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CYBERNETICS workplace & technology By Aashna Poddar

Guided by Amal Shah Faculty of Design CEPT University


FACULTY OF DESIGN Student Name & Code

:

Aashna Poddar UI0114

Thesis Title

:

Cybernetics – Workplace and Technology

APPROVAL The following study is hereby approved as a creditable work on the approved subject carried out and presented in the manner, sufficiently satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a pre-requisite to the degree of Bachelor of Interior Design for which it has been submitted. It is to be understood that by this approval, the undersigned does not endorse or approve the statements made, opinions expressed or conclusion drawn therein, but approves the study only for the purpose for which it has been submitted and satisfies him/her to the requirements laid down in the academic programme.

Name & Signature of the Guide

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Declaration Declaration This work contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other Degree or Diploma in any University or other institutions and to the best of my knowledge does not contain any material previously published or written by another person except where due reference has been made in the text. I consent to this copy of thesis, when in the library of CEPT Library, being available on loan and photocopying.

Student Name & Code No: Aashna Poddar UI0114

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Date:


Acknowledgment Firstly, I would like to express my thanks and gratitude to my guide, Mr. Amal Shah without whom this research wouldn’t have been possible. I would like to thank him for his insights, encouragement, discussions and constant help and support throughout my research. I would also like to thank KP sir for giving mindful references in beginning stages of my thesis, Kaluav sir for directing me to remain organized, Olga for discussing whenever I needed and Seema Mam who gave me an outlook to take a sensible and sensitive approach towards design field and society at large. I offer my thank you to every one who has helped with the research and provided me with the data to lead the thesis. Without their information, this research would not have been conceivable. A big thanks to Mr, Kulin Kapadia, for his invaluable experience in workplace design practice and insights. Lastly, this would not have been possible without the support of my loved ones. To my mom and dad, thank you for believing in my goals, without your affection and support, I would not be the place that I am today. To my brother and sister, Harsh and Anushree, thank you for the help and amusingness. I would like to thank Helie and Parth for your advice and fruitful discussions at every point of the research. To Devashish for discussing whenever I needed. I would like to thank Adesh for his constant support and for being my mental support while we worked through this time. I would also like to acknowledge all my other friends, seniors and 14 batch for being part of this journey, who have upheld me consistently all these years.


‘A “collaborate” culture is best nurtured by a flexible environment with an organic layout, medium levels of enclosure, informal spaces and a low ratio of individual to group spaces. Haworth


01

Workplace

02

The concepts of technology in office

03

Case studies

I

Introduction

08

II

Aim, Objective and Limitation

09

III Methodology

10

1.1.0 Office

14

1.2.0 People, space and technology

22

2.1.0 Technology

26

2.2.0 Technology in office

30

2.3.0 Ontology of technology

35

2.4.0 Impact of application of technology (Innovation of New ways of working)

42

2.5.0 Spatial Organization as consequence of technology

50

2.6.0 Workplace as consequence of technology

58

3.1.0 Case studies

61

3.2.0 Analysis of data

116

4.1.0 Inferences

124

4.2.0 Key Findings

130

Bibliography

148

List of Figures

150

Case studiesC

04

Discussions


Introduction We have been immersed in the revolution of information technology, which is significantly changing the way most segments of society work. From entertainment to socializing to healing from the disease, pretty much every part of the human lifestyle is influenced by technological change and with it the space prerequisites of those undertakings. Advances in technology are having a significant impact on shaping the work environment; such that not just people are changing how they perform their everyday activities, but the spaces to perform such activities are additionally evolving. The research focuses on studying the way in which the spaces are evolving as a consequence of technological development in a workplace. The specific area of interest is office spaces. Workplace design configuration is influenced by the interaction between space, people and technology. Now with this new age of technology in offices which allows anybody to work from anywhere, it is necessary for designers to critically identify and analyze the application of technology in the physical world, affecting norms of spatial organization in workplace environments. This study is an attempt to comprehend technology in context to its conceptual application and its impact on space. This thesis will lead to better understanding of interaction between people and work to keep with technological development. The study questions the theories and concepts published in the relation to space planning in nineteenth and twentieth centuries which also becomes the framework to answer the research question and evaluate efficiency and effectiveness of the workplace.


Aim An inquiry into the concepts of the application of technology to identify its influence on spatial planning in offices.

Objectives To identify the application of technology in offices To identify the conceptual application of technology and its impact on real spatial design decisions in space planning To derive the emergence of the new ways of working within the workplace To analyze if/to what extent technology is changing space planning and evaluate if the system is effective and efficient in the office spaces

Scope and Limitation A study only into conceptual application of technology in the office Analyzing technology through 3 out of 7 core concepts of technology, using four concepts from the theory (Process, Controls, System & Optimization) to test impact in office The study will focus on only space planning related aspects of the application of technology in the office and not on the aesthetic of the workplace The thesis will look at multinational firms in different organization fields both primary and secondary study in India and outside respectively This study doesn’t talk about office technology (the type of computer systems, software, automation and distribution of data in the organization) Outcomes of the research only focused on the listed organizations selected for analysis. The offices taken into consideration is designed with new ways of working environment 9


PART II

PART I

Methodology of research

Literature Study “Organizational ecology” People, space and technology Beeker and Steele, 1994

PLANNING TYPES

ACTIVITY BASED WORKING

HIVE

New Ways of Working

CELL DEN CLUB

CHANGE

in control, command and communication in office

WORKPLACE

Organization

Duffy Work Modes

SPATIAL PLANNING

Technology

Change in workplace

APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY

ONTOLOGY

the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being

PROCESS

Literature Study Rethinking Technology William Braham, 2007

The Core Concepts of Technology

CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY

CONTROLS SYSTEM

Technology of Technology

Physical State of Technology

Ontology of Technology

CAUSE

MEANS

EFFECT


PART III

GLG, Austin Tech firm

W+K, Newyork Adversing agency

BCG, Seattle Management consulting

AIRBNB, Portland Call center

CASE STUDIES

FOCUS STUDIES

KEY FINDINGS

INDIAN EXAMPLES

AIRBNB, Gurgaon Customer UX center

BCG, Mumbai Management consulting

W+K, Delhi Adversing agency

Facebook, Mumbai Tech firm


‘A sense of where we come from is an essential ingredient in speculating on where we are, and the options that lie ahead for how we may move forward.’ Andrew Laing DEGW London LTD This chapter highlights on the brief of office history and identifies the major drivers of change and how they are changing the shape of workplace environment. Atrium of the Larking Administration Building. Frank Lloyd Wright. 1906


01

Workplace 1.1 Office

1.1.1 Historical background 1.1.2 Drivers of change

1.2 People, space and technology 1.2.1 Organizational Ecology 1.2.2 Activities in office

13


1.1 Office

“In order to look at the design of offices with any degree of sense, first we need to know what office are for, what is done in them, why do they exist? The answer to such basic questions are amazingly difficult to find.” (John Pile, 1969) “Office,” the word itself originates from the Latin word ‘officium’ which implies the execution of a task that itself was papered in medieval occasions from Latin words ‘opus’ which signifies ‘work,’ ‘facere’ (do). In this way, the office can be characterized as a place to perform an associated task of a specific organization. Offices have existed in some shape or form throughout history as a means of a individual, or body of people, to perform official administrative work. Here the significance of office is a service or duty to perform the assigned task. This is trailed by a place of trust and authority given to an individual or organization that performs the assigned task. Furthermore, at any rate, it implies a place, for example, a cabin, a suite or a building where the administrative, regulatory work is completed. This meaning of office separates itself from different workplaces, for example, factories, workshop, processing plants and other generation offices where products are created. In this way, an office can be comprehended as one of the workplaces where the information is proceeded based on control, command, and communication. The roots of the office take us to the Medieval ages. Up until the 17th century, most ‘knowledge work’ with concentration had occurred in the home. Be that as it may, as experts in the 18th century realized that they need a committed space to work out of, they began to move out. As Witold Rybczynski clarifies in Home - ‘The Short History of an Idea,’ this was the beginning of the social differences between the office (work) and home (privacy and comfort). The office has existed in some form from the beginning of time as a administrate which brought together the power of the state. The Palazzo Uffizi in Florence of the Medici or the Bank of England is a remarkable symbol of office as a workplace.

01 Workplace


workplace

noun a place where people work, such as an office or factory.

office

noun a room, set of rooms, or building used as a place for commercial, professional, or bureaucratic work. “an office job”

Figure 1.1.1 ‘The Old India Office, Leadenhall Street in 1803’, (c1872). East India House, the London headquarters of the East India Company.

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1.1.1 Historical background 1904 Taylorist office

Taylorism 1904 The very initial commercial offices showed up in the industrial time of the United States in the 19th century. Frederick Taylor, an American mechanical engineer who expected to improve industrial effectiveness, is viewed as among the first ones to design office space in 1904. He trusted that by incorporating institutionalization strategies, best executes of working conditions and participation, work would turn out to be quicker. Taylor’s thought was to exchange command and control from workers to managers and break the work into an essential task, that would change work into a repeatable, but as skill reducing task. He thronged workers along in an in all respects completely open setting while managers looked on from individual workplaces, which looked much like a factory floor.

Figure 1.1.2 (Above) The Larkin Building’s first floor order end rigidity governed plan.

Time-line of Technology

1907

1919

1923

Color Photography By Augster

Electric Typewriter James Amathers

Electronic Television Philo Famsworth

Be that as it may, at that point something occurred. The innovation of technology tagged along and changed how we consider work in the office. With progressions in telecommunication which made a point that offices be discrete from typical warehouses and factories. In the 19th century, Morse’s telegraph, Bell’s telephone and Amathers Electric typewriter, redefined both concepts of work and office design. With these technological advancements, the 1950s saw the offices stated to become autonomous from the outside world, just as taking into account more large, increasingly openplan floors where workers could be set anyplace. Figure 1.1.3 Johnson’s wax building floor plan

01 Workplace


Burolandschaft office 1961 In 1960, a group in Germany investigated the work method in the office and featured the requirement for better communication in the design of the office. This drove the Quickborner counseling group to begin advancing the Bürolandschaft or “Office Landscape”— an open plan office designed around the better flow of information and data. Rather than rows of desks, workspaces were isolated by curved screens to communication and collaboration. While as yet giving enough privacy to complete individual work. In Johnson’s wax building build in 1936-1939 by Frank Lloyd Wright in Wisconsin is the ideal precedent for office landscape. The design eliminates visual barriers like partitions where employees can move in the space around each department which indicates a harmonious environment for everyone working in the office. Structural mushroom-like columns and glass tube create a large open working environment. 1937

1943

1964

Computer machine Alan Turing (Concept)

Digital Computer

Computer Mouse Douglas Englbart

1968 Tablet PC and Laptop (Concept) Alan Kay

Figure 1.1.4 Johnson’s wax building floor plan

17


1904 Taylorist office

Open Plan office Centraal Beheer in the Netherlands offers an archetypal office that balanced the conflict in the office landscape. The office provided ease of communication with open spaces, yet defined spaces in such a manner that differentiate between individual personalized zones and small groups. It was one of the significant offices designed concerning burolandschaft ideology and became famous for its user-friendly design which allowed people to arrange furniture in their way and personalize their environment in their proximity

Figure 1.1.5 Central Beheer offices, an insurance company in Apeldoorn, Netherlands by Herman Hertzberger, 1972.

1971

1971

1973

1973

Email Ray Timlinson

Floppy Disk David Noble with ibm

Personal Computer Xerox PARC

Mobile Phone Motorola

Herman Miller Action office 1969 The thought came to Robert Propst, a former designer at the Herman Miller Research group in the States. He took the “office landscape” thought and tried to comprehend what an office space that balances concentration, collaboration and productivity could look like by. Propst’s proposed - The Action Office - a modular group of furniture and office dividers that furnished every individual with numerous workspaces. Huge multi-height desk, with storage space inside. The objective was to advance movement and action in the workspace to keep the flow of communication and information. While 120 Figure 1.1.6 Steven Lisberger. Tron. 1982 degree walled in areas guaranteed workers had enough privacy for concentration work. 01 Workplace


Cubicle Farm 1980 Тhe cubicles an in part encased workspace, isolated from neighboring workspaces by divisions that are generally 1.5– 1.8 m tall. Its reason for existing is to disengage office works from the visual and noises of an open workspace so they may think without diversions. An office loaded up with cubicles is in some cases called a cube farm.

Figure 1.1.7 Steven Lisberger. Tron. 1982

1982

1985

1990

Laptop Invented

Microsoft Windows World Wide Web Tim Bernes-lee

1998 Google

Casual office 2000 While the cubicle went about as a small meeting room, giving us the space we required for the huge tools of the time. The proceeded with scaling down of the PC and the development of the business laptop in the late 1990s implied we never again expected to close ourselves. The easygoing office is spearheaded by Silicon Valley programming firms in the eighties, which supports exceptionally customized workspaces suitedto extended periods of time spent programming. Figure 1.1.8 ChiatDay offices. Clive Wilkinson Architects. Los Angeles. 1997

Clearly casual office environments where designed to enable creative thinking which made offices to be an inspiring place to share knowledge. 19


1.1.2 Understanding the Drivers of Change The phase of change started with the PC revolution in the 1980s. The arrival of very first IBM PCs and restoration of the economy alongside aspirations to make less stark working life began impacting thought of workplaces. A cybernetic system as an idea of office has emerged - a system in which technology connects work and people. This situations together came about into circumstance that informed towards a rethinking of office design with a better flow of communication and work process. This had moved the office from a data processing factory to a place for creative processing of communication and information. By the 1990s, the technological boom shifted the focus more towards administrative oriented from the past notion of production oriented as it was. This is because the structure of offices turned out to be progressively complex for taking care of development in information handling and processing. Increased complex nature of office prompted thoughts which discussed existing methods for planning offices, investigating and testing more with burolandschaft standards, renegotiation of laws that ruined current prerequisites of settling inconsistencies between office organization and its spatial designs. (Worthington, 1997). A difference from the dull, turning gray desk areas of the earlier decade; the telecommunication technology blast toward the end of the twentieth century gave the first real case of how technological development could alter traditional working patterns. Change in traditional working patterns with widespread networking is resulting in ‘flatter and flexible’ organization with horizontal networks replacing vertical hierarchies. These changes in management are having an impact on the use of a property (Worthington, 1997). The industrial revolution brought in machinery, skills, and labor; while 21st-century Information and technology-based revolution brought intellect and creativity. Hence, it can be said that, technology as one of the drivers of change in the workplace.

01 Workplace


Figure 1.1.9 (Above) The office before the technological boom - new york times newsroom 1942 Figure 1.1.10 (Below) Chiat Day offices. Clive Wilkinson Architects. Los Angeles. 1997 casual office

Rob Harris in his book, ‘Interior plc’ argues that the search for the perfect workplace is an illusory concept. In considering the workplace of the future, the critical issue is how to anticipate and manage change. Therefore, it becomes critical for the organization and designers to understand the drivers affecting the shift in workplace and respond with the change.

21


1.2 People, Space and Technology 1.2.1 Organizational ecology With the reflection in the past and scenario of recent years, it can be stated that our day to day working, quite literally has been taken over by technology. This shift is only the beginning for more indicative changes like activities performed in the organizations, and we can see that in the style of “work” in the Taylorist sense is mostly changed. Tom Peters recorded the potential impact of these revolutions in his research, “Thanks to technology, the world is going bonkers. And it’s going to get more bonkers cubed on the way.” The relationship between people, space and technology, was explained well through using the concept of “Organizational ecology” Becker and Steele (1994). The concept of “Organizational ecology” recorded the fact that all organizations are essentially complex ecological systems characterized by the interdependence of social and physical systems. “Changes in any of these factors are likely to change the organizational ecology.” (Becker and Steele 1994). Organizational ecology visualized the workplace as a system in which physical setting factors are shaped based on how the work is processed in the organization, the organization’s behavior, and technology. Physical setting

Organizational Ecology

Work Processes

Technology Figure 1.2.1 The Organizational Ecology (Becker and Steele 1994)

Thus understand the evolution of the working environment, not only through organizational planning typology but through the technological development over period and its impact on organizational ecology which enhances the relationship between user and workplace based on their type of activities.

01 Workplace


1.2.2 Activities in office Giuliano (1985) defines an office as a place where people think, read, write, and communicate; where ideas are generated and plans are made; where money is collected and spent; where organizations and other business are managed. If technology is changing the way we perform such activities, the office needs to change in the nature and organization of office work. These task in the office can be various and different. Right from the task of meeting to the undertaking of photocopying can be considered as a piece of work at any office. Thus in all offices, there is a system in place for ‘work’ and its related ‘task’ to do data input, data processing, and data output. The working of this system changes as indicated by the kind of offices typologies. Its three viewpoints can group office typology. By the field of work the firm is included in, size of the firm and nature of the organization the firm is.

Irrespective of the typology of the office, the work, and fuctions associated to it can be categorized as two sets of activities - these activities include functions which are assigned to an individual or group of individuals. For example in an office, the activity of telesales person can be considered as an individual assigned activity while the activity of creative heads exchanging ideas in a meeting is group assigned activity. That is because many individual events may take place as a part of the group due to the nature of the task which may require both individual and group activities. Group activities can be long term or short term. Seminars and board meetings are an example of short term group activities, while some people working together on a specific project for months is an example of long term group activity. These set of activities and their nature of work determines the working environment of the office supporting types of workspaces.

23


In the last ten years ‘networking’, ‘job sharing’ and ‘desk sharing’ have become part of the terminology of the workplace environment. This chapter, drawing the research by using theory ‘The Core Concepts of Technology’ from literature to define the application of technology in workplace. The focus lies on highlighting the importance of the office as an environment and need for application of technology that is changing physical state of organizational ecology.


02

The concepts of application of technology in office 2.1 Technology

2.1.1 The seven core concepts of technology 2.1.2 The core concepts of technology

2.2 Technology in office 2.2.1 Processes 2.2.2 Controls 2.2.3 Systems

2.3 Ontology of the application of technology 2.3.1 Connectivity 2.3.2 Mobility 2.3.3 Flexibility

2.4 Impact of application of technology (Innovation of New ways of working) 2.4.1 Tele-working 2.4.2 Hot-desking 2.4.3 Work-lounge 2.4.4 Work-Cafe

2.5 Organizational planning as consequence of technology

2.5.1 Working modes in office 2.5.2 Diffusion of work modes 2.5.3 Innovation of new work modes 2.5.4 Change in organizational planning 2.5.5 Activity-based working (ABW)

2.6 Workplace as a consequence of technology 25


2.1 Technology

technology noun

the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.

cybernetics noun

the science of communications and automatic control systems in both machines and living things.

“Technology” the word itself originates from the Greek word ‘logos” and “techne” which is defined as “set of knowledge” and “systematic treatment” respectively, which means the science or knowledge placed together systemically into practical use to invent or solve problems. In this scenario, technology refers to methods and tools that can be applied to solve real-world problems. However, in 2007, Braham in his book “Rethinking technology” states that the significance of technology has returned to the discourse on purpose and meaning, where the emphasis on technology to be perceived as not just a physical state of tool instead as a theoretical concepts that can be used to enhance the technological activity, such as system approach and design processes. In context to the workplace, Giuliano (1985) states that “new technology inevitably affects the organization of work” and identifies three stages of office organization, each characterized not only by its technology but also by its application in the organization, its impact on hierarchy and work-style which informs the communication in the office. Thus, technology is referred to as tools and process of transforming or modifying the workplace environment. Cybernetics is stated as the interaction between the virtual and real world that can be reconceptualized as the mobilizing notion of cybernetic space to signify the relationship between people and space. Thus, the concept of cybernetics can be perceived as a metaphor that can allow a holistic convergence between people, space and technology. To evaluate technology as a driver of change, the core concepts of the technology are used to comprehend the conceptual application of technology in the office.

