the Department of Energy and Climate Change launched a tracking survey to understand and monitor public attitudes to the Department’s main business priorities. On 14 July 2016, the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) merged with the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), to form the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). As such, the survey is now BEIS’s Energy and Climate Change Public Attitudes Tracker (PAT). The PAT still consists of one annual survey every March and three shorter surveys, in June, September and December, which repeat a subset of questions where we think attitudes might shift with greater regularity or be influenced by seasonal factors. In 2015, the tracker was reviewed to ensure that the dataset would continue to offer valuable insight.

Summary of headline findings This summary provides selected headlines and highlights statistically significant differences between wave 19 and previous waves. It is not an exhaustive overview of the findings. collections/public-attitudes-tracking-survey

Energy bills Worries over paying for energy bills dropped to their lowest level since the tracker began. At wave 19, only 21% were either very or fairly worried about paying for their energy bills. Worries were 4% less than those found at wave 15, which was conducted at the same point last year. At wave 19, the level of worry was at its lowest amongst those with household incomes over £50,000 (5%), aged over 65 (17%), or in social grade AB (16%). Worry was highest amongst private renters (31%), those with household incomes under £16,000 (28%), social renters (28%), and those in social grade DE (28%). The falling level of concern over energy bills has been accompanied by a drop in the proportion who are worried about other household expenses (food and other shopping, transport, and mortgage or rent payments). In particular, only 19% were worried or very worried about transport costs (including petrol and diesel). This is a slight drop from previous waves. At wave

19, only 6% said they were more worried about energy bills than other household expenses.

Energy suppliers and switching Levels of trust in energy suppliers have shown little change from previous waves. Respondents remain likely to trust suppliers to provide a bill which accurately reflects energy use (69%), and to provide a breakdown of the bill (68%), but were slightly less likely to say that suppliers would give customers a fair deal (60%). The proportion of respondents who plan to switch their energy supplier over the next 12 months has remained unchanged at wave 19, at 5%. There has been a small increase in the proportion saying they may switch supplier (from 28% at wave 18 to 31% at wave 19) but there remains no clear trend of change in expected switching levels. Those with household incomes over £50,000 (9%), and those aged between 35-44 (8%), or 25-34 (7%), were most likely to have firm plans to switch their energy supplier. In comparison, those with household incomes between £16,000£24,999 (3%), aged over 55 (4%), under 24 (1%), and in social grade DE (4%) were less likely to have firm plans to switch.

Energy Security The level of concern over steep rises in energy prices in the future remained stable at 65% at wave 19. Concern over power cuts becoming more frequent also remained stable at 40%. Concern over the UK supplies of fossil fuels not being sufficient to meet the UK’s demand for them showed a statistically significant decrease from 60% at wave 17 (when this question was last asked) to 55% at wave 19. The other measures all followed a similar pattern of small but statistically significant decreases in levels of concern, with concern over the UK becoming too dependent on energy from other countries decreasing from 67% to 61%; concern over the UK not investing fast enough in alternative sources of energy decreasing from 66% to 62% and concern over the UK not developing technology to use existing sources of fossil fuels sufficiently decreasing from 58% to 54%. Of those who were concerned about the UK becoming too dependent on energy from other countries, respondents were most likely to be thinking about gas (52%)

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

when answering this question, followed by oil (36%) and electricity (32%). Just over a quarter (26%) had no specific energy sources in mind. The proportion selecting oil as the energy type they were thinking about dropped from 45% at wave 17 (when this question was last asked) to 36% at wave 19. Concern for electricity and gas both increased significantly (from 22% and 48% at wave 17 respectively).

Energy saving and wasting The proportion of people that claim to give a lot of thought to saving energy in the home remained relatively stable at wave 19. Just under a quarter claimed to give a lot of thought to saving energy at home (24%), whilst half claimed to give it a fair amount of thought (50%). The findings at wave 19 were very similar to those at wave 15, which was conducted at the same point of the year in 2015.

Renewable energy Support for renewable energy has been consistently high since the survey began in 2012, at around 75-80%. This pattern has continued at wave 19, with 79% expressing support for the use of renewables. Opposition to renewables was very low at 4%, with only 1% strongly opposed. Support for renewables was particularly high for people with incomes over £50,000 (89%), in social grade AB (85%), or aged 45-54 (84%). Support for renewables was lower amongst those with household incomes under £16,000 (75%), those aged 65+ (71%), or those in social grades DE (71%). Support for specific renewable energy types has also remained consistently high over the course of the tracker, and remained stable at wave 19. Solar had the highest support (82%), followed by off-shore wind and wave and tidal (both 75%).

Nuclear energy Support for the use of nuclear energy has remained fairly stable over the course of the tracker, but showed a statistically significant decrease at wave 19. A third supported nuclear energy (33%) at wave 19, down from 36% at wave 18 and 38% at wave 17. A quarter were opposed to nuclear energy (26%), up from 22% at wave 18. Those with household incomes over

News £50,000 (47%), male (43%), in social grades AB (43%), and aged over 65 (39%) were the most likely to support the use of nuclear energy. Four in ten (41%) selected the neutral options at this question, to indicate that they neither support nor oppose the use of nuclear energy, or that they didn’t know / had no opinion.

Radioactive waste At wave 19, 16% said they knew a lot or a fair amount about the way the UK manages radioactive waste, whilst 84% knew not very much or nothing at all. These results are consistent with previous waves. Just under half (45%) said they were aware of Geological Disposal Facilities (GDF). Most who were aware did not have a lot of knowledge; 22% said they were aware but did not really know what they are, and 19% knew a little about them. Only 3% said they knew a lot about GDF. Knowledge of GDF differs by gender and also social grade, with men (54%) more likely to claim knowledge than women (36%), and those in social grades AB (56%) much more likely to claim knowledge than those in social grades DE (34%).

Shale gas Eight in ten (79%) were aware of fracking at wave 19, the highest level since the tracker began. Despite many people being aware of fracking, only a small proportion claimed to have detailed knowledge. At wave 19, 14%

claimed to know a lot about fracking, whilst 45% said they knew a little, and 20% were aware of it but did not really know what it was. Awareness of fracking was higher for those in social grade AB (91%), home owners (88%), aged over 45 (89%) and with incomes over £50,000 (93%). When asked whether they support or oppose extracting shale gas, half of respondents selected either the neutral option (48%) or said they did not know (2%). This is likely to partly reflect a lack of detailed knowledge about fracking. Of those who did offer an opinion, more people were opposed (33%) to fracking than supported it (17%). This is the lowest level of support for fracking since the tracker began. However, among those opposed to shale gas, the proportion who strongly opposed has fallen (11%). Follow-up questions were asked at wave 19 to identify the most common reasons why people support, oppose, or are neutral towards fracking. The most common reasons for supporting fracking were a need to use all available energy sources (37%), that it’s good for local jobs and investment (32%), and reducing dependency on fossil fuels (29%). The most common reason for opposing fracking was the loss or destruction of natural environment (54%). Other commonly cited reasons for opposition to fracking were that there is too much risk and uncertainty to support at present (31%) and that it is not a safe process. Of those who were neutral or did not know whether they support or oppose fracking, the vast majority put this down to not knowing enough about it (78%).

Energy sources New questions were added at wave 19 on which energy sources are used in the home. When asked which energy source their household spent the most on, the majority of respondents put electricity (90%) and gas (84%) as either their first or second source. Of those who said that they were connected to the mains gas, 54% thought that they spent most on electricity whilst 41% thought they spent most on gas. In reality the average household spends more on gas than they do on electricity.

Smart Meters There has been a small increase in awareness of smart meters between wave 17 (73%) and wave 19 (77%). Two in ten claim to have a smart meter (21%) and six in ten were aware of smart meters but did not own one (57%). Ownership was highest for those aged under 44 (25%), in social grade DE (27%), and those with household incomes under £16,000 (24%). Awareness was higher for those with household incomes over £50,000 (87%), and those aged 55-64 (86%). Please refer to the full technical note at collections/public-attitudes-tracking-survey for further details.

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Pub and Hospitality Best Practice Guidelines Book Published by BBPA


new book aimed at saving money in pubs and hotels has been published by the British Beer and Pub Association BBPA and energy-saving experts Carbon Architecture, the people behind many of the energy and control systems used in pubs throughout the UK. The book ‘Pub and Hospitality - Energy Best Practice Guidelines’ is a hands-on series of practical fact sheets looking at all types of venue and takes in lighting, heating, catering, cellars and accommodation. Utilities are a significant cost to pubs, contributing up to 15 per cent of business costs. These costs are predominantly energy and will continue to grow into the future if no action is taken to reduce energy use. Cutting energy use brings other benefits too - many customers appreciate organisations that care for our environment. And with advice from TRVs and heat zoning to hot water sterilant

technology there’s something for everyone! Annette Lyons of Green King said: What a useful series of facts sheets! Greene King is really fast at addressing energy issues but there are still lots of good tips – for example I’ve never seen water timers in use so that’s one for my list. And when budget is being allocated for new equipment and consumables, considering diverting cash to a boiler upgrade is good thinking. The ‘hard facts’ statistics are really good – spend a little now to save more later. And of course, the book is right about cellar insulation - a traditionally weak area and rarely upgraded. Good stuff! Publican Reg Pearson added: An excellent little book with great ideas for energy saving and much information regarding maximising energy efficiencies. Quite a few ‘seasoned’ licensees’ main priorities are focused on profit margins for both food & drink. While this is of utmost importance, many fail to address the energy consumption required to run a successful pub. Just by switching to energy saving & led bulbs, our electricity bill reduced by nearly 10%. A saving of £560 pa just on lighting. We also borrowed a piece of kit which monitored every fridge & freezer for consumption. This flagged up the most

inefficient items which were replaced with new, more energy efficient ones. A saving of another 6%. Also worth doing is defrosting freezers on a regular basis which allow them to run more cost effectively. Heating, particularly an old building, is a veritable minefield. Having variable thermostats on radiators is a must. Customers object to sitting in a cold pub but, when the place gets busy, customers provide their own heat so individual thermostats can control the amount of heat required. Remembering that alcohol is a vaso dilator, making the blood vessels expand, increasing blood flow therefore making the customer warmer. Expect to save around 5%. Variable speed extraction is a must. The fans are very high users of electricity unless regulated. Cellar cooling is a very emotive issue for a lot of publicans. Some will continue with old coolers past their best because, to have a complete new system installed is very expensive. Unfortunately they don’t see the benefit of an energy efficient cooler as it’s ‘out of sight, out of mind’. To get your copy go to Amazon Kindle or email

Sussex’s first council-owned solar farm celebrates its first anniversary


ne-year-on since it was opened, Tangmere Solar Farm has generated enough clean electricity to power 1,500 homes for an entire year. It is one of the country’s first council owned solar farms and is built on 29 acres of land owned by West Sussex County Council on part of the site of the former Tangmere Airfield. It officially opened in October 2015 and, over the past 12 months, the 18,000 solar panels have generated almost 5,000 MWh of clean electricity. The good weather during the late spring and early summer produced the best output with 721 MWh being generated in May alone – this is the equivalent of energy generated by burning almost 100 tonnes of coal. Louise Goldsmith, Leader of West Sussex County Council, said: “This is the first part of a very exciting on-going project to produce clean, efficient energy harnessing nature’s resource.

“I was at Tangmere Solar Farm when it opened and our ambition was for the solar farm to be an innovative way to help the local economy, environment as well as producing our own energy. So I am delighted to say that we have achieved this. “Local companies and suppliers were used in building the solar farm that has started our journey to becoming less reliant on fossil fuels.” The solar farm was built by Your Energy Sussex - a County Council-led partnership with local councils and construction company Carillion that works with residents and businesses to save energy, reduce their bills and generate renewable energy. Electricity from Tangmere Solar Farm is fed into the National Grid, earning a year-on-year income for the council through the Government’s feed-in-tariff scheme. Over its 25 years life span Tangmere will generate £13.8 million and pay back the cost of the project in less than ten years.

