Page 1

the open access city


The Open Access City Mariana Chaves Yagiz Kayaoglu Enrica Mannelli Mansi Mehta Giulia Sarmenghi Aneri Shah Alida von Boch-Galhau Siwat Wittayalertpanya Tao Xie

Jorge Fiori Elena Pascolo Francesco Zuddas

Housing + Urbanism Design Workshop Term 2 2017


content Manifesto P. 7 Preface P. 9

Part 1: Essays Managing the Commons P. 13 Designing the Open Access City P. 17 Institutions as Social Infrastructures P. 19 From City Fringe to City Threshold P. 21 The City as a Productive Environment P. 23

Part 2: Dialogues Transcript 1: Intermediate Jury P. 32 Questions P. 35

Part 3: Productive Islands Textile Hub P. 57 Food Factory P. 67 Collective Campus P. 81

Part 4: Dialogues Pt. II Transcript 2: Final Jury P. 96 More Questions P. 101 Afterlife P. 103 Bibliography P. 104


Manifesto


PART 1

Preface

1

2

8

OPEN

ACCESS

9


part 1: essays


Managing the Commons

3

4

5

6

3 Saskia Sassen Who owns our cities and why this urban takeover should concern us all in The Guardian: Cities (24.11.2015) Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/nov/24/who-owns-our-cities-and-why-this-urban- takeover-should-concernus-all (10.05.2017) 4 Garret Hardin The Tragedy of the Commons in Science (13.12.1958) Available at:https://www.sciencemag.org/site/feature/misc/ webfeat/sotp/pdfs/162-3859-1243.pdf (10.05.2017) 5 Sheila Foster, Christian Iaione The City as a Commons (2016) Available at:https://ssrn.com/abstract=2653084 (10.05.2017) 6 Wikimedia Commons: Web 2.0 (last edited on 08.05.2017 at 10:33) Available at:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 (10.05.2017)

Nolli Plan of Rome, 1784 // image: Giambattista Nolli


territory marks

event-led openings

private owned spaces

fenced green areas

closed courtyards

8

urban thresholds

fenced buildings

7

complete enclosure


Designing the Open Access City

9

10

11

9 Gian Piero Frassinelli, Davide Sacconi Savage Architecture (Milan: Black Square Press, 2016) – p. 6ff. 10 Eve Blau The Architecture Of Red Vienna: 1919-1934 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1999) 11 Aureli, Pier Vittorio; Steele, Brett; Tattara, Martino. Dogma 11 projects (London: AA publication, 2013) – p. 22

Linden-Hof // image: Wien Museum


Institutions as Social Infrastructures

12


From City Fringe to City Threshold

15

16

15 Greater London Authority City Fringe: Opportunity Area Planning Framework (London: Greater London Authority, 2015) – p. 2ff. 16 Toynbee Hall: Our History and Our Vision (2017) Available at: http://www.toynbeehall.org.uk/our-history (01.05.2017)


The City as a Productive Environment

13

14

13 Kees Christiaanse, Tim Rieniets, Jennifer Sigler Open City: Designing Coexistence (Amsterdam: SUN, 2009) – p. 13ff., p. 51ff. 14 Silicon Roundabout (2011) available at: http://www.siliconroundabout.org.uk/about/ (10.05.2017)

A Silicon Milkroundabout Event at the Truman Brewery // image: The Old Truman Brewery Website


PART 1

Are Shoreditch skyscrapers a London tower too far, even for Boris Johnson?

Their 131-page planning report (pdf) on proposals for the Bishopsgate Goodsyardsite concludes that erecting 12 buildings of up to 46 storeys, forming a gargantuan cliff face on the edge of a conservation area, “would result in unacceptable and avoidable significant negative impacts”. Full marks for observation.

The East End Preservation Society Launch cottages or Saif Osmani revealing that the future development plan for Whitechapel, of over one hundred pages, does not include a single mention of the Bangladeshi people.

https://www.hackney.gov.uk/bgy

http://principaltower.com/principal

Aldgate Masterplanning strategy -

retain and creation of employment is a high priority maximise job opportunities available to local people retain and create workspace for small businesses support creative and cultural industries support tourist and entertainment businesses deliver new housing; increase the quality and quantity of open space integrate new developments with public transport

So Long, Spitalfields Fruit & Wool Exchange the sixty small businesses based there have to move out by the end of November to make way for the corporate office block that will take the place of the current building.