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


2.1.1 The seven core concepts of technology The theory of core concepts of technology are driven by human needs and are influenced by the seven core concepts of technology: Processes, Controls, Requirement, Trade-off, Resources, System, and Optimization. These concepts are used as the foundation for producing creative ideas. These concepts are explained as Process which is a set of activities used to consolidate resources to create an output. (A model that would quantify ingredients, consolidating, and bake the mixture to make a cake) Controls are the mechanism that use the information to that can make changes in the system. Controls might be manual or programmed (like the indoor regulator used to control the temperature of your home or pedal in vehicle.) Controls are the essential ingredient in a “closed-loop” system. Requirements and Resources are the “parameters” set on the development and improvement of an item or system. These are the “must do” parts of the procedure. Criteria recognize the ideal highlights of an item or system. Imperatives include the restrictions of a plan. System is a gathering of requires all parts to work appropriately all together for the system to work. The human body and our electrical matrix are instances of a system. If one section fails, every single other part is affected and may fail the whole system. Tradeoff involves making the product as functional as it can be, given the criteria and constraints. A trade-off includes a decision of one quality over another. A precedent would make an item out of plastic (which would be less expensive) over utilizing increasingly costly aluminum or other material. Optimization involves making the product as functional and practical as it can be, given the criteria and limitations.” Thus, optimization can be explained as a goal to create the best system by using all tools available. These are defined as core concepts of the technology which is used as a framework and foundation for productivity.

27


2.1.2 The core concepts of technology To identify and analyze the impact of the application of technology in the workplace, research uses the three core concepts of technology as a framework to comprehend the conceptual applications of technology in the office. PROCESS CAUSE PROCONCEPT CESS CONNECTIVITY

RESOURCES + REQUIREMENT

CONTROLS

TOOLS

MEANS

PROCONCEPT CESS

PROCONCEPT CESS NEEDS

MOBILITY

TRADE-OFF

SYSTEM

CHANGE

EFFECT

PROCONCEPT CESS

CONCEPT PROCESS

OPTIONS

PROCESS

FLEXIBILITY

OPTIMIZATION IMPACT CONCEPT PROCESS EFFICIENCY EFFECTIVENESS

OPTIMIZATION CONTROLS SYSTEM

Figure 2.1.1 The core concepts of technology and its meaning stated by technocrats

Processes A method could be a sequence of actions accustomed to mixing resources to supply associate degree output. In context to technology, Chaharbaghi and Robert Wills (2000) stated that the greatest invention of humankind could not be found in technologies themselves, but in the technology of technology. They define the technology of technology not as a fixed state of being (physical technology itself, screens, etc.) but as the natural process of becoming. The way data is processed to make the technology (physical) function. Controls Controls are the activation mechanism that use data to cause the system to change — controls as an essential ingredient in a closed loop system. In the context of the application of technology in the office spaces, it is stated as the processed technology in the technology (tool itself) and the control function in the workplace environment. 02 The concepts of application of technology in office


Systems A group of interconnected parts designed conjointly to attain a standard goal. A system requires all elements to function correctly for a system to perform. An example of such a system can be the human body or an electrical grid. If any one part fails, the impact is on all other components which may lead to a collapse of the entire system. Sometime during the 1980s the technological society which began in the fourteenth century came to an end. Now I recognize that the dating epochs involves interpretation and perhaps some fuzziness in assigning beginnings and endings; but, nevertheless, it appears to me that the age of tools has now given way to the age of systems, exemplified in the conception of the earth as an ecosystem, and the human beings as an immune system� (Ivan Illich) Ivan Illich in the above statement focuses on the changing notion of emergence specifically the idea of instrumental connection introduced in the 12th century, in which he argued had initiated the age of tools or technology, but since the effects of the first industrial revolution became widespread in the early 19th century, the technology encountered by architects has changed in scope and kind, becoming a restless and accelerating process of transformation. Wiliam W. Braham (2007), referred to the everincreasing pace of technological change, the situation of the change itself has become the subject in the field of architectural and design discussion. The change manifested in the use of terms like process, flow, and emergence. For most architects and designers the word ‘technology’ still refers to the arrangement of computer and tools, in any case, in late decades, the term has turned out to be synonymous with the entire component of an organized data stream. With this specific change, lead to the move in architecture and technology - all the more definitely, the instruments of structure and techniques that have turned into a matter of systems.

29


2.2 Technology in Office In the literature, it was stated by the technocrats that the development of technology and its application would change the course of how the activities can be performed in the future. 2.2.1 Processes (Technology of technology) As technology has been defined the ‘technology of technology’ not as a fixed state of being ( not as a technological tool) instead as the internal process of becoming and working.

CAUSE PROCESS

PROCESS CAUSE

Change in HOW work can be performed in workplace

CONNECTIVITY

CONCEPT

Placing this concept of process in the office, the process can be referred to the development of (IT) information technology, specifically through wireless technologies and the internet that enable work to be separated from space and time. In context to the offices, this can be supported by “Francis Duffy predication of Information technology as an agent for the future workplace design.” The application of the process is changing notions of how people work which is primarily enabled by the wireless technology and wireless LAN which is conceptualized to strengthen levels of connectivity in the workplace. This application of communication is both inside and outside the office which is helping in connecting organizations across the globe where by using some of the developing technologies software platforms. The organization can connect and work on small smartphones up to full-scale teleconferencing spaces in the office. These set of applications of technology in context to process highlights the increasing demands in connectivity between the people and space; where connectivity is the conceptual application of technology. 02 The concepts of application of technology in office

Figure 2.2.1 (Left) Cause of process (IT and IOT as technology of technology) Figure 2.2.2 (Above) shows the integration of Internet and IOT in the Airbnb Gurgaon office which allows employees to stay connected inside and outside the office. The connectivity isn’t limited to people of the organization, the technology also allows interaction between space and people, where employees can control their work environment.


2.2.2 Controls (Medium of technology) Dr. Michael O’Neill, Senior director at Knoll workplace research, says - ‘Office technology is becoming “consumerized.” The emphasis on the change in the relationship between employees and office technology, as the “consumerization” of technology that places wireless communication and mobile devices inside the hands of employees. Users raise variations in physical tools for work, and several bringing their instrumentation to work.

Change in WHAT tools used to perform work in workplace

MOBILITY

MEANS

CONTROLS CONCEPT

Figure 2.2.3 (Right) Means to control technology (Physical state of technology as controls of the technology) Figure 2.2.4 (Above) shows means of control at Communique Marketing Solutions Office, Gurgaon

Employees demands for variations of physical tools for work and a few bring their instrumentation to figure - expecting the ability to ‘plug and play.’ As defined as ‘physical tool’ as the application of controls in context to the office, controls are allowing the “freeing up” of employees who were previously tied to their assigned workstation which has been primarily enabled by the WIFI and tools which aimed to strengthen levels of mobility in the workplace. In this process of implementation, the range of technological tools has become ever more pervasive such as personal computers, laptops, mobiles (tablets and phones), interactive workstations, as well as wearables change the way human beings interact with information and communicate with one another in the office The organizations presently support progressively technology-enabled work process, the old working environment, which depended on a fixed location for work is being supplanted by a new office model dependent on mobile technological controls. 31


2.2.3 Systems (Ontology of technology) With an increase in connectivity and mobility in the office provided by rapidly changing technological advances leads to increase growth in technical infrastructure that enables the change is physical systems in the workplace design. The system approach as a concept for an office has emerged. A system in which the concepts of application of technology changing the fundamental beliefs of where the work can be performed in the office. Change in WHERE the work is performed in the workplace ONTOLOGY

SYSTEM

Change in Organization Ecology

FLEXIBILITY

CONCEPT

These essential set of circumstances together resulted in a situation that directed towards a rethinking of office design with the focus on communication and control in the workspace. In 1969, the magazine Progressive Architecture committed an issue to “space planning” which means the format of planning of the “billions of square feet of office space.” Boyce (1969) explains that the activities research and system analysis had risen out of technological advances. As the pace of mechanical change was felt stimulate, endeavors to figure the following difference become increasingly, and progressively critical. Boyce states “What is interesting for the question of technology and architecture is the application of management theories and system thinking to the professional design process themselves.” In this way, Boyce accentuation on the system approach which is more than just a technological pan. He emphasis on it as a demeanor and idea towards planning which may change the critical fundamental beliefs of architects and designers. 02 The concepts of application of technology in office


There are two perspective to system approach. First as the information systems which allows the work to process where technology such as WIFI, networks and other controls enables the business to operate in the office - which means of the system that will allow people to control their work environment with integration of the technology that controls air handling, lightning, and tools to perform work.

Figure 2.2.5 (Left) Physical Setting as System (Workspaces developed with integration of process and controls) Figure 2.2.6 (Above) and Figure 2.2.7 (Below) shows the scenario at Communique Marketing Solutions Office, Gurgaon, who provides a workspace that reflects the system approach proving range of work setting in the workplace

Second is the system approach of planning that supports the office to function in this format - where the office is now designed to accommodate this facility in both furniture and layout about how the work is performed. Setting this tone for workspaces of the future, along with increasing modes of communication in the workplace, organizations are getting warmed up to the idea of tracking all workplace-related data, including the way employees use the office infrastructure. Interaction and interchange form a significant element of the office activity - how people interact changing, influenced by technology and by the needs of the individual. Thus, this system approach has an impact on the physical setting which is changing notions of where the work can be performed in the office. The enabled connectivity and mobility are emerging the concept of flexibility in the system where technology here is perceived it its ontological state. 33


CAUSE PROCESS

Change in HOW work can be performed in workplace

CAUSE

CONNECTIVITY

CONCEPT

MEANS PROCESS

Independent variable X Technology of technology

MOBILITY

CAUSE

CONCEPT

Inter and intra

PROCESS

Change in WHAT tools used work can be performed in workplace

Inside and outside

CONTROLS

EFFECT PROCESS CAUSE

CONCEPT

Change in WHERE work can be performed in workplace

FLEXIBILITY

Organizational and employee’s perspective

SYSTEM

Intervening variable Y Physical state of technology

Dependent variable Z Ontology of technology New ways of working

Figure 2.2.8 (Above) Physical Setting as System (Workspaces developed with integration of process and controls)

(X +Y )+ s (Z) = Optimization of application of technology s- Spatial planning

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


2.3 Ontology of Application of Technology Ontology is the study of ‘being,’ of the ‘what is’ with the nature of existence. In ontology, realism sustains that reality exists outside the mind. The focus is on the point of view that the world (and things in the world) exists independently of our consciousness of them. The emphasis on the application of technology on realism as its ontological position. Lawson (2008) expressed that the ontology will, in general, be held in broad doubt by numerous progressing occupied with the investigation of innovation. The ontology of technology that will be both adequate to metaphysics commentators and accommodating for those drawn in with the use of innovation. By illustration upon ongoing advancement in social mysticism and extending these into the technological domain, it’s a capability to support a conception of technology that is not exclusively unchangeably social but rather ready to give due weight to those highlights that separate between technical articles and different other artifacts.

Figure 2.3.1 Ontology of technology impact on change in physical setting of workplace)

Thus, it’s not just the technology we use at work that has changed the office design; it’s the concepts of application of technology that permits us which directly impacts the environment in office design. Therefore, the notion of the use of technology seems to be an outcome of the mentioned shift in ontological terms. 35


2.3.1 Connectivity Globalization has changed the manner by which organizations work, making an industry that requests competition and larger amounts of efficiency. With organizations growing past the national limits in the quest for business openings, working crosswise over topographies and time zones has made an all day, everyday culture. Representatives are significantly more portable, and organizations are moving far from relegated workplaces and toward increasingly open and technologically well-prepared workspaces that advance the collaboration. Communication is an every day basic for all; it is utilized to pass on ideas an trade data. Organizations use communication technological tools to encourage the progression of data in a workplace, to serve clients needs and demands, to advance new items or administrations to focused buyers thus considerably more. The application, for example, cloud computing, web conferencing and tele-presense have driven network over the globe.

Figure 2.3.2 Connecting globally via on line source

As the communication is traveling quicker, the world appears to be smaller and smaller. These recent advances in computing and communication technology has also led to awareness of environmental impact of travel and has resulted into new ways of working without commuting.

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


2.3.2 Mobility The ontology of technology enables mobility where wireless communication is the catalyst for this process. Shifting to a ‘moving’ method for working can be a ruffle for organizations that are as of now set and fixed in setting to hierarchical spatial arranging. Be that as it may, the work environment today mirrors the dimension of versatility. Mobility in this instance means the competence of employees to be mobile within their office and to use all range of spaces available in the office. In the interim, wireless technology has achieved enormous significance. Never again do individuals associate themselves with a specific workspace. This opens up the potential with the workplace, for individuals to approach a lot more group and collaborative activities. Despite the expanding significance of the use of technology, there is still obstruction among specific engineers in pondering the infrastructure to function mobile. In any case, some new products and ideas are emerging in that market to resolve these infrastructure issues. This notion of this mobility is observed in the shift from computer workforce to laptop workforce in the organization. The (figure 2.3.3) shows the scenario at the Facebook office, Mumbai where the number of employees work and choose the physical state of technology as tools based on the kind of work which is provided by Facebook. The image shows the employee’s working on laptops even when they are supplied with assigned workstations with tools integrated with the workstations. In this case, Dr. Michael O’Neill statement of “consumerization” in controls is reflected in the Facebook office.

Figure 2.3.3 Mobile technology at Facebook, Mumbai Figure 2.3.4 shows inbuilt tech tools in the Sterlite power, Mumbai office Figure 2.3.5 Getting power and data lines out the access floor and onto the furniture and desk

However, if the organization applies the application of process and controls which can allow better connectivity and mobility but the organization does not reflect the conceptual application in the system, i.e. the physical setting, the technology remains just as tools helping in the production of work, not improving the performance of the activity. 37


2.3.3 Flexibility The technological discourse is allowing changing the organizational behavior and increasing flexibility in using the workplace. Inspecting of the literature revels that workplace flexibility can be conceptualized in two specific ways. Workplace Flexibility: the capacity of association organizing and enabling representative’s to settle on decisions impacting when, where, and for to what extent they participate in work-related tasks.

FLEXIBILITY CONCEPTS

1 Organizational perspective

‘the ability of organization to adapt, structure and design the workplace on when, where and for how long employees can do work-related tasks’

Employee’s ‘the ability of employees to make choices influencing when, where, and for how long they engage in perspective work-related tasks’ 2

Figure 2.3.6 Concepts of Workplace Flexibility

The main idea is referred to as the ‘Organizational Perspective’, emphasizes flexibility with respect to the organization with just auxiliary respect to workers. The organizational point of view verifiability conceptualizes workplace flexibility as ‘how much organization highlights fuse a degree of flexibility that enables the organization to adjust to changes in their workplace environment (Dastmalchian and Blyton, 2001,). The second concept of workplace flexibility, which is referred to as the ‘Employee’s Flexibility’, principally underlines singular right with regards to organizational culture and structure. This point of view expressly conceptualizes workplace flexibility as how much workers can settle on decisions in regard central parts of their expert lives, especially with respect to where, when, and for to what extent work is performed (Workforce Adaptability 2010). The fundamental presumption is that specialists are HR, entire people with basic life needs outside of work. In like manner, it is accepted that when people see they are better ready to address their issues by practicing flexibility, they will be increasingly productive.

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


Despite the fact that flexibility is naturally a trait of the workplace in both the organizational and employee’s perspective, the practical function behind flexibility varies in each. This part of the definition emphasizes the significance of both the opportunities structure for flexibility in the organization (formal flexible work choices) and the decision of an individual employee’s to utilize such workplace flexibility. They are tending to the flexibility that enables the organization and employees to have opportunities just as some choice and control over choices made about when, where, and how work gets done. Thus, workplace flexibility should be perceived as a continuum and not as a dichotomy. The context to workplace design, levels of flexibility in regards to both organization and employees, can be implemented and evaluated on the below-listed parameters. The organization adapting to choose how, where and when employee’s should work in the workplace

The organization designs the environment with the concept of where the work can be performed in the workplace

The organization allows employee’s to choose how, where and when to work in the workplace

Organizational flexibility is to enable and structure the particular typology of the organization as an entire to adapt to accelerating changing demands on how, where and when the work would be performed by the workforce and its implementation placed on the organization workplace design. Location flexibility is the approach to offer flexibility to employees is to work from home or work remotely from their customary spots of employment the workplace (by andW large from their homes), on a part-time or full-time premise (Ferris, and Weitzman, 2001). Another choice is providing with a scope of spaces in the workplace separated from a conventional workstation, for example, work-relax and another alternative workspace. The application of technology has permitted the talk of the virtual office, in which employees are given the compact way to carry out their work and the opportunity to pick what work setting would best for work and individual/ family needs (Weiner, and Colihan, 1998). Employee’s flexibility allows the workers to choose when and where to work in the workplace. A protocol by the organization of no assigned desk allows the employees to address themselves based on the kind of work they want to do on the desk and another alternative workspace in the workplace..

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Through the set of theories, it very well may be expressed that ontology of technology has permitted authoritative standards and qualities have moved toward expanded flexibility in time, place and the ways that work gets done, leading to many innovative strategies. These changes have led a shift in space-planning design of the workplace. Different typologies of organization are adapting this practice.

Figure 2.3.7, 2.3.8 and 2.3.9 shows the range of workspace in the workspace apart from assigned workstation and meeting rooms in the Airbnb, customer care center, Gurgaon office where the office shows the location flexibility in the workplace. The office adapts the idea of new ways of working by comprehending the convergence between people, space and technology.

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


According to Franklin Becker, director of the International Workplace Studies Programme at Cornell University, “About 70 percent of the time people in jobs like management consultancy, sales, and customer service are not at their desks. which is a constant statistic for the western countries.” In context to India, Franklin becker’s stats are reflected not only in management consulting and customer service center office but also in other organizational fields. Work in many other fields like creative media and advertising shows a similar result. Weiden + Kennedy, a creative media agency in Delhi shows both organizations perspective and employee’s flexibility. The office reflects the idea of giving the flexibility of giving a range of workspaces. Implementing this notion of Figure 2.3.10 (Above) shows the level of location flex- workplace indicates both organizations’ point of ibility in Weidend+Kennedy , Dehli office. The sce- view of W+K culture which is reflected in the spatial nario shows the usage of library and lounge space. organization and employees viewpoint where they have the freedom to pick the work setting. Figure 2.3.11 and 2.3.12 (Below) W + K workstation is occupied by other employees, thus the idea of sharing workspaces shows both perspective.

As talked about, the term ‘flexibility’ is changing and adjusting with the advancing work environment. Flexibility is never again characterized by the working environment workplaces or tools. Flexibility is fundamental to new work practices. This routine with regards to the adjusting of adaptability in the work environment is bringing forth the advancement of new ways of working. Thus, conclusively it can be understood that the sum of these three concepts, connectivity (X), mobility (Y) and flexibility (Z) can lead to at most translation of conceptual application of technology; where X+Y+Z = system approach to the collaborative workplace. Absence of any of the three will not be as productivity as it should be.