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

Louise Goldsmith, Leader of West Sussex County Council, said: “On top of all the initial benefits, there are extra gains for our buildings as they can be powered by the clean energy from Tangmere, for example libraries, offices, and children & family centres. “We are now looking forward to the future with a new Energy Strategy and sustainable energy plans to 2020. This includes work to scope out what other possibilities there are in West Sussex including a second solar farm which we are currently exploring in Westhampnett.”

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Eleven projects receive funding to bring energy to local communities Eleven groups around the city have been offered a total of £58,132 to undertake a range of energy projects in local communities


he grants are being awarded by Bristol City Council through its Bristol Community Energy Fund - an initiative which encourages local solutions to community-specific energy challenges. The successful projects were picked from 18 submissions by a judging panel comprising Bristol City Council representatives, community leaders, local energy partners such as Bristol Energy Network, Age UK Bristol, Bristol Disability Equality Forum, Centre for Sustainable Energy, UWE, Quartet Community Foundation and local business representatives. Projects were chosen on the basis of their potential to support local people to: • Reduce energy use; • Move towards cleaner and renewable sources of energy; • Take measures that can help meet their energy needs affordably. The grant programme is currently targeted at not-for-profit organisations in the Bristol area. Community groups, charities and community interest companies from across Bristol are encouraged to apply to broaden the reach of energy projects to new communities and boost Bristol’s energy efficiency. This new round of grants builds on the success of Bristol Community Energy Fund’s first round of funding for 12 local projects earlier this year. Many of these original projects are now well underway with St Werburghs Community Farm and the Bristol Playbus projects having been completed early. As with the previous round of grant funding, the judging panel prioritised submissions that looked to enable renewable energy generation, reduce fuel poverty and change behaviour – all with the intention of making Bristol more sustainable and working towards the city’s target to become carbon neutral by 2050. One of the first projects to receive

funding during this round is the ‘TWO’s Project’ being led by Easton Energy Group, which will look at setting up a microgrid across two streets in Easton by connecting Solar PV with battery storage installed on residents’ houses. The project has the potential to directly reduce carbon and create a model that could be replicated across the rest of the city. Yael Ben-Gigi, of Easton Energy Group, said: “It’s amazing that the council is able to support an innovative project like this through the Bristol Community Energy Fund. We have really high hopes for the project’s ability to provide cheaper, cleaner energy to people while offering opportunities to engage with renewable energy generation on a very local scale. We believe that we’ll be able to build a best-practice model that can be used right across the UK.” Other projects which have been offered funding include door-to-door energy awareness sessions being led by Talking Money and the installation of numerous energy-efficiency measures such as insulation for Zion Bristol. A map of the community energy projects supported by the council, including newly funded schemes can be found on the Bristol Community Energy Fund website Marvin Rees, Mayor of Bristol, said: “I’m delighted that we’re able to support such a broad range of energy projects in some extremely diverse areas of the city. These are difficult times. Local authorities face a future of austerity and budget cuts but still have ambitious carbon targets to meet. Community energy can help address both of these challenges, while supporting our communities to take ownership of energy. “We understand that environmental and social justice are inseparable. If we are to enjoy an equitable and prosperous future, we must decarbonise by 2050 and to do this, we need to get the whole city involved

through schemes like the community energy fund. “The groups least engaged with energy issues have tended to be those most prone to fuel poverty, least likely to access information that might encourage them to undertake energy efficiency measures or to benefit from generating their own energy. “By supporting projects which help address the specific needs of communities, we can begin to bridge that gap, helping residents to gain from a more sustainable relationship with energy. It’s also reassuring to see different groups and communities submitting applications – genuine proof of our efforts to broaden out the energy conversation city-wide.” The fund was launched in November 2015 with seed money from the Department of Energy and Climate Change (now Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy) to help the city build on its community energy experience by developing a national best practice model, including an online platform for sharing tools and techniques with others. There were calls for a first round of project proposals in February 2016, followed by this latest round in June. Twelve projects received a total of more than £53,000 in the first round of funding. One of the next steps for the council will be to seek additional contributions from investors and the business community to grow the funding available for local projects. In the near future, the council will also be releasing a loan fund with low cost finance to support the development of larger community-owned energy projects and, in the long-term, to create a revolving fund structure. The council’s intention is to support groups to grow and become self sustaining as well as bringing down the burden of accessing resources for building improvements. Community groups, individuals and businesses interested in getting involved in community energy projects are encouraged to get in touch via

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


City leaders must take control of own energy future – new Arup study shows • Arup calls for a new approach to urban energy management at gathering of world energy leaders • Cities already account for over 50% of global energy consumption; indication that civic leaders are increasingly willing to take control of energy future • Arup “Innovating Urban Energy” perspective paper provides insight for World Energy Council Scenarios Report


ities have more power to secure their own cleaner energy supply than they realise a new study by Arup, released today at the 23rd World Energy Congress, shows. Growing cities, already accounting for over 50% of global energy consumption, can no longer afford to rely on a centralised energy supply and will need to take greater control to meet growing demand. The Arup “Innovating Urban Energy” perspective paper provides insight for the World Energy Council Scenarios Report and shows that new technologies, innovative financing mechanisms and political changes are opening up opportunities for cities to secure their own energy. Technology drivers, such as advanced power electronics, smart metering and local generation, are allowing cities to diversify their energy portfolio. Transactive energy is highlighted as an approach to change the way energy is bought and sold. This combines economic and control mechanisms to enable a


dynamic balance of supply and demand using value created as a key operational parameter. It is allowing cities to develop lower cost, more stable networks capable of handling a much greater share of renewable sources. This particularly applies to electricity, but the report identifies that account needs to be taken of the other energy vectors. Many cities have existing energy and transport infrastructure that need integrated planning. Not all energy can sensibly arrive as electricity from renewable sources so other vectors such as district heating and hydrogen gas networks have a role to play in this integrated planning. Crucially these technology developments are blurring the line between producers, distributers and consumers by allowing non-traditional energy players, such as technology companies, to enter the market. Corporates are increasingly looking for opportunities to become power producers in the new urban energy rush and could become significant contributors in the future.

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

At the same time the study points to the growing role of civic leaders in climate change action, indicating that cities are increasingly willing to enter a sphere traditionally reserved for national governments. The report shows that civic leaders can succeed without national policies in place, highlighting that many will have the mandate to act even when central government does not. A renewed interest in municipal energy companies in Germany, for example, is cited as evidence of the growing confidence of local authorities looking to secure their own cleaner energy supply. New financial products – such as green bonds and crowd funding – are also opening up new sources for cities to fund their own energy initiatives. The report also highlights growing recognition of the relationship between urban planning and energy efficiency. Rapidly growing cities in Asia and Africa are urged to look to spatial planning to help reduce energy usage. “City leaders are increasingly understanding that if they are to continue to grow and to improve the lives of their citizens, they will need to play a more active role in securing their own stable and low emissions energy supply. It is an exciting time because there are big technological and political shifts that are giving cities the opportunity to take control. And, increasingly, for businesses there is an opportunity to become energy prosumers; producing their own energy and even supplying cities. We are helping civic leaders and companies around the world to understand the opportunities and what will work both technically and pragmatically within their local contexts.” – Ian Gardner, Arup Global Energy Leader


UK’s ‘hidden’ power stations to ease stressed grid


heating system already used across the UK has the potential to boost the amount of power generated by renewable sources – and even partly replace fossil fuel power stations. Combined heat and power plants – which produce both heat and electricity from a single source – are becoming more common as organisations look to cut costs and their carbon footprint. Latest figures show there are already 2,102 CHP plants in the UK, with a combined maximum electricity generation of 19,900GWh per annum – enough to power more than 4.8 million average UK households. Those plants also generate heat enough each year to warm 3.8 million average UK households (around 14 per cent of the UK total). Many of these systems can turn up or down as the amount of electricity produced by renewables like wind and solar changes, creating room for more green power on the grid. Now, Edinburgh–based Flexitricity, the UK’s largest demand response aggregator, has plans to harness that hidden potential and help drive a renewable revolution. Dr Alastair Martin, founder and Chief Strategy Officer, said: “Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems have an important role to play in a modern decentralised energy system. “These systems are remarkably flexible and are often not used to maximum capacity, meaning they are ideally suited to responding at short notice to meet shortfalls of energy when the grid needs it without any undue effect on the system as a whole. “Where a CHP system is running most of the time, it can back off when there’s a lot of wind or solar energy around and keep homes warm using its heat store. This makes CHP the perfect partner for renewable energy. “So not only can CHP provide cheaper heat and power for households, it can in fact play a significant role in enhancing the security of supply throughout the UK. This is especially the case when users participate in demand response by


Flexibility of 2,000+ CHP plants could make space for more green power adjusting demand or generation when the grid is under stress.” One in ten of the UK’s CHP plants uses renewable fuel, with the majority (71%) being powered by natural gas. Stephanie Clark, Policy Manager at Scottish Renewables, commented: “Our energy system is undergoing a fundamental shift as we move away from fossil fuels to tackle climate change. “In the past, large power stations close to centres of population provided our electricity. But that’s changing: renewable sources provided 24.6% of the electricity generated in the UK in 2015. “As the supply from those wind, hydro, solar and other generators fluctuates, the grid of the future will flex to accommodate their energy in the most efficient way possible. CHP, along with energy storage and measures like demand-side response, could present a part of that solution.” Tim Rotheray, director at the Association for Decentralised Energy (ADE), added: “Flexible combined heat and power tackles all three parts of the energy challenge: they are secure, affordable and low carbon. And beyond this CHP plants make a real difference to the competitiveness of British businesses from heavy industry to leisure centres. “By adding in flexibility, CHP plants can bring greater value to the energy user and help control the cost of the energy system to all consumers. “Many businesses have untapped value in their CHP plant and others have yet to take up the CHP opportunity. This technology is already cutting waste and cost across the economy and will become more important as the energy landscape changes.” Dr Martin concluded: “We haven’t even scratched the surface of the potential CHP offers. These systems are becoming more popular as the benefits of moving to localised district heating systems become more widely recognised. “So while significant potential exists

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

now, this could be even greater in future. Now is the ideal time for owners of CHP systems to investigate how they can harness the true potential it offers.”

Thameswey Central Milton Keynes case study Thameswey Central Milton Keynes (TCMK) was set up in 2005 to build and operate a low carbon combined heat and power (CHP) energy station. Thameswey has been reliably providing reserve energy to National Grid through Flexitricity since 2011. Along with providing Short-Term Operating Reserve (STOR) and triad management, Thameswey has played a key role in supporting Western Power Distribution (WPD) with Project FALCON. Using two gas CHP engines which can be made available to Flexitricity when not required for local generation, Thameswey is able to provide 6MW of generating capacity to help support National Grid during times of system stress and to support the transmission system during winter peaks. This provides Thameswey with an additional revenue stream of more than £100,000 per annum. Sean Rendall, Operations Manager at Thameswey Central Milton Keynes commented: “The entire process has been flawless from start to finish, with no interference on our core business activities. It provides a valuable source of revenue, and has enabled Thameswey to play its part in contributing greener reserve power supplies to the Grid.”


