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Slice of life Jacek Rewiński

Brave New World Edward Bottoms

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At some time in the past, a borough became sliced by a street in two parts.

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Butchery

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The street, Broadway Market, once a week transformed into a spectacle of supreme quality food. The inhabitants of other parts of the city began to flock to the street to indulge themselves in satisfying their deepest fantasies about food. For the old inhabitants of the divided Haggerston, the street on that day became a void, an incongruous haven accessible only for some.

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Originally the street, known for its jellied eels, was a stopover for shepherds driving herds to the Smithfield Market and for boatmen moving ‘cats’ that transported coal along the canal. The oldest pub on the street – ‘Cat and Mutton’ – still pays tribute to that distant past.

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Having survived wartime bombs and social turmoil, this drunken, bawdy heart of the East End stood helpless against the recession and planning blight of the 80s. It was in this decade when the inhabitants having been aware of living on a knifeedge started purchasing the flats they had occupied to sell up and escape to other parts of the city. The last sole survivors were left on the rotting street. Shops disappeared. What remained were few stalls with vegetables and clothes. The inhabitants who resisted the migration glimpsed timidly into the turbulent future. Unaware of the consequences, they wished for an ordinary place of rest that they could see in other parts of the city, not knowing what would have to come with it.1

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After all attempts of the borough’s authorities to interrupt this undesirable decay, the community made use of temporary architecture: in the 2000s they created a new street – the market – a soon-tobe oasis among ‘behavioural sink’ of London.2

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Every Saturday the old inhabitants looked only at the sliced-off street from the gloomy distance: for them the revived street became completely inaccessible. Soon the migration from other parts of the city will create a constant flux of despair.

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Recipe

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“The mission of the Saturday market is to act as a catalyst for the regeneration of the Broadway neighbourhood: to revitalise the area socially, economically and environmentally. “Stalls and shops on Broadway reflect the rainbow culture that gives the neighbourhood its vitality. They will continue to serve the whole community: all races, genders and religions.”3

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Dispossession, isolation, inequality were all the negative aspects that the inhabitants faced in the borough in the recent past. The ingredients of the new phenomenon are those of inclusivity and hospitality. The visitors to this new architecture are given a space of collective facilities which fully accommodate individual and communal desires. This architecture does not exclude, but invites everyone to take part in the ritualistic consumption of a meal, a slice of which assures “a unique kaleidoscope of cultures and tastes.�4

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Spectacular slice

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The spectacle of Broadway Market is realised in a sequence of stalls which produce a continuous state of verbal frenzy and visual delirium. It consists of exaggerated phrases, theatrical moves, an overdose of flavours and signs. The visitors sip ‘well-sourced, organic, sustainable’ coffee, sample ‘more than organic’ meat, nibble ‘one of the rarest cheeses in the world,’ taste carefully sliced buttery salmon.

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SMOKED SALMON STALL

Broadway Market, Saturday 25 November. 10.30 A.M. Hansen & Lydersen smoked salmon stall. Eighteen customers visit the stall between 10.30 and 11.30 P.M

on a tail. He picks it up with his hand wearing a blue glove.