Whitechapel Masterplanning 3,500 new homes by 2025 including substantial amounts of new family and affordable homes•5,000 new local jobs•7 new public squares and open spaces•New streets and public routes•New 21st century civic hub for Tower Hamlets•Create a globally significant research campus xpand creative industries including new local media hub•New cultural centre and community facilities•A destination shopping and leisure experience on Whitechapel Road•Expand and improve the street market•Create a thriving evening time economy•Reduce crime with safer and cleaner streets Whitechapel-Masterplan-Adopted-Dec-2013

http://www.spitalfields.co.uk/spitalfields-history/

aldgate-masterplan

Peta Bridle, 2016, available at http://spitalfieldslife.com/2016/03/31/more-of-peta-bridles-london-etchings/

24

OPEN

ACCESS

25


PART 1

The radical model fighting the housing crisis:

City Growth Strategy Final Report

property prices based on income

- Help local leaders create a new vision for their inner city by identifying market-based strategies and engaging the private sector; - Make the inner-city a more competitive location for business; Increase income, wealth and job opportunities for inner-city residents; - Change perceptions and attitudes regarding opportunities in inner cities; - Create leadership and institutions that will push the agenda forward; and Increase productivity of the region by revitalising inner cities

Community land trusts battle gentrification by linking house prices to local wages rather than the market rate. But can this growing fho^f^gm_hki^kfZg^gmerZ__hk]Z[e^ahf^lk^Zeer^Zl^ ;kbmZbglahnlbg`\kblbl8 East London Community Land Trusthas succeeded in creating housing where the prices will be linked to local income in perpetuity, entirely detached from the superheated speculation of the property market.

Five important elements of City Growth are seen to play a key role in achieving these objectives: - Engaging the private sector; - Connecting leaders across sectors; - Uncovering market opportunities; - Strengthening existing programmes; and - Catalysing action that produces results. City Fringe Partnership_City Growth Strategy_Final Report https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/jan/16/radical-mod-

Spitalfields landmark to get £200 million revamp after M&G deal Hordes of suits piling out of Liverpool Street station will have a new £200 million office block to call home after developers get to work on Zghma^klrf[heh_Ehg]hgl trading history.

House price predictions for 2017 London's annual house price growth for 2016 (3.7%) was below the UK average of 4.5% for the first time since 2008, the Nationwide Building Society says.

based on a statistical of re-sales within a radius of the local area(s) Source: Knight Frank Research

26

Community land trusts “A local organization came from a community land trust borrowed money and get support from local government, and if theyʻre lucky, get enough money to compete for the site and own the site. In the \Zl^h_Fbe^>g]%ma^r]b]gm]hmaZm'Ma^rfZgZ`^]mh`^miZkmh_ma^lbm^ of hospital being developed got about 30 units out of 200. The idea of CLT is that you build the modern apartment for local people and where as the commercial apartments are selling up to 450,000, they sell at 200-230. They do that because it is legal agreement maZmrhn[nrpa^grhnl^eebm'Rhn\Zgml^eebm*))%)))&fbeebhgbg.r^Zkl time but you would sell it at the price based on the average income of surrounding area and their capacities to get the mortgage and to pay so does not get bmd^^ilma^ikb\^]hpg'BmlZgbgm^k^lmbg`f^\aZgblfmaZmbm]h^lgmmZd^ completely out of the market, but it means that properties will always k^fZbg Z__hk]Z[e^ mh eh\Ze i^hie^ bg ma^ pZr maZm rhn phne]gm [^ bg private development”

Hugo Hinsley,17/01/17

OPEN

ACCESS

27


part 2: dialogues


PART 2

Transcript 1: Intermediate Jury February 24th, 2017

Hugo Hinsley:

Naiara Vergara:

“Big changes are happening in London and the very popular questions of who owns the city, or how do the citizens use it have been coming up. Can one modify a part of the local economy? You are trying to suggest the different ways where local can still be effective and it is a very tricky process for each of these, raising questions of funding; of how could it be particularly possible of doing these things and the huge economic pressure which is happening in Bishopsgate, Goodsyard. If that goes ahead that would dramatically make it difficult. Having said that, it is a great attack on the problem to start with, I like very much the attempt to scale each of the problems, each of three issues that your addressing.

“I enjoyed your drawings because they are really big and easy to understand. All of them are really interesting and different; they are challenging with very different things as articulations of space, mixes and so on… But what about the performance of that space? You are not telling how your design responds to that challenge.”

I think that on the textile hub one of the interesting things that you can push forward having established the basics is exactly the relationship between un-built and built space. Yards with various uses for the maker economy with the value of having some which are more closed off so they can get onto other things, or have some work at the ground floor acts also as a demonstration of what is going on inside. I think you can push that much further. The food one is difficult because as you may know, the history of main area… I am very concerned about the idea of moving the Bangladeshi local curry houses into some corporate common kitchen because that could kill them. So you might have corporate hospitality but they will serve mostly global food. The chance is it will kill these guys… the area has really intense Bangladeshi culture and also lots of London's people go there to experience really authentic Bangladeshi food. Can you get them both together? Corporate hospitality is a big business, so you can do a linkup with one of these universities, and the area could have huge facilities and the students can work with these industries… If you could offer subsidies, small workspaces where they could either then start doing bigger stuff, with orders carrying on; and in the street have front types of cafes and restaurants- it is tricky negotiation. For the schools it has been an endless frustration in this country the lack of collaboration between them; political barriers are beyond belief. This is a great location to test this idea. I think the idea of common dining rooms for those primary children- if you try to look after primary children having a meal- and putting three primary school children in one place, even doing shifts, is still a nightmare. The other idea of layering with elderly is absolutely right… beginning to get some sense of the actual spaces of that, the articulation is absolutely critical. How much accesses are there and how much can you really do? You can show how that could be done in a secure way through the network of spaces and some sort of layering and social events.”