Large heatpumps are the only scalable renewable heating technology capable of becoming zero carbon by 2050


enewable experts are urging energy users to invest in renewable heating technology for the future while government incentives to support the uptake of heatpumps last. Industrial sized district heatpumps which draw warmth from the air, rivers, lakes, the sea and the ground are expected to play a key role in achieving COP21 carbon reduction targets because “they are the only proven, viable technology capable of delivering zero carbon heat in a large scale”, attendees at The Future of Thermal Energy Conference heard. Hosted at Warwick University 10-11 October 2016, Future of Thermal Energy Conference emphasised the importance of the UK government’s new focus on decarbonising heat. A compelling line-up of experts in the field also examined the positive impact driving forward investment on low carbon renewable energy will have on the UK economy and the wider industry. Moving away from combustion technologies will help current policies get back on track to meet the UK’s carbon commitments. Jonathan Graham, head of policy for The Association for Decentralised Energy, differentiated between technologies that save CO2 in the medium-term such as Gas CHP and those that fully integrate with the grid’s natural decarbonisation progression, making heatpumps a long-term and potentially zero carbon solution. For Trevor Whittaker of Aqualor, who took installation and operational costs into account, heatpumps are also a financially sound solution, “heatpumps have higher installation cost than a gas CHP but much lower operational costs at only 4% of capex and will last well beyond 20 years”. Nicky Cowan, Technical Engineer from Star Renewable Energy, highlighted a number of incentives and benefits heatpumps offer, “Proven renewable heating technologies that avoid burning gas, particularly large district heat pumps, are becoming one of the most talked about topics for governments and increasingly recognised as the best way to combat climate change. We have shown efficiencies far in excess of those used to model energy systems. This and the rapidly decarbonised electricity grid show large heatpumps to be a solid performer now that only get even better as the grid totally decarbonises. ”

“According to the Committee on Climate Change, heating may have to almost fully decarbonise if the UK is to hit its long-term goal of an 80% reduction in emissions by 5050”. As well as the decarbonisation of heating technologies by 2050, all new investment in heating will have to be zero carbon by 2035 in order to meet the ambitious target. For now, the Committee in Climate Change has already identified a gap of approximately 100 MtCO2e between the likely reductions from current plans and the reductions required by the fifth carbon budget. In recognising this shortfall, the government has committed to come up with an ‘emissions reduction plan’ to address decarbonising of heat, later this year. Dave Pearson, Director of Star Renewable Energy, said, “Despite ignoring the cooling opportunities from large heatpumps and using quite pessimistic efficiencies, Government research shows the future heating demand will be mostly met by heatpumps. Whilst gas being very cheap and electricity taxed more heavily are counter productive, the RHI makes heatpumps a future proof investment. Universities and large estates such as airports have focussed on electrical decarbonisation largely ignoring heating and cooling. When the government support of the RHI ceases beyond 2021 they will have to invest in the technology but with no financial support. The only barrier is a likely strengthening of the grid but it isn’t as simple as some show it with high gas use vs much lower electrical supply as both lines

on the chart have peaks and troughs, both have efficiencies not yet realised freeing up capacity and so whilst there might be local constraints overall the bottle neck is far ahead so we can right now take advantage of the decarbonised grid at 350g/kWh of CO2 equivalent, deploy heatpumps over 350% efficient and reduce emissions versus gas by over 50% - now!”. Thomas Nowak, Secretary General of the European Heat Pump Association, added, “we know that heating and cooling are responsible for 50% of the energy demand used in Europe, today. We also know that heatpumps can efficiently provide both at the same time. So the only logical conclusion is that heatpumps become a central part of the decarbonisation of the system in order to realistically deliver COP21 carbon targets”. Designed for business and large states, as well as the energy and university sectors, The Future of Thermal Energy conference boasted a packed programmed of specialists and experts. A resounding message from the event was the importance of decarbonising heat and investment in low carbon renewable energy. Topics covered included ‘Bringing heat into the equation’, ‘ Transitioning Infrastructure’ and ‘How to Deliver Large Projects’. It also addressed the impact heating has on the UK’s ability to meet its 2020 and 2030 climate change goals, as well as the goals set out in COP21. To find out more about Star Renewable Energy and its ground-breaking work, visit:

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


Cover Story

Hydrodynamic Steam Traps


early everything we consume requires steam in the production, food, soft drinks, beer, tyres, cosmetics, cleaning products, paper, toothpaste, pharmaceuticals. In addition steam is used in hospitals, universities, prisons and city district heating systems. Often overlooked, the steam trap plays a major part in the efficiency of almost all of these systems and with an ever increasing need to reduce energy consumption the steam trap should be in the spot light as a key part of these systems. The traditional mechanical traps are normally either float traps, thermodynamics, thermostatic or inverted buckets in design and each manufacture tends to promote one type over the other. There a pros and cons to each type. The thermodynamic trap is cheap and simple but not very efficient, the thermostatic trap is very efficient when new but tends to fail completely (completely open or completely closed), the float trap is good for process control but prone to water hammer and the inverted bucket trap is robust but provides poor control. All of the designs have one thing in common, they eventually fail. They either fail open, fail closed or rapid cycle and the type of trap, the flow rate and the operating pressure will determine the time to failure and the typical failure mode. The most important variable is the pressure and the higher the pressure the shorter the trap life. Typically, a trap will have a useful operating life of between two to five years with the life span decreasing with increasing pressure. With a need to achieve better energy efficiencies though owners and operators are left with only two choices, spend much more time and effort managing, surveying and replacing the existing mechanical steam traps, or find a better way to discharge the condensate efficiently, without the loss of live steam. The reason that steam is still used is because it is a very effective method of transferring thermal energy from a


centralized local point i.e. a boiler house, to the point where the heat is needed, in a hospital plant room or tyre press. The steam gets there using it´s own pressure and carries a large amount of heat for a relatively small mass. There is also a direct correlation between the steam pressure and the temperature so by regulating the pressure it is very easy to obtain the required end use temperature, whether that is air or water or the tyre press. So if steam is so good why has there been a push in the last couple of decades to convert from a centralized steam system to a localized point of use system? In part it is due to the availability of natural gas which allowed a similar distribution of energy to the point where it is required. But the main driving force is due to the problems of running a steam system or more specifically the condensate return system. The boiler inputs energy into the water (condensate) to convert it to gas (steam) and when that steam enters a heat exchanger it gives up that energy to the process and converts back to water i.e. condensate. The difficulty is that now there is a mix of gas and liquid in the heat exchanger and it is necessary to eliminate the liquid and keep the gas, hence the need for a steam trap. So the function of a steam trap is to let out the condensate without letting out any steam. Not so easy. When a mechanical trap opens and closes to let out the condensate, however it invariably lets out some live steam too. When the trap is new the loss of steam is

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

not so high but even a small loss results in a very high velocity of steam and condensate. It’s this high velocity of 2 phase flow that is the primary cause of trap failure. The trap erodes over time to the point where it has failed completely and lets out a constant flow of steam and condensate. The problem is that there could be hundreds of traps on a process plant or hospital building and the first step is to know what is the condition of each trap is. Because mechanical traps can fail open, closed or rapid cycle it is not so easy to determine the condition of each trap. The simplest approach is to use infrared temperature measurement but to get a more accurate assessment of a mechanical trap it is necessary to combine this with ultrasonic measurements. So to determine the condition of mechanical traps it is necessary to have a certain level of expertise in traps, which is not always available. When traps fail open, as well as wasting steam, the increased flow of steam through the heat exchanger results in an increase of erosion of the tubing which eventually leads to failure of the heat exchanger. The increased flow of steam in the condensate return line also increases the back pressure in the system which then affects other steam traps trying to discharge in to the same line. If the steam trap fails closed the condensate builds up in the heat exchanger reducing the output and if the trap

Cover Story occasionally opens it injects cold condensate into the condensate return line resulting in water hammer and potential line failure. In general the cost of the traps is considered in isolation i.e. if a trap fails what is the cost of replacing it. However for the reasons explained above, a failed trap has a much greater impact on the cost of maintaining a system and of its cost in energy than just the cost of the trap itself. There are few studies done to determine the true cost of failed mechanical traps. Perhaps for this reason there has been the recent push to remove steam systems where possible. However there is a new technology, available now, that resolves the problem with mechanical steam traps. The hydrodynamic steam trap has no moving parts and therefore eliminates the problem of steam passing through the trap. The hydrodynamic trap eliminates the loss of live steam through the trap which results in an immediate reduction in the overall steam consumption. But very importantly, by eliminating the live steam flow through the trap we are eliminating the erosion and potential failure of the trap. Because there is no erosion the energy savings are permanent and maintenance is minimal. The hydrodynamic traps have a staged nozzle. At the first stage the condensate forms a seal which prevents the steam from passing. The pressure of the steam pushes the condensate through the trap but more condensate is forming all the time to maintain the seal and prevent the getting to the nozzle. The key is to match the capacity of the nozzle with the flow rate of condensate arriving. If we do this then it is possible to have the perfect steam trap, no live steam loss and no failure. However in a steam system, although the flow of condensate is continuous, it´s not constant. This is where the clever part of the technology comes in. The high pressure/high temperature condensate at the inlet to the trap has a high level of sensible heat. On the discharge of the trap the pressure/temperature is lower so the sensible heat is lower. Energy cannot be destroyed so the difference in energy converts some of the condensate to flash steam. For a system operating at 10 Bar, 16% of the condensate converts to steam when discharging to atmospheric pressure. The nozzle is designed with stepped discharge. When the some of the condensate changes to steam there is a sudden expansion (steam being approximately 1000 times the volume of condensate) and this accelerates the flow out of the nozzle. Because of the design,

the acceleration force creates a counter force against the first stage nozzle and this regulates the flow of condensate. So as the pressure of steam increases, the flow of condensate increases but the back pressure inside the nozzle also increases due to the increased flash steam flow. The result of all of this is that it is possible to design a nozzle that will match flow rate of condensate and compensate for any fluctuations in pressure and flow to maintain the seal of condensate at the inlet. The perfect steam trap. Well almost. It is still necessary to have a filter to keep the dirt in the steam system from plugging the nozzle and even with a high integrity filter there will be times when the nozzle needs to be cleaned. So not 100% maintenance free, but close and no need for expensive spare parts. But we are now into a very different scenario regards to maintenance of steam traps. With mechanical steam traps it was necessary to have a degree of expertise to diagnose the operating condition of the trap. Now it is only necessary to know the temperature, hot it is working, cold it needs cleaning. If a mechanical trap was found to need maintenance the most common approach was to replace it with a new one, expensive option but less manpower. If the trap was to be overhauled there would invariably be a replacement kit involved. Cheaper than a new trap but more manpower. With the hydrodynamic traps as well as being easier to determine the condition of the traps it is also easier to maintain them. Most of the time it only requires the filter to be cleaned, occasionally the nozzle. The only spares is the occasional replacement of a gasket. So an order of magnitude less expensive to maintain. But the most important aspect is that the overall cost of maintaining a steam system will be greatly reduced, not just in terms of steam traps but also all the equipment they are supposed to be protecting. And all of this with an overall reduction in energy consumption. Typically hydrodynamic traps will save between 10 and 20% of a sites steam consumption which usually provides a return of less than 12 months on the installed cost. And that saving is permanent. In addition, there a many other benefits in terms of improved system performance and reduced system maintenance. For process system where steam cannot be substituted this is a major benefit and in applications such as hospitals or prisons the hydrodynamic trap really negates the need to convert to a decentralized system.

For more information please contact Grant Bailey, Energy Optimised Ltd

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


Energy Management

Assured Performance Process

– reducing the performance risk and protecting the reputation of developers and local authorities


ll too often, the actual energy performance of new homes fails to meet their design standards. Despite the efforts planners, designers and developers put into achieving efficient energy use, occupied homes typically use at least twice as much energy as predicted. The question is: how can developers and local authorities ensure that new housing schemes achieve their design standards and provide customers with the performance they expect? One solution is to use the Assured Performance Process (APP). It maps to the RIBA Plan of Work and provides specialist expertise in five stages of impartial review and assessment. The APP process means that the energy and low-carbon aspirations expressed in the brief and planning stages translate into executable designs that

deliver as they were intended. It also ensures that the original designs are implemented faithfully on site, thereby eliminating discrepancies that undermine energy performance when a home is handed over.

Inception and strategy At the early stage of design, there might be no more than a site plan and some sketches. But this is the prime opportunity to fine-tune the orientation, massing, and glazing ratios. It is also when any low-carbon technologies are chosen (or ruled out). Therefore, this is a critical time to intervene, but there are so many options it can be hard to see the wood for the trees. Using APP can help.

