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PART A

Regenerative Urbanism

1.Strategic Framing 1.1 What do we mean by “Regenerative Urbanism”? 1.2 Systemic Change 1.3 Land Value Capture - Driver of Change 2. Testing Ground 2.1 Why Ebbsfleet? 2.3 Proposed Scenarios for Transformation 2.3 Key Spatial Strategies

Contributors Jorge Fiori Elena Pascolo Rodrigo Joseph O’Malley Francesco Zuddas Arunima Gupta Humaira Kabir Jingchao sheng Junyuan Zheng Marcel Rofatto Mohamed Yousry Zakria Nawei Huang Sou Un Teng Tianyi Shen Ziyue Ju

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3. Understanding Territory 3.1 Potentials and Missed Opportunities 4. Conclusion

PART B

Scenarios of Transformation

1. Energy as Value Shifter 2. Industrial Ecology 3. Dynamic Value Matrix

PART C Assembling the Future Future and Challenges

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Acknowledgements We would like to thank our tutors who guided us on this enriching journey and helped us endlessly to realise our potentials. We thank Jorge Fiori, for all the support and and contribution to broaden and sharpen our vision; Elena Pascolo, for her unlimited disposition to assist and her capacity to highlight our hidden resources; Rodrigo O’Malley, for his patience and precise guidance. We also would like to thank Lawrence Barth, for his wisdom and constant support. We would also like to acknowledge the contributions from Joost Beunderman and Simon Harrison, for sharing their precious time and expertise. And finally, we thank all our ‘Complex Assemblies’ colleagues, for the mutual support during all stages of the process and for all the countless memories.

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Abstract The pressing crisis of climate breakdown poses critical challenges to review and revise our exiting delivery models and institutional arrangements to mobilize a systemic change which creates regenerative urbanism. Considering land-value capture a key driver of change, we explore how diversely it can support new ways of life in peri-urban areas in a holistic approach, which will have a longer lasting legacy and contribution in the transformation of territories, let alone urban areas. The scenarios of transformation utilize the natural resources and infrastructural opportunities of Ebbsfleet in UK, to show how three alternate delivery models can leverage land-value capture and innovative partnerships to generate a systemic change which indeed forms the basis of regenerative urbanism. The operational framing of the all the scenarios and resultant architectural typologies highlight a new matrix of fixed-and-flexible value standards that generates and explorative instead of an exploitative approach.

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PART A

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Regenerative Urbanism

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1.Strategic Framing 1.1 What do we mean by “Regenerative Urbanism”?

Decentralisation Eco-driven Development

partnership of different drivers

Land Vlue Capture

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The aim is to devise an urban development model that incentivizes long-term returns and supports the provision of local services and utilities to create environmental and financial resilience. How can urbanism play a positive role in framing and supporting ways of life that are within these sustainable “thresholds” and “limits”, as referred to by Kate Raworth in her Doughnut Model of Economics1 , to enable a systemic change as the foundation of regenerative urbanism?

Reus e

Regen e r a te

Urbanism, in this sense, becomes regenerative when a holistic strategy that remediates territories, is supported by a dynamically responsive framework that accommodates contributions from symbiotic partnerships and interests of diverse stakeholders to deliver architectural typologies that drive urban processes to create a longerlasting legacy of regenerative assets and returns.

The strategy is to develop an environmentally enhancing and restorative relationship with the natural resources considering a complex system of systems that consist of infrastructure, green systems of vegetation and air-filtering, blue systems of water courses, energy and material flow. These systems must become a part of an open-ended and integrated network rather than a closed one to limit quantification and intensification in a sustainable framework.

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“Where should the Ebbsfleet Development Corporation (EDC) invest for more returns?”, a striking question asked to us by Simon Harrison, Lead Designer at EDC in the beginning of this study. Ever since, the group reflected on the essential values that underly urbanism and lead to the transformation of urban areas, be they in inner city centers or indeed outer peripheries, undergoing rapid change within a very pressing event horizon of climate breakdown and the call for systems change.

Figure 1: Regenerative Urbanism and components

1. “What on Earth Is the Doughnut?…,” Kate Raworth (blog), April 28, 2013, https://www.kateraworth.com/doughnut/.