A few sandwiches gone again – a man with his child on a scooter; two women – thirty-something, friends; “Hey, is it with dill? I’ll take one.” a man with a backpack. A group of “You can pick whichever you like…” friends passing. The lady looks at the two rows of “This is really yummy… Smoked Broadway Market, Saturday 25 October. “It’s from Norway, but it’s smoked here. We have a 10.30 A.M. Hansen & Lydersen. smokehouse in Stoke Newington.” sandwiches. Her eyes jump from one salmon on a sourdough…” Eighteen customers visit the stall between 10.30 and you from Norway?” Smoked salmon. Two kinds – cured“Are sandwich to the other. She leans her The woman says. She seems local, 11.30 P.M “No, I’m from Serbia, but I’ve been working for this for aslightly year. That’sforward my favouriteand salmon.” with beetroot and orange, or plain.company head rests it on giving her friends a tour around the Two large fillets, sliced into strips are“Hi. her wrist. She smiles. Her mother market. They don’t stop by the stall. Smoked salmon. Two kinds – cured with beetroot One hundred grams of the plain one, please.” and orange, or plain. Two large fillets, Four sliced into OK, or dopoints you preferat fromone the other lying on the cutting board. fillets“Is this quickly andside?” smiles to The seller is preparing four more strips are lying on the cutting board. Four fillets are chooses the part closer to the tail. The seller puts are hanging on justSandwiches above theHe the sandwiches. He takes already sliced hanging on the rack justthe aboverack the table. a piece on seller. the balance, but he can’t reach the desired with salmon with a little cream andsalmon horseradish on aweight. The Icustomer takesofa this bit more than a table. Sandwiches with with “Can try a bit one?” bread from underneath the table and, slices of rye bread lying at the front of the table, on hundred. Then comes the packing. Six folds, little cream and on slicesscrupulous The asdaughter points at the purple with his blue glove, puts the salmon white plates that look like horseradish tiles. before. of rye bread lying at the front of the fillet. This one is with beetroot and on the slices one by one. Then comes Nobody visited the stall in the last ten minutes. The A few sandwiches gone again – a man with his child table, on white plates that look likeon a orange. it to her mother. Rachel’s cream, one teaspoon on seller is carefully slicing one of the fillets. scooter; two She womenrepeats – thirty-something, friends; “How much do you sell them for?” a man with a backpack. A group of friends passing. They tiles. They are speaking German. each, and few horseradish leaves that A lady asks pointing at the sandwiches. “Three “This is really yummy… Smoked salmon on a both try. “Oh, wow…” Her face the seller picks one by one and puts pounds each.” She hears from the seller. sourdough…” “Three…OK…” She leaves. woman says. She seems local, as giving her friends Nobody visited the stall in the last tenThe expresses approval well. “And the each carefully on top of the cream. He a tour around the market. They don’t stop by the minutes. seller is carefully slicingstall. other one is plane? This one is what moves some sandwiches at the frontDillso Bread Cream A man comesThe over. Asks for 400 grams of beetroot and orange salmon. The Iseller is preparing four sandwich?” more sandwiches. “Yes, He one of the fillets. have on my it’s that they form a row and puts the ones “That’s my favourite. I usually put it on the grill.” takes already sliced bread from underneath the table “How you sellactually, themasfor?” any spices.” just prepared next to them. At the end The sellermuch packs thedo piece (pieces, they’re and, smoked with his bluewithout glove, puts the salmon on the slices already precisely foldingat thethe paper. He helps one by one. Then comes Rachel’s cream, one A ladycut) asks pointing sandwiches. of the day we’re left with the small himself with clear tape. There are six folds: four teaspoon on each, and few horseradish leaves that the “Three pounds each.” ladies. ones and nobody wants them. horizontal and two vertical. A sticker She ‘Hansenhears & sellerTwo picks one by one and puts each carefully on top Lydersen’ goesseller. on the top. cream. He sandwiches at the front Salmon from the “Three…OK…” Sheof the“Can wemoves havesome two, please?” “Everyone chooses the biggest ones,” Quickly after that, two customers come, although so that they form a row and puts the ones just leaves. “Yes, can choose whichever you he tells me afterwards. separately, they ask for the same. prepared nextyou to them. At the end of the day we’re “Can I have one sandwich, please?” left with the small ones and nobody wants them. want…” Teaspoon, pliers & knife Cutting board When they are no longer by the stall, the seller puts “Everyone chooses the biggest ones.” A mantwocomes over. gramsHe tells “I me love this one!” One says. One of the plain fillets is almost another sandwiches thatAsks he hasfor been400 preparing afterwards. onto one of the tails. He has to move some around, as of beetroot and orange salmon. “I’ll have that one.” The other, after finished. The seller takes the there are gaps after the customers picked sandwiches One of the plain fillets is almost finished. The seller “That’s my I usually seconds. remaining meat, puts it on the side they liked. He seesfavourite. some horseradish lying on a put tail. ittakesfew the remaining meat, puts it on the side and rolls He picks it up with his blue glove. the skin left on the the board.salmon He then removes one of on the grill.” “Where’s from?” and rolls the skin left on the board. the fillets from the rack and puts it down on the The packs the (pieces, “It’s but it’s sosmoked He then removes one of the fillets “Hey, is seller it with dill? I’ll take one.”piece “You can pick cutting board.from He takesNorway, a long knife, lifts the fillet it Tape whichever you like…” hangs down straight and cuts off the skin on both actually, as they’re already cut)sides.here. We have a smokehouse in Stoke from the rack and puts it down on the The lady looks at the two rows of sandwiches. Her He puts it on the board again and removes the precisely thetopaper. helpsbonesNewington.” cutting board. He takes a long knife, Gloves eyes jump fromfolding one sandwich the other. He She leans with pliers, one by one. After that, he starts her head slightly forward and rests it on her wrist. She the fillet into slices. Paper himself with clear tape. There are sixcutting “Are you from Norway?” lifts the fillet soPenit hangs down straight Kitchen towel smiles. Her mother quickly points at one and smiles folds: four horizontal and two vertical.Five “No, I’m from butlastI’ve and cuts off the skin on both sides. to the seller. more sandwiches wereSerbia, sold in the ten been “Can I try a bit of this one?” One of the customers, a woman that came A sticker ‘Hansen & Lydersen’ goes onminutes. working for this company for a year. He puts it on the board again and The daughter points at the purple fillet. This one is with her friend, picks one somewhere from the with top. beetroot and orange. She repeats it to her middle of the row. the That’s my favourite salmon.” removes the bones with pliers, one by mother. They are speaking German. They both try. I wanted that one!” Quickly after that, two customers“Oh, one. After that, he starts cutting theWeighing machine “Oh, wow…” Her face expresses approval as well. A man who’s buying 50 grams of beetroot-flavoured “And the other one is plane? This one is what I haveasksalmon laughs. come, although separately, they “Hi. One hundred grams of the plain fillet into slices. on my sandwich?” “Yes, it’s smoked without any v Sticker Stamp Roll for the same. one, please.” spices.” “Can I have one sandwich, please?” “Is this OK, or do you prefer from the Five more sandwiches were sold Two ladies. When theytwo,are no longer by the stall, other side?” in the last ten minutes. One of the “Can we have please?” “Yes, seller you can puts choose another whichever you want…” the two sandwiches He chooses the part closer to the tail. customers, a woman that came with “I love this one!” One says. that hethathas been preparing onto one The seller puts a piece on the balance, her friend, picks one somewhere from “I’ll have one.” The other, after few seconds. “Where’s salmonHe from?”has to move some of thethetails. but he can’t reach the desired weight. the middle of the row. Calculator Cash box around, as there are gaps after the The customer takes a bit more than “Oh, I wanted that one!” Bag customers picked sandwiches they a hundred. Then comes the packing. A man, who’s buying 50 grams of liked. He sees some horseradish lying Six folds, scrupulous as before. beetroot-flavoured salmon, laughs.

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KED SALMON STALL

way Market, Saturday 25 October. A.M. Hansen & Lydersen. en customers visit the stall between 10.30 and P.M

“It’s from Norway, but it’s smoked here. We have a smokehouse in Stoke Newington.” “Are you from Norway?” “No, I’m from Serbia, but I’ve been working for this company for a year. That’s my favourite salmon.”

d salmon. Two kinds – cured with beetroot range, or plain. Two large fillets, sliced into are lying on the cutting board. Four fillets are ng on the rack just above the table. Sandwiches almon with a little cream and horseradish on of rye bread lying at the front of the table, on plates that look like tiles.

“Hi. One hundred grams of the plain one, please.” “Is this OK, or do you prefer from the other side?” He chooses the part closer to the tail. The seller puts a piece on the balance, but he can’t reach the desired weight. The customer takes a bit more than a hundred. Then comes the packing. Six folds, scrupulous as before.

dy visited the stall in the last ten minutes. The s carefully slicing one of the fillets. much do you sell them for?” y asks pointing at the sandwiches. “Three s each.” She hears from the seller. e…OK…” She leaves.