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2.4 Innovation of New ways of Working

In the 21st century, society and organizations are looking for means on which the development of technology affects the business, work environments, and human behavior. As today’s environment is full of uncertainty, one-way technological innovation is changing the rules. By the increasing capacity to generate more information than people can absorb, faster more interdependencies than anyone can manage, and accelerated change faster than anyone’s ability to keep pace (Miller, 2005). Technology is allowing “mobility and flexibility”, which is driving the importance of comfort workspaces, both in and out of the office environment. Change is organization space planning which allows the employees to work remotely with various collaborative space in the office with technological tools is to enhance the office to increase mobility which leads nurture the control, communication, and productivity. In the workplace, a new “anytime, anywhere” work culture is emerging (Van Horn & Storen, 2000). Continuing advances in information technology, the proliferation of a global workforce, and increased desire for work-life balance. With implications for organizational cost savings and increased employee flexibility and productivity, there are a series of new ways of working strategy adopted by organizations such as teleworking, hot-desking and emergence of third place. Breaking from traditional methods of working on the same workstation 9-5, the ontology of technology is allowing the organization to adopt new ways of working. Where the level of productivity doesn’t limit itself to ease of work but also productivity ease of working environment to the employees. Organizations need to provide employees with the ability to quickly move from tasks that require concentration to collaborative modes of work; therefore, their environment needs to be dynamic. New ways of working balances individual space with formal meeting rooms, and nontraditional spaces. The concept of teleworking, hot-desking and other alternative workspaces gives the employee the flexibility to work from anywhere without hampering the work. 02 The concepts of application of technology in office


2.4.1 Tele-Working The term teleworking, as it is referred to in the western nations, working from home, as it is referred to in Europe, home-working, or telecommuters are largely terms that are utilized pass on the possibility that work is something you do, not somewhere you go (Baruch, 2001). Because of its different marks and definitions, a shortage of clearness exists identifying with a few work issues, together with partner endless supply of remote workers in the present workforce. The area of work might be the representative’s home, a remote office, or some other spot outside of the customary office space (e.g., while out and about or from a customer site). This is a developing idea of better approaches for working in western nations. The other point of view on teleworking declares that the main problem is whether quality work completes on schedule, paying little respect to where it is done or on the off chance that it is finished amid the standard eight-hour workday. The process of IOT in the application of technology is allowing means of cloud computing where the employees can get on organization server from any device and remotely work without any hindrance on the work quality.

Figure 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 Idea of teleworking, flexibility to work form home

Many progressive organization who are strongly committed to work/life issues hold this perspective of following and adapting this new teleworking arrangements foe employee in their workplace 43


2.4.2 Hot-Desking The concept of hot-desking means that employees effectively share desks - a shift from the assigned desk to non assigned desk. The employee does not have assigned workstation, so while landing into the office, they can pick them where they sit and work - change in the physical condition. This prompts association with various divisions and individuals, meeting new individuals and renewing their methodology and dispositions to work. This idea is as much a social change as it is a physical one. As employees can change what their everyday condition appears as though, it manages significantly greater flexibility with regards to their social and home lives. With hot desking, individuals are never again fastened to their work area - hence increase interaction. Hot desking enables organizations to permanently eliminate such squandered space, as only one out of every odd representative should be furnished with a conventional work area consistently. This eliminates gear costs as well as can enable organizations to scale down their tasks into a space that is progressively moderate, while as yet keeping up a productive workforce. Mumbai office, where 50 Sterlite employee share desk in an open plan. The office has been designed with 28 workstations with fixed desktop and rest as an alternative workspace to give the flexibility. Employees get their device and can select workstation to work. The concept is adopted by an energy consulting firm where ontology of technology is changing boundaries of typical consulting organizational behaviors. Areas of an office are not just limited to individual team and department; everyone integrates and blurs level of the hierarchy. Although in some organization, it’s not always possible for all departments to be integrated entirely (after all, people still need to know where to go to talk to someone in a specific department - such as finance or HR), within those areas, members of staff share desks - hot-desking in particular departments or hot-desking for apart from assigned desk in the layout. With adapting hot-desking, the employee can select which set of a physical setting that suits them best based on the kind of work they want to do which result in higher levels of productivity in their work.

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


2.4.3

2.4.4

2.4.5

Figure 2.4.3 Hot-desking in Fcebook, Mumbai office has a series of an assigned desk to the Facebook employees, which is focused on individual work. The office follows the concept of hotelling which is also an alternative word for hot-desking. The figure 2.4.6 shows the workstation for a group of 6 people with no fixed computers. This workstation is used as hotelling for team members to book and conduct informal meetings. This is also used by the set of employees who visit the location office for specific work.

Figure 2.4.4 Sterlite Power, energy consulting company. Mumbai office hot-desking setting in the layout Figure 2.4.5 (above) and figure 2.4.6 (below) shows scenario at Titan , Bangalore office. The office adapts news ways of working where, no individual is assigned desk.

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2.4.3 Work - Lounge One of the emerging space in the office to increase collaboration is a design that transforms under-used break-out spaces into a functional all-day, multifunctional area as “Work Lounge.” Work Lounges encourage both scheduled and spontaneous meetings to take place in a casual, informal atmosphere. These group-oriented spaces and common areas draw employees in and facilitate spontaneous interactions, brainstorming and knowledge sharing. Work Lounges can be a great use of real estate since multiple meetings can occur nearby without creating several enclosed meeting rooms in a row. The workplace support work on a broader variety of spaces to move non-focus activities away from the desk. Employees who have a variety of areas to work in apart from the traditionally assigned work stations in their office locations, are more engaged and have a stronger connection to their organization according to Gensler workplace 2019 research. Gensler research place these spaces under “alternative workspace.” Also, this allows the employees to have stronger relationships with other employees and the organization.

Figure 2.5.1 Means to control technology (Physical state of technology including computer)

Figure 2.4.7 shows Airbnb, Gurgaon office, series of worklounge is spread across the office where the space is located in proximity to workstations and meeting rooms to conduct informal, unscheduled team discussions.

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


The lounge setting concept allows collaboration in informal space with different series of seating types. These lounge spaces can be booked, checked on the server for meetings within the organization as well as used as an alternative workspace for employees to shift from workstations to lounge seating the other times. The idea lies in the proximity of placing a series of such lounge seating near the workstations gives Airbnb employee the flexibility to choose the workspace based on their work type. The layout of work-lounge varies from a range of seating layouts such as home living room furniture type to linear edge seating to simple tables and chairs. Airbnb Gurgaon office shows a similar range of lounge setting in the layout floating across the office (Refer to figure 2.4.7 and 2.4.8) Similar to Airbnb, range of floating work lounge space is part of Facebook work environment design, where lounge furniture type different in work lounge based on kind of activity that needs to be performed in particular space. The figure 2.4.9 shows comfy lounge setting which is majorly for informal discussion and break from traditional workstations.

Figure 2.4.8 Alternative workspace seating in Airbnb Gurgaon office Figure 2.4.9 Lounge spaces at Facebook, Hyderabad office

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2.4.4 Work - Cafe Allow any employee, as a person or as a gaggle, to figure and meet at anyplace. Access to process and controls, the application of technology is making this possible even during tea breaks. Similar to the concept of work lounge, organizations are shifting fixed work time schedules and allowing employees to take several breaks based on their needs without hampering the work. In contrast to a common corporate cafeteria, WorkCafé gives a blend of working and feasting conditions. Notwithstanding inventive, solid nourishment and refreshment choices, it offers workers an assortment of workplaces that suit singular work, just as little and extensive shared work where individuals can take part in a wide scope of activities. This notion of work cafe is often found in coworking spaces; however, with the idea of new ways of working, organizations are rethinking their traditional cafeteria. SpaceMatrix tries to fostering this concept of work-cafe and sense of community in Airbnb, Gurgaon office which shows essential to have a defined space typology that was specific to function. The Airbnb office has efficiently achieved this with open community spaces and exciting alcoves like the “Chai Bar,” caves and duck-ins as work-cafe with informal seating in the proximity allowing employees to collaborate over a cup of tea. Similar to Airbnb, other corporate organizations are adapting the similar approach towards incorporating such work-cafe in their workplace. The cafeteria setting (figure 2.4.11) for energy consultant firm, Sterlite Power in Mumbai office that is designed as a community table next to the pantry with warm wooden finishes giving homely comfort and allowing unscheduled team gatherings over a cup of coffee. Boston Consulting Group, a management consulting office in Mumbai (Figure 2.4.12) where they adopt the same approach of creating a homely comfort informal cafe environment for employees and scenario at Bookings.com which reflects the essence of the local culture and facilitate social interactions in the workplace. Employees may and may not work in the cafe setting. However, the place allows them to conduct spontaneous discussions followed by long meetings over coffee.

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


2.4.10

2.4.11

2.4.12 Figure 2.4.10 Cafe seating in Airbnb, Guragaon office Figure 2.4.11 Cafe seating at Sterlite Power, Mumbai Figure 2.4.12 Cafe seating at Boston Consulting Group, BCK Mumbai office Figure 2.4.13 (Left) Cafe seating at Bookings.com, Mumbai office

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2.5 Organizational planning as consequence of technology 2.5.1 Working modes in the office

Interaction increases

Francis Duffy, the founder of the renowned architecture firm DEGW, who spend his career helping organization on profound office planning and use office space more effectively over time. In the 1990s, space planning in offices used to be mainly based on hierarchy and organizational structure, with less concern for work processes. Duffy realized that a more efficient approach needs to be planed based on jobs carried out. The research led him to derive two key variables “interaction and autonomy” that regulate the nature of work in any organization. Combination of these variables in various ways outlined four basic work modes as Hives, Cells, Dens, and Clubs. In the book “The new office” Duffy mentions the four ways of the process the data in the office. They are Individual, Group, Concentrated and Transnational processing.

Group Process

Transactional Knowledge work

Individual Process work

Concentrated Study

Autonomy increases Figure 2.5.1 The 4 methods of permutations of working with respect to its interactive and autonomous nature

He described these four work modes where “Hives are characterized as an individual, routine process work with a low level of interaction and low autonomy” such as workplaces like data entry, telesales, call center or banking operations. “Cell office accommodates individual, concentrated work and little interaction,” such as work of an accountant, lawyers, and management consultants.”Den offices are associated with group work, typically highly interactive but not necessary highly autonomous,” such as design orientated studio, advertising, and media service workplace.” 02 The concepts of application of technology in office

DEN

CLUB

HIVE

CELL

Autonomy increases


“Club offices are for “open-ended-problemsolving” requiring constant access to a vast array of shared knowledge - work that is both highly autonomous and highly interactive”, such as creative advertising, media technology development. Later in 1998, DEWG & BRE, New environment for working investigated elective models of work modes for kinds of organization to comprehend their diverse effects on space use and occupancy. The four organizational sorts were distinguished relating to unmistakable examples of room inhabitance. DEWG results accentuated on the much standard work is getting to be automated. Imaginative learning work requests a blend of exceptionally thought individual work close by interactive cooperation.

Shared task setting

Interaction increases

Group Spaces

Autonomy increases

Simple Workstations

Shared workstations and cellular

Intermittent occupancy increases

The environment which supports this complex combination of activity is the best call the “CLUB.” The idea of Club refers back to the conventional Gentleman’s club in which various and highly specific work settings can accommodate many different individual and group activities. They mentioned the critical characters in making their environment communal by many people over time. In that sense, the Club approach overcomes the dichotomy between the high user-friendly North European office and the cost-efficient North American speculative office. Hence, it is the innovation of rethinking the time utilization of space that is the primary means by which architectural design can provide buildings and workplace that better supports users are emerging needs an organization’s efficiency. 51


2.5.2 Diffusion of work modes “One way to define the start and end of the diffusion process is by assessing the changing identity of the innovation as it migrates through and beyond a specific group of people” (Ternoey, 1985). Conceptual application of technology and the change in social demographic of the office is diluting the boundaries of office exhibiting only one of these permutations in a specific organization. The below table highlights the difference between what Duffy calls “Hive, Cell, Den & Club” work task and its association today in most organizations.

HIVE

WORK MODE

ORGANIZATIONS

SPACE

ASSOCIATION

Individual process

Telesales, banking, financial and administrative

Open plan Enclosed Inflexible Screened Impersonal

The working method is called Hive because it is similar to way bees work in beehives. Sitting all the time.

Accounting, law, management and government and

Enclosed Cellular plan Inflexible Screened Impersonal

The working method is called cell because of it request me enclosed cells and chambers/ compartments

Open plan Flexible Shared spaces

The working method is called Den because its associations to place where people meet together to engage

Open plan combination flexible and inflexible spaces Shared and im-

The working method is called Club because of its diverse ad hoc environment reminiscing social and recreational

Low Interaction Low Autonomy

CELL

Concentrated study Low Interaction High Autonomy Group Process

DEN

CLUB

High Interaction Low Autonomy Transactional Knowledge High Interaction High Autonomy

Media, Entertainment and creative services

Technology, electronic services, and Internet services

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


2.5.3 Innovation of New work modes Understanding the circumstances and constraints of the increasingly preferred permutation and combination of work modes in open style plan, which may and may not be progress implementation. To this request, the 2008 Work environment survey, directed by Gensler, proposes that the organizations to plan workplaces that rouse the accompanying four work modes. NEW WORK MODES

ORGANIZATIONS Banking Financial Insurance

FOCUS Productive capital LEARN Intellectual capital COLLABORATE Innovative capital SOCIALIZE Social capital

Consumer Products Manufacturing Creative Services Legal Consulting Accounting Business Service Government Energy Technology

FOCUS The focus work mode emphasis on working individually with full concentration on a specific task or project. On average, people spend almost half of their time in focus mode; Workspace must be individual fit needs and work styles and mist control all discussions and interruptions : ‘I’ Working : Owned space LEARN This work mode is aimed at working to acquire knowledge because of constant demands and the need for new skills, learning be must be integrated : ‘I’ Working : Shared space COLLABORATE This work mode is called collaborative because it is about working with other people to achieve a goal. Such task can happen anywhere, ranging from areas for casual interaction, brainstorming and meeting rooms for formal and informal meetings : ‘WE’ Working : Owned space SOCIALIZE This work mode is focused on providing a sense of community within the office. Areas of socializing should be beyond just a breakout room and aim for double up learning and collaboration space. This can be seen in regions like workcafe and lounge : ‘WE’ Working : Shared space

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2.5.4 Shift in organizational planning To optimize the new information technologies, the organization will not only need to apply technology but also rethink the way they undertake their work. Andrew Harrison, the lead consultant for DEGW, concludes developments in the application of technology and the impact on organizational forms. The below listed shows the shift in organizational planning types from the 1980s to the future prediction of workplace planning. Conventional A blend of private office and open space workstations is a typical example of traditional floor plans. This layout was popular in the 1980s and 1990s in workplaces like law firms and investment banks which are relativity less creative industries. Conventional layouts deliver a significant level of privacy based on their arrangement but, are commonly inflexible and need collaborative spaces. Benching Benching floor plans was adopted during the 1990s and 2000s. Benching is the replacement of conventional cubical blocks with long benches with typical minimal partitions - towards open office plan in the workspace. This layout is also an efficient use of real-estate. Benching delivers a high level of the face- to - face conversions in the workspace by reducing barriers to social interaction. Activity-based Activity-based workspaces make spaces based with respect to task and activities instead of separating by offices or title. The thought is to co-find multi-disciplinary venture colleagues in an adaptable and flexible workspace for the length of a task. When the task is finished, the people proceed onward to new undertakings and the organization designates the space to another group. Activity-based workspaces convey extraordinary adaptability by design. Mobile Mobile layouts are designed with mobile users in mind (one working outside the office). Mobile layouts usually support two varieties of staff i) remote staff that sometimes “touch down� within the workplace and ii) team that base themselves within the workplace however work with different legion groups and move around the workplace frequently 02 The concepts of application of technology in office


Hospitality The appreciated system is that the most radical and groundbreaking. Technique partnerships trust staff inside the future can perform the more significant part of their assignments in areas of their choosing (e.g., business office, periodic retailers, cooperating spaces) at that point get the workplace just for collaborative sessions. These workplaces have a lot of communal spaces for jam sessions, conceptualizes, and venture arranging. They even have some close to home territories and “hotel” work areas anyway generally have confined individual work region.

Out of the five strategies, the research focuses on the ontology of application of technology and its impact on activity-based working in workspaces There is once in a while a one-measure fit all structure methodology for your organization. Most firms produce half breed situations that blend these approaches to satisfy their specialists’ particular wants. One factor is sure: on the off chance that you separate the dividers of the standard 80’s-style floor-plan your group can harvest the benefits of collected inventive reasoning and joy. The (figure 2.5.2) is the outline of the past, present, future organizational types research of workplace strategy firm NBBJ.

CONVECTIONAL

BENCHING

Offices, cubicles & conference rooms

Open floor plan

11 sqm/person

11 sqm/person

ACTIVITY BASED

MOBILE

HOSPITALITY

Flexible, projectorientated spaces

Spaces for mobile workers to “touchdown”

Work from wherever use the office only for collaboration

9.2 sqm/person

Not Avialiable

6 sqm/person

Figure 2.5.2 NJJB workplace strategy model based on work type

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2.5.5 Activity-Based Working | ABW The idea of the activity-based way of working is that the organization needs to adapt to different settings, which have been created for various activities. For example, an employee, can sit wherever they like, and choose a type of environment to suit their work task. The prerequisite for productivity is that space has customized and designed the settings to suit the needs of the organization and the employees – that the settings support the various activities which there is a sufficient range of them. Implicating ABW in the office has an impact on real estate.

CONVECTIONAL

FLEX OFFICE HOT DESKING HOTELLING TELE WORKING

(ABW) ACTIVITY BASED WORKING

Figure 2.5.3 (Above) and 2.5.4 ( Left) Impact of activity based working on office space planning and real estate

The above figure shows the concept of Activity Based Working (ABW) in the office which has its direct implications on the spatial organization. Goals are to raise productivity, enhance collaboration, increase mobility which would create a system that would reduce real estate and increase flexibility for employees to work. Figure 2.5.3 indicated the change in layout because of ABW which is shrinking the office footprint yet allowing the employee to collaborate better in the workplace. 02 The concepts of application of technology in office


In the type of working environment, improved information and communication technology (IOT) and expanded decisions in the desking system have made another type of open plan office structure and developing methods for working like ABW feasible. It was expressed that “association, when all is said in done, is winding up progressively autonomous and interactive”(Duffy and Powell, 1997), with workers exchanging all the more as often as possible between various activities, workers, tools and location (Van Yperen et al., 2014). This improvement is observed in the plan of contemporary workplaces, that are increasingly more dependent on the activity-based working (ABW) idea (Vos and Van der Voordt, 2001). In these ABW conditions, workers are expected to work more flexible, utilizing diverse sorts of non-assigned action settings (Veldhoen, 2008). The term “action setting” covers various kinds of workstations, meeting rooms, and other zones inside the workplace, each intended to help a chose type of work activities, for instance, places for communication, concentration and collaboration (Harris, 2015). The essential presumption of the ABW concept is that it empowers employees to utilize the most fitting activity based working, by exchanging between various activity settings at whatever point they switch between various sorts of work activities (Van Koetsveld and Kamperman, 2011).