32

OPEN

Elad Eisenstein: “I agree with Naiara, I have to say that the proposals are really interesting and level of drawing and combining the interior, composition of building is telling something. The problems is that it is upto us, if we want to believe it or not, there is no other way. I would not know where are the issues of front and back of buildings and surrounding… I have to believe these proposals because I do not have any tools to judge them... because I would not know what is the response to, and whether it works or not.” Anna Shapiro: “You were focusing to define the brief more than the design. Your drawings are focusing on the story, so it does not help us to discuss your design or strategically help to make decisions. Your stories are all about writing the best brief… Your proposal has to work much harder, you cannot only focus working on the kids playing in the area, and cities are not only about accommodating them, you have to start talking about stakeholders and policy...You have an amazing list of intentions and you have described something that is, but we do not know how it is delivered.” Hugo Hinsley: “I would really like to see the argument you are producing verbally at the beginning as drawings in a broader context to show what is happening in whole East London, and the huge pressure from the global which is very strong... and this is a part of an argument about how a city can respond intelligently to handle that (global force)… What is that design does in a logic about the argument of how Spitalfields responds to pressure on that?” Elad Eisenstein: “You have to expand the answers beyond the size of themselves because in responding to a wide area as you are, you have to tell about the area's performances as well, defining series of long linear spaces, defining broken pattern of spaces... Do we have a lot of undefined spaces? If you do that you can explore the context.”

ACCESS

33


how can we respond to the full privatization of the city?


PART 2

urban fabric

thresholds

A transition throughout the urban fabric of the area is noticable, which creates a perception of strips that shape the area. While in Bishopsgate new high rise developments seem to be coming from LondonĘźs business centre into the City Fringe, Commercial Street has a more dense pattern, transitioning to a more fragmented land with estate housing blocks past Brick Lane.

36

Secondary streets cut perpendicularly without straight continuation through the strips giving the pedestrian the perception of the thresholds that are formed by these distinct layers.

OPEN

ACCESS

37


what form of local resistance can facilitate change in the contested area?


PART 2

the vertical city

re-imagining the factory

How could the notion of a vertical factory modify the synergy of this area where local producers are moving away from the centre?

The Central Saint Martins College in London, redesigned by Stanton William Architects, occupies partially a former factory in the city and presentes similarities with traditional production spaces in its workshops and maker studios.

The dynamic of cities have changed by new types of industries and shifts in the chains of production. While existing industrial buildings are transformed into new functions, new types of factory typologies are being developed to match the new demands of the society in relation to financial, food and energy crisis, and the lack of space in cities.

40

In a more collective living society, the concepts of working, living and making are becoming each day more blurred. Buildings are designed to become resilient towards fast changes in society and demands, but also generate generic spaces.

OPEN

ACCESS

41


PART 2

courts

cluster

strips

institutions and sectors

strategies and devices

Institutions mapped in the territory start to suggest the possible areas of interventions.

Through mapping the area, various institutions were identified. Different sectors exist contributing to the areaĘźs identity, being them related to production cycles which largely characterized the area in the past. The small scale producers of food and textile are now being taken over by the global market, while producers of knowledge such as the schools seem to become more segregated.

42

This drawing represents a filtered analysis and emphasizes the potentials and characteristics of the area, through the use of different strategies and spatial devices. The courts, the strips and the clusters have helped, in fact, the reading and definition of this portion of the city. The importance of the numerous and various institutions, both public and private points out the presence of three different sectors, the food industry, the fashion and textile and the school.

OPEN

ACCESS

43


what could an appropriate architecture be that supports the small scale artisinal economy?


PART 2

case studies A series of case studies were studied through concept, scale, architectural elements, circulation, typologies, to create a base of research for the spatial translations of the social infrastructure as concept, into architecture.

greenhouse pt II // image: something fantastic

the workout pasubio by acc cristiana castano

green housing by something fantastic

The Workout Pasubio, a new creative production space that replaced the old factory, designed by ACC Cristiana Castano, proposes the new program through flexibility and temporary usage. A movable partition permits sharing and shifting environments amongst the program and users, generating diverse spaces within the new centre.

A sectional Isometric drawing illustrates a part of Green Housing, a communal apartment building in Turnout, Belgium Flanders by Something Fantastic. The communual area of the inner court provides gathering spaces for inhabitants, while the unit attached to the it is a shared space amongst flatmates in each residential unit. The shared space creates a transitional buffer zone from communual to private space. This idea permits a balance between privacy and the open-access area to be used by the community.