A few sandwiches gone again – a man with his child on a scooter; two women – thirty-something, friends; a man with a backpack. A group of friends passing. “This is really yummy… Smoked salmon on a sourdough…” The woman says. She seems local, giving her friends a tour around the market. They don’t stop by the stall. The seller is preparing four more sandwiches. He takes already sliced bread from underneath the table and, with his blue glove, puts the salmon on the slices one by one. Then comes Rachel’s cream, one teaspoon on each, and few horseradish leaves that the seller picks one by one and puts each carefully on top of the cream. He moves some sandwiches at the front so that they form a row and puts the ones just prepared next to them. At the end of the day we’re left with the small ones and nobody wants them. “Everyone chooses the biggest ones.” He tells me afterwards.

n comes over. Asks for 400 grams of beetroot ange salmon. s my favourite. I usually put it on the grill.” ller packs the piece (pieces, actually, as they’re y cut) precisely folding the paper. He helps f with clear tape. There are six folds: four ntal and two vertical. A sticker ‘Hansen & en’ goes on the top. y after that, two customers come, although tely, they ask for the same. I have one sandwich, please?” they are no longer by the stall, the seller puts er two sandwiches that he has been preparing ne of the tails. He has to move some around, as are gaps after the customers picked sandwiches ked. He sees some horseradish lying on a tail. ks it up with his blue glove.

is it with dill? I’ll take one.” “You can pick ever you like…” dy looks at the two rows of sandwiches. Her mp from one sandwich to the other. She leans ad slightly forward and rests it on her wrist. She Her mother quickly points at one and smiles seller. I try a bit of this one?” aughter points at the purple fillet. This one is beetroot and orange. She repeats it to her r. They are speaking German. They both try. wow…” Her face expresses approval as well. he other one is plane? This one is what I have y sandwich?” “Yes, it’s smoked without any ”

One of the plain fillets is almost finished. The seller takes the remaining meat, puts it on the side and rolls the skin left on the board. He then removes one of the fillets from the rack and puts it down on the cutting board. He takes a long knife, lifts the fillet so it hangs down straight and cuts off the skin on both sides. He puts it on the board again and removes the bones with pliers, one by one. After that, he starts cutting the fillet into slices. Five more sandwiches were sold in the last ten minutes. One of the customers, a woman that came with her friend, picks one somewhere from the middle of the row. “Oh, I wanted that one!” A man who’s buying 50 grams of beetroot-flavoured salmon laughs. v

Bread

Dill

Cream

Salmon Teaspoon, pliers & knife

Cutting board

Tape Gloves Paper

Pen

Kitchen towel

Weighing machine Sticker

Stamp

Roll

dies. we have two, please?” ou can choose whichever you want…” this one!” One says. ave that one.” The other, after few seconds. e’s the salmon from?” Calculator

Cash box

Bag

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The stall is the foci of the consumer practices of the market and the site of communication of values through which a specific group is homogenised by daily acculturation to the spectacular logic of fashion and exchange.5 That specific space which is the market stall – public, but homely; processual, but individualised, compelling to the point that everything around simply disappears – is also a site of a specific social relation. Tracking along the stalls, with their calculated riot of appearances is not just a source of constant awe – as if passing through a gallery or a museum with exhibits not displayed, but showcased – but at the same time frustration: the hesitation as to which stall should become the place of exchange.

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Products are offered here in a fantastic mise-enscène, an exaltation, a sacralising ostentation of the set that often acquires a nostalgic rural presence through careful choice of natural materials of warm tonality, as well as the ‘hand-made’ impression of the scene: from the way products are arranged to the written character of the signs and the choreography of display.

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CHEESE STALL

Broadway Market, Saturday 25 November. 12.30 P.M. Raw Cheese Power stall. Twelve customers visit the stall between 12.30 and 1.30 P.M.

you my card. “Yes. Thank you.”