Planning and early design Detailing junctions, rainwater goods and insulation (and the choice of energy systems) all shape the energy use profile of a home for years to come. Poor decisions at this stage might not be obvious and might not surface until much later in the programme, when it’s difficult and costly to undo and correct them. Using APP can help spot them early.

Detailed design In a typical house, there are around 1,000 components affecting energy performance. The detail matters, and

Adam Tilford, Senior Energy Specialist, National Energy Foundation 16

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

no-one has time to scrutinise all the components and how they come together in the design, especially when the developer and builder are anxious to start on site. Using APP can help do this.

Construction The difficulties of site work and the rush to complete homes fast means short-cuts are commonplace, but not always visible. Airtightness and insulation are especially vulnerable. Also, energy systems are often either commissioned incorrectly or installed in ways that undermine performance. Using APP can reveal the mistakes.

Verification and assessment Testing on completion and evaluating how occupants interact with their buildings (post-occupancy evaluation) closes the feedback loop enabling designers, builders and specifiers to learn from the experience. Ideally, this should be linked to energy monitoring; comparing actual energy use against the design targets during the early life of the building. Using APP can help you do this.

Benefits of the Assured Performance Process • • • •

Lower energy demand and lower carbon emissions from every home. More confidence that homes will meet their predicted design standards. Improved comfort and satisfaction of residents. Certainty of delivering high-quality homes without spending lots of time policing each stage.

Energy Management •

More sustainable buildings without the box-ticking of the old Code for Sustainable Homes. Reassurance for stakeholders that action is being taken without firm policy from central government. Protection of both the developer’s and local authority’s reputations.

Quebec Park Case Study Quebec Park in Bordon, East Hampshire, is a medium-size development of 100 two, three and four-bedroom homes on the site of the old Quebec Barracks. The homes use a timber-frame construction, with additional rigid insulation inside the frame. Some units have photovoltaic panels on the roofs and there is a mixture of house types ranging from detached houses to flats. The homes are designed to the Zero Carbon Homes standard. In addition to identifying a range of risks and making recommendations at every stage in the process (below), the Assured Performance Process resulted in recommending: 1. The appointment of a nominated person to be accountable for the final energy performance of the completed homes. 2. Publishing the expected energy performance of the homes in its sales literature.

Inception and strategy 1.




4. 5.


performance by increasing the average U-value, leading to thermal bridges and possible condensation points. Moving the windows in relation to the insulation layer to reduce thermal bridging – by omitting planned spandrel panels (which pushed down the window sills) thereby creating an avoidable thermal bridge. Extending a warm roof across a terrace of several homes to cut the number of thermal bridges. Avoiding ambiguity in design drawings by drawing thermal bridge details. Omitting planned weather compensators and zone controls for heating systems, because super-insulation, good airtightness and modest dwelling sizes mean that there will be no energy-saving benefit. Reducing boiler capacity to better suit heat losses and reduce boiler cycling - also resulting in savings in construction costs.

reduced as per the design intent. Also, the timber fraction was examined and recommendations were made to reduce the risk of underperformance as the site build out progressed.

Construction Regular visits were made to the site to examine energy-related elements of the construction; checking on assembly of details, insulation type, thickness, and installation quality. Advice was also given on detailing and best practice to avoid thermal bypass and ensure thermal bridges are

Orientating as many homes as possible south, with south-facing roofs, to make it easier to provide summer shading and to make the PV as efficient as possible. Adopting better U-values than the minimum requirements of Part L of the Building Regulations, and following the fabric efficiency standards proposed by the Zero Carbon Hub.

Planning and early design 1.


Modelling thermal bridges at all junctions and improving on enhanced construction details. Giving careful attention to the summer overheating risk (a particular risk for timber frame homes with low thermal mass), using shading and night-time ventilation to lower temperatures.

Detailed design 1.

Reducing the ‘timber fraction’ (the proportion of timber stud to insulation material) at junctions and lintels. These weaken thermal

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


Energy Management

Trend integral to keeping Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust fit and healthy


ue to their large and often complex water supply systems, hospitals are potential breeding grounds for the bacteria that have the potential to cause Legionnaires’ disease. Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust is leading the way in risk mitigation and compliance through the innovative use of a Building Energy Management System (BEMS) from Trend Control Systems, which monitors, controls and provides information regarding the status of the water supply, storage and distribution system. One of the largest teaching hospital trusts in the NHS, Leeds was formed in 1998 and is one of the main tertiary centres in the North of England. It is comprised of a number of individual facilities throughout the city including St James’s University Hospital, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Seacroft Hospital and Wharfedale Hospital. It also includes the world famous Leeds General Infirmary, which has been providing patient care for well over 200 years. Like all other hospitals and health estates, infection prevention and control is a major concern for Leeds Teaching Hospitals. With a tool such as the Trend system, the hospital Trust has taken infection control and monitoring to the next level. If left uncontrolled Legionnaires’ disease is a potentially fatal form of pneumonia that can develop within the large water supply systems. It is common in natural water sources such as rivers, lakes and reservoirs, but usually in low numbers. The bacteria may also be found in purpose built water system infrastructures and, unless conditions are kept within defined parameters, they can thrive in hot and cold water systems. Once the bacteria proliferate, Legionnaires’ disease becomes a distinct possibility and it is therefore important to control and reduce the risk of this happening by introducing appropriate measures. Geoff Harris is Craftsman Specialist (BEMS) at Leeds Teaching Hospitals, and explains, ‘Health Technical Memorandum 04-01 (HTM-04) and The UK Health and


Safety Commission’s Approved Code of Practice (ACoP) L8 provide guidelines that offer guidance on how best to prevent it. Through the Trust’s Water Safety Group we take the issue very seriously and wanted to develop a multi-site system that could be centrally managed to offer the highest levels of protection. This meant installing an automatic early warning system which alerts key staff if water quality conditions fall outside pre-defined levels.’ Rather than installing a separate control system for this purpose, or employing extra staff to help manage the existing plant, Geoff was convinced that the legacy BEMS could offer a solution. Leeds Teaching Hospitals has worked with Trend for many years and its BEMS comprises over 700 individual products, including our first generation IQ1 and IQ2 devices that still work perfectly and are fully backwards compatible with more recently installed IQ3 and IQ4 products. By integrating the Legionella monitoring systems into the existing Trend BEMS infrastructure, Geoff made it possible to monitor, control and inform about a range of conditions relating to the status of the water system as required by the Trust’s Environmental Manager, Libby Moss. The Water Safety Group developed a 6 step action plan to ensure they achieved the desired outcomes for management and control of their water systems, namely: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Storage Tank temps Storage Tank turnover DHW Flow and return temperatures Chlorine dioxide water dosing Chlorine dioxide gas leakage Automatic flushing of DHW and DCW systems


The cold water storage tanks across the estate are monitored and alarmed to check that the water temperature stays below 24°C, as above this level Legionella bacteria can grow. If the tank temperature does exceed the threshold, water is drawn off and replenished until the temperature is

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

reduced and the alarm condition is resolved. Email and text messages can also be sent to designated personnel, who can respond quickly and appropriately


HTM-04 recommends that water stored in tanks is ‘turned over’ every 12 hours to guarantee a fresh supply. Tank turnover is therefore monitored and alarmed to make sure it is appropriately sized for its location. If an individual tank does not reach the correct turnover in 12 hours, an alert is issued.


DHW flow and return temperatures are monitored across the estate and throughout the various buildings, wards and departments. An alarm is raised if any individual DHW return temperature falls below 50°C for a prolonged period (>15 minutes). This allows the Trust to react to, and resolve the problem long before there is any risk to staff, patients or visitors.


Chlorine dioxide is added in tightly controlled amounts to the water and levels are closely monitored. Should levels fall below 0.2 parts per million (ppm), alarms are sent to both in-house personnel as well as the water treatment company contracted to carry out this work. Engineering staff also monitor the chlorine dioxide level on an ongoing basis through the Trend 963 Supervisor. Furthermore, relevant data is imported from the 963 Supervisor’s SQL database into third-party monitoring software, which plots it and sends automated weekly dashboard graphs to the water treatment company to help them monitor the performance of the dosing equipment. The 963 Supervisor is a graphical, real-time user interface that enables users to monitor specific activities and make any necessary changes. Security settings ensure that an individual is only presented with information and functions that are relevant to their authority or task, ensuring that consistent standards of operation are maintained.

Energy Management


The water dosing equipment is sometimes installed in spaces with limited natural ventilation. Should a high level of chlorine dioxide be present, as a result of a spillage or leak, the resultant gas could prove harmful to the health and safety of operatives. Therefore, Trend monitors chlorine gas levels and if readings are greater than 0.3ppm an alarm is raised so that the water treatment company can send in appropriately trained personnel with the correct PPE to resolve the problem.


Finally, to avoid poor circulation within water systems, Geoff has used the Trend system’s outputs connected to solenoid valves in some areas to ensure infrequently used sections of pipework are flushed for a pre-determined duration twice a day.

Integrating its Trend BEMS into the water quality management system at Leeds Teaching Hospitals has proven to be a key management tool. Geoff, Libby and the rest of the team firmly believe that committing to their Legionella monitoring and control policy in this manner has enhanced their ability to maintain compliance, to be resilient in a sustainable manner and is business imperative.

at the same time, achieve complete compliance with HTM-04 and ACoP L8.’ For further information please call Trend Marketing on 01403 211888 or email

In conclusion Geoff says, ‘The health and safety of patients, staff and visitors is of paramount importance to the Trust and the data produced by the Trend BEMS, along with the alarm system, makes our infrastructure highly resilient and drastically reduces risk of water borne infection. However, the benefits don’t stop there, if the Trust didn’t use the BEMS to monitor the DHW systems, manpower and resources would be diverted from other maintenance functions, with obvious consequences. A sustainable system means that the Trust is able to work smarter and,

Saving energy for Edinburgh: building upgrades reduce energy costs by 24%


n a first for a local authority in Scotland, nine public buildings in Edinburgh – including seven schools, the Usher Hall and the City Chambers – are to undergo energy efficiency upgrades as part of an energy performance contract between E.ON’s energy efficiency specialists Matrix and the City Council.

The £2.1 million improvement scheme could result in energy costs at those sites being cut by almost a quarter and will be carried out under an agreement that means E.ON will guarantee the energy savings from the implementation of a number of energy conservation measures. The project is a key initiative as part of the City of Edinburgh Council’s Sustainable Energy Action Plan that aims to reduce carbon emissions across the city by over 40% by 2020. It is being funded mainly through the Salix scheme which provides interest free loans to public sector bodies to finance energy efficiency projects. As part of the project, awarded under the Greater London Authority’s RE:FIT framework, the planned measures are guaranteed to pay for themselves in eight years.

The upgrade programme is designed to reduce energy consumption across the nine Council buildings – saving over £330,000 in energy costs and reducing carbon emissions by more than 1,500 tonnes per year.

Councillor Lesley Hinds, Convenor of Transport and Environment Committee, said: “Energy efficiency is a key programme within our Sustainable Energy Action Plan that aims to reduce carbon emissions across the city. “We are delighted to be able to partner with E.ON in the development of projects that will result in more energy efficient buildings delivering a number of benefits to the Council and its staff. This will be part of an ongoing programme of work initially supported by the Scottish Government and we will look forward to taking future phases of energy retrofits through the Scottish Government’s new framework.” Dave Lewis, Managing Director of Matrix, E.ON’s energy efficiency business, added: “Edinburgh is looking to significantly reduce its carbon emissions and energy costs by 2020. The scope, scale and

complexity of solutions we can offer customers will certainly help them on that journey, saving them on their energy and maintenance costs which can then be reinvested for the benefit of local residents. Our mission is to provide public sector and business customers with a wide range of innovative solutions that deliver real long term financial benefits. “Being chosen as Edinburgh’s preferred partner is a sign of their confidence in our ability to develop the best solutions for them. We are already in discussions with the council about phase two of this project which we hope will see further significant carbon and financial savings achieved.” Consultants Turner & Townsend oversaw the rollout of the Edinburgh RE:FIT programme, helping CEC to understand how it can be applied to their building stock and assisting in the preparation of tenders and the procurement of suppliers to deliver the energy savings. It will also report on the overall carbon reduction achieved and evaluate the performance of participating organisations.