46

OPEN

ACCESS

47


PART 2

lt josai by naruse inokuma architects The LT Josai designed by Naruse Inokuma Architects conglomerates the individual housing units and common spaces independently, using the interlock concept to create a co-living lifestyle in a three dimentional way. The spatial qualities respond to the notion of openness among neighbors to permit interactive activities.

the commons by department of architecture

The Commons, a department store, proposes a new mall typology in a vibrant district of Bangkok. The open-air communual area of the project allows people to move from the ground to the top level, while vertical voids and circulations provide connectivity and interaction amongst shoppers. Shop units were arranged as stand alone booths offering multiple facets to display products and encounter passerbys. From this case study it is possible to notice the benefit of designing a large communual area that stimulates visitors to use the space and shop displays become more dynamic. Beyond that, an open accessibilty throughout the space is possible.

48

investcorp by zaha hadid architects In Spitalfields there are many unused interstices with fences or walls. To utilize these undefined spaces in a better way we looked at the advantages of the new Investcorp building designed by Zaha Hadid Architects. Instead of creating series of blind spots, the bridges used to connect the neighborhoods can relate to the common ground concept in other levels.

OPEN

ACCESS

49


PART 2

collective campus

textile hub

food factory

a great village by something fantastic

learning from case studies

From a set of diverse case studies specific atmospheric, conceptual and spatial qualities had been extracted forming a basis for the development of the projects. The idea of interlocking levels and moments of conversion were attempted to be spatially translated in the three identified research clusters. These are perceived as a tool to facilitates spatial at the same time social overlap, emphasising the importance of sharing and exchanging. Moreover, the design of open and flexible floor plans, as seen in some exemplars, formed a basis for the coexistence of activities and actors. According to something fantastic's idea of spatial hierarchy, the proposals follow a similar line from private to common in regard to the implementation of more distinct activities for members or others open to the public. Above all, with respect to their alternative production and management system, all three clusters are thematically connected to a larger network within the neighbourhood.

Located in the City of Gooik in Flanders, the intervention of bridges connecting the islands of buildings that create clusters of functions and a circulated common space permeates throughout the landscape. These physical connections can also be thought of as conceptual into the design of the open access city.

50

OPEN

ACCESS

51


part 3: productive islands


FOOD FACTORY

TEXTILE HUB

PART 3

COLLECTIVE CAMPUS

ges

passa new axi

s

pro

du

ctio

n

pro

of

kno

du

wle

prod

dg

ctio

n

uctio

e

of

ge

n of knowled

go od

prod

uctio

s

n of

good

s

op

en

op

en

acc

ess

acc

ess

In redefining a new type of social infrastructure that has a key role in reshaping the de privatization of the city, three clusters were identified within the territory. Each of these clusters were seen as threatened areas to the fast growing development, at the same time they could be potential drivers for the revitalization of the area. The clusters of textile, food and education sectors formed a distinct identity of the area and were initially locally sufficient in production and provision network but are now exposed to the interconnected forces of the global system. The area of Spitalfields includes a textile industry comprising of fashion institutes, studios, textile and material shops. The other prominent area within the fabric involves numerous small cafes and restaurants along the brick lane towards the former Truman Brewery compound. Furthermore, a group of three schools are located in proximity, yet fails to interact with each other. The strategic design process was three-fold, it involved developing an economic model, system of governance and spatial explorations. An economic model developed for the clusters which would deal with ownership, funding and governing of the groups was tested, giving powers to the participants to take decisions would develop stronger communities. The textile hub is envisaged as a space for co-working and co-producing, where the local producers, students and designers can engage on a platform with the global market, to exchange knowledge and services. It is open for the commons to learn and participate in the process. The food factory functions in forming co-making networks of local food systems of production and consumption, through communal kitchens and a learning institute. It provides an integrative platform for the small restaurants to be able to scale up and to use services to develop their businesses. As for the collective campus the three schools function autonomously but could be prospective drivers for change through a collaboration with each other internally as well as bridging between the different sectors. The concept of developing a social infrastructure was created to engage the people by creating three major platforms of sharing and exchange to collect, preserve and cultivate expertise and knowledge through channels of social, political, economic and importantly spatial manifestations. The infrastructure is though of not only as an object, but also as a system. These interventions are articulated in relevance to the physical context establishing a common ground, which opens up the communities in the neighborhood. The participative approach instils a sense of belonging and responsibility, creating a self-sustaining ecology. The common ground then becomes a community anchor, expressing new forms of creating life in common and a new culture of sharing. Through the theories of city as commons and the questions raised, the clusters try to proliferate in multiple ways to create the self made city of ‘the collective’

crossing points, strips and thresholds

In each cluster one or more architectural devices were identified and translated into the design. Crossing points, strips and thresholds determined specific notions to the areas which led to decisions such as rethinking notions of courts, transitions and edges.