SERVICES

“I” OWNED

“I” SHARED

“WE” SHARED

“WE” OWNED

57


2.6 Workplace as a consequence of technology

The utilization of the application of technology has driven new methods of collaboration inside organizations. The collaboration effort does not limit itself to just the internal defined organizational perimeter. It shows changes in the communication designs that influence learning sharing and development forms by prompting the rise of inter and intra interaction of thoughts among work groups and to the requirement for constant coordination crosswise over capacities (Coradi et al. 2015b). In this situation, set up organizations are facing real difficulties. They are compelled to reconsider conventional collaborative effort elements and structures, which are established in various leveled and bureaucratic, hierarchical models (Kunda 2001). To confront this test, an expanding number of administration organizations set up collaborative working environments (CWs) where development can prosper. For instance, organizations can give huddle spaces, balance layouts that help the mixed work methods of information and knowledge creation (Lee 2016).These spaces join activities went for supporting collaboration effort and knowledge sharing and range different hierarchical zones, including working environment structure, technological innovations and adaptable work practices (Van Der Voordt 2004).

Organizational culture and structure

Information and communication technologies

Human Resources and work practices

Physical layout and facilities Interaction effects between deployment areas

02 The concepts of application of technology in office


The physical working environment might be intended to help collaboration and information sharing both between and inside groups (Vischer 2007;Stryker et al. 2012). A group of analysts from Harvard University stated that collaborative workspaces in the workplace is intended to encourage work environment flexibility, that can emphatically influence productivity and development by expanding the number and recurrence unscheduled meetings among representatives (Waber et al. 2014)

Information and communication technologies With the expanded utilization of portable and multi-locational work, physical work environments are never again the sole work areas, and working environment configuration should consider advanced work (Lee 2016;Nonaka and Konno 1998). In the setting brought by better approaches for new ways of working, remove contracting advances are collaborative oriented working environments for development in administration major to continue collaboration among physically and transiently conveyed representatives.

Organizational culture and structure The last sending zone that should be lined up with past ones to continue collaborative workspaces activities is organizational culture and structure. Through the utilized office plan idea, Elsbach and Bechky passed on the picture of an office where physical design, technologies, and administrative practices are synergic in supporting communication and knowledge sharing between gatherings (Elsbach and Bechky 2007). They inferred that the physical condition is just a solitary one of the components that should be adjusted to help hierarchical change.

Human resource and work practices Collabrative workspaces don’t depend just on the accessible technologies and the physical work arrangements; HR and work practices likewise add to molding work practices, behavior, communication and correspondence designs. Collaborative workspaces regularly include the appropriation of flexible work that gives individuals the flexibility to team up crosswise over workgroups and capacities, contingent upon the action necessities (Ten Brummelhuis et al. 2011). This influences helps in productivity, data sharing and working environment bolster connections.

Physical layout and facilities

Figure 2.6.1 A conceptual framework to evaluate collaborative workplace ; An elaboration of Chan etal. (2007)

Greater overall amount of knowledge sharing Enhanced autonomy and display of innovative behavior WORKPLACE OUTCOMES

Emergence of new ways of working and flexible dynamics In this way, collaborative workspace recognizes a mix of non-traditional layouts, facilities, work practices, and technologies that are expected to support the performance of employees and development by giving a esteem reflecting work environment that guides the coordinated effort, operational adaptability, and social change.

59


This chapter discusses the concepts of application of technology in real work scenario. The chapter discusses four different organizational types and their take on spatial planning as a consequence of technological development


03

Case Studies 3.1 Case studies

3.1.1 Airbnb, Portland 3.1.2 Boston Consulting Group (BCG), Seattle 3.1.3 NewYork 3.1.4 GLG, Austin

3.2 Analysis and Inference

61


CLIENT | AIRBNB CX Hub FIRM | Boora Architects & Airbnb Environments SIZE | 3437 SQM EMPLOYEE | 350 People YEAR | 2014-2017 LOCATION | Portland, Oregon, USA INDUSTRY | Call center | Online e commerce


Organization Airbnb CX Hub, occupying a historical Blagen Block, Portland which opened a North American independent operational CX hub in downtown Portland. The CX hub is the first customer experience office outside Airbnb headquarters in San Francisco. The office accommodates 350 employees, primarily focused on the customer experience. The idea was to redefine how people can work in a call center which also supports Airbnb’s brand identity - ‘Belong Anywhere’! The office redefines how people can work in a call center. The workplace is the result of Airbnb’s research on how to design work behavior for the customer experience agents in the office.

Figure 3.1.1 Informal lounge seating on the Third level of the office

In order to create a not-so-typical workplace for 350 Airbnb agents, the architects along with Airbnb Environments went through intensive research and methodology to understand the working pattern in order to boost and modify their client expertise agents working experience in the office. The architects aimed to replace the feeling of anxiety that comes with an open office with a feeling of belonging to an environment as well as a monotonous solution for Airbnb’s expansion. 63


People and Function of the Office Most call centers do not reflect improvisation and fun in context to the spatial organization, yet Airbnb’s customer experience (CX) hub could not be more different. From solving fundamental website problems to lost apartment keys, Airbnb users call CX agents with a uniquely challenging set of issues. With this in mind, the Airbnb Environments team along with the architects decided to solve problems for CX agents in the office environments. In the extensive research with CX employees, Airbnb Environments conducted both individual and group brainstorming, field trips to the Portland old office to understand agents work pattern and priorities. The research showed numerous detractions in their previous free workstation environment with no space for personal storage and entirely universal desks; employees faced the routine anxiety on how to select and occupy a workstation. In response, the designer developed a various array of design and physical seating responses to create a blend of individual working, collaborative, and fun work environment. Using employee surveys and observation, the designers learned employees preferred variety in their work environment and facilities that make them comfortable. (Figure 3.1.4) shows the how they factored that into the design, providing employees with options for active or focused settings, working at a table, hot-desking, lounging or standing, instead of having assigned workstations for individual work and rather than meeting rooms in the corner and assigned desk to all 350 employees.

The office is divided into four floors with a range of work modes spread cross to give maximum mobility and flexibility. The first level is a formal reception area now welcomes and collects visitors with coffee service and warm wood finishes, offering glimpses of Airbnb culture and the workspace beyond. The series of floor plan indicates the location flexibility on all four levels where there is a range of workspace distributed where employee get various in the type of workstation and can choose the setting based on the work. Figure 3.1.2 Typical call center workstation arrangement

03 Case study Airbnb, Portland


Picture a typical call center: Rows and rows of gray cubicles, everyone donning headsets, sitting at their beige desks for hours on end (Figure 3.1.3) - Airbnb environmental designer came up a solution to optimize work and space. Rather than having meeting rooms on the corner of the office - develop range of work setting.

Collaborative space for group work Individual space for focus and learn

Figure 3.1.3 Space organization Figure 3.1.4 Design ideation of the AirBnb UX office spatial design

65


The Application of Technology Process | Technology of technology The process in the Airbnb office is their internal IT and the use of wireless and IP Communications technologies in alliance with an interactive office design to develop a more productive workplace for Airbnb employees. The IOT allows the accessibility to power and data at all locations for extreme ‘Connectivity.’ The open plan office with a cloud-based desk and room booking process make it easy to set up and engage with an Airbnb’s existing systems.

Figure 3.1.5 Fourth floor plan showing the controls placed in range of work-settings (Red indicates the fixed desktops)

Controls | Medium of technology The ‘Mobility’ because of IOT has allowed the conventional notion of fixed computers in rows and columns planning in the call center to shift to a range of controls which are widely spread across the office and which are also well integrated into the range of physical settings. This has increased laptop workforce in the office. Employees no longer are assigned to a fixed computer setting. The range of controls allows employees to be mobile in the office. 03 Case study Airbnb, Portland


COMMUNICATION | AUTONOMY Figure 3.1.6 (Above) Internet enabled and IOT is allowing the spaces to be connected - employees can connect to the system with wireless connectivity - which allows the controls to be more mobile in the office environment. Figure 3.1.7 (Left) Process has changed the range of controls in the office - limited fixed computers are shifting from office laptops to BYOD methods where employees get mobility to work in the choice of space based on the activity. Figure 3.1.8 (Below) indicates the mobility because of IOT in the space. The process allowing the controls (medium of technology) to mobile. Employees can take laptops and hop in tables, standing/landing/ Lounge based on type of work they need to perform

67


System | Ontology of Technology in Furniture As process and controls is changing the notion of office mass production furniture- where normally firms use office furniture that is available in the market. As technology had changed how people work based on different work typology and organization, furniture designer needs to rethink on office furniture. Airbnb office furniture is a great example of customized furniture based on how Airbnb staff work. The office had asked furniture designer (Good Mod) to design based on laptop workforce. Here, the challenge was to create a call center that did not look like an oppressive office and could accommodate both physical and technological demands. Most of the employees work from laptops given by the organization and are not bound to their dedicated desks; as they have the location flexibility, designers at Good Mod, one of the local makers that collaborated with Airbnb team to create conference tables with integrated power outlets and Internet access and chairs. The boxy chairs prepared in CNC milled from Russian birch were designed in order to optimize material use. One 4X8 foot birch sheet makes two-and-ahalf chairs- hence trying to achieve efficiency of the materials. At 50 pounds, they are light enough to move but steady enough to stay in place. Knowing the fact, the furniture is for laptop workforce, the arms are designed two inches thick, so elbows have a comfortable place to keep where the wool upholstered foam cushions are removable. The work is not hampered even if employees are not on workstations, the furniture is integrated with the application of technology in order to support the work in any place in the office.

3.1.9

MOBILITY | FLEXIBILITY 3.1.10

Responding to the spatial organization of the office, the range of furniture setting is distributed evenly across all four floors for both individual and collaborative working retrospectively. This shift in furniture typology has allowed Airbnb employees to choose the type of furniture based on their work which is increasing ‘location flexibility’ and less working at a, mainly assigned desk. Therefore, integration of physical controls in furniture is essential - the office furniture reflects the same. 3.1.11 03 Case study Airbnb, Portland


System | Ontology of Technology in Spaces The integration of application of technology in the furniture setting allows employees in the organization to function mobile and give more flexibility in terms of physical setting. This allowed architects to design a range of individual and group workspaces in the office. In such a setting, to make sure acoustic comfort in this kind of system, efforts were taken to enhance the effectiveness of walls and in order to reduce reflectivity.

Figure 3.1.9 (Left) Workstations with fixed computers are designed where its easy access to plug in laptops and integrate with other controls. Figure 3.1.10 (Left) Customized lounge furniture designed by Airbnb environments for laptop workforce Figure 3.1.11 (Left) Free standing meeting rooms for collaborative meetings that can be book online on the Airbnb system Figure 3.1.12 (Above) Mix of individual work on workstations with collaboration in meeting rooms and lounge space. Employees don’t need to book these spaces, thus if the meeting rooms are occupied, they can conduct quick discussions in the lounge Figure 3.1.13 (Above) Enclosed group work spaces spread across all floors where employees can do individual as well as group work

Ontology of technology has impact on the physical setting where with shared workstation, underneath desk storage is eliminated and space is boosted by combining individual storage space into standing/landing height stations by giving employees space to land and store personal belongings. The emergence of individual employee lockers in the office. Thus, range of workspaces shows organizationals perspective of flexibility and employees using reflects employees flexibility to choose and work in the organization.

69


Shift in Space Proportions The office divided into four levels which demonstrates the dimension of even flexibility with the range of workspaces. The workplace has a scope of workspace for individual work as concentrate solo corners and workstations with fixed PCs. The collaborative work can be led from unscheduled meetings in meeting rooms to interaction on landing and lounge spaces. Below figures shows the range of alternative workspaces are evenly distrusted across all four level. 3 7

6

4

2

4

5

6

6

5

1

3

3 7

Figure 3.1.14 First floor plan showing the space distribution Figure 3.1.15 Second floor plan showing the space distribution in the office in the office

Figure 3.1.18 Stats showing number of seats in different workspaces

03 Case study Airbnb, Portland


1 | Kitchen 2 | Canteen seating 3 | Meeting Rooms 4 | Multi - Level Lounge 5 | Team Tables 6 | Work Tables 7 | Solo work booths 4 5

1

2

7

6

2

4

1

3

6

7

3

Figure 3.1.16 Third floor plan showing the space distribution in the office

75

Figure 3.1.19 Stats showing number of employees and workstations

Figure 3.1.17 Fourth floor plan showing the space distribution in the office

The chart (Left) indicates the number of fixed computers on work-setting vs. the number of employee (193 computers vs. 350 employees) where out of 192 computer, 108 are fixed on typical work stations and reaming 75 on solo working booths and landing/standing zone. The employees are provided with office controls (Laptops) where they can dock into the workstations with computers based on their need. According to the pre-design survey, the result showed that not all employee works on the working tables with computers at the same time.

71


Shift in Furniture Typology The result of shift in space proportions shows the shift in range of furniture typology used in the office. The concept of Hot-desking has allowed range of furniture system for individual working on tables, booths to even lounge unlike typical call center. The below (figure 3.1.20) shows the activity mapping of an employee working in the office and using the range of furniture though out the day.

8:30 Arrive

9:00 Breakfast

10:00 11:00 Team Land Meeting & work

12:00 Lunch

Figure 3.1.20 Range of work modes - colour yellow indicates private individual working and shades of blue as group meeting work spaces. Figure 3.1.21 Furniture typology

The activity mapping in the above figure shows the use of standing/landing spots to keep employees stuff and place to leave their laptops for charing over night. The concept of hot-desking has taken up the amount of storage area per person. Employees can lock their belongings if they want- works like lockers.

03 Case study Airbnb, Portland

1:00 3:00 4:30 6:00 Sit Sit/stand Informal Land & work call & Meeting & work

7:00 Lock-up & leave


The team tables are used for several activities-these are normal work tables with no fixed computers. Employee use these for working individual and collaborative with the teams using laptop as controls. Similar set of tables with fixed computers are working stations - where one can dock in the laptop easily and use space based on their need.

Individual space for focus and learn Group space for collaborate and socialize

Set of lounge spaces and meeting rooms in the office across all four levels are used on-off based on booking system Online. Employee can hold their spot to the specific lounge space and meeting room based on where they are located. The online booking system makes the employee to keep a track of which area is being occupied and can select without wasting much time moving across all spaces. Thus, range of set of furniture typology designed based on pre-design survey and understand the behavioral work-style of the workforce- to optimize the productivity in the given physical setting.

73


Innovation in Work Modes | “I” vs “We” The ontology of technology has allowed the office to function with the new work modes where the idea to increase productivity of the office. The proportion of spaces is changing where where the ratio of individual working and group working is coming to roughly even. The system is laid out in a manner it allows employees to have range of work setting (figure 3.1.22) indicates the range of physical setting and its proportion in the part plan of level 2 layout in Airbnb office.

Figure 3.2.1 (Above ) Second floor plan on the seventeenth floor showing the space distribution in the office Figure 3.1.22 (Above) Part plan of second floor plan showing the range of space distribution in the office Figure 3.1.23 (Right) Working style

SQM per person

Person to seat (350 Employee)

“I” : “WE” seat Ratio

“I” : “WE” Area Ratio Chart Title

9.82 sqm

2:1

70:30

The case study reflects the shift in physical system of office - consequence of technology development where the ratio of Airbnb’s Ux Hub “I” vs “We” comes to 70:30 - The office shows higher percentage of ‘I’ working ratio, but with range of various I working spaces in the workplace. 03 Case study Airbnb, Portland

1

2


PROCESS Technology of technology

CONTROLS Medium of technology

CONNECTIVITY IOT between spaces

Work LOUNGE Interactional Knowledge

AUTONOMY How people work

MOBILITY Tools people use to work

Work Work STANDING/LANDING TABLES Individual Individual and Process concentrated study

FOCUS Productive capital

“I” Individual Working spaces

LEARN Intellectual capital

SYSTEM Ontology of technology

Work SOLO BOOTHS Concentrated study

COLLABORATE Innovative capital

FLEXIBILITY Where people work

Work MEET Group process

SOCIALISE Social capital

“WE” Group Working spaces 75


“I” Working Spaces Hot-desk (Standing/landing) The office adapts hot-desking where there no desk assigned to the office. These work seatings are not assigned workspaces where a user, unlike a traditional call center. One user can choose a set of physical setting for working tables with without computers, booths and landing tables based on kind of work they have to do. Tables without fixed controls (computers) The working tables with fixed computers ( set of 9 Figure 3.1.24 Hot-desking for shared work tables tables for total seating for 108 users) are divided across four levels. The tables have been designed for ‘Focus’ work in a manner where the computers are placed on a high desk with loose wires giving the flexibility to connect a laptop (Figure 3.1.24). Tables with fixed controls (computers) These working tables are placed across all floors where employee use the spot for ‘Focus & Learn.’ Employee use laptops to work mobile. They work on the tables and have an informal discussion at the on the same spot. Solo booths These booths are used to hold for an employee to do ‘Focus’ work on the computers. Many private phone calls that are scheduled are conducted in the booth. The system is designed so that the agents also hear their voice in the headsets whenever accepting calls - making them still, and easy to communicate. There is both range of standing and seating booths with standing ones with height adjustable mechanical platforms with a set of fixed monitor, keyboard, and mouse (Figure 3.1.26) where an employee can book the booth space online for the time they want. Work-Cafe and Team Tables They are located on the end corner on the first floor of the office, creating an open corner for employees to socialize while heaving their meals. The cafe is designed as an island with a coffee bar and a small open pantry kitchen. The image on the right shows the place as ideal for impromptu discussions and one on one meetings with colleagues over lunch or a cup of coffee apart from standard break time, place to collabrate and socialize.

03 Case study Airbnb, Portland

Figure 3.1.25 Range of work setting with and without computers Figure 3.1.26 Height adjustable solo booths with fixed desktops


“WE” Working Spaces

Figure 3.1.27 Meetings rooms with integrated tech support

Figure 3.1.28 Ledge seating as breakout zones Figure 3.1.29 Work tables used as cafe seating during lunch times

Meeting-rooms The meeting rooms in freestanding structures that are based on Airbnb’s design manual. They are floating meeting rooms between workstations giving the employee the flexibility to book a space and get into a quiet zone for formal meetings. These meeting rooms are used to conduct meetings where employees can ‘Collaborate’ better in enclosed space. Six of the thirteen conference rooms are giving a range of physical setting inside meeting rooms.

Work-Lounge The Lounge sofas are designed with having high backs closed its three sides providing a certain degree of privacy which is integrated with writing shelf and plug points - becoming an alternative place to workspace against typical workstation. It is an ideal duck in spaces for employees who could make quick calls or work in small groups. (Figure 3.1.28) Showing the mezzanine that has sitting height space on the lower level, and the raised platform covered in cushions, where employees can work laying down on if the mood strikes. This space is used by an employee to conduct informal meetings where they can ‘Socialize’ as well as ‘Focus’ on work with headsets on in Isolation in the same physical setting where they want to change in a workspace.

77


Inference

-Data and power enabled space -Instant messaging, video, desktop team software -More reliance on conference calls -IOT enabled space

Conceptual impact Increased use of group and interlink unit work, more emphasis on communication and flow, hence better CONNECTIVITY.

-Every employee has dedicated laptops The availability and accessibility of mobile -183 screens between 350 employees support ( phones, laptops and headsets) -As they have to be on phone, they have allows employee’s to MOBILITY. dedicated headset -Limited work stations with fixed screens -Power and supply enabled mobile furniture

-No assigned desk -Individual lockers to keep belongings -Use of facilities beyond normal working hours -No longer sitting on assigned desk and working

AirBNB UX Porland offices gives a new outlook to call center workplace design. Responding to the conceptual application of technology, workplace adapts new ways of workings which is enabling connectivity inside and outside the office, range of controls allowing mobility and flexibility to use the workspace based on their activity. The result shows adapting ABW reducing real estate costs where the per person sqm is 9.82 compared to benching organization layout for call center and yet being functional and productive at the same time.