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


Energy Management

Low carbon heating and cooling – drivers and challenges


lients increasingly expect more sustainable buildings, for different reasons such as a desire for low energy costs, staying ahead of legislation, and enhancing a green reputation. In addition to this, heat alone generates about one-third of the UK’s total greenhouse gas emissions; hence in order to meet the carbon reduction targets, it is important to consider implementing low carbon heating and cooling systems into buildings. Heat demands are dictated by various factors such as buildings’ fabric, operational profile and occupant behaviour as well as the efficiency of the heating systems. Efforts have been underway to improve the energy use of the UK’s building stock through different policies and schemes. In line with this, BSRIA was commissioned by the Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC)* to provide them with better understanding of the current knowledge and evidence gaps in relation to “low carbon” heating and cooling systems in the non-domestic sector, industry view on current relevant policies and standards,

and recommendations to help the policy making process. As part of this project, BSRIA conducted a survey aimed at 400 of its members (designers and constructors) to find out what low carbon heating and cooling technologies are currently being used and why. As there is no clear definition for low carbon heating and cooling at the present, for the purpose of this study, BSRIA decided to adopt the low carbon heating and cooling technologies identified in the EPBD Recast (Directive 2010/31/EU) document. Technologies considered in this study include: solar thermal, biomass, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps, district heating and district cooling. Although district heating/cooling is only a method for delivering heat to the end users and that the amount of carbon it generates is dictated by the heat generating technology, it can facilitate carbon savings compared to onsite heat generation. The majority of the respondents reported that CHP (74 per cent) and air source heat pumps (67 per cent) were the most commonly used low carbon technologies in their projects. Solar thermal is one of the most mature renewable technologies in the UK. In a large non-domestic building, a well-designed solar system can meet 30-40 per cent of the annual hot water load. However, as solar thermal systems, especially in winter time, cannot supply the full heating demand in a building, there needs to be back-up technology, e.g. a gas boiler or heat pump. About 41 per cent of the respondents to the BSRIA survey selected solar thermal as popular low carbon technologies. In terms of district heating, while the system has been used in the UK since the 1950s, it still only supplies a very small proportion of the heat demand (2 per cent in non-domestic buildings). In this study, however, about 30 per cent of the respondents reported that district heating is commonly used in their projects. This result is higher than we expected but most likely linked to the fact most of the respondents to the survey have mainly been working on London-based projects. Although biomass can be used as a reliable technology, both as heat only boilers or as CHP, about 87 per cent

of the respondents said they rarely use biomass in their projects. Factors such as site access and limited space were reported to be the main issues. One respondent drew attention to the constraints due to the need to maximise net let-able space in commercial offices stating that “Most of our projects are London based and are commercial offices. The decision to not specify these technologies is not usually based on availability of grants, incentives, etc. They are not adopted because they take up too much valuable space within the building that the client wishes to maximise as net let-able space”. In addition to lack of space, the main challenges/barriers for the implementation of low carbon heating and cooling technologies found through the BSRIA survey include high capital cost, lack of awareness of operational costs, poor understanding of technologies, poor public perception of technologies, sourcing local fuel supplies, significant maintenance requirement and difficulty evaluating the performance of the technology. Most of the respondents said they would avoid adopting bio-CHP in their projects mainly due to the insufficient local fuel supplies. As expected, the main drivers for low carbon heating and cooling technologies were found to be compliance, planning approval and client requirements through BREEAM. About 81 per cent of the heating demand is met today using gas-fired boilers connected to the natural gas network. The comparatively low initial costs and high efficiency of gas boilers have slowed down the adoption of renewable technologies in the UK. In the absence of regulations, until low carbon heating and cooling technologies are shown to be more cost effective and proven, client organisations will consider alternative approaches such as building fabric improvements, which are less risky and more cost effective to implement. *Since this article has been written, DECC has been abolished by new Prime Minister Theresa May, with UK energy policy set to be merged into a new ministry called the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy.

Written by Dr Michelle Agha-Hossein, BSRIA Sustainable Building Consultant

Energy Storage

Energy storage - the missing piece? Written by Jeremy Towler, Senior Manager - Energy & Smart Technologies, BSRIA Worldwide Market Intelligence

What is Energy Storage? The term ‘energy storage’ encompasses a wide range of technologies with diverse capabilities. Available storage options span the two dimensions of power rating and discharge duration. Low power rating and short discharge duration options such as super-capacitors and batteries are better suited to provision of services to distribution network operators and end-users, while high power rating and long discharge duration, such as pumped storage hydro, are well suited to providing energy management and balancing services to transmission system operators. Pumped water storage is well established, and accounts for the great majority of schemes, however, it is relatively inefficient as it involves converting electricity into kinetic energy, then to potential energy and then back into electricity. It generally requires hilly terrain, although low-lying Denmark has pioneered the reverse concept of a “green power island”, where sea water is pumped out of areas and then let back in through power generating turbines.

Other forms of energy storage include: Thermal storage: Technologies for ice and heat storage already exist but further improvement can be made to increase efficiency and investigations are on-going on phase change materials (PCM). Further deployment should be achieved in smart cities and building applications, such as centralized air-con systems incorporating ice storage; CHP plant equipped with heat storage; or thermal storage in renewable systems. Compressed air energy storage (CAES): is attractive but needs to cope with the issue of heat exceeding 650⁰C that can be generated during the air compression process. Flywheel: Further improvements of this mature technology will be on safety, cost reduction in high capacity storage, and reduction of self-discharge. Supercapacitor: In order to solve the low energy density and high capital

cost issue, the industry is investigating lithium-ion capacitor systems; finding new electrolytes capable of voltage beyond 2.7V and with less toxicity; exploring new materials that have very low cost and low environmental impact and can produce high performance, such as activated carbon, metal oxides. Hydrogen storage: It still early to predict when this will become a commercially viable solution. Current R&D is on improving efficiency at high temperature and reduced cost.

Much work is going into developing more affordable, large-scale and reliable storage systems, most obviously batteries, including those for domestic energy storage from home photovoltaic (PV) systems, and from electric vehicle batteries (smart cars) to feed power back into the grid at times of peak demand.

How can storage be used? The technical diversity of energy storage technologies means that they can be deployed for a wide range of applications. Broadly, the range of applications spans uninterruptable power supply (UPS), providing end-users with security and quality of electricity supplies; to grid support, providing services to distribution and transmission network operators to deliver system stability, manage peak load, voltage & thermal contracting management and balancing services; as well as energy management for bulk energy trading.

Status Today, the majority of storage technologies are in research and development, early commercialisation or demonstration phases.

Energy storage Costs are of course, expected to reduce as the technologies develop and deployment increases but achieving greater deployment relies upon a valid business case for projects both now and in the longer-term if energy storage is to be deployed in both the smart grid and as an integral part of smart buildings.



4. 5.

Development of new battery technologies is focusing on lifecycle cost, energy density (size), safety, operating temperature and degradation. Many new technologies are under demonstration, prototype, laboratory and concept stage. Broadly, the various stages of development include: 1.

Commercialized: lead-acid, sodium-sulphur, lithium-ion.

Demonstration: zinc bromine, advanced lead-acid, vanadium redox, nickel-metal hydride, lithium-ion. Prototype: lithium-ion, iron chromium, and high power, high temperature “ZEBRA” batteries. Laboratory: zinc-air, advanced lithium ion, and other lithium based types. Conceptual: nano supercapacitors, new electrochemical couples (metal-air, Na-ion, Mg-based, etc).

Cost Apart from cover over short periods, battery storage has been prohibitively expensive; however lead-acid and lithium batteries are now commercially available in Europe for about €1,000/kWh. And in a country with high consumer electricity

prices, such as Germany, PV with battery storage can have a lower unit price than mains electricity. Meanwhile, in 2015, US electric car manufacturer Tesla, launched “Powerwall” battery storage aimed at the residential market and providing 10kWh for about $3,500, and Mercedes launched a 2.5KwH home battery. Combining up to 8 can provide a total of 20KwH. Allowance must also be made for the cost of a battery management system and installation. A study for the Australian Renewable Energy Agency in July 2015 found: “The potential for significant cost reduction of some battery technologies provides real opportunity for significant deployment in multiple applications. In particular, Li-ion batteries prices are expected to reduce by over 60 per cent and flow battery prices by over 40 per cent by 2020.”

Deployment Estimates show that at least 220 MW of energy storage was deployed in 2015, the majority of which was utility-based and the balance non-residential. By 2020, at least 1660 MW is forecast to be deployed, of which about 48 per cent would be utility-based, 24 per cent non-residential, and 28 per cent residential. Various sources put the value of this market at between USD16-21bn by 2020 and reaching in excess of USD60bn by 2030. Of global installed capacity, the Americas accounts for just under 1/2, APAC for 1/3 and EMEA 1/4.

Future markets Ongoing challenges include poor understanding and undervaluation by stakeholders, however, regulatory reforms and technological advances are expected to help bring commercial and industrial energy storage into the mainstream. The criteria for spotting the higher potential energy storage markets include countries; where renewable integration is very high and which wish to avoid curtailment and intermittency; or in which there is an open energy market which can provide attractive return on investment; those in which there is a shortage at times of peak demand and shortage of energy; and locations which are lacking demand side management.

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


Energy Auditing

HOW TO GET THE BEST FROM YOUR ENERGY AUDITOR The aim of this paper is to help companies make an informed decision when selected an energy auditor or company

Definition of an Energy Audit According to Wikipedia, “An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows, for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s)” In truth, there are multiple ways of performing an energy audit. Two different companies could theoretically perform two energy audits and come out with completely different outcomes or opportunities. If comparing different proposals from service providers, some issues faced include: • How in-depth is the proposed energy audit? • Are audits findings based on measurements, assumptions or rule of thumb? • What involvement is required from the organisation? Steps have been taken to highlight the different types of audits available through ISO 50002 but not everyone is aware of these standards and the types of audits they detail.


What type of data is available? Energy data can come in many formats and from many sources so it is important to clarify what is available at the start of the project. All the above help focus and shape the energy audit. Provided the majority of this information is provided upfront then there should be no surprises when the report is completed.

Free Energy Audits Some companies will offer energy audits for free, or nearly free. Normally the company offering these types of audits is trying to sell something. Often supplier is focused only on an audit that targets their specific offerings. The key is to get a company that are independent of equipment where possible as otherwise valid opportunities may be missed due to the narrow focus.