54

OPEN

ACCESS

55


textile hub we local small businesses are suffering from the competitiveness with global brands, how can we keep up with them?

history of this area, and until today is represented through some aspects of its urban fabric and activities. The strategic model includes capitalising the funds from global economies such as the fast fashion brands and in turn creating an appealing ‘image’ through marketing, this would support local artisanal economy. Therefore, the role of the social infrastructure attempts to prevent complete privatization of the city. The exploration can be translated spatially through resilient structures that respond to the city fabric today - a new type that can embrace both working and producing. The intent of the Textile Hub is spatial derivation of incubators, startups for production of goods and knowledge as an experimental space for engagement between local and global economies.

David Dada, designer and tailoring shop owner


PART 3 N

patterns and density

site configuration

The potential site is situated at the threshold of contrasting conditions of the expanding city fringe and more consolidated areas such as the Commercial Street. Degrees of openness and patterns of density in the area are noticable.

58

Reinforcing the existing activities in the proximity area such as fabric shops, resellers, tailors, the Toynbee Hall and Istituto Marangoni, a fashion school which characterises the area, were key considerations.

OPEN

ACCESS

59


PART 3

block configuration

mass studies

The fragile location of the triangular site makes it more prone to developmental pressure. The possibility of merging it with surrounding blocks was realised. The varied surrounding block morphologies and working-living patterns played an important role in defining the form and uses of the proposal.

The working pattern today is not linear, where knowledge and production of goods and materials are disconnected. When rethinking industrial buildings today it is important to bring them together with other sectors and phases as a way of exchanging and sharing. The model studies shows the transition from linear to perimeter; and further to mixed use block typologies leading towards vertical as well as linear methods of production.

edges and corners

The triangular site led to an investigative study of methods to spatially approach the edges and corners. The treatment of the corner largely drove the spatial statement of the proposal.

60

OPEN

ACCESS

61


PART 3

es

sag

pas

ne

w

pr

od

pro duc tion pro duc tion

op

en

n

od

ledge of know

of g ood s

en

ce

ss

ac

of

uc

kn

tio

n

ow le

of

is

dg

e

go

od

s

ce

ss

study #1

study #2

The first proposal explores the cluster typology. Work spaces, public resources and learning environments form smaller sub-groups complementing each other. The vertical cores act as the main architectural devices that separate while connecting the various uses.

62

tio

pr

op

ac

uc

ax

Two linear slabs define the form of the second exploration. It experiments breaking the notion of a common ground by occupying a raised level as the primary element for open access. The typology adapts features of an industrial building such as deep floor plans, grid structure and high ceilings.

OPEN

ACCESS

63


PART 3

study #1 // clusters and events

study #2 // linearity and transparency

Ponctual circulation accesses distributed without a rigid and modular distribution creates a dynamic path of exploration throughout the many processes of production that happen in this building.

The linearity of glass walls that permit visual connectivity within the production spaces on the ground floor opens up the structure as an interactive environment for the commons. The design concept creates an open access city that is reachable by the local community and citizens in general.

64

OPEN

ACCESS

65


how can we think of alternatives to the expansion of large franchises?

Geraud Pfeiffer, chef

food factory


PART 3

brick lane

global x local food

Along Brick Lane, the food culture is present in different ways. Countless restaurants, cafes and grocery stores are part of the permanent local activity whereas pop-up events including food markets and food festivals occur in the intermediate.

68

Today, non-stop expansions of large chains, such as Pizza Express or Pret A Manger threaten the existence of this independent and diverse food culture around the area of Brick Lane. On the contrary, with the emergence of delivery services and catering start-ups besides the increasing demand for organic products, the former industrial compound of the Truman Brewery, is seen as a prospective key location to promote local production and delivery of food for a global network on the basis of existing structures.

OPEN

ACCESS

69


PART 3

compound as fortress

The existing structures of the Truman Brewery raised questions at the same time speculations on the repository of heritage. The paradox of the accessible fortress is emblematic in the vision of the Open Access City.

70

OPEN

ACCESS

71


PART 3

FARM PARK

PARK

FARM

PARK

SCHOOL

FARM

SCHOOL

TRUMAN BREWERY

SCHOOL

TRUMAN BREWERY

TRUMAN BREWERY

TEXTILE HUB TEXTILE HUB

market

TEXTILE HUB

school

lecture hall

delivery service

shared kitchen

canteen visiting centre

housing lobby

bangladeshi market

ground floor // accessibility and permeability

position in and relations

The Food Factory is located on the site of the Truman Brewery on the ground of the former industrial compound. Its proximity to Brick Lane, benefiting from present networks, is the ideal location to manage not only local production and distribution of food but also to engage in the global system. The question of how to relate this compoundfor to its surroundings and become part of it was important.