03 Case study Airbnb, Portland

Change is system approach is allowing FLEXIBILITY in the workplace. -Reduced real estate. -Less unoccupied empty space during day -Greater spatial spaces to enable different range of work settings

IMPACT ON SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

CONTROLS SYSTEM

CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY

PROCESS

Application of Technology


Work station typology

Space Type

Solo booths FOCUS

FOCUS & LEARN

SOCIALIZE

COLLABORATE

Total Units

Total Caps

80

80

Total % of space occupied 11% 27%

Workstations with computers

9

108

Workstations without computers

25

105

13%

Standing/ Landing

4

225

30%

16%

56%

Work Lounge

25

90

12%

Work Cafe

4

16

1%

Team rooms

13

36

5%

Meeting rooms

14

85

12%

The above table identifies a range of workspaces in the Airbnb call center their configurations and the area they occupy in the space. All four work modes were identified in the Airbnb office. Around 56% of the entire space is for a percentage for alternative workspace. There are four options for “I” shared and “We shared” while three options can be used for “I” owned and “We owned.” This shows the emergence of a range of workspaces “Third place”.

EMERGENCE OF THIRD PLACE

“I” OWNED “WE” OWNED

“WE” WORKING

“WE” SHARED

“I” SHARED

“I” WORKING

Work Mode

17%

These range of alternative workspace in the office apart from individual working on a desk and collaborative work in the meeting room is emergence on the range of “THIRD” place. Given flexibility to choose from numerous choices of workspaces to carry out their work which is not only conscious to working methods of the employees but also a response to beliefs of the organization and humanizing the workplace which is the attitude towards HOSPITALITY. “I” OWNED

“I” SHARED

“WE” SHARED

“WE” OWNED

“I” & “WE” SHARED

79


CLIENT | BCG Boston Consulting Group FIRM | SKB SIZE | 2250 SQM EMPLOYEE | 230 People YEAR | 2017 LOCATION | Seattle, USA INDUSTRY | Management consulting/Business


Organization Boston Consulting Group’s (BCG), the new Seattle office residing the 54th and 55th in 1201 Third Avenue tower, downtown Seattle represents a significant organizational shift from its former consulting offices. Seattle branch of the global management consultancy aimed for a more productive environment. SkB Architects designed an environment out of the 2250 sqm project that accommodates the firm’s flexible approach to workspace without hampering the work.

Figure 3.2.1 Open lounge space with range of furniture setting

People and Work The management consulting office, where consultants mostly spend 90% of the time at client offices. Understanding the work pattern of the employees, the Seattle office adapts activity-based working where employees are free to use any space based on their work in the office, employees are not addressed to the specific desk. In response to the organization work, the office follows the concept of hotdesking every two-person shares one desk. The only range of few workstations is assigned for ones who need privacy, including accounting, human resources, and assistants. 03 Case study BCG, Seattle


Spatial Organization The 2,250 square meter space is divided into two floors is primed to accommodate their open-ended, non assigned workspace office environment. Space contains a series of individual workstations, focus rooms, meeting rooms, work lounge, and a multi-use work cafe. A mezzanine-style second floor sits within the double-height office, holds the elegant board room and client meeting room.

8

4

1

3

2 4 7

6 1 | Lobby room 2 | Reception 3 | Workstations 4 | Focus rooms 5 | Team rooms 6 | Conference rooms 7 | Work Lounge 8 | Work Cafe

Figure 3.2.2 Shows the 21st floor in the tower as BCG office level one Figure 3.2.3 Shows the 22nd floor in the tower as BCG office level two

83


Concepts of Technology and Shift in Space Proportions BCG has a very versatile, mobile and diverse work culture with the greater part of its consulting staff commuting and working offsite various days of the week. While flexibility was a vital factor in the spatial design, the organization was similarly centered around reinforcing a feeling of collaboration and community effort to draw individuals into the workplace. The(figure 3.2.5) demonstrates a more elevated amount of seating choices for the collaboration process in the workplace. The workplace accomodates 230 individuals in the Seattle office. The proportion of PCs on workstations to the number of employees shows the possibility of activity-based working. As consultants don’t be in their office more often than not, the workplace pursues no assigned workstations. 1

250

250

200

200

150

150

100

100

50

0

50

0 Workstations with fixed computers

52

Number of employees 1

80 70 60 50

40 30 20

10 0

Work Tables

Work Focus booths

Work Team rooms

Figure 3.2.4 (Above) Table indicated number of workstation ratio to number of employees Figure 3.2.5 (Below) The table shows the range of workspaces and their seating capacity 03 Case study BCG, Seattle

Work Conference rooms

Work Lounge


FOCUS

LEARN

SOCIALIZE COLLABORATE

85


Innovation in Work Modes | “I” vs “We” The ontology of technology has allowed the office to function with the new work modes where the idea to increase productivity of the office. The proportion of spaces is changing where the office shows more collaboration and socialize spaces compared to individual spaces. The system is laid out in a manner it allows employees to have range of work setting (figure 3.2.6) indicates he range of physical setting and its proportion in the part plan of level 1 layout in BCG office.

Figure 3.2.6 Part plan of second floor plan showing the range of space distribution in the office

SQM per person

Person to seat ( Employee)

“I” : “WE” seat Ratio

“I” : “WE” Area Ratio Chart Title

9.78 SQM

2:1

26:74

The case study reflects the shift in spatial of office - consequence of technology development where the ratio of BCG management consulting “I” vs “We” comes to 26:74 which is in reflects that the spatial organization where the idea of “WE” working is higher. 03 Case study BCG, Seattle

1

2


PROCESS Technology of technology

CONNECTIVITY IOT between spaces

Work TABLES Interactional Knowledge

CONTROLS Medium of technology

AUTONOMY How people work

Work BOOTHS Individual Process

FOCUS Productive capital

“I” Individual Working spaces

MOBILITY Tools people use to work

Work LOUNGE Individual and concentrated study

LEARN Intellectual capital

SYSTEM Ontology of technology

Work MEET Concentrated study

COLLABORATE Innovative capital

FLEXIBILITY Where people work

Work CONFERENCE Group process

SOCIALIZE Social capital

“WE” Group Working spaces 87


“I” Working Spaces Hot-desk Through the concept of non-assigned shared workstations, and technology solutions, BCG’s office has more hospitality-oriented spaces that dramatically reduce use of their real estate. Workstations These working tables are placed on the first level of the office where employee book their spot for ‘Focus ’ .The office have two types of such workstations with equipments fixed to the work station. Employee use laptops to dock into the workstation computers (Figure 3.2.7). Assistants mostly use these workstations to do their work. Focus rooms These booths are used to hold for an employee to do ‘Focus’ .The office has 22 such booths, consultants mostly occupy these any private phone calls that are scheduled are conducted in the booth. The booth can accommodate up to two employees at a time where they can book the spot on-line.

“WE” Working spaces Conference and team meeting-rooms The series of both meeting rooms are divided on both the floors. The mezzanine style second level accommodates several conference rooms, one with a balcony overlooking the communal break room, as well as a suite of private, client meeting rooms. These meeting rooms are used to conduct meetings where consultants and partners can ‘Collaborate’ better in enclosed space. Work-Lounge Lounge layout is flexible in nature with comfortable and tech-enabled furniture . These are placed a zone next to the cafeteria where employees can conduct in large events and staff meetings. Work-Cafe and Team Tables The double height volume has been deisgned to accommodate a wide range of traditional and nontraditional workspaces including sofa style team tables and free style cafe. The space is separated into two zones, one as loose seating layout, and the other designed as a huge, eighteen by fifteen foot island with adjoining pantry. The space is ideal for employees to ‘collaborate and socialize’. 03 Case study BCG, Seattle


Figure 3.2.7 Two types of workstations based on the kind of work emplyees need to perform

Figure 3.2.8 Easy dock in to the workstations

Figure 3.2.9 Range of furniture setting in work lounge allowing collaborative and socialize work Figure 3.2.10 Work-lounge furniture with availability of plug and power to support controls for the work

Figure 3.2.11 Set of conference room on the mezzanine floor

89


Inference

Increased use of interaction with clients, more emphasis on communication and flow, hence better CONNECTIVITY.

-Laptops to consultants -52 screens between 230 employees

The availability and accessibility of mobile support ( phones, laptops and headsets) allows employee’s to MOBILITY.

-No assigned desk -Individual lockers to keep belongings -Use of facilities beyond normal working hours

Change is system approach is allowing FLEXIBILITY in the workplace.

BCG, Seattle offices redefines a typical management consulting office. Responding to the conceptual application of technology, workplace adapts new ways of workings which is enabling connectivity inside and outside the office, range of controls allowing mobility and flexibility to use the workspace based on their activity. The above table identifies a range of workspaces in the BCG office, their configurations and the area they occupy in the space. Applying the four work mode theory, three modes were identified within the BCG Seattle office. Around 37% of the entire space is for alternative workspace.

03 Case study BCG, Seattle

-No unoccupied workstation -No assigned cell to consultants

IMPACT ON SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Conceptual impact

-Data and power enabled space -IOT enabled space PROCESS CONTROLS SYSTEM

CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY

Application of Technology


Work station typology

Space Type

Phone Botths FOCUS

SOCIALIZE

COLLABORATE

Total Units

Total Caps

14

22

Total % of space occupied 8% 26%

Workstations with computers

15

52

18%

Work Lounge

13

54

18% 37%

Work Cafe

1

55

19%

Team rooms

14

23

23%

Meeting rooms

3

14

14%

EMERGENCE OF THIRD PLACE

“I” OWNED “WE” OWNED

“WE” WORKING

“WE” SHARED

“I” WORKING

Work Mode

37%

There are no options for “I” shared workspaces; however, “We shared” while three options can be used for “I” owned and “We owned.” For 230 employee in the office, the BCG gives a total of 291 seats in total with a range of “I” and “WE” working seating arrangements to provide flexibility in choosing the space.The results show the emergence of a range of workspaces “Third place” apart from a typical workstation and meeting rooms where employees can work. The proportion of third place is in line with collaborative space in the office. 37% with work lounge and cafe, the office shows reflection of hospitality in the work environment.

“I” OWNED

“I” SHARED

“WE” SHARED

“WE” OWNED

“I” & “WE” SHARED

91


CLIENT | WIEDEN+KENNEDY FIRM | WORK,ac SIZE | 4645 SQM EMPLOYEE | 350 People YEAR | 2014 LOCATION | New York, USA INDUSTRY | Adversing and Media


Organization The advertising firm Wieden+Kennedy has built up a worldwide reputation for media and creative work going back to its first Nike campaigns during the 1980s. Founded by Dan Wieden and David Kennedy in 1982, the office is headquartered in Portland. It is a global, independent creative agency. The goal is to create an exciting and robust relationship between companies and their users.W+K have over approx 1400 people across a global network of eight offices. .

Figure 3.3.1 Shows the 6 th & 7 th floors connected by coin stair, a circular-shaped, walnut-clad seating that can accommodate informal discussions

People and Work After looking into the historical background of the workplace design, history uncovers that major advertising agencies have dependably been at the front line of forefront office design and no single workplace pattern has succeeded those that came before. Thus maybe is the manners in which that individual’s work have kept on developing, layer and increase in the advertising industry. In W+Y office, designers and creative heads of the office usually work in a set of teams but in a system of shared workspaces.

03 Case study Wieden+Kennedy NewYrok


Spatial Organization The office is divided into three floors in 150 Varick Street, New York. WORKac, New York-based design firm was commissioned to design the office for W+K in NewYork. The offices with 4,645 sqm hold onto urban density as its core idea- an insignificant reduction of individual workspaces that open up space for a slope of different collaborative spaces. Since work at Wieden+Kennedy is very communal, WORKac planned the most extensive variation in collaborative spaces to hold meetings, and social events of different size, and privacy levels.

4

5 6

1

3

8

2

12 8

8

4

6

1 | Lobby room 2 | Reception 3 | Workstations 4 | Discussion tables 5 | Focus rooms 6 | Team rooms 7 | Conference rooms 8 | Work Lounge 10 | Work Bar/cafe 11 | Library 12|Breakout zone

11 Figure 3.3.2 shows spatial organization of the first floor of the office Figure 3.3.3 shows spatial organization of the second floor of the office Figure 3.3.4 shows spatial organization of the third floor of the office

95


Concepts of Technology and Shift in Space Proportions W+K adapts both organizations and employee perspective of flexibility in the office. Completely wired for power, data and wi-fi, informs all level of connectivity in the office with the idea to sustain at mobility in the space. The office demonstrates a shift from an assigned workstation with desktop to exclusively personal laptops, and employees can dock into the workstations on the off chance that they have to chip away at the screen. The space planning reflects the employees occupy workstations that are separately placed from other clusters of workstations but they all are part of one open plan layout with open lounge and meeting rooms placed in between the cluster of workstations allowing teams working together to get all range the of space in the proximity. 1 Apart from workstations, the office has both open and enclosed lounge spaces along with meeting rooms and other breakout zones. Clusters of these different meeting rooms and lounge spaces are planned for groups of 20 to 25 people in open offices layout , for constant communication and idea sharing.

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Phone booths

Work tables

Discussion tables

Work lounge

Figure 3.3.5 A above table shows the range of workspaces and their seating capacity

03 Case study Wieden+Kennedy NewYrok

Work cafĂŠ

Team rooms

Meeting rooms


FOCUS

LEARN

SOCIALIZE COLLABORATE

97


Innovation in Work Modes | “I” vs “We” The ontology of technology has allowed the office to function with the new work modes where the idea to increase productivity of the office. The proportion of spaces is changing where the office shows more collaboration and socialize spaces compared to individual spaces. The system is laid out in a manner it allows employees to have range of work setting (figure 3.3.6) indicates he range of physical setting and its proportion in the part plan of level 1 layout in W+K office.

Figure 3.3.6 Part plan of second floor plan showing the range of space distribution in the office

SQM per person

Person to seat ( Employee)

“I” : “WE” seat Ratio

“I” : “WE” Area Ratio 1

13.2 SQM

1.3:1

59:41 Ch a

The case study reflects the shift in spatial of office - consequence of technology development where the ratio of “I” vs “We” comes to 59:41 which is in reflects that the emphasis on individual working more than collaborative and social gatherings.

03 Case study Wieden+Kennedy NewYrok

rt T itle

2


PROCESS Technology of technology

CONNECTIVITY IOT between spaces

Work TABLES Interactional Knowledge

CONTROLS Medium of technology

AUTONOMY How people work

Work LOUNGE Individual Process

FOCUS Productive capital

“I” Individual Working spaces

MOBILITY Tools people use to work

Work MEET Individual and concentrated study

LEARN Intellectual capital

SYSTEM Ontology of technology

Work DISCUSSION Concentrated study

COLLABORATE Innovative capital

FLEXIBILITY Where people work

Work CONFERENCE Group process

SOCIALIZE Social capital

“WE” Group Working spaces 99


“I” Working Spaces Hot-desk Through a the concept of non-assigned workstations, and technology solutions, BCG’s office has more hospitality-oriented, loft-like touchdown spaces that dramatically reduce use of their real estate. Workstations These working tables are placed on the first level of the office where employee book their spot for ‘Focus ’ .The office have two types of such workstations with equipments fixed to the work station. Employee use laptops to dock into the workstation computers (Figure 3.3.11). Assistants mostly use these workstations to do their work. Counter discussions and Library Groups can hold fast updates on work by standing up at 10 foot long “Over-The-Counter” darkened steel tables. (Refer to figure 3.3.13)

“WE” Working spaces Picnic rooms and conference meeting-rooms The increase in meetings can adhere in conference rooms that extend in scale from small - phonebooths to picnic tables getting rooms that hold up to 10 individuals to bigger, formal Wide-n-Long meeting rooms. The glass dividers in these rooms makes a feeling of transparency to space. Bunches of these diverse ‘collaborative’ spaces are sorted out around in the group of 20-25 individuals in open office activity based working plan. Work-Lounge Impromptu meetings and discussion in lounge space with comfortable furniture that supports work equipments. The lounge is raised to various dimensions in order to create a feeling of privacy . Work-Cafe/bar The level two celebrates with in-house cafebar in the workplace. The element is integrated with the staircase creating the stairs as the focal point of interaction across all three levels. The cafe can accommodate about 40 people 03 Case study Wieden+Kennedy NewYrok


Figure 3.3.8 Team meeting rooms spread across all three levels

Figure 3.3.9 Conference meeting rooms

Figure 3.3.10 Lounge space spread across all three levels

Figure 3.3.11 Unassigned workstations with fixed screens where employees can dock laptops

Figure 3.3.12 In-house cafe-bar connected with spiral staircase leading to the third level

Figure 3.3.13 Discussion tables for quick meetings and discussions

101


Inference

Conceptual impact

-Data and power enabled space -Personal video, instant messaging, desktop team software -More reliance on conference calls -IOT enabled space

Increased use of teams and cross unit work, more emphasis on communication and flow, hence better CONNECTIVITY.

-Every employee has dedicated laptops -183 screens between 350 employees -As they have to be on phone, they have dedicated headset

The availability and accessibility of mobile support ( phones, laptops and headsets) allows employee’s to MOBILITY.

-No assigned desk -Individual lockers to keep belongings -Use of facilities beyond normal working hours -No longer sitting on assigned desk and working

Change is system approach is allowing FLEXIBILITY in the workplace.

The above table identifies a range of workspaces in the Wieden+Kennedy advertising office ,configurations and the area they occupy in the space. All four work modes were identified in the office. Around 36% of the entire space is for a percentage for alternative workspace. This shows the emergence of a range of workspaces “Third place” apart from a typical workstation and meeting rooms where employees can work, 18% of 36% is dedicate to open elevated lounge space where designers can conduct discussions without waiting to book for team and meeting rooms.

03 Case study Wieden+Kennedy NewYrok

-Flat hierarchy -Designer and creative heads share the same work setting

IMPACT ON SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

CONTROLS SYSTEM

CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY

PROCESS

Application of Technology


Work station typology

Space Type

Phone Botths FOCUS

FOCUS & LEARN

SOCIALIZE

COLLABORATE

Total Units

Total Caps

4

7

Total % of space occupied 1% 50%

Workstations with computers

65

253

49%

Discussion counters

8

34

6%

Library

2

12

3% 36%

Work Lounge

18

88

18%

Work Cafe

3

38

9%

Team rooms

8

38

8%

Meeting rooms

3

48

6%

EMERGENCE OF THIRD PLACE

“I” OWNED “WE” OWNED

“WE” WORKING

“WE” SHARED

“I” SHARED

“I” WORKING

Work Mode

14%

Aside from working individual creative work on the desk or leading client meetings, the workplace keeps running on high autonomy and interaction, along these lines the development of the third place. 18% of lounge space spread crosswise over three stories permit unscheduled impromptu discussions and meetings.

“I” OWNED

“I” SHARED

“WE” SHARED

“WE” OWNED

“I” & “WE” SHARED

103


CLIENT | GLG | Gerson Lehrman Group FIRM | Clive Wilkinson Architects SIZE | 4,550 SQM EMPLOYEE | 450 People YEAR | 2017 LOCATION | Austin, Texas INDUSTRY | Tech, media and telecom branch


Organization Clive Wilkinson Architects, US-based design firm designed a new office in 2017 for GLG- Gerson Lehrman Group. GLG, founded in 1988, the tech company offers network service and online learning platform for the professionals. The office works directly with the clients on an everyday basis, identifying and solving their crucial learning needs. The core idea of the organization is to provide one-on-one learning and to change how people can learn professionally.