thing is that although it’s made in a big diary, it’s still hand made.” “Lovely. Very good. I’ll have some of Customer #3: that…” “Hi.” “Would you like to hear the story “We’re just looking, really…” - the lady. behind this one? It’s an 18-month old Customer #2 comes over and interrupts “What do you sell here? - the man. Gloucester. They only have about ten Broadway Market, Saturday “Yes. from Thank you.” agree with you, actually. Nice th a conversation with the first customer “Ah,25itOctober. changes, actually, week a year and I managed “Itototally get one, small 12.30 P.M. Raw Cheese Power Customer #3: although it’s made in a big diary, it’s still ha (they’ve been talking about a vary rare visitto Funny one. Super rare. You can eatVery thegood. whole Twelve customers the week. stall between 12.30 enough, and “Hi.”this cheese, “Lovely. I’ll have some of that… 1.30 P.M. looking, - the in lady.one “What likesharp to hear the story behind th cheese), asking for blue Wensleydale. Montgomery’s Cheddar “We’re is thejust only onereally…” sample go.do It’s“Would like you very you sell here? - the man. an 18-month old Gloucester. They only h “No, not today. I’ve got blue Cheshire… I have every week.” Parmesan. Really good.” Customer #2 comes over and interrupts a “Ah, it changes, actually, from week to week. Funny ten a year and I managed to get one, small o I’m actually proud of. I need to get some all (they’ve goat’sbeen cheese?” - the lady. Montgomery’s “Oh, yes… give conversation with the “Is first this customer enough, this cheese, Cheddarvery is the nice… rare. YouOK, can eat the whole sample in one g talking about a vary rare cheese), for cheeses blue only one I have every week.” sharp Thanks.” Parmesan. Really good.” more. Yeah, I love it, actually.” “These areasking goat’s here.” me some of that as very well… Wensleydale. “Is this all goat’s cheese?” - the lady. “These are goat’s “Oh, yes… very nice… OK, give me some “And I thought… I thought“No, younotcouldn’t “Are they popular?” - thecheeses lady. here.” “Thanks very much. Bye.” today. I’ve got blue Cheshire… I’m actually well… Thanks.” “Thanks very much. Bye.” actually get it.” weeks some they- the Customer #5: A couple. proud of. I need to get“Some some more. Yeah, Ipeople love it, buy, “Are they popular?” lady. Customer #5: A couple. actually.” “Some weeks people buy, some they don’t.” “Hey ya! Em…” “No, I do sell it. I’ve got three blues at don’t.” “Hey ya! Em…” “And I thought… I thought you couldn’t actually get “Am… we could get three of them for five pounds” “I’ve got one of the rarrest cheeses in the wo the moment and they sort of…” “What’s “Am… we could get three of them for “I’ve got one of the rarrest it.” the lady is pointing at the small goat’s cheeses on only makecheeses about ten ainyear… Takes eightee “No, I do sell it. I’ve got three blues at the moment mature… most like it?” five pounds” - the lady isoffer.” pointing at the the world. They only tomake about ten and they sort of…” like it?” “They’re delicious.” “Very good.” - the man. “The one here is very much alike. Do “What’s smallmost goat’s cheeses on offer.” a year… Takes eighteen months to “The one here is very much alike. Do you want to try “Are they better than those?” - the lady. “I love it!” - the woman.” you want to try it?” “They’re delicious.” mature… it?” “It depends, they’re different. These…” “I’ve never had it before.” “Hm, no, I’m no…” “Are they better than those?” “Are these twolady. different types?” “Hm, no, I’m no…” - the “Very good.” - the man.“Where is it from?” “Do you know what? Do you know the blue “No, this is the same cheese, but more aged. These “It takes years to… You have to keep good “Do you know what? Do you know the “It depends, they’re different. These…” “I love it!” - the woman.” Cheshire? A lot of people think they know, because are lovely. They’re tiny.” “Okay, so do you want to get with them.” blue Cheshire? A lot of they’re people think similar. “AreHave these two different never hadasksit her before.” structurally a taste… John is types?” two not so strong and one“I’ve strong?” - the lady “Oh, really? You have to earn your…” eighty years old now, but he’sthis been ismaking cheese cheese, partner. but more they know, because they’re structurally “No, the same “Where is it from?” Yeah. Totally.” since he was in his twenties. I’ll say… try some of “That’s a good idea... Lovely. Thank you. Enjoy. “Where is it farmed in?” Lindum similar. Have a taste… John is eighty aged. These are lovely. They’re tiny.” “It takes years to… You have to keep that. It’s extremely good.” Oh… One thing you can do though, in the “It’s in the Severn Vale, Gloucestershire. years old now, but he’s “Oh, beenyeah… making you want get twoDo not good relations with them.” yes, that’s“Okay, the one…so Mydo girlfriend lives tomorning… youso like honey?” about ten a year.” Lancaster so I’ll we knowstrong these places, we never go “Yes! on some toast You and put some of the blue Cheshire as w cheese since he was in hisintwenties. andbutone strong?” - theSpread lady one asksof them “Oh, really? have“I’ll to get earn your…” to Cheshire.” some honey on it”. seller cuts a slice. say… try some of that. It’s extremely partner. “When are you next her in London? Do you live in “Perfect. Thank you. Bye”“Exactly. Yeah. Totally.” “I’ll wrap it up again, cause it’s gonna dry o London?” “It’s really lovely.” good.” “That’s a good idea... Lovely. Thank “Where is it farmed in?” in Dalston.you. WhenEnjoy. are you Oh… next here?” Customer crazy. An English cheese with a wine Colston Bassett “Oh, yeah… yes, that’s“Yeah, theI live one… One thing you#4: can do “It’s in the Severn Vale,“It’s Gloucestershire. “Am… I don’t know.” “Hi. What’s this one?” - a lady is pointing at a piece assuming, it will stay for a month, in t Stilton My girlfriend lives in Lancaster so Ifwe though, in thenext morning… Docheese.” you like It’sLeicester. only about ten in a year.” “If you are… you know you’re coming week, of red “It’s Red It’s made whereas, for instance, many other chee make go sure to I’ve gothoney?” some blue Wensleydale…” Leicestershire, Sparkenhoe.” “Sparkenhoe… I flavour Cheshire in a coupleasof weeks time. T know these places, but weI can never “I’ll get some of the blue “No… I wouldn’t want just for me.” “Maybe in a might… Thomas… Stevens.” because it’s a bit younger tha Cheshire.” “Yes! Spread one of them on some toast well.” The seller cuts a particularly, slice. couple of weeks I’ll get some. And that’s eight” – he’s “I’ve got that as well.” It’s a bit less blue, so I like it, you know… “When are you next in London? youof cheese and wrapped put some honey “I’ll wrap it up again,balanced… cause it’sThese gonna handing Do a piece in blue paperon it”. “Oh, nice…” three? It’s fifteen. Let m with a black sticker to“Perfect. the customer. “Yeah, in aBye” “I really like it. The reason tend to…” “But they a bag.” live in London?” Thank you. dryI out.” couple of weeks time I’ll get some. It’s nice if the changed recently…” POh, bag? No, we have one. Thanks very m “Yeah, I live in Dalston. When are you “It’s really lovely.” cheese is quite small. Enough kilos so I can sell “One of that is… It’s still good, it’s buttery, but I “Lovely. Thanks!” next here?” cheese everything in one go.” Customer #4: specialize in raw milk so I“It’s buy thiscrazy. one.” An English “Thank you.” with a “Good.” reallyisdon’t know why wine everyonetaste, likes this one less “Am… I don’t know.” “Hi. What’s this one?” - a“Ilady pointing I’m assuming, it will stay heddar “Right, lovely, thanks a lot. Let me give you my card. than the other.” “If you are… If you know you’re at a piece of red cheese.” “It’s Red for a month, in the fridge, whereas, coming next week, I can make sure I’ve Leicester. It’s made in Leicestershire, for instance, many other cheeses loose got some blue Wensleydale…” Sparkenhoe.” “Sparkenhoe… I might… flavour in a couple of weeks time. “No… I wouldn’t want just for me.” Thomas… Stevens.” This piece particularly, because it’s a “Maybe in a couple of weeks I’ll get “I’ve got that as well.” bit younger than normal. It’s a bit less some. And that’s eight” – he’s handing “Oh, nice…” blue, so I like it, you know… it’s more a piece of cheese wrapped in blue paper “I really like it. The reason I tend to…” balanced… These three? Label It’s fifteen. Let Sticker with Cheese a black sticker the customer. “But they changed recently…” me give you a bag.” Knivesto & cutting wire Paper Gloves Bamboo matt “Yeah, in a couple of weeks time I’ll “One of that is… It’s still good, it’s POh, bag? No, we have one. Thanks get some. It’s nice if the cheese is buttery, but I specialize in raw milk so very much.” quite small. Enough kilos so I can sell I buy this one.” “Lovely. Thanks!” everything in one go.” “I really don’t know why everyone likes “Thank you.” “Good.” this one less than the other.” “Right, a lot.board Let me give Weighing “I totally agree with Pen you, actually. Calculator Nice machine & paper Filmlovely, thanksCutting Cash box Plastic cow Roll OWER HEESE P RAWC

RAWCHEESE POWER

RAWCHEESE POWER

RAWCHEESE POWER

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CHEESE STALL

CHEESE STALL

Broadway Market, Saturday 25 October. 12.30 P.M. Raw Cheese Power Twelve customers visit the stall between 12.30 and 1.30 P.M.