72

The new intervention aims to perforate the closed and inaccessible block of the Truman Brewery. By taking down parts of the perimeter wall and interpreting its edges differently, including new buildings, open spaces, free-market plans, arcades and stairs the ensemble is permeable and integrated to the neighbourhood and becomes explorable for the local residents.

OPEN

ACCESS

73


PART 3

collective workspaces

classrooms school

rentable spaces housing

visiting centre

first + second floors // uses and occupation

All activities of the mixed-use Food Factory are designed to promote the production of food and expert-knowledge. This includes a space for markets and food assembly as well as stations for catering and delivery. Furthermore, the implementation of a School of Hospitality, including event venues, along with shared rentable kitchens can act as a catalyst for start-up enterprises, producing customised local goods and services for the food sector, to challenge the global market. Above all, temporary housing units, run by the students, are available adds additional value to the neighbourhood.

74

OPEN

ACCESS

75


PART 3

court as transition and crossing point

On the grounds of the self-sustaining Food Factory, production, delivery and management of food for the local economy confront the large-scale global system. This new co-making network is rethought as powerful social infrastructure boosting the social and economic activity within the district moreover the city. Spatially, the inner courtyard is conceived as a transition or crossing point of the different actors – chefs, students, residents and visitors. from the city to the park passing specific activities.

76

OPEN

ACCESS

77


PART 3

view a

view b

transitional spaces as main actors

threshold as linkage

Initially, the Truman Brewery compound was perceived as a walled off compound housing various activities. Taking the idea of an open ground forward, obstacles in the existing fabric are replaced by hyper accessible spaces for exchange, promoting inclusivity. Transitional spaces between food production and consumption are used as urban gardens and food markets that can be maintained by the community.

78

Although the housing blocks and the vibrant Brick Lane are in close proximity, neither can benefit from each other. The design exploration replaces the underutilised threshold between them with a public square creating a multilayered network of open spaces.

OPEN

ACCESS

79


collective campus The collective campus aspires to stimulate a participative and an integrative platform to share common resources for the community, while accentuating the relation among the three autonomous State schools. Through the model of give and take the campus performs as a common ground for sharing and coexisting, to exchange ideas, skills and services without compromising the capabilities of the schools. The campus as an institution functions independently through a self-governing body. The infrastructure is funded by a private organization but owned by the borough, just as the schools, generating a balance between the State and private led developments.

with such physical proximity, but social boundaries between these different schools, could there be a way to bring them together?

The economic model based on the logic of 'give and take' in where every user is provided with a space in return for the service they contribute to the ecology, encourages participation and responsibility towards the campus. It, therefore, allows one to become a part of multiple communities consisted of diverse intergenerational participants which can bring about a sense of belonging, where as an individual does not associate oneself to a single community. The campus is spatially perceived as an interactive and a time shared learning environment, facilitating integration for an inclusive, permeable network. It supports learning outside the classrooms and encourages the use of school spaces in open-minded and unorthodox ways. The Collective Campus reinforces deinstitutionalization, a moment where the institutions amalgamate with the commons.


PART 3

patterns and density

schools network

The area constitutes an intensified diverse mix of land use characterised by different activities and architectural typologies. It portrays the fringe as an extension of the dense fabric of the core of London, but yet is not entirely altered and still maintaining characteristic of a hybrid.

82

Within the territory the educational cluster consists of three state schools which are a part of the body of other primary schools owned and run by the borough of Tower Hamlets. The cluster includes St. Anne's Catholic Primary School, Thomas Buxton Primary School and Osmani Primary School.

OPEN

ACCESS

83


PART 3

segregated entities

integrated communities

A collective campus permits the opportunity to integrate between each other, to exchange experiences and expertise, thus creating a sense of community. This campus forms a common ground for not only the schools but also the neighbourhood, from which all will benefit to different extents.

The three schools function autonomously with no interaction between each other or with other schools of the locality. Although based on interviews there is a desire to promote an exchange amongst the schools, as well as to share facilities, these relations are lacking.

84

OPEN

ACCESS

85


PART 3

The mass study developed from analysiing of the surrounding. Some parts of the site school public area and using them as entr from three differrent schools. those open a its slopes and stands relevant to program court. The other parts the site that were le munal facilities. They also formed three op different functions relate to their connected The Buildings itself is an architectu people from different access to other parts other parts in different levels. However, by circulations of pupils and local people were surements before entering and distictively spaces. The ideas of transversing, interacti the form and spaces of this compound stri

conversion and overlap

The ground on which the collective campus would be constructed is owned by the Borough Tower Hamlets. Through breaking the mass into smaller components, the new intervention opened up and bridged the gap to the existing schools my multiple restricted entrances for members. The topographic language of the resulting intermediate exterior courts was designed according to their programmes, including gardening, performances and workshops. Inside, two independent circulation routes have been implemented. The respective maintain security for the pupils and teachers to move around freely in their learning landscape, whereas the locals are following specific roots. These lines meet at specific crossing points where common or communal activities, such as the multi-purpose kitchen, the dining hall and the auditorium are held. In these spaces moments of conversion and overlap form the basis for coexistence within the collective campus. Moreover, the implementation of 'intergenerational playgrounds', brings together different actors. The collective campus would be managed by a private organisation, East1 School, facilitating resources for a larger network of schools. On the other hand locals, parents and elderly play an active role in the process, rendering services for pupils such as cooking special meals in the common kitchens or conducting workshops to share their skills with the students. In return, they may use the co-working spaces for their personal business developments.