Figure 3.4.1 Showing range of spaces that work in the

People and Work Apart from the workforce that works on speaking with council members and taking care of issues, the Austin office has a more significant part of the workforce as the tech minds of the GLG. Representatives work on their own devices (utilizing singular laptops or docking laptops to workstations with screens) as long as they are working away at their own. If council members call with a set of queries, the employees need to take calls from the workstations.

03 Case study Gerson Lehrman Group, Austin


Spatial Organization The new office was designed in the same place as the previous office, and it featured an open plan layout along with a series of communal work settings for the organization. GLG has occupied the 15th, and 16th floors as two interconnect levels in 301 Congress Avenue, Austin. GLG approached CWA architects to redesign their office. The architectural firm adapts new ways of working for the organization, a response to GLG employees work pattern in the office, the designer decided to create a flexible and collaborative approach. 4 3 1 6

2

5

7

1 | Lobby room 2 | Reception 3 | Workstations 4 | Focus rooms 5 | Team rooms 6 | Conference rooms 7 | Work Lounge 8 | Work Bar/cafe

4

8

3

6 5 Figure 3.4.2 Ground floor ( above) and first floor (below) plan of GLG office in Austin

Totaling 4,550 square meters, the CEO says that the new office is almost twice the size of the old office. It is designed to accommodate 450 staff unfold across two contiguous floors. The firm consolidated a system it conceived called Activity Based Working (ABW), which gets rid of individual desk areas and corner offices. Instead, representatives can work in a variety of spaces, from a private team and meeting rooms to a staffed cafe. Openwork area offers a range of seating option from an individual booth room, to a custom long bar for working ( refer figure 3.4.2) on each level.

107


Concept of Technology and Shift in Space Proportions GLG with adapting activity-based working office design, which changes the seating arrangements for employees. The organization adapts both organizations and employee perspective of flexibility in the space. The office takes a shot at a private server, which is utilized to store and share regular information. WIFI-incorporated system connects employees every one of the servers together. The office demonstrates a shift from an assigned workstation with desktop to exclusively personal laptops, and employees can dock into the workstations on the off chance that they have to chip away at the screen. Circulation of cabling for phone lines that keep running from server space to the individual workstation has been structured. The workstations are organized on the peripherally with primary shared spaces near the core. Consequently, the office reflects the conceptual application of technology, implementing connectivity, mobility and flexibility in the office with the idea is to connect inside and outside the office. Aside from unassigned workstations on both the levels, office has a scope of different workspaces where employees have the flexibility to pick the workspace dependent on the activity.

500 450 400 500 350 450 300 400 350 250 300 200 250 150 200 100 150 50 100 50 0 0

Focus booths

Work Tables

Shared tables

Figure 3.4.3 The above chart shows the seating capacity for range of workspaces in the office

03 Case study Gerson Lehrman Group, Austin

Work lounge

Work cafĂŠ

Team rooms

Meeting rooms


Figure 3.4.4 (Below) Shows first and second floor plan of GLG showing the space distribution based on focus and learn (individual working), collaborative and socialize (group working) spaces in the office

FOCUS

LEARN

SOCIALIZE

COLLABORATE

109


Innovation in Work Modes | “I” vs “We” The work environment is divided into “neighborhood” that each suits 65-100 employee inside an alternate plan of seatings. The system is spread out in a way it enables representatives to have a scope of work setting (figure 3.4.5) demonstrates the scope of physical setting and its extent in the part plan of level 1 layout in GLG office. The new ways of working has given other workspaces in the proximity to workstations to allows constant usage.

Figure 3.4.5 Part plan of second floor plan showing the range of space distribution in the office

SQM per person

Person to seat ( Employee)

“I” : “WE” seat Ratio

1:1

57:43

“I” : “WE” Area Ratio Chart Title

10.1 sqm

In the office, the ratio of “I” vs “We” working comes to 57:43 which is in reflects that the spatial organization has range of both individual and group working spaces. The ratio comes to approx 50-50 which indicate need of both focus and collaborative spaces in the office. 03 Case study Gerson Lehrman Group, Austin

1

2


PROCESS Technology of Technology

CONTROLS Medium of Technology

CONNECTIVITY IOT between spaces

Work TABLES Individual and concentrated study

AUTONOMY How people work

Work TABLES Individual and group study

FOCUS Productive capital

“I” Individual Working spaces

Work FOCUS BOOTHS Individual Process

LEARN Intellectual capital

SYSTEM Ontology of Technology

MOBILITY Tools people use to work

Work TEAM Concentrated study

FLEXIBILITY Where people work

Work CONFERENCE Group process

COLLABORATE Innovative capital

Work LOUNGE Interactional Knowledge

SOCIALIZE Social capital

“WE” Group Working spaces 111


“I” Working Spaces Hot-desk More organization are realizing that only meeting rooms aren’t really the best spaces for collaborative effort. In the GLG office, employees have the flexibility to select from diverse work settings and collaborative zones to best suit their work prerequisites. Despite the fact that there are quiet rooms and work areas that allows individual focus work, there are numerous different alternatives accessible too. Workstations The individual work desk and encased areas in the office have in this manner been kept formal. Workstations with low level screens take into consideration eye to eye connection and easy exchange. Both sit and stand work areas are accessible to look over, and high network tables are accommodated group clusters. “WE” Working spaces Conference and team meeting-rooms The series of both meeting rooms are divided on both the floors. The mezzanine-style second floor holds several board rooms, one with a Juliette balcony overlooking the communal break room, as well as a suite of private, client meeting rooms. These meeting rooms are used to conduct meetings where consultants and partners can ‘Collaborate’ better in enclosed space. Work-Lounge The objective was in this manner to give spaces in the workplace to take into to allow employees to loosen up. These spaces include pods (community settings) for team huddles, a recreation space and a town hall setup for group discussions. These spaces can be effectively changed and decked up for casual gathering just as group occasions and festivities. Work-Cafe and Team Tables To add to the easygoing setting, these basic zones were given the look and feel of urban cafes - the popular hangout choice of today’s generation for employees looking to take a break by themselves. There are quiet pods that are located along end-to-end glazing. The space is ideal for employees to ‘collaborate and socialize’. 03 Case study Gerson Lehrman Group, Austin


Figure 3.4.6 Unassigned workstations with fixed screens and telephones connected to the server

Figure 3.4.7 Semi-open booth space for quick two people meeting

Figure 3.4.8 Under staircase lounge seating with tables to work

Figure 3.4.9 Focus booths with integrated controls where one can conduct calls

Figure 3.4.10 Lounge furniture spread across all two floors

Figure 3.4.11 Tables next to the cafe is used as cafeteria during breaks

113


Inference

Conceptual impact

-Data and power enabled space -Personal video, instant messaging, desktop team software -More reliance on conference calls -IOT enabled space

Increased use of teams and cross unit work, more emphasis on communication and flow, hence better CONNECTIVITY.

-Every employee has dedicated laptops -444 screens between 450 employees - Focus rooms have independent controls

The availability and accessibility of mobile support ( phones, laptops and headsets) allows employee’s to MOBILITY.

-More number of meeting spaces both open and enclosed, large and small -Smaller individual workstation -No longer sitting on assigned desk and working

Change is system approach is allowing FLEXIBILITY in the workplace.

US studio Clive Wilkinson Architects who have designed the office and claims it to be ideal model for activity based working, where employees have alloted individual laptops to work and be mobile in the office. However, with the mobility and flexibility, the office has also provided 444 workstations with fixed screens and telephones for the users to dock in whenever they want. Thus, when the employees are in meetings or working on their laptops, the workstations and tools are relatively vacant.

03 Case study Gerson Lehrman Group, Austin

-Flat hierarchy -More shared workspaces

IMPACT ON SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

CONTROLS SYSTEM

CONCEPTS OF TECHNOLOGY

PROCESS

Application of Technology


Work station typology

Space Type

Solo booths FOCUS

FOCUS & LEARN

SOCIALIZE

COLLABORATE

Total Units

Total Caps

4

44

Total % of space occupied 5% 54%

Workstations with computers

48

444

49%

Shared Tables

8

16

2%

Library

1

6

1% 32%

Work Lounge

10

184

20%

Work Cafe

3

82

9%

Team rooms

16

64

7%

Meeting rooms

3

60

7%

The above table identifies a range of workspaces in the GLG office, configurations and the area they occupy in the space. All four work modes were identified in the GLG office. Around 32% of the entire space is for a percentage for alternative workspace with 54% to individual workstations and 14% to team room and meeting rooms.

EMERGENCE OF THIRD PLACE

“I” OWNED “WE” OWNED

“WE” WORKING

“WE” SHARED

“I” SHARED

“I” WORKING

Work Mode

14%

GLG office demonstrates 32% of their workplace as shared working zones. The workplace doesn’t have committed diverse zone for a work lounge. The lounge is dispersed on both floors. However, the two stories have committed zone for pantry and workcafe with the goal that individuals don’t need to travel much for their espresso. Nonetheless, when individuals are utilizing the third space, the workstations are moderately vacant. “I” OWNED

“I” SHARED

“WE” SHARED

“WE” OWNED

“I” & “WE” SHARED

115


3.2 Analysis of data Technology in workplace Reinterpreting the concepts of technology as the application of technology in the workplace to identify and analyze its impact of integration of technology, people and space in the workplace. Processes The integration of processes as availability and accessibility of high power and data in all spaces. This idea of totally wired for power and information is adapted by all the four workplaces to enhance the level of connectivity between employee, work and space. In the real world application - WIFI and personal server which replaced LAN as the process helps in overall connectivity. For example, wireless data allows one to stay away from the desk, ease in finding and booking space to hold meetings, scheduling appointments enable people to find and save accessible rooms. Controls Change in controls demonstrates the “consumerization” of technology that place wireless communication and mobile devices inside the hands of employees. Employees demands for various physical tools for work expecting the ability to plug and work. The major change in controls is a shift of desktop workforce to laptop workforce in offices- where every individual is given a laptop and they can dock into the workstations if they want more screens. The research highlights on 2:1 ratio, where every two people share one fixed computer in the office. The availability and accessibility of laptops in the office is allowing mobility where people are free-ed from their assigned desk. Systems The integration of processes and controls are creating a cyberspace where technology is connecting people and work - which changes the physical setting enables flexibility in the workplace. This has resulted into sharing desk system, lounge, and other workspaces of the office. The work is no longer addressed to one specific space in the office. Thus, technology changing the traditional system of “I work here to I’m working on this”.The advances in technology in all the fields has resulted in the overall change in the work environment. This has resulted into providing more connectivity, mobility and flexibility in the workplace. 03 Case study Gerson Lehrman Group, Austin


Boston Consulting Group, Seattle

Workstations

W+K, Newyork

Team and meeting rooms Figure 3.2.1 shows how the connectivity, mobility and flexibility by application of technology redefines multiple way of working in the workplace

W+K NewYork Discussion Tables

117


Responding to New Patterns of Work and Shift in Spatial Organization in Workplace ‘Hive’ where workers work without anyone else’s input on routine task, with low interaction and low autonomy - call centers and BPO are typical examples. However, unlike the typical call center, the Airbnb office spatial organization is more like ‘Club’- where workers never again need to remain in one spot in densely arranged workstations, the mobility and flexibility has enabled them to work anywhere with ‘Focus’ rather than working on one assigned desk for the entire time. The workplace has 27% of an individual workstation with 43% of the diverse range of individual work setting - this demonstrates the emergence of new work-setting for the same type of work. BCG consultant office shows high interaction and high autonomy, unlike typical consulting firms. Typically consultants are assigned individual cells to perform a concentrated study, BCG office changes the standards of the counseling work environment. The office has committed practically 37% for both collaborative works in a team and conference rooms with 37% for lounge and work cafe where they can talk about work without occupying individual cells which wouldn’t be utilized for most days of the week. ‘Den’ work is interactive, including a great deal of teamwork, however not really autonomous leadership. Individuals have their own work desk in an open-plan setting, sharing common activities, for example, printing space. Wieden+Kennedy office demonstrates the comparative example yet with a change in 50% of focus work with no owned desk in an open place sitting and 41% common areas as lounge and meeting rooms as collaborative spaces in the workplace. In profoundly knowledge-driven ventures, workers are both autonomous and interactive. Such organizations require ‘clubs’ - spaces for spontaneous meeting that include differing quantities of individuals. GLG, a telecom office is a contrary model to ordinary club organization. The workplace has 53% devoted to the unassigned workstation. Even with increased in mobility and flexibility, out of the four working environments, GLG, tech office holds the most extreme space of 54% devoted to unassigned but densely arranged workstation vs Airbnb and BCG with almost 27% of the space.

HIVE

CELL

DEN

CLUB


WORK TYPOLOGY Case-studies

Chart Title

CALL CENTER Case-study 1 AIRBNB, Portland 4537 Sqm 4 Levels MANAGEMENT CONSULTANT Case-study 2

1

2

3

4

27:43:13:17 Chart Title Chart Title

1

BCG, Seattle 2250 sqm 2 Levels CREATIVE MEDIA FIRM Case-study 3 Wieden+Kennedy New York 4645 sqm 3 Levels

1

2

2

3

4

3

26:37:37

Chart Title

1

2

3

4

50:9:27:14

Chart Title

TECHNOLOGY FIRM Case-study 4 GLG, Austin 4550 sqm 2 Levels

1

2

3

4

54:3:29:14

“I” OWNED

“I” SHARED

“WE” SHARED

“WE” OWNED

119


Through the set of case studies, it can be stated that, in actuality, each of the four work modes is found in all types of organizational fields i.e. the organizations needs a great balance of an individual process, concentrated study, group process and transnational knowledge in the workplace. To provide a workplace with all these parameters, organizations are following activitybased working to provide at most mobility and flexibility to the employees and employers. The immediate effect of this factor is being seen in spatial organizational attitude - one of the significant effects is in the physical setting leading towards the emergence of flat hierarchy. Rather than an assigned desk - employees share workspaces, underneath workstation storage is replaced with individual lockers, freedom to choose laptops and controls which allows flexibility to choose the workspace based on the activity. The result demonstrates the average of 53:47 in “I” vs. “We” working proportion of spaces where there is a shift in office furniture system - giving a scope of focus and collaborative work settings respectively. Research also shows the 40% of the workplace; space is dedicated to the ‘Third’ place as shared working stations, team rooms, work lounge and work cafe - emergence of communal spaces as alternative workspace - a break from traditional assigned desk.

WORK MODES By Francis Duffy

HIVE Individual Process

CELL Concentrated Study

DEN Group Process

CLUB Transnational Knowledge

Organizations have recognized the idea of reinventing the workplace with the lens of technology integration in the above listed case studies that have translated technological concepts in ways of working and space utilization. Thus, changing notions of ‘I work here to I am working on this’.


SQM per Seat

WORK TYPOLOGY Case-studies

Person to workstation Ratio

“I” : “WE” Working Area Ratio

“I” Owned: “I Owned” : “WE “I” Shared: Owned” : “WE” Owned Shared Third “WE” Shared : Place Area Area Ratio Ratio Chart Title

1

2:1 eltiT

C trah

2

9.82

CALL-CENTER Case-study 1

Chart Title

AIRBNB, Portland

1

2

3

4

1

27:43:13:17

70:30

27:56:17

Chart Title

1

1 1

26:74

CREATIVE MEDIA FIRM Case-study 3

1

13.2

Chart Title Chart Title

eltiT trahC

2:1

2

9.78

BCG, Seattle

1.3:1

2

2

3

4

3

1 1

26:37:37

2

2

3

4

3

26:37:37

Chart Title

Chart Title

2

Ch a

rt T itle

Wieden+Kennedy, New York

1

59:41

10.1

TECHNOLOGY FIRM Case-study 4 GLG, Austin

2

3

4

3

50:36:14

Chart Title

Chart Title

2

1

57:43

2

3

Chart Title

53:47

2

3

2

3

57:32:14

Chart Title Chart Title

1 11223

1

4

54:3:29:14

Chart Title

“WE” OWNED

2

1:1 1

“WE” SHARED

1

50:9:27:14

Chart Title

“I” SHARED

3

Chart Title

MANAGEMENT CONSULTANT Case-study 2

“I” OWNED

2

4

1 112 122 334

Chart Title Chart Title

40:13:27:20

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

112 122 334

40:40:20 THIRD PLACE

121


This chapter discusses the outcomes of the research. The first part of this chapter is the inferences in context to offices in India and second part is the key findings of the overall research


04

Discussions 4.1 Inference

4.1.1 Airbnb, Gurgaon 4.1.2 Boston Consulting Group (BCG), Mumbai 4.1.3 W+K, Dehli 4.1.4 Facebok, Mumbai

4.2 Key Findings


4.1 Inference

As seen through set of case studies, it can be stated that the technology has changed the functional and spatial organization of the workplace. As being multinational organizations, these firms tend to have multiple locations across the globe. The idea is to evaluate the ontology of technology and its impact in western countries compared to in context to India.

Telesales firms in India and western countries Scenario at Airbnb Customer service center, Gurgaon Airbnb is an expansive network, and it was imperative to incorporate variety in workplace design to make collaboration between spaces. The office is the result of pre-occupancy investigation pf the work culture and reasonable requests of the employees. The office reflects eccentric yet functional workspace in accordance with its universal design standards. Their global workplaces will, in general, utilize nonpartisan and unpretentious plans with insignificant and clean wraps up. Be that as it may, this space needed to represent itself with no issue, Figure 4.1.1 (Above) shows cluster of different just as resist useful workspace intending to work settings as work lounge workstations, team mirror a one of a kind brand involvement. rooms and meeting rooms in Airbnb Gurgaon office The workplace adapts every one of the three concepts of application of technology, where the availability through WIFI and distributed storage enables them to process the work online anyplace. As employees should be on calls more often than not, the workplace adjusts portability liberating people structure workstations. Like Airbnb Portland office, the workplace in Gurgaon shows similarity in terms of organizational and employees flexibility. The workplace indicates both organizations point of view of Airbnb culture which is reflected in the spatial organization and employees viewpoint where they have the freedom to pick the work setting. Thus the idea of shared spaces is not imagery; the concept of hot-desking allows not to be addressed to the desk and gives the freedom to choose from the range of workspace in the office.

04 Discussions

Figure 4.1.2 the team meaning rooms Figure 4.1.3 Lounge furniture varies from homely living room setting to edge seating with integrated power supply in the setting


Advertising and Creative Media Oriented Firms in India and Western Countries Scenario at Wieden+Kennedy, Delhi office Wieden+Kennedy, opened their office in India in 2009, which is their eight global office. The goal was to create culture-shifting work for brands. This is not the only thing that makes the Delhi office stand out, the workplace functional and spatial design reflects where creative media is heading. The office reflects all three concepts of application of technology in the office, where the connectivity through WIFI and cloud storage allows them to process the work on-line anywhere. Most of the office works on laptop workforce enabling the mobility in the office. Thus the system reflects the idea of flexibility where the office adapts activity based working similar to its other offices across the globe. The Delhi office in particularity takes its design attributes from its HQ in Portland. The office with open plan layout is trying to collapse the barrier between focus and collaborative spaces. The organization shows flat hierarchy, where creative directions and designers share the similar setting for workstations. To translate other organizational culture and flexibility, the Dehli office responds to from western countries, the organization has wine Thursdays, so instead wine, Dehli office do movies instead. “Somedays we have to work till 2-3am, these things helps them to destress.” says former designer at Wieden+Kennedy. It is seen that by noon, many people are sitting someplace other than standard workstations, discussion work. A lot of round tables close workstations fills in as a casual gathering space, as do couches in the lounge space and library. The library is the most prominent setting; both for meetings and computer game sessions. The workplace indicates both organizations point of Figure 4.1.4 shows the shared non-assigned working view of W+K culture which is reflected in the spatial table at W&K office. Employee’s majority work on their laptops which is allowing them level of mobility and flexi- organization and employees viewpoint where bility in the workplace they have the freedom to pick the work setting. Figure 4.1.5 the lounge, game room as part of library Thus the idea of shared spaces is not imagery; the concept of hot-desking allows not to be addressed to the desk and gives the freedom to choose from the range of workspace in the office.