“Yes. Thank you.” Customer #3: “Hi.” “We’re just looking, really…” - the lady. “What do CHEESE STALL you sell here? - the man. Customer #2 comes over and interrupts a “Ah, it changes, actually, from week to week. Funny conversation with the first customer (they’ve been enough, this cheese, Montgomery’s Cheddar is the talking about a vary rare cheese), asking for blue only one I have every week.” Wensleydale. “Is this all goat’s cheese?” - the lady. “These are goat’s “No, not today. I’ve got blue Cheshire… I’m actually cheeses here.” proud of. I need to get some more. Yeah, I love it, “Are they popular?” - the lady. actually.” “Some weeks people buy, some they don’t.” “And I thought… I thought you couldn’t actually get “Am… we could get three of them for five pounds” it.” the lady is pointing at the small goat’s cheeses on “No, I do sell it. I’ve got three blues at the moment offer.” Broadway Market, 25 October. “Yes. Thank you.” and they sort of…” Saturday “What’s most like it?” “They’re delicious.” 12.30 P.M. Raw Cheese Power Customer #3: than those?” - the lady. “The one here is very much alike. Do you want to try “Are they better d III Twelve customers visit the stall between 12.30 and “Hi.” it?” “It depends, they’re different. These…” ale 1.30 P.M. “We’re justtwo looking, really…” “Hm, no, I’m no…” “Are these different types?”- the lady. “What do you sell - the man. “Do you know what? Do you know the blue “No, thishere? is the same cheese, but more aged. These Customer interrupts “Ah, it Richard changes, actually, from week to week. Funny Cheshire? A#2 lot ofcomes peopleover think and they know, becausea are lovely. They’re King III tiny.” “Okay, so do you want to get conversation with the first Have customer (they’veJohn been enough, cheese, Cheddar is her the ing enzyme The curd is then cut into they’re structurally similar. a taste… is two not sothis strong and Montgomery’s one strong?” - the lady asks Wensleydale talking years aboutold a vary cheese), blue only one I have every week.” now, rare but he’s been asking makingforcheese partner. t is stirred small pieces to begin the eighty Wensleydale. “Is this alla goat’s - the lady. “These areEnjoy. goat’s he was in his twenties. I’ll say… try some of “That’s good cheese?” idea... Lovely. Thank you. Hill Bluemilk Lindum k. The process of separating the since “No, not today. I’ve got blue Cheshire… I’m actually cheeses here.” It’s extremely good.” Oh… One thing you can do though, in the o form a liquid whey from the solidthat. proudyeah… of. I need to getthe some more. I love it, “Are they popular?” - thehoney?” lady. “Oh, yes, that’s one… MyYeah, girlfriend lives morning… Do you like mass known curd. actually.” “Some Spread weeks people some don’t.” in Lancaster so we know these places, but we never go “Yes! one ofbuy, them onthey some toast and put “And I thought… I thought you couldn’t actually get “Am…honey we could get three of them for five pounds” to Cheshire.” some on it”. Blue Cheshire Cote Hill Blue it.” the lady is pointing at the small goat’s cheeses on “When are you next in London? Do you live in “Perfect. Thank you. Bye” Lindum Stichelton “No, I do sell it. I’ve got three blues at the moment offer.” London?” and they sortinof…” “What’s most “They’re delicious.” “Yeah, I live Dalston. When arelike youit?” next here?” Customer #4: Colston Bassett “The one here know.” is very much alike. Do you want to try “Are they better - the lady. d III “Am… I don’t “Hi. What’s this than one?”those?” - a lady is pointing at a piece Stilton it?” “It they’re different. These…”It’s made in ale “If you are… If you know you’re coming next week, of depends, red cheese.” “It’s Red Leicester. no, I’m no…” “Are these two different types?” “Sparkenhoe… I parkenhoe I“Hm, can make sure I’ve got some blue Wensleydale…” Leicestershire, Sparkenhoe.” Stichelton ed Leicester “Do you know what? Do for youme.” know the blue “No,Cheshire thisThomas… is the sameStevens.” cheese, but more aged. These Clothbound “No… I wouldn’t want just “Maybe in a might… Cheshire? A lot I’ll of get people think know, because are lovely. They’re tiny.” “Okay, so do you want to get couple of weeks some. Andthey that’s eight” – he’s “I’ve got that as well.” er Colston Bassett they’re a taste… is two so strong and one strong?” - the lady asks her handingstructurally a piece of similar. cheese Have wrapped in blueJohn paper “Oh,not nice…” Stilton eightya years now, tobutthehe’s been making partner. with blackold sticker customer. “Yeah,cheese in a “I really like it. The reason I tend to…” “But they since heofwas in his twenties. say… some of “That’s arecently…” good idea... Lovely. Thank you. Enjoy. Hill Blue couple weeks time I’ll get I’ll some. It’stry nice if the changed Sparkenhoe Lindum that. It’sisextremely good.” Oh… ofOne thing It’s youstillcan do it’s though, Cardo cheese quite small. Enough kilos so I can sell “One that good, buttery,inbuttheI Redis… Leicester “Oh, yeah… girlfriend lives morning… like Ash everything in yes, one that’s go.” the one… My Cerney specialize inDo rawyou milk sohoney?” I buy this one.” in Lancaster so we know these places, but we never go Single “Yes! Spread one ofwhy them on some put Smart’s Gloucester “Good.” “I really don’t know everyone likestoast this and one less Keen’s Cheddar to Cheshire.” somethe honey on it”. “Right, lovely, thanks a lot. Let me give you my card. than other.” dslade “When are you next in London? Do you live in “Perfect. Thank you. Bye” Stichelton London?” The cheeses in the curd is placed “Yeah, I live in Dalston. When are you next here?” Customer #4:Cardo Bassett moulds are put into a o give the Colston “Am… I don’t know.” “Hi. What’s this one?” - a lady is pointing at a piece Stilton press, sometimes for up to “If you are… If you know you’re coming next week,Montgomery’s ape. of red cheese.” “It’s Red Leicester. It’s made in parkenhoe Cheddar three days. Pressing I can make sure I’ve got some blue Wensleydale…” Leicestershire, Sparkenhoe.” Keen’s Cheddar “Sparkenhoe… I ed Leicester pushes the curd pieces “No… I wouldn’t want just for me.” Stawley “Maybe& in a might… Thomas… Windslade Stevens.” Wellesley get some. And that’s eight” – he’s “I’ve got that as well.” Somerset together to form a smoothcouple of weeks I’llMature er wrapped in blue paper “Oh, nice…” Ogleshield Cheddar cheese and removes the handing a piece of cheese with a black sticker to the customer. “Yeah, in a “I really like it. The reason I tend to…” “But they last of the whey. Cheese Knives & cutting Paper couplewire of weeks time I’ll get some. It’s nice if the Gloves changed recently…” Bamboo matt Cardo cheese is quite small. Enough kilos so I can sell “One of that is… It’s still good, it’s buttery, but I everything in one go.” specialize in raw milk so I buy this one.” “Good.” “I really don’t know why everyone likes this one less Keen’s Cheddar “Right, lovely, thanks a lot. Let me give you my card. than the other.” Cornish Yarg dslade