Defining Objectives and Scope

Choosing the Right Auditor(s)

It is important to clearly define your objectives – ie the reason you are having the audit done. This could be to identify the main energy users and to qualify consumption or to reduce consumption while maintaining business operations. This type of information can help to tailor the audit around the requirements. In terms of scope, the areas that should be addressed include; • What energy is to be audited? Should the audit cover the whole site or build or specific equipment for instance • What level of detail is required or expected? These should be judged based on the relevant standards so the correct level of an energy audit is provided. • How should energy auditor evaluate opportunities identified? Simple payback or kgCO2e savings there may be different drivers for each option

Once the objective and scope have been defined then the right auditor or auditor team can be formed. The auditor should have the correct competencies for the requirements. Every organisation will have different needs for their audits but should consider the technical/professional qualifications, experience and personal factors when selecting auditors. Auditing requires a thorough understanding of chillers, boilers, air handlers, package units, control systems and their components, not to mention compressed air and others. Inexperienced auditors are more likely to miss energy conservation opportunities, or they may make suggestions that are not suitable. Other considerations could be whether to use an internal or external auditor to carry out the work. Each of these has pros and cons. External energy auditors are familiar with equipment and systems but will not be experienced in the organisation’s

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

processes. Additionally, they may not be able to influence the organisation in the same way that an internal auditor might be. Internal auditor would need to have been trained in the energy management. If not trained to the correct standard they might be less adept at spotting opportunities. Depending on job roles they may not have the time to dedicate to the audit which might mean that the audit takes longer to complete. Technical skills of an auditor should be complemented by other skills such as personal and management skills. It would be difficult to list all attributes required but it is important that an external auditor can fit into the culture of the organisation. That said they should remain objective – the audit should carry out in an independent and impartial style. Lastly, confidentiality and insurance issues should be addressed to ensure that it meet the required levels of all parties. Ask to be provided sample audits and CV of auditors who will be onsite. These can help make sense of the different prices you get from potential energy auditors. It will also highlight experience in your particular sector if needed. Finally, ask for references, and contact them. Find out if your proposed auditors were professional, met their timescales, and whether they were satisfied with the work. Review cost proposals and check if are all inclusive and upfront. In summary, when developing and evaluating energy auditors: • Define your energy audit objectives and scope as clearly as possible. • Get quotations from 3 companies and review competencies including experience and qualifications • Ask for sample energy audits and references where possible. • For higher value orders, consider a weighted decision tool to help determine best solution.

Energy Supply

Could energy guzzling transformers be wasting significant amounts of energy on your estate?


he European Commission estimates that around 2.9% of all energy consumed in the EU is wasted through transformer losses. The introduction of the EU Eco Design directive for transformers recognised the fact that modern power and distribution transformers have the ability to generate significant energy savings.

What does that mean for you and the transformer(s) on your site? Traditional distribution transformers are contributing to important energy losses across the UK’s distribution networks. As a rough rule of thumb, the older the transformer, the higher the energy losses it will incur. Whilst much focus is placed on products that provide a high visual impact such as LED lights or Solar PV, the unassuming distribution transformer could provide an immediate energy saving opportunity. Why?

Reducing transformer losses for guaranteed lifelong energy savings. Two types of losses are present in the operation of transformers: 1. No-load losses that occur in the transformer cores due to hysteresis and eddy current losses which are constant and present as soon as the transformer is energised – that is 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. 2. Load losses that occur in the transformer’s electrical circuit due to resistive losses that are a function of loading conditions. Put simply, once your distribution transformer is energised you are wasting energy through the associated losses. Wilson Power Solutions acknowledged this unnecessary waste and pioneered the UK’s first super low loss distribution transformer incorporating amorphous core technology in 2009.

Would you drive 100 miles a day, five times a week in a 25 year old car? Not many people would be comfortable commuting long distances in a 25 year old car on a regular basis. You can probably see the banknotes draining away at the pump right now just thinking about it. Yet surprisingly few people realise that operating an old, inefficient distribution transformer is not much different. Where your existing capital equipment is 15 years or older, fast-tracking a replacement could be a very effective energy efficiency measure. In fact, a typical distribution transformer built in the 1970’s will waste on average £3250 in running costs when compared with a modern super low loss unit. How? The Wilson e2 transformer product already exceeds Eco Design specifications planned for 2021. It can therefore achieve unrivalled lifetime savings in both energy costs and associated CO2 emissions with surprisingly quick paybacks for both new build and capital. Or to put it in the words of the Electrical Design Engineer at the University of Warwick “It was in reality a non-brainer to select the super low loss

transformers for two recently completed substation upgrade projects.” For further information please contact:

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


Heat Recovery

Lee Stones, category manager for Xpelair, looks at the factors which are driving a surge in the specification of heat recovery technology in the home – and what benefits they can deliver for Housing Associations


s Building Regulations continue to move towards more airtight homes, Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery (MVHR) systems have become an almost default choice in new social housing properties - and an increasingly popular one in refurbishments too. MVHR is ideal for the social housing sector because it is suited to smaller homes, flats or apartments where insulation levels are high. Available as a centralised, whole-house system or single room units, this proven technology extracts moist, stale air from inside the property and replaces it with fresh, incoming air. Crucially, it also uses heat from the outgoing air to warm the incoming air, and high efficiency systems can recover up to 90 per cent of the heat that would have been lost through normal extraction. Systems inevitably run constantly in trickle mode and will boost when changes in humidity are recognised, for example when cooking on a hob or turning on a shower. Provided it is specified and installed properly, an MVHR system also ensures housing associations meet Building Regulations for new properties under System Four of Building Regs Part F, whilst also improving SAP ratings.

HEAT RECOVERY ON THE RISE heat from the outgoing, stale air to warm fresh, incoming air can reduce heating bills, of course, and for those organisations with a large stock, it can deliver significant carbon reductions. For the best results, MVHR systems such as Xpelair’s new Natural Air 180 – launching in January 2017 - can play a vital part in a whole-house approach to energy saving and carbon reduction. Together with other energy efficiency measures such as glazing upgrades, cavity wall insulation or heating system improvements, it can help to increase comfort, reduce bills and meet overall sustainability targets across a provider’s housing stock.

Boost your IAQ However, energy efficiency is not the only driving force behind the increasing specification of MVHR. We spend more than 90 per cent of our time indoors and whilst there is a global understanding of outdoor air pollution, few people realise that indoor air can be as much as 50 times more polluted than outdoor air. Dust, pets and fumes from cookers or fireplaces, as well as drying clothes indoors and excess moisture from showering can all contribute to poor IAQ, which in turn can have a serious impact on our health.

Energy credentials One of the most obvious benefits of MVHR is its energy saving potential and this is a key factor in the rise of its specification in the social housing sector. Using waste


Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

The importance of IAQ should not be underestimated. Mould or condensation in the home can aggravate pre-existing health conditions such as asthma and eczema, whilst high levels of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from everyday household items such as polish or air fresheners can also lead to symptoms including fatigue, rhinitis, dizziness, headaches, coughing and sneezing.

According to a YouGov consumer survey, conducted on behalf of BEAMA, 58 per cent of UK adults have experienced mould or condensation in their homes and 19 per cent of those claim to have suffered from a respiratory or dermatological condition. The remaining 81 per cent are considered to be at risk. It goes without saying that social housing providers have a responsibility to their tenants and with a rising threat of litigation as awareness grows, it can have an operational impact too if standards are not met. The key, of course, is to ensure adequate ventilation in the home, reducing the build-up of condensation, black mould and the spores which it releases. MVHR, providing a constant supply of fresh air, delivers an ideal solution. Tel: 0844 372 7761 Email: Web:

MONITOR, MEASURE and MANAGE your energy use

Prefect cleverly simple control of energy

Centrally-controlled multi-occupancy energy management system

With this intelligent system, you take control of energy use and therefore energy costs, from anywhere in the world via an easy to use display screen, without the need to set foot inside a single room. • Controls temperature individually in each room • Switches heating on and off at predetermined times • Measures energy use • Turns heating down if windows are open • Detects unoccupied rooms and unauthorised portable heaters > Quick and easy installation > No additional wiring required > Minimal disruption

To f i n d o u t m o r e c a l l 0 1 7 8 7 3 2 0 6 0 4 o r v i s i t p r e f e c t i r u s . c o m




ince its launch earlier this year, Aura Light’s lighting rental scheme has seen a significant take-up by large companies wanting to spread the cost of their investment. Aura is able to spread this investment over seven years so significantly reducing monthly and annual payments. The benefits of the scheme are enormous. Under the banner ‘Lighting as a Managed Service’ (LaaMS), Aura Light provides lighting design, lighting installation, full maintenance cover and on-going lighting consultation throughout the length of the scheme. By upgrading to a sustainable energy efficient lighting scheme using LED technology coupled with lighting management systems can save some 70% in energy savings, these savings paying for

the systems and installation. With LaaMS there is no need for capital expenditure and no financial outlay as the lighting project sits off balance sheet and also takes advantage of tax benefits. Simon Taylor, Aura Light UK’s managing director comments, “We are currently working with some major organisations such as warehousing, steel, recycling and local authorities which are utilising the LaaMS scheme. Energy costs are reduced from day one and monthly payments are adjusted according to projected energy savings, making the projects cash positive right from the start”. Aura Light’s LaaMS scheme provides a full performance guarantee over the contract period and the new lighting installation will continue to provide large energy savings into the future. The scheme is ideal for all types of applications including

offices, retail, hotels, education, factories, warehouses and for exterior lighting. Under the scheme, Aura Light visits the company to conduct a survey of the existing lighting installation and energy consumption by a technical expert. This is then followed with the provision of a new lighting plan with a full financial calculation, together with energy saving and CO2 saving documentation. Once the project is agreed, it is entirely managed by Aura Light from start to finish including using its national base of installation teams to fit the lighting, and providing the financing and a performance guarantee during the full contract period. There are no maintenance costs as full maintenance cover is included as well as ongoing lighting consultation.

Lighting the way to save energy E-T-A Circuit Breakers, a global market leader in the design and production of circuit breakers for equipment protection, commissioned Llumarlite to overhaul their lighting provision, with energy saving being the key aim during the refurbishment. Replacing the light fittings throughout the company also created a more stimulating and productive working environment. The Production Lab and Goods In and Despatch departments were the first areas to be updated, with Llumarlite recommending and installing LED luminaires with digital dimmer systems and passive infrared (PIR) motion sensors in these areas. Infrared handsets enable the users to brighten, dim, or switch the lighting on and off to suit their tasks, which include inspection work, where effective lighting is essential. Emergency lighting was replaced and the external walkways and car park

lighting was updated to include dusk till dawn photocell lighting and LED floodlights with PIR motion sensors. This gave much brighter and more extensive coverage than previously. All lighting in the open plan and cellular offices was upgraded, along with fixtures in the kitchen, reception, toilets and corridors.

“Created a more stimulating and productive working environment.”

Lighting appropriate for use with flat screen monitors was installed, and lighting in offices which have adjacent windows is now controlled by PIR motion sensors. An integral photocell dims the lighting if sufficient daylight penetrates the space, continually monitoring the balance. Lighting typically dims and switches off after occupants have left the space for 1015 minutes, ensuring energy efficiency.


Not only has up-dated lighting improved the work environment, it is predicted to save thousands of pounds per annum in energy and maintenance costs.


Custom lighting solutions, value engineered to deliver. Do you have • Ageing, inefficient lighting installations? • Compliance issues? • Poor lighting controls? Llumarlite provides unique and complete solutions to all these challenges and more. • • • • •

Survey Design Manufacture Supply Installation

Visit us at EMEX on Stand D50. See how we can help you solve your lighting issues. Or call us today on 01296 436666.

Llumarlite Unit 30 Anglo Business Park Smeaton Close Aylesbury HP19 8UP Tel: 01296 436666




Buyer Beware


he case in favour of LED lighting is a persuasive as not only does it use less energy, it has an exceptionally long life, low CO2 emissions and an unrivalled quality of light. While capital expenditure (CapEx) costs are usually higher for LED lighting solutions compared to incandescent and fluorescent lighting, many other factors need to be considered, such as the total cost of owning, operating and maintaining a lighting system. There is, however, a widespread misconception that LED lighting is a ‘fit and forget’ technology. The average time of random failure is calculated by dividing Mean Time Before Failure by a population size, for example, if there are 1,000 devices with a MTBF of 100,000 hours, it is realistic that there will be a failure every 100 hours. However, while CapEx might be more, when compared to the industry average of maintaining a non-LED luminaire of £15 per year, the average for an LED solution is around £3, significantly reducing total cost of ownership (TCO). It is also worth noting that when referring to the lifetime of an LED, it means the period after which the luminaire outputs only 70 per cent of its original light. Referred to as the L70 rating, most manufacturers claim product lifetimes of between 50,000 to 100,000 hours, based on design and operating temperature.