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Consulting Oriented Firms in India and Western Countries Scenario at Boston Consulting Group, Mumbai office The consulting firm, BCG is a American based organization. The office has been designed by Mumbai based firm, Concept Consilio in 2018. The office accommodates 250 people in 1672 sqm area on 7th floor of tower in Vasia, Mumbai. BCG, Mumbai office is an ideal example of translating concepts of application of technology in the office, where the connectivity through WIFI and cloud storage allows them to process the work on-line anywhere. As most of the consultants work from the client office, limited workstations is provided to assistants and other staff. Thus the system reflects the idea of flexibility where the office adapts activity based working similar to its other offices across the globe. The consultants fly across the globe the first four days of the week and return to their respected offices on Fridays. ‘I would call BCG, BKC Mumbai office as a satellite office’ says a former consultant. The Nariman point is the head office for Boston consultants group in Mumbai which was designed in 2014 which works like a typical consulting firm office where partners and consultants have their individual dedicated cells where they primarily work. After understanding the work pattern of the organization, BKC office reflects the most of Activity based working. The exceedingly community oriented methodology is driven from the space planning that permits an overlap of social and collaborative spaces with focus zones while holding the essential functionality of both. This shows impact of activitybased working on space proportions, where space occupied per individual comes to 6.6 sqm. Nonassigned shared workstations develop naturally as the focal point of the workplace. Functionality unquestionably drives the spatial organization in this office with meeting rooms taking hexagonal shapes to take into account the sort of meetings that occur here. Range of spaces for collaboration has been made with a vast case team room serving likewise as an amphitheater and a circular huddle space. Accordingly shared spaces isn’t symbolism, the idea of hot-desking permits not to be routed to the work area and allows looking over the scope of workspace in the workplace.

04 Discussions


Figure 4.1.6 BCG, Mumbai office in BKC Figure 4.1.7 shows the non-assigned workstations with removal of underneath storage to assigned lockers to individual Figure 4.1.8 shows the arrangement of the conference room Figure 4.1.9 (Left) shows the huddle room arrangement for quick discussions

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Tech Oriented Firms in India and Western Countries Scenario at Facebook, Mumbai

The office is located at the Bandra Kurla Complex, spanning over a space of 2,043 sqm. The office was designed in 2017. The office was organically designed to accommodate 120 facebook employees in one BCK. The tech firm is all things Facebook and takes very little like the industrial look headquarters of Melno Park. The look and feel of the office reflects contextual elements in the design. Along with organization’s and employee’s perspective, the facebook office also gives employee’s to choose their technological tools and controls to perform the design. Facebook has over 50 offices across the globe, however, the major tech heads of the organizations are not present in every office. Mumbai office doesn’t have engineers rather, the office works as a advertising and marketing platform for the Indian hub. Employee’s at Mumbai office normally collaborative and solve issues of facebook users in India. Apart from Indian employers, Facebook representatives from across the globe drop in the office every now and then for meetings. Thus, the office in its spatial design is reflection of its HQ in Melno park. The spatial organization shows the result of 36:64 i.e 36% of focus area with assigned workstations and cozy rooms of the entire floor whereas the other 64% is dedicated to collaboration and socialize area with series of meeting rooms, work lounge, multipurpose rooms and cafe. The workplace has almost 46% of the ‘third’ place which is dedicated to sharing working activities. The stats shows that spatial planning is based on the organization brand manual where Facebook environments team have standardized design attributes to respond to the similar functional and spatial organization across the globe. However, the question here is, if they are hardly any technicians placed in the Mumbai office, does the office needs to have similar space standards as compared to other offices which has been designed based on engineers working pattern.

04 Discussions


Figure 4.1.10 shows the plan of Facebook, BKC Mumbai office with focus, learn, social and collaborative spaces highlighted Figure 4.1.11 shows the personalized workstations of employees with different range of equipments arranged based on their work, Mumbai office Figure 4.1.12 shows the personalized workstations of employees with different range of equipments arranged based on their work, Seattle office Figure 4.1.13 Facebook Mumbai office

FOCUS

LEARN

SOCIALIZE COLLABORATE

SERVICES

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4.2 Key Findings

From the analysis of the above-listed case studies and observations from examples, it can be stated that technology is reshaping the functional and spatial organization in different organization typologies. The level of the effect may contrast depending on the integration of the application of technology in the working environment. There are three primary reasons for the impact through the technological development: The processes that informed the way work can be performed in the office, the controls dealing with what tools used to process the information and the system that combines the process and controls to govern where the work can be performed in the office. 04 Key Findings


Technology

Workplace

Workplace as a consequence of technology Ontology

Concepts of Technology

Conceptual application of technology in office

Application of Technology in office

New ways of Working

Connectivity

Identification and analysis

Mobility

Response to shift in functional and spatial organization

Flexibility

Response to the “Third” place

Efficiency and Effectiveness

Evaluate

Impact of system design on spatial efficiency

Response to the “Local” context

Convergence of people, space and technology

Concerns

Technology as enabler rather than driver of change

Domesticity and well being in the workplace

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Ontology of Technology The intake of information and communication technology during the 1980s brought about the impact of the application of technology on conventional methods for working and organizing office activities. Since then the workplace is automated, the 21st century has turned into a period to re-imagine the methods of work and workplace environments. Ever, this sentiment of technological control felt after the postmodern developments in the 1970s, it was imagined that workplaces, later on, that is today, would be controlled by robots while workers would appreciate leisure time (Dowdy 2000). This conviction was intense to the point that it stressed social researchers over the broad measure of free time the workforce would need to oversee and touched Figure 4.2.1 Robots as technology? off the fear of a jobless society (Castells 1996;).

Ontology of Technology

How work can be performed Where the work can be performed

However, the analysis highlights on the technological development that has potential to convey an increasingly creative and a better working environment, where daily routine undertakings are never again constrained the psychological condition of the workers and allowing them to be productive in the work environment. Thus the application of technology helping in humanizing the workplace instead of focusing on the consequence of technological development that may replace human workforce with robots. In the work environment, the emphasis is on the application of technology on realism is as its ontological position. It is not merely the physical state of technology we use at work that has changed the workplace configuration; it is the use of technology that grants, which directly impacts the functional and spatial organization of the workplace. 04 Key Findings

Impact on functional organization Impact on Spatial organization


The 1970s were demonstrated by centralized focal computing, the 1980s commanded by the rise of the personalized desk with top PCs, the 1990s with the advancement of palmtops and PCs, 2000 with the IOT connectivity and in 2003, Telenor, telecommunication firm introduced ‘hot-desking’, the concept of no assigned seats and shared desking leading to omproved communication between technology, people and space. We have moved from a phase where computing was an alternative, to a stage where it is essential to business, a tool to be integrated to improve efficiency and to assess the activating communication system that enables the workplace to be increasingly mobile, flexible, and focus applying the technological concepts to accomplish organization goals. Workplace as a consequence of technology Workplace design is tied in with enhancing the collaboration, creativity, and efficiency of the organization - where technology is one of the critical drivers of change. The features on technological interfaces more qualified to the workplace setting, where the accessible technology underpins the physically shared space, the workers and their behavior inside the space. In the competition for attracting and holding the best workers strengthens, the nature of the working environment turns into a vital factor for any organization. Even though money is an essential factor, it is not the main factor. In earlier days, the level of productivity in the workplace was with the idea of ease of work, however, in today’s 21st-century workforce demands flexibility, stress reduction, and creative stimulation in the work environment. To comprehend the changing reactions in workplace design there first should be a comprehension of the creating idea of office organization. In this manner, the workplace, the office specifically, can be seen as an organization ecology, where it is essential to have integration and continuous interface between people, space and technology in order to enhance productivity. Thus, the technological discourse in context to the office is changing notions in the manner the organization performs work in a particular field which has direct implications on functional and spatial organization. 133


Response to Shift in Functional and Spatial Organization The history of the office space planning has reflected changing ways in work process and organizational ecology. Having analyzed four different organization types, the work pattern in each is distinct however there are striking similarities between factors of these four offices as consequence of ontology of technology in the workplace. The direct impact of this factor is being seen in spatial organization. This shift towards flexible workspaces to accommodate the most collaborative working styles not only help in saving money and space, but also gives employees the best of both worlds: communication and collaboration. The workplace needs to enable for a range of work setting for accommodating different group of people, from individual phone booths for calls and individual work, teams rooms for small group of people, large meeting rooms for informal and collaborative work The connectivity, mobility, and flexibility have increased the degree of interaction and autonomy in the ways of working in all organizational types. Even though call centers (Hive) and management consulting firms (Cell) are known as typical examples of offices with low interaction and autonomous working. The application of technology has changed the notion of how these workplace today are functionally and spatially designed.

Airbnb Portland workplace is an ideal example that sets the idea of technology integration and its impact on organizational ecology. In the process of rethinking the call center, the organization adopts the application of technology where the availability and accessibility of information and power upgrade the process, technology in its physical state as controls use the expansion connectedness of individual devices, including tablets, PDAs, and PCs. Together these technologies take into account an energizing blend of multi-gadget ecologies that increases a broad scope of co-gathering work. Thus, the organization initially applied the application of technology to redefine how a call center can work in the workplace which has an immediate effect on the physical setting and spatial organization. 04 Key Findings

Similar To Airbnb, Boston Consulting Group (BCG) seattle office is another idea example of activity-based working in the management consulting firm. The organization supports both concepts of organization’s and employee’s perspective of flexibility where the space is designed with range of multiple work-settings. As consultants aren’t present physically in the office for most days of the week, the hotdesking system works well, there number of workstations with screens are given to only who need. Other time, employee’s have freedom to choose the space based on the kind of task. The consulting firms flow of information and data is through level of interaction, thus the workplace design reflects the same in the functional and spatial organization.


Figure 4.2.2 shows the range of workspace in the Airbnb customer experience center which doesn’t dominantly have Hive organizational layout Figure 4.2.3 shows the spaces in the BCG, Seattle office which reflects high level of hospitality aesthetics in the workplace.

Both examples show a high level of increased space utilization in the office. The idea of activity-based working with a non-assigned desk creates a balance between individual focus work with collaborative group work in a non “Hive” and “Cell” dominating the spatial organization. Thus, the research highlights the ever-changing and increasing application of technology is leading to change in the organizational ecology — the above-listed examples emphasis on blurring lines between Francis Duffy work modes in the offices. Based on the results, no organizations can be categorized as being entirely a ‘Hive, Cell, Den or Club.’ Similarly, the combination of all types at any one time must consist of proportions of all four types. The challenge is to design the office that can keep up with changing work methods without disrupting the actual work. Through set of eight work models in different organizational types, the demand for the collaborative workspace has emerged today’s offices significantly through the introduction of “third spaces,” or “shared spaces;” work areas with no specific purpose; but the ability to choose from multiple range of working on different activities. 135


Response to the “Third” Place ‘Third’ place introduces the idea of workplace change, the convergence between people, space and technology with an immediate focus on conveying organizational value both functionally and spatially. Work change has made organization think on how we work, where we work, and nature in which we work. An ultimate objective of work change is to enable the organization to break out of their traditional meaning of work and move ahead to a situation that is more flexible, engaging, and satisfying. These spaces are designed not just with the idea of providing relaxing breakout zones in the office rather a change from working on traditional work setting to range of alternative workspaces.

TRADITIONAL INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS ‘FOCUS’ “I” OWNED

MODES OF WORKING

“WE” OWNED ‘COLLABORATE’ TEAM MEETING ROOMS Figure 4.2.4 The above illustrates typical “I” owned working on desk and “We” owned working in team and meeting rooms, however only these spaces aren’t enough in the workplace - emergence of third place. 04 Key Findings


The research shows average of 40% of shared spaces in all different organizational types with the notion of employees searching out the ‘third’ place as a result of its essential characteristics to balance complexity of work pattern, the capacity to work without other people ceasing by, work lounge furniture with a homely feel, an attracting and inspiring atmosphere. Many organizations are moving towards collaborative workplaces to cost-viably address changes in technology and work process. The below images shows the presence of ‘third’ place in the organization. This shows how third place has become critically essential design elements, regardless of no frequent use of the space.

Figure 4.2.5 shows the range of unassigned booths rooms in GLG office Figure 4.2.6 shows the range of shared lounge spaces in Facebook Mumbai office office

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Responding to the Local Context Even though workplaces in India are very much affected by western nations, specific dependable religious and social thoughts of the country have influenced the workplace functionality and spatial organization. Individual offices expectations have reached out to a higher quality of administrations and structure as to demand similar work experience as to western nations. Translating technological applications In certain workplaces, with the technological development, devices and tools are, for example, process and controls to make the work processes is actualized; nonetheless, the system continues as before. For this situation, the workplace takes a shot at network, connectivity, and tools; however no sense of mobility and flexibility in the workplace. This is in a circumstance where technology is a second thought which is implemented as tools and not as ideas. Translating technological concepts of application The workforce in India has received with technology rapidly and is dependent on virtual communication and different in controls to increase connectivity, mobility for the most part to make groups increasingly worldwide. In any case, the idea of flexiblity isn’t reflected in the spatial association. Translating technological concepts and its impact on spatial planning Regardless of a worldwide or national organization, all conceptual application of technology is applied in the office; however, due to local hierarchy notions, the system isn’t practical. Thus, even with implementing the conceptual application of technology, new ways of working might and may not work in India. A one-size-fits-all workplace does not do justice to the extreme variation of a multilingual, multicultural and multi-generational workforce. The above three are three variations in which offices in India adopt the application of technology, in which few organizations are successful in translating the idea in their workplace. 04 Key Findings


Figure 4.2.7 the work lounge setting in BCG, Mumbai office (Above) and GLG, Austin office and Adversing firm WG in NewYork office (Below).

Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Mumbai office is an example where the two thoughts of western nations and contextual ideas are reflected. Being a worldwide organization, the working environment pursues a similar convention as western nations with both organizational and employee’s point of view of flexibility. The workplace design reflects this in their spatial organization where the employees have the flexibility to utilize different workspaces offered by the organization in the working environment thus blurs the hierarchal notion in the workplace. In any case, not all workplaces demonstrate a similar outcome. Facebook, Mumbai office design based on organization brand manual offers a similar look and feel, adapts the same organization viewpoint of flexibility which is reflected in their spatial structure yet anticipate various hierarchical ideas in the workplace.

Figure 4.2.8 the Chai bar in Airbnb Gurgaon office (Above) and Cafe in Airbnb Portland office (Below).

In this way, following the brand manual and by modifying and adding few contextual materialistic elements doesn’t justify as effective workplace design which probably won’t work for all organization. One needs to comprehend convergence between people, space and technology dependent on the context and react to the change. These were some critical observations drawn while drawing the parallel between India and western countries.

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Effectiveness and Efficiency The result show technological development and its various impact on functional and spatial organization of the workplace. The real question is the ontology of technology which is allowing this immense level of flexibility leading to generate new ways of working - its intentions and the level of efficiency after implementation. Impact of System Design on Spatial Efficiency In the above-discussed cases, it is observed that organizations are demanding for more collaboration space in light of organizational activities requiring venture spaces for cross-interaction and to remove the notion of hierarchy. What most organizations don’t at first acknowledge is that providing a large area of this kind of space without rethinking business as usual practices - the space distribution will be an outcome in the increase in floor zone measurements of sft per individual. This is primarily observed in the organization that assign desk to every individual as well as increase range of ‘third’ place are expected to address these issues. Progressively, research show that assigned space is under utilized most of the time. The organizations need to understand that this is an unacceptable waste of space and money that must be eliminated. In a traditional office layout, roughly 70 percent, of the area is assigned to individual workers. That leaves approximately 30 percent, for shared area including collaboration and community spaces. This 70/30 proportion is getting to be history and continuing this same stats going ahead can’t support better ways for working for today’s highly mobile workforce. To place this in the real world metrics, the traditional office layout worked out at the 70/30 proportion ordinarily yields an area assigned of 25 - 30 Sqm for each individual. In this typical situation, space is assigned on a 1:1 person to seat proportion, so a similar figure of 2530 likewise applies to other areas per seat. Today, organizations and aggressive strategies in large real estate sectors are targeting 10 sqm or less per seat inclusive of focus, collaboration, and social spaces.

04 Key Findings

70% 30%


Person to seat sharing proportions of 1:1 has moved to 2:1 with overall 70/30 proportion toward 50/50. This is best represented in a series of current planning methods for office floors over a variety of industries including tel-sales, banking, financial services, consulting media, advertising digital media, and technology. In the analyses, these examples showed the proportion of 53:47, i.e. 53% ‘I’ working and 47% as ‘We’ working. Together, all out “focus and learn” space for individual booths, non assigned individual workstations, and shared worktables involves 53% of the entire area on the floor. The other 47% includes collaboration and social shared spaces with team rooms, conference rooms, work lounge, and work cafe. Research also shows the 40% the workplace is dedicated to the ‘Third’ place as shared - which means almost half of the spatial organization is with the idea of the shared working environment. This is a common notion in co-working spaces where people share spaces while working individually on their own business but the same approach of working is seen within independent organizations. In this equal ratio for “I” and “We” working, for each focus seat, there is one shared seat to help collaboration and socializations. This concept of new ways of working with technological development Figure 4.2.9 (Above) the part plan of Airbnb, Porland cushas certain drawbacks in the workplace. The tomer care center changing and adapting ABW model solution of new ways of working - activitybased working specifically to this isn’t entirely Figure 4.2.10 (Left) shows the typical ratio of HIVE call effective and efficient to all organizational types. center scenario with 70:30 ratio of “I” vs “WE” working Figure 4.2.11 (Left) shows the people working in the HIVE call canter layout with low interaction and autonomy

One of the major criticisms in the concept of (ABW) activity-based working is the ‘one size fits all’ attitude, where all individuals are expected to work radically different ways, on various types of activities, in a similar shared space with no assigned desk. While this empowers extreme communication and collaboration, by doing as such, it likewise makes unnecessary disturbance and stress for ones that need silence and privacy.