d Clover

ansported airy by road supplier or to a stall

“I totally agree with you, actually. Nice thing is that although it’s made in a big diary, it’s still hand made.” “Lovely. Very good. I’ll have someMarket, of that…” Broadway Saturday 25 Octobe “Would you like to hear the story this one?Power It’s 12.30 P.M.behind Raw Cheese an 18-month old Gloucester. They only have about Twelve customers visit the stall betwee ten a year and I managed to get one, small one. Super 1.30 P.M. rare. You can eat the whole sample in one go. It’s like very sharp Parmesan. Really good.” Customer #2some comes and “Oh, yes… very nice… OK, give me of that over as conversation well… Thanks.” “Thanks very much.with Bye.”the first customer talking about a vary rare cheese), as Customer #5: A couple. “Hey ya! Em…” Wensleydale. “I’ve got one of the rarrest in theI’ve world. “No,cheeses not today. got They blue Cheshire… only make about ten aproud year…of. Takes eighteen months I need to get some more. Ye to mature… actually.” “I totally agree with you, actually. Nice thing is that “Very good.” - the man. “And I thought… I thought you couldn although it’s made in a big diary, it’s still hand made.” “I love it!” - the woman.” it.” “Lovely. Very good. I’ll have some of that…” “I’ve never had it before.” “No, I do behind sell it. this I’veone? got It’s three blues at “Would you to hear the story “Where is it like from?” andhave theyThey of…” “What’s an 18-month Gloucester. only have about most like it “It takes yearsold to… You tosort keep good relations ten year and I managed to one get one, one.much Superalike. Do yo “The heresmall is very witha them.” rare. You can eat whole in one go. It’s like it?”to sample “Oh, really? Youthehave earn your…” “Exactly. very sharp Parmesan.“Hm, Reallyno, good.” Yeah. Totally.” I’m no…” “Oh, yes… nice… OK,you give me somewhat? of that Do as you kno “Where is itvery farmed in?” “Do know well… “Thanks very much. Bye.” It’s only “It’s inThanks.” the Severn Vale, Gloucestershire. Cheshire? A lot of people think they k Customer A couple. about ten a#5: year.” they’re structurally similar. Have a ta “Heyget ya! some Em…” “I’ll of theeighty blue Cheshire as well.”but The yearsinold he’s been m “I’ve got of the rarrest cheeses the now, world. They seller cutsone a slice. since heTakes was eighteen in his twenties. I’ll say… only make about ten a year… months “I’ll wrap it up again, cause it’s gonna dry out.” to mature… “It’s really lovely.” that. It’s extremely good.” “Oh, yeah… that’s “Verycrazy. good.” the man. “It’s An- English cheese with ayes, wine taste,the I’mone… My g “I love it!” -itthe Lancaster so we know these places, bu assuming, willwoman.” stayinfor a month, in the fridge, “I’ve neverfor hadinstance, it before.” to Cheshire.” whereas, many other cheeses loose “Where is are time. you next London? Do flavour init afrom?” couple“When of weeks This in piece “It takes years to… You keep good particularly, because it’s ahave bit to younger than relations normal. London?” withathem.” It’s bit less blue, so “Yeah, I like it,I you it’s more live know… in Dalston. When are you “Oh, really? You have to earn your…” “Exactly. balanced… These three? It’s fifteen. me give you “Am… I don’tLet know.” aYeah. bag.”Totally.” “If you are… If you know you’re comin “Where is itNo, farmed in?” POh, bag? we have one. Thanks very much.” I canGloucestershire. make sure I’ve It’s got only some blue Wen “It’s in the Severn Vale, “Lovely. Thanks!” “No… I wouldn’t want just for me.” about tenyou.” a year.” “Thank of weeksasI’llwell.” get some. “I’ll get some of thecouple blue Cheshire The And that’ seller cuts a slice. handing a piece of cheese wrapped i “I’ll wrap it up again,with cause ait’sblack gonnasticker dry out.” to the customer. “It’s really lovely.” couple of weeks time I’ll get some. It “It’s crazy. An Englishcheese cheese iswith a wine taste,Enough I’m quite small. kilos assuming, it will stay for a month, in the fridge, everything in one go.” whereas, for instance, many other cheeses loose “Good.” flavour in a couple of weeks time. This piece “Right, lovely, thanks a lot. Let me give particularly, because it’s a bit younger than normal. It’s a bit less blue, so I like it, you know… it’s more balanced… It’s fifteen. Let me give you Label These three? Sticker a bag.” POh, bag? No, we have one. Thanks very much.” “Lovely. Thanks!” Bag “Thank you.” OWER HEESE P RAWC

RAWCHEESE POWER

RAWCHEESE POWER

RAWCHEESE POWER

Film

Cutting board

Weighing machine

Pen & paper

Calculator

Cash box

Cheese

Knives & cutting wire

Plastic cow

Roll

Label

Sticker

Tape

Paper

OWER HEESE P RAWC

Cheese

Knives & cutting wire

Paper

Gloves

Bamboo matt

Cutting board

Film

BagWeighing machi

RAWCHEESE POWER

RAWCHEESE POWER

RAWCHEESE POWER

Film

Cutting board

Weighing machine

Pen & paper

Calculator

Cash box

Plastic cow

Roll

Tape

25


This symbolic giving, this silent exchange between the proffered product and the gaze, is one but not the only way of inviting to real, economic exchange. The visual mode of seduction is soon complemented by the gustatory and the olfactory: the visitor is given the ecstatic freedom of tasting. The ‘walk-by’ customer picks up the sample from the platter. Or the seller slices and passes a fragment on his knife to the enticed customer. The latter way is a dangerous affair. The mind cannot disobey the tongue which cannot refuse the juiciness of the witnessed striptease.