Spot the difference When it comes to maintaining an LED lighting system, overall operational expenditure (OpEx) costs can vary considerably depending on the type of luminaire specified and used. Put simply, when it comes to LED lighting the old adage ‘you get what you pay for’ should be kept in


Marcus Brodin, Commercial Director at Future Energy Solutions (FES), explains how the time and expense associated with maintaining a lighting infrastructure can be significantly reduced by using LED technology. Also, why it’s vital to assess a luminaire’s design and build quality, and the type of warranty provided, before making a purchasing decision

mind and the pitfalls of selecting a low quality product should be avoided. It is wise to probe manufacturers about the claims made on behalf of their products and not take them at face value. For instance, when specifying a product the chosen manufacturer should always be asked to provide full photometric and electrical data, as well as conformance certificates – and also, ask whether the product has LM79/80 reports to justify the lifetime claims and if there is photometric data to prove that the glare ratings outlined in EN 12464 have been achieved.

Cheap isn’t cheerful While their prices can be attractive, cheap imported LED luminaires, particularly from China, often lack the design and build quality expected and use inferior components. LED luminaires sold on the European market should, by law, carry the CE mark, which is a statement by the manufacturer that the product complies with all the relevant EU legislation, including product safety standards and directives. Like all light sources, LED luminaires slowly fade over time and light output degradation is often exacerbated by the drive current and heat generated within the device itself. Higher end products counter this effect by using the best quality components – another factor that should be thought about when determining ROI. Consideration must also be given to the quality of light that an LED light source offers. Colour rendering relates to the way objects appear under a given light source and is measured using a colour rendering index (CRI) – the maximum value being 100. In September 2013 a European directive, DIM2, came into force and LEDs with a CRI below 80 are now banned from sale in Europe.

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

Come back In the event that a product does fail, knowing that a replacement can be sourced, delivered and installed as quickly as possible offers valuable peace of mind. Unfortunately, if something goes wrong with a cheap imported product, the cost of sending it back from the UK is likely to be prohibitive. Conversely, a product that is manufactured, sold and under warranty in the UK will mean a swifter resolution if there’s a problem. That’s not the end of the story though, as not all warranties are the same. For instance, a return to base warranty means that should a fault develop within the warranty period, the end user will have to send the product back to a service centre, where it will be analysed and repaired before being sent back. If it can’t be repaired, a new product will be delivered. The obvious issue here is that the entire process can take a matter of weeks to resolve. More preferable is an advance replacement warranty. Under the terms of this type of warranty, the manufacturer immediately delivers a replacement luminaire in the event of a problem.

Think ahead Maintenance should be an integral part of any ROI calculation and purchasing criteria. It should always be remembered that if you buy cheap, the chances are that you will have to buy twice and a ‘higher-end’ product that is built using state-of-the-art components will almost certainly result in less maintenance. Therefore, ask the right questions to ensure that the level of performance expected can be delivered.




here’s a growing realisation in the construction industry that complex mechanical ventilation systems are a recipe for disaster for schools. As part of a recent report by the Royal Institution of British Architects (RIBA), 129 UK schools’ post-occupancy evaluations were analysed. It revealed a large number of technical ventilation devices were being disabled or abandoned having been deemed too burdensome for the school to manage. Problems included excessive electrical energy consumption, high base loads and lack of controllability, leading to overheating and discomfort. Designers are taking a modern holistic approach to school building design to enhance energy efficiency and improve the learning environment whilst engineers are rapidly coming round to the idea that natural ventilation systems are a reliable, cost-effective option to the mechanical alternative. Until recently, natural ventilation systems were known for two things providing ventilation without electricity use and reducing overheating during warmer weather. The problem was they couldn’t recover heat when it turns colder. The Ventive C900, a simple, ingenious British-made system carries out both tasks without the aid of electricity and the incumbent equipment and cost. Richardson and Peat have first-hand experience of the passive ventilation, heat recovery system, having carried out the first installation of Ventive C900 at a UK school. In May 2015 we delivered a pioneering centre to help autistic children into mainstream education. The £1.2 million Cullum Centre at Salesian School in Chertsey, Surrey provides 20 places for autistic children and offers the structured support they need to access fully inclusive school placements. The building’s design needed to maximise energy efficiency which the Ventive C900 helped to achieve. The system consists of a roof cowl, eleven of which were installed at the Cullum Centre, one per room. As well as being easy to install and negating the need for PV roof installation (due to the building achieve required energy savings with demand reduction alone), the Ventive C900 is a simple and effective operator.

In colder weather, warm air inside the building is driven through the Ventive C900 heat exchanger where it naturally warms up a supply of outside air on its way to the classroom. In spring and summer months the roof cowl works like a small wind collector, ensuring rooms remain naturally ventilated at all times. Ventive C900 took two years to develop, and with UK schools spending £159m per year on heating according to RIBA, its general usage can’t come soon enough. On average, it is estimated Ventive C900 will reduce a school’s energy costs by £350 per year (per classroom). An unsurprisingly sizeable saving when you consider the complications in managing mechanical ventilation systems often left running overnight or during school holidays. Besides electricity use, maintenance costs are another burden incurred by mechanical systems (including filters that need regular changing). Once fitted, Ventive C900 is free to use improving air quality and reducing energy use and associated costs. Its manufacturers say the Ventive C900 will be suitable for most schools built in the UK. For our children to succeed at school, the building itself needs to perform as well as the staff and students. A good reason, then, for architects and contractors alike to consider the benefits of Ventive C900.

By Thomas Lipinski, Technical Director, Ventive Ltd

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016


Exhibition News

Pollutec 2016:

A series of efforts to promote environmental innovation


howcasing innovation has been Pollutec’s primary purpose since its creation. The innovations presented at the trade show cover all the latest developments in the environmental market, ranging from previews of technological and organizational solutions and industries that are emerging or undergoing a structuring process to emerging topics and new approaches that will be making the news in the future. During its 27th edition in Lyons from 29th November to 2nd December, Pollutec will continue to expand its program for showcasing innovation, which was designed to make it easier for visitors to identify, with new events and promotional areas. For the first time this year, Pollutec will include “Spot Innos”, areas entirely dedicated to innovations in each sector, and a “Vitrine de l’Innovation” (Pollutec Innovation Showcase), an unprecedented event to help incorporate innovations into business lines. More than ever before, the trade show is affirming its role as the world’s centerpoint for environmental innovation.

Innovation in every sector Several major trends have already emerged from Pollutec 2016’s innovation offer. On one hand, the potential of digital technologies to increase the yield and effectiveness of environmental products and services is featured prominently in the debates and solutions presented by exhibitors(1). Every sector is concerned, whether it is water (smart pump systems, “plug and play” interconnected boxes,


online analysis tools, Android-based leak detectors), waste (innovative trash collection systems equipped with virtual reality technology, smart bins), air (mobile app for remote sampling systems), urban planning (solutions for monitoring and analyzing IoT data), etc. Issues related to atmospheric modeling and nanotechnology in smart water programs are also becoming more important. Another major trend this year is the fight against marine trash pollution. Solutions to keep waste out of aquatic environments are becoming increasingly sophisticated. These techniques use strategies that are lower-impact (e.g. optimized reed filters, biosorption layers that trap heavy metals in the water) and more effective (e.g. optimized treatment of cooling towers to combat the risk of Legionellosis disease, dedicated tools for cleaning asbestos surfaces, etc.). Treatment and recycling strategies are also increasingly sophisticated. For example, the range of composites and metals that can be recovered is constantly expanding and includes phosphorus, precious metals from electrical and electronic equipment, palladium, and soiled plastic packaging. Recycling these materials provides an even higher quality of service and thereby satisfies demands from the industrial sector. Optical solutions are also offering new applications (e.g. a measurement system that detects sludge viscosity, optical sorting of black plastics, etc.). Moreover, concrete steps towards industrial energy self-sufficiency are starting to emerge (e.g. optimized cold production by recovering lost heat, etc.) Finally, the current shift in the recycling industry caused by the growing presence of new materials; the emergence of the end-of-life vehicle, pleasure craft, and

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

construction waste industries; and the development of the ecological engineering sector are all subjects that are currently in the news and included in the trade show’s agenda this year. Opportunities created by recent changes in regulations (expansion of plastic recycling, indoor air quality, biodiversity, energy performance of the service sector, etc.) and standards (ISO 14001:2015, ISO 50001 + Pro SMEn, etc.) will also be discussed during the event by relevant experts. More generally, methods and means for saving and avoiding the waste of materials and energy will be addressed through special presentations along with the issue of fostering collaboration between stakeholders and inter-company discussion, particularly through flow synergies.

Many new areas and events

Because eco-innovation is relevant to all the sectors and cross-cutting areas of focus featured at Pollutec, this year’s edition will include “Spots Innos”. These areas will be occupied by groundbreaking stakeholders showcasing innovation in various ways, including demos, models, expert presentations, etc. Pollutec 2016 will include areas for climate and renewable energies, green IT and connected objects, sustainable cities and BIM management, modernized and connected industry, and new generation instrumentation and metrology. There will also be an end-of-life vehicle area where visitors can watch a car being dismantled in real time as well as a Place de la mécanique, hosted by FIM (French Federation of Mechanical Industries) and its start-ups, and the French Environment Ministry’s Hub de l’innovation, which includes start-ups from the Ecotech competitiveness clusters and a selection of

Exhibition news the initiative Greentech—Green Technologies. There will also be a new area dedicated to construction waste and a Mer, littoral et milieux aquatiques (Ocean, Coastline, and Aquatic Environments) village, which focuses on the ways and means of treating land-to-sea waste. Another new feature is the Pollutec Vitrine de l’innovation. Organized in partnership with PEXE (French network of eco-companies) to help environmentally innovative young companies, SMBs, and micro companies market their solutions, the Vitrine de l’Innovation is an event unlike any other due to its international reach and award process. A pre-selection committee of French and international experts will choose twenty solutions from among the innovations presented by exhibitors. Only the most impressive solutions with the highest market potential from all clean-tech and environmental sectors will be chosen. Selected exhibitors will then pitch their solutions before a plenary session attended by a jury of public and private buyers of every country chosen amongst the event’s visitors. In the end, the professional jury

will select three solutions out of the twenty presentations. The awards, which will be announced through the Pollutec TV platform, will boost the companies’ visibility both during the trade show and after the event. Finally, for the first time, Pollutec will be offering a series of conferences dedicated to the levers and impediments related to innovation. These talks will touch on every sector and feature presentations on the digital transformation in the recycling sector, risk management in all innovative projects, eco-modernization in industries, and the importance of innovation in the energy sector and sludge treatment, just to name a few. Additional conferences will address supporting innovation more specifically. One session organized in partnership with Les Eco Maires, an association of environmentally minded French mayors, will focus on public procurement. The goal of this talk is to shed light on how these contracts are changing and the impact of this development on professionals.

And, as always, awards and trophies from our partners Innovation can even be found in Pollutec’s awards and trophies. The Prix Entreprises et Environnement (PEE — Company and Environment Award) from the French Environment Ministry and Ademe (The French Environment Agency) include an “Innovation in Technology” category. For the first time at Pollutec, the Trophées de l’Economie Circulaire (Circular Economy Awards) offered by the same named institute include a “New Technology” award. The Trophées Export des Eco-entreprises (Eco-Company Export Awards) from Ademe, Bpifrance, and Business France include a “Prix Jean-Claude Oppeneau - Coup de cœur du jury” (Jean-Claude Oppeneau Prize—Jury’s Selection) in recognition of an eco-company that stands out for its innovation in exports.

Exhibition News

Top 6 Energy Efficiency Strategies to be covered at EMEX 2016 in London


MEX ( the Energy Management Exhibition, and its community, is returning to the ExCeL Centre in London on 16th and 17th November with a packed programme spread across 4 free-to-attend CPD accredited seminar theatres. This content, curated by the Energy Managers Association and its Board of major energy users, will include the opportunity to meet with top industry experts, peers and numerous leading suppliers that will unveil the latest technology and energy efficiency strategies available right now.