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1.2 Systemic Change

The doughnut-model by Kate Raworth highlights the shifting of priorities from desired exponential growth to a rather thriving model where development is contained within the sustainable limits of our natural and renewable resources. The current global environmental crisis poses critical challenges to the future of urban development and raises some key questions like, what if ‘ecology’ is a key driver of development alongside mobility or finance? What urban conditions are formed if we shift to a systems’ approach (Figure 3) of urban eco-systems to support new formats of live-work-play? Already, over 100 cities, from Quito to Oslo, from Harare to Hobart- already generate 70% of their electricity from sun, wind and waves. The Europan competition entry by Izaskun Chincilla2 further explores the strategic and operational framing of such an energydriven development model. The model, as shown in Figure 2, is anchored by autonomous energy devices which optimize their geographical locations and generate energy and financial value to supply a critical mass and further provide for development costs.

Figure2: Energy Weave Izaskun Chinchilla, Europan, 2014

It is almost analogous to Ebenezer Howard’s diagram of the three magnets, where the perks of a serviced ‘town’ area are merged with the nature, only for the nature to perform as an additional eco-productive area. The success of this model suggests the need to leverage the uplift in land value and new forms of governance and delivery models to support an open-ended and dynamic framework which deploys a range of energy infrastructures to (re) generate energy and cross-subsidize further development costs. Therefore, land value capture becomes a key driver to enable a systemic change under a scheme of regenerative economies and decentralization to sustain environmental and financial shocks.

Figure 3: Urban Metabolism | System of Systems Source: Urban Institute, University of Sheffield

2. “Europan-Europe Thematized Project,” accessed June 6, 2019, https://www.europan-europe.eu/en/project-and-processes/forest-city-parking-city-habitable-abacus.

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1.3 Land Value Capture | Driver of Change

Land value capture is a key driver to mobilize systemic change and eventually framing a regenerative approach of development. In 21st century, land is ought to generate environmental values along with financial returns. In order to leverage this model, the localized assets, like institutions and partnerships under a holistic scheme enhance the role of situated assets like landscape and industries-to create an uplift in the land value and through a regularized format of governance, this uplift can be captured and reinvested strategically to (re)generate environmental and financial gains. (refer Figure 4)

This model will create urban conditions that will regenerate value (and valuegenerating tools) and further innovate urban synergies. For example, an energy farm can supply cheap electricity to sustain a local food industry, sell surplus to the national grid, utilize extra finance to crosssubsidize development of more energy devices. A concentrated economy approach disallows such unique partnership models and results in a rather monofunctional and exploitative urban area. The process of upliftcapture-uplift can only thrive under a model of regenerative economies and decentralization - both in governance and funding.

Figure 4: Uplift - Capture - Reinvest - Uplift

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1.3.1 Regenerative Economies

The 21st century requires our economies to not just focus on ‘exponential growth’ but respond to a new mantra of ‘thriving economies’. The trending #SharedEconomy #FrugalEconomy explicitly imply that 200 years of ‘Intellectual Property Control’ is being upended by the bottom-up, opensource, peer-to-peer knowledge commons. Given these trends and trajectories, there is a potential to create urban conditions to promote economies that are regenerative and distributive by design.

1.3.2 Decentralisation and Resillience

The sustainable-economy model outlined by Kate Raworth (2013) supports this shift from a centralizedconcentrated wealth, knowledge and power- system to a distributed system of systems like, renewable energy, food and water provision, where the development limits are contained within the “ecological ceiling”. (refer Figure 5)

The ideal scenario of ‘thriving economies’ is based on a decentralized and localized format of service and utility provision in terms of financial models. The ubiquitous speculated approach poses unsustainable expectations from an area, in terms of immediate financial returns, without considering the impact on urban metabolism in the longer run. This approach also fails to generate longer stewardship, resilience, and bespoke spatial qualities.

A conceivable solution is a decentralized financial model supported by a balance of public and private control, as suggested in Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City Proposal from 1902. Furthermore, Howard explored a financial model of philanthropic investments at a 5% return rate to a common agency/ resource pool, which was to initiate development in currently low-valued

Figure 5: Kate Raworth’s Doughnut Model of Economies

Figure 6: Decentralisation | Governance, Funding and Delivery

Source: https://www.kateraworth.com/doughnut/

Source: https://www.project00.cc/

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marginal areas. The success of this model relies on capturing the uplift in the land value due to development - in terms of rental or selling price - by the common agency to pay off the investors and aid further development costs.