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The performance of the tool and the spectacle of the gesture are accompanied by the theatrics of the word where the product, being rendered as a oneoff, creates a sensation of evanescence and the illusion of the unique opportunity.

28


The communication established at the level of the stall occurs between individuals and objects, as well as between all individuals participating in that spectacle, not via contemplation, but via the recognition in the same products and the same code of values: stalls are an adaptability test, a test of integration and belonging to a specific group sharing the same set of values. The market is a slice of life of that very narrow group. It is a laboratory and social testing ground.

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The market is not about economic exchange in its purest form. It is a celebratory device not uncommon in the history of mankind – feasts, fine dining are all about experience of food and Broadway feeds on that desire. It is a fetishised science in search for authenticity, for clarity of the source and history of the product. It echoes the exhilaration that food markets brought to cities, selling not only produce, but the image of tradition and meaning, and provisional salvation. 6

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Cut & Paste

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The attraction of the void, now tasted only once a week, becomes more irresistible. Soon, after the Saturday conquest of the Market becomes a rule, the inhabitants of other parts of the city begin to settle down in the neighbourhood. For the old inhabitants the street becomes inaccessible more and more often, now only glimpsed, not consumed, as an unaffordable chasm. The slice that the Broadway Market is a master at becomes more severe and starts to proliferate to architecture.

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The buildings in the area – half of them are council blocks – is not the architecture the newcomers wish for. To make space for their arrival old houses have to be demolished. Soon, high-rise luxurious flats, asylums of architectural wealth start to emerge in the borough’s landscape.

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Slicing, by definition, eviscerates elements into fragments, regardless whether it is cutting a fillet of salmon on Broadway Market or demolishing the last block of the nearby Haggerston Estate, Samuel House. Two cuts – one on the flesh of a fish, the other on the fabric of the city – but one beneficiary: someone who can afford the experience that the reinvigorated neighbourhood offers. Because Broadway is about experience, so is a bedroom with a view onto the water.

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Back in 1889, on the Booth Map, the area between Kingsland Road and London Fields comprised mostly of pink and red sites – the areas of ‘fair comfort’ and the ‘middle class.’ Grey, light blue and indigo appear in Haggerston West by The Broadway, on Lansdowne Road, by the tracks on Dalston Lane and by the Regent’s Canal. This is where the ‘poor’ and the ‘very poor’ lived. It is also here where three black lines appear – the ‘lowest class,’ ‘vicious, semi-criminal.’ The thickest line marks the site where Samuel House was built in the 1930s.

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The ground for the development was made by the authorities prompted by the poor fitness conditions of the army recruits and fears of working class agitation. By the virtue of the Act they thrust local councils to the forefront as providers of communal corporation housing. The psychological and symbolic effects of the document were unquestionable: suddenly, euphoria swept through the working classes, but the physical effect of the document was a flash in the pan.7 The authorities, eased by the ceasing threats of the uprising, neglected the social welfare and the housing programme was cut.

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Those left behind could only hope to be qualified as inhabitants of the gloomy parts of the city and rehoused to the slum clearance areas. The Haggerston Estate was part of that slum clearance programme.

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(In 1917 Parliament commissioned the Tudor Walters Committee Report to explore the provision of housing and to create the foundations of post-war reconstruction. It was followed by the Housing and Town Planning Act – also known as the Addison Act: “It shall be the duty of every local authority… to consider the needs of their area with respect to the provision of houses for the working classes, and…to prepare and submit to the Local Government Board a scheme for the exercise of their power”8. In 1921, following animated Cabinet battles, social welfare became superseded by the repayment of war debts and the housing programme was cut. The emphasis became shifted from the supply of ‘general needs’ housing to slum clearance and redevelopment.9)

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(In Housing Problems, a documentary from 1935 the voice-over states: “When a public authority embarks on slum clearance work it must take people just as they are. It is however our experience, that if you provide people from the slums with decent homes they quickly respond to the improved conditions and keep their homes clean and tidy. In Stepney we are finding that the amount of interest which the people are taking in their new flats is advancing day by day.�10)

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Soon, the first inhabitants were received by Lovelace, Pamela, Lowther, Harlow – the neo-Georgian blocks named after Clarissa and Pamela, eighteenth century novels depicting heroic quests for virtue, supposedly implying the training that was supposed to take place within the brick walls of the estate. The block that replaced the thickest black line on the 1889 map – Samuel House – was named after Samuel Richardson, the father of the English novel himself.

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But it is not the first time the block was given a mythologised name. The estate witnessed the exodus of the 80s – following the last major refurbishment some residents were temporally relocated, but never given the opportunity to come back – trading of keys for individual profit, and squatting. It was at that time when the estate became known as a ‘sink estate,’ and the ‘heroin capital of Europe’.11

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Since then, for three decades, the authorities successively run down the estate through mismanagement and lack of repairs and left it in desperate condition. What they never forgot about though is to keep promising the inhabitants a brighter future.

fig.4

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Hopelessness reigned supreme and the inhabitants voted in favour of a regeneration. As the result they were being gradually resettled into flats in other parts of the city. They were only given recognition as a community when the authorities without any consultation or warning fitted bright orange boards over the windows, marking the blocks abject. The identity of the individual inhabitants of the blocks was erased until their portraits were retrospectively installed over the windows of the vacant flats. “i am here� was an art project memorialising those who were no longer there. For the passers-by on the canal it became a considerable photo opportunity.

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The regeneration programme resulted in demolition of the Haggerston Estate. The plot of the estate was given out for a new development. It carries no loss of social housing, but contains a doubling in density due to additional private and shared ownership flats.12

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“Enjoy a slice of East London life by renting a 1, 2, 3 bedroom apartment or a 4 bedroom house at the City Mills in Haggerston, the latest hot spot in the trendy east’s revival,”13 encourages the developer.

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The decision to demolish the whole Haggerston Estate fits squarely into the accelerating narrative of urban renewal and neighbourhood’s regeneration, the regeneration Broadway Market is an agent for and a beneficiary of.

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The Market promises to exist for the community, it assures to benefit the whole of Hackney generating more than ÂŁ2 million a year14, the same authority that let the Estate to fall in the state of dilapidation.