1. Reducing Energy Use in the Built Environment Understand Government energy standards and act now to make improvements that ensure your buildings exceed the minimum energy efficiency standard or face the prospect of the value of your assets decreasing significantly. By April 2018, it will be unlawful to grant leases for residential, or commercial property with an EPC rating below “E” unless registered as an exemption. By April 2020, the regulation will extend further. With over 120 exhibitors ranging from major utilities to brokers and consultants, equipment manufacturers to training companies and showcasing a broad range of energy efficient solutions and services under one roof, EMEX has become a unique opportunity to learn about the new technology, systems and services available in this fast changing environment.

2. Optimising Costs Through Sustainable Operations Energy efficiency is already a well established part of the corporate and social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability agenda. Businesses committed to safeguarding their reputation for corporate responsibility have no option but to meet the challenge of developing sustainable operations. An effective approach is to focus on the whole operation and identify the interdependencies between each function. With the following results: • Increase energy efficiency across multiple facilities.


• • • • • • •

Reduce maintenance costs. Reduce water consumption. Decrease production downtime. Remove supply chain costs. Deliver a return on investment. Increase business assets value. Enhance workplace productivity.

3. Saving Energy through People One of the most important energy efficiency measures is training. You could save up to 30% through behavioural change with no capital outlay and no interruption of day-to-day business. Experts, such as the Operations Improvement Manager at British Sugar and Environmental Manager at the Bank of England will share their experience. Their presentations will leave you better equipped to deliver a strategy that is embedded in staff culture.

4. Capturing the Full Benefits of Demand Flexibility The UK is entering a period of energy transition driven by climate change, the need to ensure secure energy supplies and an ageing and centralised grid. There is an urgent need to decarbonise the energy we use, evolve infrastructures and to secure sustainable local generation supplies for the long term. At EMEX, National Grid will present Power Responsive, a programme to stimulate the different forms of flexible technology in Britain’s energy markets. They also plan to facilitate the rapid growth of demand-side solutions. This new technology will be rolled out in the next couple of years; seminars on how you could incorporate this system into your business and actually make a profit will be explored in the presentations.

5. Increasing Renewables in your Energy Mix Renewables now account for 25% of UK electricity generation, up from 9% in 2011. Switching to renewables and green-tech is a substantial and yet untapped opportunity for most businesses to reduce costs and meet carbon emission targets. At EMEX, Good Energy will launch their new web platform for business customers

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

to enhance transparency and control of their energy supply. Alternatively, you can install renewable technology locally in order to generate your own. A number of companies will present the latest technologies to generate energy from wind, sun and biomass fuel. Also a sponsor at EMEX, offshore wind market leader DONG Energy is leading the way in the development of sophisticated tools that enable businesses to be more flexible in the way that energy is consumed. It has come up with a unique way to help balance its own generation at times when the wind doesn’t blow.

6. Get ready for the UK water market de-regulation Businesses need to start planning now for the most radical changes in the water industry for a generation. From April 2017, over 1.2 million eligible businesses and other non-household customers will be able to choose their supplier of water and wastewater retail services. Some retailers will work with such clients to reduce their water bill through the introduction of water efficient kit and metering, in order to form the basis of a Water Performance Contract in which water efficiency savings will be shared by the client and the retailer. Early birds in the market will snap the best deals, so don’t wait until April 2017 to consider your options. Nearly ten retailers will be presenting their offerings at EMEX. With such diverse solutions, knowledge and expertise on offer, it is not surprising that thousands of businesses, as well as household names such as Coca-Cola, NHS, British Airways, Harrods, Hilton Worldwide, Boots, RBS, TATA, British Land, Ministry of Defence, AstraZeneca, Sodexo, Dixon Carphone, IBM, Bellrock, BAE Systems, Co-Operative Group, Ofgem, Network Rail, MITIE, CBRE, Whitbread, Mitchells and Butlers, British Telecom, House of Fraser and many county and city councils are already registered to attend.

Exhibition news

ABB chooses EMEX for UK launch of dedicated HVAC drive


new variable-speed drive (VSD) dedicated to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) applications, such as air handling units and pumps, will be unveiled by ABB at The Energy Management Exhibition (EMEX), stand D20, 16-17 November, ExCel, London. The ABB HVAC drive, ACH580, meets the demand for uninterrupted performance required of mission-critical applications such as hospitals and data centres, while achieving the ambient comfort necessary for maximum productivity in commercial buildings, such as offices and schools. In addition to offering energy savings up to 60 percent, the ACH580 offers an intuitive operating panel enabling quick and easy installation, and native BACnet (and Modbus) communications.

Smarter energy efficiency on show The drive’s superior energy efficiency will be showcased at EMEX with an on-stand demonstration of an ACH580 drive and synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) package. ACH580 has the highest efficiency class for a drive and provides superior efficiency with all motor types, including induction, permanent magnet and SynRM motors. Energy savings are calculated internally and can be sent back to a building management system (BMS) via fieldbus. The drive also includes variable-speed internal fans, further saving energy.

The ABB HVAC drive, ACH580, is designed specifically for a wide range of HVAC applications and offers superior energy efficiency, an intuitive operating panel and native BACnet (and Modbus) communications

Another exhibit will demonstrate the cube law principles behind the VSD, namely, reducing motor speed by only 20 percent decreases energy consumption by up to 50 percent.

Speak to an expert Experts from ABB’s energy team will be on stand offering advice on how they can optimise the energy efficiency and reliability of their HVAC applications with the latest VSDs, electric motors and life cycle services, including an ABB energy assessment. In addition, ABB’s John Guthrie will be looking at the impact of VSDs on a diverse range of sectors, offering real-life energy saving examples from venues including hospitals and swimming pools through to water & wastewater. The talk will take place on Thursday 17 November 2016, 11:50 - 12:20 at the Technology and Innovation Theatre.

However, it is when partnered with ABB’s IE4 SynRM motor that the ACH580 achieves energy savings of up to 60 percent, while delivering the best performance in the most efficient manner available on the market today.

Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016



sAVINGS THROUGH A CUSTOMISED BUREAU SERVICE Local authorities often find themselves with an unconsolidated portoflio making energy difficult to manage

Here is a summary of STC’s key achievements: •

Created an up-to-date site list and consolidated all supplies under the government procurement framework

Identified sites that were either on default or incorrect rates

Resolved queries for duplicate invoicing

agreed as part of STC’s ISO9001 Quality Assurance system.

Identified the schools that were on the wrong VAT rate and corrected with the suppliers

Similar to many other local authorities, this particular council did not have a complete list of their properties. As a result and as part of the set-up process, STC collated and cleansed the data from the previous provider, the council and the utility supplier. STC obtained historic data and created a list of meters and accounts. This enabled the council to control their energy spend and only pay for the sites that were within their portfolio.

Obtained CCL exemptions for qualifying schools

Corrected billing for sites that were no longer under the council’s responsibility

Identified sites that would benefit from a reduced supply capacity and managed the process for the council

In July 2013, STC were commissioned to provide an Energy Bureau Service for a large city council. The council’s objective was to develop a sophisticated energy management programme that would support them in reducing energy costs and managing bills.

The council had supplies on different contracts with multiple suppliers. STC’s bureau service identified these supplies and consolidated them onto the government procurement framework. STC also identified sites that were on default rates and added these to the group contract. This helped the council make savings on default rates and improve administration efficiency.

As with all STC’s Bureau contracts, a comprehensive and detailed specification Service Level Agreement (SLA) was

STC has identified and recovered over £8.6m worth of savings since July 2013.

STC continues to provide the council with a full energy bureau solution, through their Bureau Service, which includes a thorough bill validation service, using STC’s advanced energy management software. An STC account manager carefully reviews each invoice, and raises queries with the supplier. All queries are managed by STC, from start to completion. The council has access to STC’s unique online energy portal, which provides a wide range of energy management and financial reports, including copies of utility invoices and billing queries. This information assists the council in strategic planning to reduce energy consumption and save costs.


any local authorities find themselves with incomplete site lists, estimated utility bills and default unit rates. This often leads to overpayments being made and utility invoices not being investigated fully. This is when issues tend to crop up. Councils can also lack in-house expertise to incorporate energy-efficient measures such as on-site smart meters or consumption reports. The solution to this issue is to have a consolidated portfolio and a customised bureau service.

Case Study and Solution

Ongoing Service Provided

Want to know more about STC Energy’s bureau service and how we can help the public sector save costs? Simply call Alan Little on 0208 466 2915.


Energy Manager Magazine • november 2016

Product Showcase

£5m Science Centre Goes Green with CP Electronics


Hampshire sixth form college has achieved its ambition of building a brand new, state-of-the-art and environmentally friendly science centre, teaching block and café, thanks in part to the contribution of CP Electronics. The £5m green Science Centre at Barton Peveril Sixth Form College in Eastleigh, Hampshire, has three storeys and includes nine state-of-the-art laboratories and preparation rooms for the study of biology, chemistry and physics. There is also classroom space, a café and extensive private study areas. The centre was formally opened in December 2015 by Professor Joanna Haigh of Imperial College London, who is Co-Director of The Grantham Institute for Climate Change. This was particularly appropriate, given that the building was specifically designed to be environmentally friendly.

The Science Centre’s green credentials stem from a range of innovations, including lighting controls supplied by CP Electronics. In particular, the Vitesse Plus lighting control system was used in the teaching spaces and café, with microwave presence/absence detectors. With each Vitesse Plus lighting control module allowing 10 luminaire outputs to be configured as three channels for switching and dimming, the system provides great flexibility and adaptability. The Vitesse Plus user can manually control the on/off, dimming and absence/presence detection capabilities of their lighting, and the switch inputs can easily be configured to switch channels together or separately, as required. Further features including corridor hold output, and a range of customised wiring options, are also available. In the corridor and stair areas, microwave detectors were used.

Passive infrared (PIR) presence detectors have been used in the toilets, storage and office spaces. The use of these detectors generates both cost and energy savings, because lights are automatically switched off when a space is not being used and, because most of CP Electronics’ presence detectors incorporate lux sensors, they can adjust the use of light according to the ambient light availability. In other words, if there is sufficient natural light in the room, the lighting system ‘knows’ not to waste resources and leaves the lights off. For the electrical contractors involved in the Barton Peveril project, working with CP Electronics provided several clear advantages. Adam Searle of J&B Hopkins Limited, who worked on the science centre, echoes those sentiments. “When working on a specialist project of this size and where the environmental profile of the building is so important, it really pays to work with highly experienced professionals who are market leaders in this area. CP Electronics fit that description perfectly, and they gave us a flexible, environmentally friendly solution that was straightforward to install, easy to configure and best of all, gives the end user exactly what they want in a cost-effective way.” Martin Laws, of Accolade Building Services, who installed CP Electronics units in the new teaching block, private study areas and café, commented: “Thanks to CP Electronics’ innovative and forward thinking products, we have been able to give our client a highly flexible solution that can be programmed and re-programmed quickly and easily, according to their changing needs. That’s great news for everyone involved.” By installing CP’s absence detection in all areas and by using LED luminaires wherever possible, Barton Peveril Sixth Form College benefits from increased energy efficiency. For more information about CP Electronics’ products and the services they offer, please visit or call +44 (0)333 900 0671


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THE event for everyone responsible for reducing their organisation’s energy consumption.

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EMEX is the energy management show that connects all energy users with hundreds of leading suppliers, policy makers, engineers and experts. This marketplace includes a free to attend CPD accredited conference programme and an exhibition that will help you control energy costs, gain industry insights, source innovations, share knowledge and stay up to date with the latest and upcoming legislative changes. EMEX will host the PSS Awards Ceremony on 17th November. On behalf of my fellow board members of the Energy Managers $VVRFLDWLRQ ,¡G OLNH WR LQYLWH \RX WR EH SDUW RI (0(;

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It takes 2 minutes to register for FREE at

The Energy Management Exhibition EXCEL, LONDON Q 16-17th NOVEMBER 2016 As well as a great line up of speakers, exhibitors, partners and supporters fellow attendees include:


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