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Land value capture is a key driver of change to benefit from these paradigms under a decentralized model of finance and governance, to create resilience and a greater scope to incorporate a variety of complex partnerships and architectural typologies that accommodate different lifestyles and forms of civic associations.

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Systemic Change

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The concept of regenerative urbanism relies on the paradigms of urban ecosystems, governance, distributive and circular economies and supportive design decisions to generate a more dynamic and regenerative model (Figure 7) which supports 21st century values of sustainability and social welfare.

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Figure 7: Land Value Capture - Systemic Change - Regenerative Urbanism Reus e

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2. Testing Ground and Scenarios 2.1 Why Ebbsfleet?

The testing ground for spatializing our identified regenerative value sets is Ebbsfleet in Northern Kent. This brownfield peripheral site of 800 Hectares is located in a former quarry, which despite its strategic location, as shown in Figure 9, mobility connections, industrial heritage, and designated marshlands, green corridors and biodiversity reserves within the Thames Estuary Corridor, has struggled to deliver up to its full regenerative potential owing to both financial and strategic reasons. In a new understanding of Ebenezer Howard’s diagram (Figure 8), Ebbsfleet can seize and deliver new opportunities in the network of London-Kent-DartfordGravesend and Europe. The strategic location can provide for a new regional centre in north Kent, and a catalyst for the constellation of growth throughout the Thames Estuary.

Figure 8: Wider Assembly of Towns

We explore the shift from a purely speculative approach of building our cities, to a systems’ approach that engages the complex interplay of ecology and economy, by establishing an operational system which interweaves what we refer to as the North-South ecology belt and the West-East productive belt. Together these support ways of life that are supported by an array of typologies and morphologies that host multi-functional spaces, places, domains and environments.

Figure 9: Situating Ebbsfleet

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2. 2 Three Scenarios of Transformation

Three scenarios of transformation (Figure 10), are explored to leverage land value capture across overlapping layers of governance, institutional arrangements, and design strategies into delivery a systemic change and reinstating a foundation for regenerative urbanism. These scenarios are unique iterations of regenerative combinations like, energy + education, energy + agriculture, industry + ecology, or even ecology + housing.

A. Scenario 1 Ecology as Value Shifter

B. Scenario 2 Industrial Ecology

C. Scenario 3 Dynamic Value Matrix

Considering the alarming rate of climate change and ecological disbalance, this scenario questions the current market driven growth model and aims to achieve an ecology-driven growth and a circular economy. A peripheral brownfield area is used to ground the experiment due to its abundance of natural resources and land which could be capitalized for carbon capture, energy generation and construction through alternate delivery and financing systems, such that it is profitable, sustainable and uplifts the value of such peripheral area.

The industrial ecology provides not only regenerative benefits to the local environment and community but also economic benefits and values through a carefully orchestrated symbiosis between existing resources. The strategy harnesses the potential of the Ebbsfleet River and is extended to include an integrated loop through upgrading existing mobility infrastructure and creating several nodes that act as incubators for low emission, clean industries. These two elements work together spatially and institutionally to enhance proposals of the Ebbsfleet Development Corporation and provoke a discussion of how industry and ecology might work together to support local neighborhoods and ecosystems.

The strategy is to devise an alternate delivery model that intends to capture a matrix of dynamic values. How might the restructuring of space and process offer a financially and environmentally robust scheme? How can it recalibrate and leverage the market forces while still offer affordability and sustainability? How can ‘Land Value’ be addressed within a spectrum of stakeholders from community-owned to housing cooperatives, to big developers? If we are to create a playboard for development and negotiation, what are the fixes and flexes required to support varied lifestyles.

A Figure 10: Three Scenarios of Transformation

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2.3 Key Spatial Strategies

The three scenarios of transformation deploy three spatial strategies of weave, limit lines and voids (refer Figure 11) in different scales and dynamic vocations to optimize their ecological performance with respect to the typological experiments. These strategies together enhance the land value and enable regenerative urban synergies.