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Haggerston Estate became part of the clichéd narrative of ‘troubled estates’: a social, economic and psychological place for which the only solution seems to be demolition. But, as shown by Andrea Luka Zimmerman in her film Estate: A Reverie, although having been far from a perfect place to live over the years, it has been a “home and sanctuary offering…an affordable place to live.”15 The people who featured in the portraits on the window hoardings were the faces of the community and the borough, who were unwittingly displaced all together, replaced by the anonymous ones, or even worse, faceless ‘community assets,’ in other words, privately owned public space, sold to the council and public by developers in exchange for the ugly uprooting of an entire estate.

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Slice of history

57


Demolition is likely to be avoided by the two gasholders, at Marian Place, just next to the Broadway Market.

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£

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“We must ensure that these structures are all added to the local list, to protect them against demolition. Otherwise there will soon be nothing standing anywhere near the canal to connect ourselves – or future generations – with our industrial past,”16 say the campaigners from the East End Waterway Group, who propose to refurbish the gasholders and to turn them into a ‘playground for young children’ and a ‘multipitch’.17

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Tower Hamlets Council’s plan for the site around the gasholders includes a “strategic housing development�18 and a local park, schematically positioned inside and around the gasholders.

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The question that has to be asked, but often slips beneath the sheets of single preservation orders or heritage campaigns, is why do we tend to preserve old public buildings whilst permitting the decline and neglect of housing blocks? The majority of the architectures of the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century that are on the English Heritage list are no longer in their original use. While in many cases it is because they have outlived their original purpose, which has been relocated elsewhere, in just as many other cases, they have simply been taken out of use and exist as a void on the landscape reminding the locality that this service no longer exists.

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More commonly, the structure is transformed into a commercial use, just like the King’s Cross gasholders, one holding “gardens [that] create a retreat to relax in at the end of the day;”19 the other two apartment blocks, or in other words, “an opportunity to live surrounded by celebrated museums and cultural centres, exceptional shopping, restaurants and elegant parklands.”20 Although the green space inside the gasholder pretends to be accessible to anyone, it feels like designed just for the developer’s brochure and then to remain empty. Overlooked by dark windows of the surrounding high-rises it is neither inviting for the inhabitants, nor to the passers-by on the canal. There is no feel of public ownership, made even more pathetic by the sign reminding the original status of the building.

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Often the argument put forward for preservation of historic buildings, is that old structures prevent the developers from bringing to the area the ‘notopian’ housing blocks, the standardised, dark and empty high-security, high-rise dormitories that have been popping up like mushrooms across the city.

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The domitories at King’s Cross, an impossible offering corsetted in real estate’s accidental accessory – the gasholder – foreshadow the delusional aspirations upon which ‘strategic housing development’ rallies. Instead of ‘notopian’ housing blocks, public space is dressed up in private quarters as if on a window display in an overpriced patiserrie. Everything is trim, quaint, with a whiff of Britishness (if picnics have Cath Kidson, real estate has English Heritage), and who can resist? But who can afford to resist? Repurposing from public to private almost always takes place under the umbrella of ‘regeneration’ addressed to all inhabitants, those who have spent their lives in the area, as well as those arriving or those still to come.

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Have a slice

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The cake is on the table. But guests are seated in chairs of different heights. At the head of the table sits the council, on the other end, an overly affectionate developer. Flanked on either sides are familiar neighbours, the long-distance lover, the uncle disowned from the family and the new bachelor next door. People say, you cannot have your cake and eat it too, but this pompous guest not inelegantly brings the host a bottle of champagne too small to pour everyone a glass and not long after the bubbles take on an effect, the guest slips away. The cake takes French leave too. But does it have to be that way?

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Feasts are not just table monopoly. Take to the common ground, an open picnic of boisterous potluck without the charade of a twelve-course tasting menu and all the admin. Have a slice – both to offer and to take – of an imperfect cake, that which you helped to make.

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Notes 1 Iain Sinclair, Hackney, That Rose-Red Empire: A Confidential Report, (London: Penguin Books, 2010), 304. Interview with Juliet Ash who lived in a house on Eleanor Road, a street by London Fields 2 Cristina Cerulli, What Now? in Fugitive Images, Estate: Art, Politics and Social Housing in Britain (Myrdle Court Press: London, 2010), 132 3 “Mission statement,” BroadwayMarket.co.uk, accessed December 2016, http://broadwaymarket.co.uk/ mission statement/ 4 BroadwayMarket.co.uk, accessed December 2016, http://broadwaymarket. co.uk 5 Following Baudrillard’s observations of the shop window; in Jean Baudrillard, The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, (London: Sage Publications Ltd, 1998), 167 6 Carolyn Steel, Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives, (London: Vintage, 2013), 108 7 C. Holmes, A New Vision for Housing (London: Routledge, 2005), 12 8 Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1919, c. 35, Legislation.gov. uk, accessed October 2016, http://www.legislation. gov.uk/ukpga/1919/35/contents/enacted 9 D. Whitman, “The First Sixty Years of Council Housing,” in Future of Council Housing, ed. John English (London: Croom Helm, 1982 10 Arthur Elton & Edgar Anesty, Housing Problems (British Commercial Gas Association, London, 1935, Vimeo video, 14:36, accessed October 2016, https://vimeo.com/4950031 11 A. L. Zimmerman 72


& Lasse Johansson, “Some Time in Utopia”, in Fugitive Images, Estate, 8 12 All the ‘affordable’ housing is between 10-15% larger than the Parker Morris standard (Zimmerman & Johansson, “Some Time in Utopia”, 12) 13 TheCityMills.com, accessed October 2016, http://www.thecitymills. co.uk/ 14 “Community,” BroadwayMarket.co.uk, accessed December 2016, http://broadwaymarket. co.uk/community/ 15 Zimmerman & Johansson, 10 16 “Help Save The Iconic Bethnal Green Gas Holders,” Now-Here-This.timeout.com, accessed October 2016, http://now-here-this.timeout. com/2014/10/08/help-save-the-iconic-bethnalgreen-gas-holders/ 17 “Petition to National Grid and Tower Hamlets Council.” Residents-First. co.uk, accessed October 2016, https://residentsfirst.co.uk/both-gasholder-petitions/ 18 “Tower Hamlets Local Plan,” 94, TowerHamlets.gov.uk, accessed October 2016, http://www.towerhamlets. gov.uk/Documents/Planning-and-building-control/ Strategic-Planning/Neighbourhood-Planning/ Managing-Development-Document-SiteAllocations-1-10.pdf 19 KingsCross.co.uk, accessed December 2016, https://www.kingscross.co.uk/ gasholders-london 20 KingsCross.co.uk

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Jacek rewinski  

Slice of Life