86

OPEN

ACCESS

87


PART 3

C

A

B

section a

section b

co-extising, sharing and swapping

transforming functions

Usually the model of sharing facilities in schools works on a daily timetable where schools operate 9 am - 3 pm, then the community can access it from 3 pm - 6 pm. This model permits a school campus to be open to the public from 9 am - 6 pm, running parallel by coexistence, sharing and time swaps.

88

The architectural devices for coexistence, sharing and time swapping the spaces can be utilised differently. The level shifts allow visual interactions as well as an overlooking/care-taking of the children by the community. Furthermore, differently functioning courts such as a market space, an outdoor theatre, and a workshop court form an additional crossing point. Flexible elements such as curtains can be used to transform the spaces according to its usage purpose and user groups.

OPEN

ACCESS

89


PART 3

section c

90

OPEN

ACCESS

91


part 4: dialogues pt. II


PART 4

Transcript 2: Final Jury

Jorge Fiori :

March 24th, 2017

Anna Shapiro: “Does your question about who owns the city help you establish your spatial strategies, or is it just a political agenda to set up your way of looking at it?” Alida Boch: “In general as we were looking at different economic models of the give and take concept, we were not trying to just tick boxes, but to see what could work for the different sectors- who could participate, who would be the different stakeholders and who would be taken out of it. When you give something, what can you receive back? This then leads us to the second question. We were trying to define spatial accesses or spaces which are used by certain stakeholders; where they are located... Where is the common ground? We are talking about what is the open ground and if it also goes onto other levels.” Lawrence Barth: “Where did you see your attitude about the spaces fitting? Do you think that when you look around other projects you see them turning away of real potential of open source city? Or do you feel that there are offering your clues as to how you ought to develop? What are the trends when you look around whatʼs being built?”

“Many things are happening in the city. When we talk about open source, commons, there is a great excitement or novelty. Somethings have already been there in the same manner of nuances or dimensions. Commons is a very old thing. It is always a combination of many things… But what becomes clear I think is the necessary combination of many layers where management is central, related to the type of socio- economic relations. It has definitely a layer of spatiality. It does connect with the policies, so should the problem be that when we see this thing it does not quite get there, so that is why the whole experience of commons becomes so frustrating. So I think you are not presenting in that manner, you are not presenting that kind of space that is determinant to the view of that.. But I am thinking if it is about acknowledging that those dimensions have to work together. You can have these space arrangements that have nothing to do with commons. You can have management that solves all of sense commons as social implications in the politics, and this connects with the social arrangement. So I think it is how you present that articulation... That is why it becomes so complex. One can become mechanistic in seeing how management, arrangement, social relations, shared economic productions articulate with space. I think that is where your project is and that is the challenge. It is interesting because it is opening up interesting questions here, but I think it is very difficult to assume the space itself. You will see there are lots of experiences today that are not being talked about- publishing about commons. These spatial dimensions are often not even presented, so I think they cannot be seen as separation.. So if you are going to take the position and trying to understand what is the complex on the challenge posed by these questions of commons, what is new about commons? It is exactly about the articulation of dimensions, different levels and you can speculate a little bit here where it becomes really part of your discurse of commons, of different ways of doing, of sharing, etc. The question of engagement, what kind of engagement are talking about? Engagement... there are all sorts of spatial arrangements, and here it connects with very different concepts of participation. What do we mean by that, participating as what?” Elad Eisenstein:

Enrica Mannelli: “We are not talking about private ownership or public ownership. We were just trying to engage the citizen, the common citizen. If you look at Kingʼs Cross- the google building in Kingʼs Cross. Actually it is a wonderful building and I am sure it works perfectly in the way of delivering its main function as a workspace, but it is not engaging other citizens. If you are inside the building you can walk around but you cannot share spaces with people that actually work there.” Lawrence Barth: “So these are transitional. They are showing you a kind of clue but they are not the answer you are really looking for yet… Is it spatial or is it just a management structure that we are not talking about, but it appears hidden in the background?” Mariana Chaves:

“For me, the area is interesting because does not matter where you come from down towards Brick Lane. The area is very distinctive because I think it could be arranged into two types of spaces. One is a highly governed space. They all have their own systems, almost like their own worlds, function islands. Highly managed and orchestrated. I think your video was the other side which was just the space between those, and it is not just coincidence that you took the video through the streets, because that is what it is. If you move away from them, then you come to highly managed spaces... So I just wonder where would your open access city be. The principle actually amplifying those types of spaces to make them three more campuses basically adds to the area in a way in which as Larry says, makes them distinctive in urban space... Or whether do those three spaces propose three locations that are very central and important. I just question the way you bring them together, the way you choose to open them up. I think maybe it is a little bit counter productive to close them down. It is not a coincidence that also your drawings are very consistent, orchestrated and engineered.”