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Tech-oriented hardware/software development firms face this issue. The Facebook office is one of the examples of this situation. Even though the organization promotes both organizational and employee’s flexibility, which is reflected in their workplace environment - employees are still bound to have their assigned work stations. ‘I cannot imagine not to have my assigned desk with personalized equipment according to my need’ says a former Facebook software engineer, Seattle office. This notion is also seen in Facebook Mumbai office, where the office is designed to accommodate 120 people with the idea to having maximum organizational and employee’s flexibility, the spatial organization shows the ratio of 1:1 i.e. one assigned seat per person. Even after knowing the fact the employees would stay 50% of their time on a dedicated desk, the workplace shows a range of ‘Third’ places as alternative workspace. This reflects the adapting ABW isn’t very effective in the workplace where 46% of the real estate as shared working spaces are not used most of the time. Thus, these instances reflect the idea of adapting the new ways of working being largely introduced for populist imagery which is not increasing efficiency by adapting activity-based working (ABW) in the office. Apart from the spatial planning not being efficient, the question also lies in the ABW model is like to set by cost reduction; where this reduction of office space is primarily the result of advancement of technological mobility which has transformed work’s place-based specifically - what is the impact on energy consumption. Workspaces are developing to integrate IOT enabled devices with the aim to practically activate all areas of office space which are data enabled and driven. This is with the concept to cut expenses and make progressively productive manners by which organizations can drive business. IOT enabled office spaces would look and act uniquely in contrast to the previous ones. This implies that everything from the furnishings to the copier will be associated through IOT. Most workplaces representatives currently have no less than a couple of laptops/PCs per work area. Thus, does it cost more to prepare them to do their work and require more power, cooling and ventilation. 04 Key Findings


Convergence of Technology, Space and People With the demand for ‘third’ place, it’s clear that the Z generation, i.e., today’s workforce seeks for an inspiring and comfortable workspace that enables a sense of calm and make the work process easy. To adapt to this shift, organizations are developing offices with a ‘residential’ sensitivity in mind. A merge of “residential” and “commercial,” spatial design elements that are emerging ‘resimercial’ approach which brings aspects of home into the commercial work environment.

Figure 4.2.12 (Below) Sandro Botticelli St Augustin dans son cabinet de travail or St Augustine at Work. Figure 4.2.13 (Right) the shift from home to working in the office

Technology is one of the catalyst for this approach of resimercial design where printers to furnishing, everything in the office is enabled by the IOT and other application of technology - one can simply get a laptop, work on the workstation, get into the soft sofa and work while having coffee in the cafe - in-short choose the work-setting based on their needs and work however they want. This revolution is a blurring the line between commercial and residential interiors which is giving a sense of belonging.

As observed through different developments in the history of office design- when the methods of the work expanded over time, and people realized they need to move out of the casual residential space and create an indented meaning of the office where one can work. The result was a want for a more formal and private office. This evolution of office stayed over 50 years. However, today’s office design reflects the evolution of going back to find the meaning of residence in the office. 143


The resimercial approach is not just a sudden office design trend; rather, it could become the next logical step in workplace evolution. Apart from the discussed workplace examples in the research, the resimercial design is found in various workplaces independent of Figure 4.2.14 the individual booths for attending calls organizations brand image. The below listed and concentration work in Booking.com, Mumbai office are the four key ways in which the workplace (Above) and GLG, Austin office (Below). look and feel has changed to give a homely feel without hampering the work of the organization. The Study rooms as Alternative Workstations In huge family, evenings can frequently get disturbing and loud once everybody is home. In such homes, there’s is a dedicated space like a quiet and calm area, where one can do their work or accept an essential call. These spaces are tagged as study rooms in the home. In resimercial workspaces, this idea of study home is translated as solo work booths, call booths or other small enclosed pods where one can work as individual and focus on the task. Isolation and comfort are the most essential needs here. These spaces are typically fitted with technological tools and acoustic furnishings to limit distractions. This notion of solo individual booths is observed in diverse organizational typologies. Figure 4.3.2 shows dedicated phone booths in Booking.com, a customer experience Mumbai office and GLG office in Austin. The Dining room as Meeting rooms Dinner times are the most communal times for family and friends to come together on the table and talk about their day. The very same notion of having a table where people can Figure 4.2.15 the meeting room ambiance in Gramdiscuss work while having meals at the same maraly office, Amsterdam (Above) and Booking.com, time is seen in the meetings rooms. Workplaces Mumbai office (Below). are introducing ‘lunch and learn’ sessions. The IOT and controls integration in the physical setting is so advance that ascetically tech-savvy dominating meetings rooms are fading away. Figure 4.2.1 shows the meeting room for Grammarly and Booking.com office, where both the office has contrast brand image for their organizations, however, the resemblance of a dining room in the meeting room is seen in both the case. 04 Key Findings


Figure 4.2.16 the work lounge setting in BCG, Mumbai office (Above) and GLG, Austin office and Adversing firm WG in NewYork office (Below).

The Drawing room as Work Lounge Inside a home, the drawing room is where the whole family assembles to talk with one another and to engage with friends and family. Resimercial workspaces grasp the casual vibe of a drawing room and interpret it into warm, welcoming lobbies and perfectly designed work lounge where employees can conceptualize and ideate. Instead of flat, impersonal furnishings- resimercial lounges are made comfortable with couches and casual seating with power and plugs essentially inserted into the furnishings for charging gadgets. This is observed in design of lounge spaces for BCG, Mumbai office as well as well as Adversing agency in NY office. Both organizations with the idea of enhancing networking - the lounge has comfortable sofas arranged in different scales in the layout. This enables people to sit facing each other, so that no one person in a group obstructed from view. The homely lounge setting is enabled with technology in order to support all kinds of work in the space. The Kitchen as work cafe Today, workplaces are moving far from the traditional industrial canteens of the past, and are picking informal cafe and pantries. Furnished with huge tables, low and high seating alternatives, enhanced lights and extra pantry. These family style eating zones welcome employees to mingle, bond and discuss work over food and drinks.

Figure 4.2.17 the Chai bar in Airbnb Gurgaon office (Above) and Cafe in Airbnb Portland office (Below).

The Chai Bar and the Cafe at the Airbnb offices in Gurgaon and Portland respectability are prime examples. Furnished in calm wood and complemented with lively shades, (Figure 4.3.3) these work cafes are favored spot for employees. The long table and bar stools allows greater group gatherings, while the stools and cushioned seats make great extraordinary informal spots for unscheduled meetings and discussions Thus, socialization and work at the same time.

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Thus, through the research it can be stated that regardless of the high dependence on IT, work environments are formed by human attributes, like physical space and face to face interaction. As a consequence, the role of technology as a driver of change is questioned and the role of an enabler of change favored. One of the primary reasons for organizations to consider a ‘resimercial’ design is the millennial workforce who bring a various different qualities to the workplace. This age is updated with technology and its ease,which incorporates the ability to utilize it anyplace, enlightening the lens to look for tech-enabled spaces than aesthetically tech-savvy spaces. Today, workplace technology is managing office temperatures to empowering collaboration over geographic areas , thus is it far something other than just tools, function and data. In this case, the meaning of resimercial can be perceived as “equipoise” design where the elements of residential design is observed into the commercial design. The word equipoise is seen as combination of traditional sterile formality of an office with the level of comfort to the workplace. In context to workplace design, the term means the manners by which design from all diverse industries are overlapping. Health-care services to hospitality, retail merging with restaurant design, and commercial and residential are merging as resimerical design. This consummately characterizes the manner by which design is going. It comprehends that comfort can be coordinated with the technological evolution and can be integrated into the qualities that a space demand which is regardless of whether it be a formal meeting room in the office or an comforting hospital lobby. Another reason may basically be the end of the 9-to-5 workday. Organizations are asking more from their workers and technology is guaranteeing that they are accessible as needs be every minute of every day. This approach of design can help keep workers comfortable for longer time-frames while they are in the workplace. At long last, the thought of workplace “domesticity and wellbeing” is turning into a fundamental topic, one that is prompting changes in organization culture and structure.

04 Key Findings


Review comments

Review 1 - 22/01/2019 • • • •

Define meaning of application of technology. Understand types of practices and application of technology in office design Emphasis on criteria of case study selection. Understanding variable in selection of case study (Project type, technology, site), permutation and combination, derive a constant to analyze and come to a conclusion. • Can take case study from one specific firm, to conduct analyses. Reflection In order to define the application of technology, intensive reading on concepts of technology was part of the major process. Selection of case studies begun based on conceptual application of technology.

Review 2 - 19/02/2019 • Restructure the chapters, shouldn’t be elongated • Subjective approach towards the topic, need enough valid literature to build lens for the reader • Literature review emphasis on ontology of technology • Identify elements in the application of technology to conduct the case-study, find parameters to analyses application of technology in work environment • Rework on methodology to conduct the case study • Look for very appropriate case studies to support the thesis Reflection To validate the topic, literature review for giving lends to rethinking the application of technology in office spaces through the concepts of connectivity, mobility and flexibility. Case study selected based on new ways of working to evaluate the application of technology.

Review 3 - 19/03/2019 • • • •

Complete the initial chapters Define concepts in context to office Diagrams to explain Activity based working How to evaluate the implementation of concepts of technology

Reflection Impact on space planning was emphasized with lens of new ways of working. Comparion of different offices to evaluate the implementation of concepts.

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Bibliography Unpublished Thesis and Books Braham, W. (Ed.), Hale, J. (Ed.). (2007). Rethinking Technology. London: Routledge. Duffy, F. (2002). The New Office Spaces. London: Octopus publishing group Grech, C. & Walters, D. (2008). Future Office: Design, Practice and applied Research. London: Taylor & Francis Meel, Juriaan Van & Others. (2010). Planning office spaces. London: Laurence King Publishing Duffy, F. (1999). The new office. 2nd edition. London: Conran Octopus Limited. Worthington, J.(1997). Reinventing the workplace. Burlington : Architectural press Pile, J. (1984). Open office space. New York: Facts on File Giuliano, V. (1985). The Mechanization of the Office. The Information Technology Revolution. T. Foster. Oxford, Basil Blackwell. Raymond, S. & Cunliffe, R. (1997). Tomorrow’s Office. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Group Klein, J. (1982). The Office Book. London: Quatro Marketing Ltd Wineman, J. (1986). Behavioral Issues in Office Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Ltd Panchal, H. (2017). Inquiry into breakout spaces in offices of India. Ahmedabad: CEPT University Pandya, D. (2018). Inquiry into Emergence of Informality in Office Spaces. Ahmedabad: CEPT University

E-Publications Workplace Planning for Today and Beyond. (2017). Retrieved from Knoll: https://www.knoll.com/ knollnewsdetail/ workplace-planning-for-today-and-beyond The Evolution of Workplace in India. (2016). Retrieved from Gensler: https://www.gensler.com/researchinsight/gensler-research-institute/the-evolution-of-workplace-in-india The rise of resimercial office design. Retrieved from SpaceMatrix : https://www.spacematrix.com/content/ home-sweet-work-rise-resimercial-office-design Legal Innovation Lab. (2014). Retrieved from Gensler: https://www.gensler.com/research-insight/genslerresearch-institute/legal-innovation-lab


Unassigned Workspace Etiquette: Introducing Policies, Protocol, and Politeness. (2017). Retrieved from Knoll: https://www.knoll.com/knollnewsdetail/unassigned-workspace-etiquette The evolution of office design. Retrieved from MorganLovell : https://www.morganlovell.co.uk/articles/ the-evolution-of-office-design/

Research Papers Manca, C., Grijalvo, M., Palacios, M. et al. Serv Bus (2018). Collaborative workplaces for innovation in service companies: barriers and enablers for supporting new ways of working. Service Business. 12: 525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11628-017-0359-0 Lawson, Clive. (2008). “An Ontology of Technology: Artefacts, Relations and Functions”. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology. 12. 10.5840/techne200812114. Veitch, Jennifer. (2011). Workplace Design Contributions to Mental Health and Well-Being. Healthcare Papers. 11. 10.12927/hcpap.2011.22409. Hermen Jan van Ree, (2002) “The added value of office accommodation to organisational performance”, Work Study, Vol. 51 Issue: 7, pp.357-363, https://doi.org/10.1108/00438020210449012 J. De Vries, Marc & Tamir, Arley. (1997). Shaping Concepts of Technology: What Concepts and How to Shape Them. International Journal of Technology and Design Education. 7. 3-10. 10.1023/A:1008869205370. Becker, F. D., & Steele, F. (1995). Workplace by design: Mapping the high-performance workscape. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Newton, Peter and other eds. (ND) “Technology,design, process innovation in build environments.” Becker, F. and Sims, W. (2000). Offices that work: Balancing Cost, Flexibility, and Communication. New York, Cornell University International Workplace Studies Program (IWSP). Retrieved from https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/blogs.cornell.edu/dist/a/3723/files/2013/09/ Workplace-Cost-Density-and-Effectiveness-2hokain.pdf

Videos Meel, J. (2012). New Ways of Working. beneoffice. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1GnuO2dL7uww RNT Architects (2013). Office of Today, Workplace of Tomorrow. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=K-pJxlChXKw

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List of Figures

Chapter one | Workplace Fig 1.1.1 – Retrieved from https://chalfontsu3a.org.uk/history-group-history-group-24-january-2017-meeting-notes/ Fig 1.1.2, 1.1.3,1.1.4,1.1.5,1.1.6,1.1.7– Retrieved from https://www.morganlovell.co.uk/articles/the-evolution-of-office-design/ Fig 1.1.9 - Retrieved from https://mashable.com/2017/05/06/making-the-new-york-times/ Fig 1.1.8, 1.1.10 - Retrieved from https://clivewilkinson.com/portfolio_page/tbwa-chiat-day-los-angeles/ Fig 1.2.1 - By Author

Chapter Two | The application of technology in office Fig 2.1.1 - By Author Fig 2.2.1 - By Author Fig 2.2.2 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/08/airbnb-offices-gurgaon/ Fig 2.2.3 - By Author Fig 2.2.5 - By Author Fig 2.2.4,2.2.6,2.2.7 – Retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/903059/office-for-communique-groupdca/5bb27be8f197cc752f000347-office-for-communique-groupdca-photo Fig 2.2.8- By Author Fig 2.3.1 – Retrieved from https://www.dezeen.com/2016/03/22/haworth-white-paper-research-how-to-create-a-successful-organisational-culture-working-styles-office-design/ Fig 2.3.2 - Retrieved from https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/02/13/ibm_changes_mind_about_teleworking/ Fig 2.3.3 - Retrieved from https://www.kadvacorp.com/design/facebook-mumbai-office-interior-photos/ Fig 2.3.4 - Retrieved from Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2017/03/07/sterlite-power-offices-mumbai/ Fig 2.3.5 - Retrieved from https://eu.humanscale.com/ Fig 2.3.6 - By Author Fig 2.3.7, 2.3.8, 2.3.9 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/08/airbnb-offices-gurgaon/ Fig 2.3.10, 2.3.11, 2.3.12 – Retrieved from http://studioorganon.org/work/wiedenkennedy-2/ Fig 2.4.1 - Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search?q=teleworking+from+home&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjv3sb2p7jiAhWBQI8KHa55CuwQ_AUIDygC&biw=2133&bih=986#imgrc=LLCuuqNuuEiYLM Fig 2.4.2 - Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search?q=working+at+home&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGnuiQl_LhAhVBpI8KHSibA4EQ_AUIDigB&biw=2133&bih=1041#imgrc=ZN7vrjsx8qpD6M: Fig 2.4.4,2.4.11 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2017/03/07/sterlite-power-offices-mumbai/ Fig 2.4.5, 2.4.6 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/11/06/titan-offices-bangalore/ Fig 2.4.7, 2.4.8, 2.4.10 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/08/airbnb-offices-gurgaon/ Fig 2.4.13 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/22/booking-com-offices-mumbai/ Fig 2.5.1 - Retrieved from Worthington, J.(1997). “Reinventing the workplace”. Burlington : Architectural press Fig 2.5.2 - Retrieved from http://www.nbbj.com/practices/corporate-offices/ Fig 2.5.3 - Retrieved from Veldhoen + Company The Art of Working.Traditional open office space “Flexoffice” ”Hot Desking” “Hotelling” “Free seating” “Teleworking” Illustrations by Jonas Falk, Strategisk Arkitektur Fig 2.3.4 - By Author Fig 2.6.1 – Retrieved from Collaborative workplaces for innovation in service companies: barriers and enablers for supporting new ways of working


Chapter Three | Casestudy Fig 3.1.1, 3.1.6, 3.1.7,3.1.8, 3.1.8, 3.1.9, 3.1.10, 3.1.11, 3.1.12,3.1.13,3.1.14,3.1.15 – Retrieved from https:// officesnapshots.com/2017/02/27/airbnb-cx-hub-offices-portland/ Fig 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.4, 3.1.18, 3.1.19, 3.1.23 - By Author Fig 3.1.16, 3.1.17, 3.1.18,3.1.19, 3.1.20, 3.1.21, 3.1.22, 3.1.23, 3.1.24,3.1.25,3.1.26,3.1.28,3.1.29 – Retrieved from https://architizer.com/projects/airbnb-portland-office/ Fig 3.2.1, 3.2.6, 3.2.7,3.2.8, 3.2.8, 3.2.9, 3.2.10, 3.2.11, 3.2.12 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots. com/2018/09/11/boston-consulting-group-offices-seattle/ Fig 3.3.1, 3.3.6, 3.3.7,3.3.8, 3.3.8, 3.3.9, 3.3.10, 3.3.11, 3.3.12 – Retrieved from https://www.archdaily. com/516876/wieden-kennedy-ny-workac Fig 3.3.2 - Retrieved from https://www.archdaily.com/516876/wieden-kennedy-ny-workac Fig 3.4.1, 3.4.6, 3.4.7,3.4.8, 3.4.8, 3.4.9, 3.4.10, 3.4.11 – Retrieved from https://www.dezeen. com/2016/10/13/clive-wilkinson-austin-office-gerson-lehrman-group-glg-no-cubicles-corner-offices/ Fig 3.4.2 - Retrieved from https://www.dezeen.com/2016/10/13/clive-wilkinson-austin-office-gerson-lehrman-group-glg-no-cubicles-corner-offices/

Chapter Four | Key findings Fig 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/08/airbnb-offices-gurgaon/ Fig 4.1.4, 4.1.5 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2019/02/12/boston-consulting-group-offices-mumbai/ Fig 4.1.6, 4.1.7, 4.1.8, 4.1.9 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2019/02/12/boston-consulting-group-offices-mumbai/ Fig 4.1.10, 4.1.11, 4.1.12, 4.1.13 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2019/02/12/boston-consulting-group-offices-mumbai/ Fig 4.2.1 – Retrieved from https://www.digitalbrisbane.com.au/events/night-nomads-the-ethics-of-robotservants/ Fig 4.2.2 – Fig 4.2.3 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2017/02/27/airbnb-cx-hub-offices-portland/ Fig 4.2.4 – Retrieved from Meel, Juriaan Van & Others. (2010). “ Planning office spaces”. London: Laurence King Publishing Fig 4.2.6, 4.2.7, 4.2.8 – Retrieved from https://www.architecturaldigest.in/content/a-look-inside-facebooksnew-mumbai-office/#s-cust0 Fig 4.2.11 – Retrieved from https://www.veritlabs.com/tag/call-center/ Fig 4.2.12 – Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Augustine_in_His_Study_(Botticelli,_Ognissanti) Fig 4.2.13 – Retrieved from Retrieved from https://chalfontsu3a.org.uk/history-group-history-group-24-january-2017-meeting-notes/ Fig 4.2.14 – Retrieved from Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/22/booking-com-offices-mumbai/ WWFig 4.2.15 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/22/booking-com-offices-mumbai/ Fig 4.2.16 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2019/02/12/boston-consulting-group-offices-mumbai/ Fig 4.2.17 – Retrieved from https://officesnapshots.com/2018/08/08/airbnb-offices-gurgaon/ * All the diagrams and charts in the case studies are done by author

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Profile for Aashna Poddar

Thesis | Workplace & Technology  

This undergraduate thesis is an attempt to comprehend technology in context to its conceptual application and its impact on the spatial desi...

Thesis | Workplace & Technology  

This undergraduate thesis is an attempt to comprehend technology in context to its conceptual application and its impact on the spatial desi...

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