Figure 11(Left,Right,Below): Weave, Limits, Assembly of Voids

A. Weave Vs Grid

B. Limit Lines

C. Voids as “Reservoirs”

A morphological approach to interweave live-work-play with the identified eco-productive areas. A weave allows a greater functional reasoning and interaction of ecosystems with the community, in terms of sharing benefits and managerial responsibilities. A rather integrated macro-mobility network or complex institutional arrangements also form a different kind of weave to deliver multilayered urban area.

A scheme of Black, Blue, Green and Red lines suggests the limits of sustainable development in a rather spatial sense. Wherein, Black suggest the energy distribution, Blue refers to water systems, Green refers to a diverse portfolio of green spaces, Red denotes fixed and flexible lines of construction. These envisioned limit lines are based on environmental and financial viabilities to deliver a robust development model.

The existence of the large natural voids in our peri-urban areas is seen as “reservoirs” of energy and value, both environmental and financial. They are situated assets in the form of geographical location to harness renewable energy, to capture both carbon emissions and land value. A holistic approach is required to safeguard and optimize the role of the voids where the landscape has the potential to deliver more than just cycling paths. The proposal of Melun Senart3 by OMA advocates the prime importance of conserving the voids not just for aesthetic purposes but to sustainably support the future density.

Source (bottom image): Melun Senart, OMA, 1987

3. “Ville Nouvelle Melun Senart,” OMA, accessed June 7, 2019, https://oma.eu/projects/ville-nouvelle-melun-senart.

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The key question is how do we articulate across the scales and variety of these spatial strategies to respond and enhance existing networks of assets and partnerships (refer Figure 12)? How can a differentiated scheme of vocations (both static and dynamic) govern the investment and operational costs, and managerial responsibilities to enhance land value? How can these spatial strategies further inform, if or not, contributions by various actors to generate a wider mix of architectural typologies?

The understanding of the territory is essential to situate these challenges and find plausible solutions in the already existing opportunities and assets in the form of infrastructure, natural resources, political affiliations, and the neglected role of an independent development council to mobilize a transformation.

Figure 12: Design Strategies - Weave + Limits + Voids 20

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3. Understanding Territory Rail Network

Potentials and Opportunities

Motorways and Road Rapid Bus-Network

The three scenarios of transformation and the mentioned spatial strategies were devised through an iterative process of understanding the territory of Ebbsfleet in terms of its potentials - infrastructure, natural resources, strategic location and missed opportunities - policy frameworks, independent development council. The thorough territorial analysis hints that Ebbsfleet has all the right ingredients required to activate land value capture as a key driver to mobilize a systemic change.

3.1 Mobility Infrastructure The extent of the established mobility infrastructure allows for Ebbsfleet to perform as one of the nodes in a wider system of cities like London, Paris and Brussels. The advantageous location has rendered Ebbsfleet as an ideal and contentious site for the last 40 years by a successive series of government initiatives.

The site connects national road and rail networks, and locally, the existing Fastrack rapid bus system connects the adjacent town centers, station, Bluewater shopping mall and beyond (refer Figure 13). The Thames also offers opportunities to extend Thames Clipper services into Ebbsfleet, connecting Canary Wharf and Central London. An extension of Crossrail from Abbey Wood to Ebbsfleet, currently in the pipeline, would further support growth eastwards out of London.

EBBSFLEET STATION

A2

Figure 13: Mobility-Infrastructure

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3.2 Natural Capital GREEN BELT

Fortunately, the natural reserves have increasingly become a crucial component that structure and frame development strategies and processes around the world. The understanding of ‘Blue and Green’ areas as a national capital leads to key spatial challenges of integrating and sustainably capitalizing on them based on their unique characteristics.

‘Green’ Portfolio

‘Blue’ Portfolio

The site has a diverse ‘green” portfolio, as shown in Figure 14, which can perform as operative landscapes to generate energy, reduce carbon emissions, support agricultural and related vocations, generate land-value more than just a “destination for leisure in Kent”. Additionally, biodiversity conservation becomes an increasingly important index in deciding the vocation of development surrounding such critical areas. All of which add to the health and wellbeing quotient offered by the site. It is not accidental that the site was the subject of a design competition supported by the NHS for healthy living.4

The former decades of chalk extraction have created a basin that accommodates upto 23million Litres of water that is pumped to Thames. Additionally, river Ebbsfleet (east to the station) is essentially and urban stream which intersects the green corridors.