“For us the main idea is to propose a new building- an architecture to develop a social infrastructure that relates to the existing in the area, reffering to when we talk about the city fringe advancing and possibly taking over the local economy, which ends up being threatened by that. Our answer is to build these as physical infrastructure that can bridge between these existing areas. It is a built object as statement, something to reinforce these sectors creating a sense of island, making it less possible for them to be taken over.”

Jorge Fiori:

96

ACCESS

OPEN

“The whole idea of commons: the open, the interaction, all the lateral processes that can take place, and then presenting them in such a neat controlled manner in terms of the design, the proposal, the spatial intervention is interesting to explore. Central to the whole idea is the question of the connectivity, the multi-scalarity and understanding how these things could become much more. It is a very neat and controlled intervention to deal with a very open ended social process.” 97


PART 4

the open access city

The drawing shows the three clusters with, on one side, the pressure of the private developments and on the other the different boundaries, physical or perceived, present in the territory. They are thought to perform as islands of experimentation and platforms to reconnect the city with its citizens. Will an architecture ever be able to respond and challenge the needs of an Open Access City? Or will the spatial synthesis, necessary in the design process, compress and contradict the purposes for which the architecture is thought?

98

OPEN

ACCESS

99


PART 4

More Questions

layering the open access city

100

OPEN

ACCESS

101


the open access city

dialogues as a research group of the housing & urbanism masters programme at the architectural association school of architecture in london, we investigated alternative visions of the city that look beyond state and market towards a more collective model.

we would like to invite you to a round table discussion to continue this debate towards an user- based urbanism.

june 5th 2017 10 am AA school of architecture 32 bedford square london, uk

An essay was submitted in this call for collaborations for the german magazine Unsere Zeit in May 2017.

A round table discussion is booked to continue the dialogue with local practitioners, consultants and professionals of the field related to the area.


Bibliography

Articles/ Books

Interviews

Antonas, Aristide. Archipelago Of Protocols. 1st ed. Barcelona: DPR-Barcelona, 2016 Aureli, Pier Vittorio; Steele, Brett; Tattara, Martino. Dogma 11 projects. 1st ed. London: AA publications, 2013 Aureli, Pier Vittorio. The Supreme Achievement. 1st ed. London: AA publication, 2016 Blau, Eve. The Architecture Of Red Vienna: 1919-1934. 1st ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1999

Web

Christiaanse, Kees Rieniets, Tim; Sigler, Jennifer. Open City: Designing Coexistence. 1st ed. Amsterdam: SUN, 2009

Occupy (2017) Available at: http://www.occupy.com/about (10.05.2017)

Dellenbaugh, Mary. Urban Commons. 1st ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2015 Foster, Sheila; Iaione, Christian. The City as a Commons. 34 Yale L. & Pol'y Rev. 281. (2016) Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2653084 (10.05.2017) Frassinelli, Gian Piero; Sacconi, Davide. Savage Architecture. 1st ed. Milan: Black Square Press, 2016 Greater London Authority. City Fringe: Opportunity Area Planning Framework. London: Greater London Authority, 2015 Hardin, Garrett. The Tragedy of the Commons in Science Vol. 162, No. 3859, 1243-1248. (10.12.1958) Available at: https://www.sciencemag.org/site/feature/misc/webfeat/sotp/pdfs/162-3859-1243.pdf (01.05.2017) Hill, Dan. Dark Matter and Trojan Horses: A Strategic Design Vocabulary. 1st ed. Strelka Press, 2012 Sassen, Saskia. The Global City. 1st ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012 Sassen, Saskia. Who owns our cities and why this urban takeover should concern us all in The Guardian: Cities. (24.11.2015) Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/nov/24/who-owns-our-cities-and-why-this-urbantakeov er-should-concern-us-all (10.05.2017) Smithson, Alison Margaret. Team 10 Primer. 1st ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1974 Stavrides, Stavros. Common Space: The City As A Commons. 1st ed. London: Zed books, 2016

Silicon Roundabout (2011) Available at: http://www.siliconroundabout.org.uk/about/ (10.05.2017) Toynbee Hall: Our History and Our Vision (2017) Available at: http://www.toynbeehall.org.uk/our-history (10.05.2017)


Profile for AA School

The open access city  

Housing and Urbanism - LONDON DESIGN WORKSHOP Group 3

The open access city  

Housing and Urbanism - LONDON DESIGN WORKSHOP Group 3

Profile for aaschool