OPEN-GREENS FOREST

WATER CATCHMENTS MARSHLAND

The challenge is to frame the development as these natural resources to be the guiding pivot to create limitlines of sustainable development while enhancing renewable utilities to maintain a balance in urban metabolism model, which in turn will help to leverage land value capture.

Figure 14: Natural Resources - Variety and Scale 4. “NHS England » Ebbsfleet,” accessed June 5, 2019, https://www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/innovation/healthy-new-towns/ebbsfleet/.

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3.3 Policy Frameworks

There is a shift in the understanding of framing policies with the change in generational challenges, the recent policies understand the importance of ‘distinctiveness’ as opposed to previous ones with housing targets as the only criteria. Another key feature of contemporary policies is how to retain and promote smaller and creative industries to accommodate employment demands. What role and scope are for architecture to support and enhance distinctiveness within a systemic agenda for growth? What would the “redlines’ of growth be? What is and isn’t negotiable and how can architectural imaginaries help inform this discussion?

Thames Estuary Growth 2050

Thames Estuary Production Corridor

In a more recent revision of the Thames Gateway initiate named the Thames Estuary Growth Vision5 , Ebbsfleet becomes a crucial component in the regions vision of economic growth for 2050 when the Thames Estuary will be a tapestry of productive and connective places along a global river, which will retain their own distinct character and economic function. The Estuary is expected create 1.3 million new jobs and generate £190 billion additional GVA. At least 1 million new homes need to be delivered to support this growth (Figure 15).

The Thames Estuary is envisioned to become the epicenter of the government’s new ‘Industrial Strategy’ 6 based on enhancing existing connections between localized clusters of knowledge and creativity. The strategy further suggests the vast potential in existing riverfront industrial areas to also generate conditions for living and learning.

What lacks is a unified vision of how to govern, deliver and design spaces where the overlap of employment and living happens in the current times where the edge between live-work-play is almost transparent.

6. Medical Campus, Ebbsfleet

The report fails to address the ecological threats and challenges along with industrial growth. What are the crucial parameters to regulate the industrial demands and how can non-industrial vocations leverage a systemic balance in growth? Source: Thames Estuary 2050 Growth Commission

Figure 15: Potentials across Policies

5. Sir John Armitt et al., “Thames Estuary 2050 Growth Commission,” n.d., 36. 6. “Tepc_vision_2017.Pdf,” accessed June 5, 2019, https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/tepc_vision_2017.pdf.

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Ebbsfleet Garden City

Ebbsfleet Development Corporation is an independent institution which aims to deliver 15,000 homes and over 25,000 jobs in Ebbsfleet under the theme of “Garden City of 21st century”. However, the title does little justice to Ebenezer Howard’s proposal which was fundamentally based on the governance power of the ‘development council’ to enable development by capturing on the uplift in land value. Moreover, the principles of garden city suggest partnership arrangements and investments that offer financial returns and long-lasting beneficial legacy to a wider community. These ideals formed

a resilient and community-driven framework that would steer the ‘placemaking’ values of affordability and diversity. “Where London meets the Garden of England, on the banks of the River Thames, Ebbsfleet exploits its strategic location to continue the tradition of great placemaking in the UK; combining the best of urban and rural living and building on the ethos and pioneering spirit of Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian planned communities to deliver a new benchmark for 21st century development..” (refer figure 16)

The resultant product of this vision and the speculative market-driven approach is ‘low-density’ semi-detached dwellings which fails to mobilize a systemic approach of dynamic values.

Source: https://ebbsfleetdc.org.uk/

Figure 16: Ebbsfleet today- Past into Present Source: https://ebbsfleetdc.org.uk/

7. “Ebbsfleet-Summary-Framework.Pdf,” accessed June 5, 2019, https://ebbsfleetdc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ebbsfleet-Summary-Framework.pdf.

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The group aims to apply the principles of a systems’ approach through analyzing, revising and utilizing morphological arrangements of natural resources and political frameworks. Land value capture is a key driver of change to mobilize this systemic model to create conditions for a regenerative model of urbanism. The following three scenarios address different scales of these arrangements to deliver a multi-layered urban character which transforms the entire territory and establishes longer-lasting legacies of social, financial and environmental benefits.

Figure 17: Ebbsfleet Regenerative Potentials

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PART B

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Scenarios of Transformation

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1. Ecology as Value Shifter Arunima Gupta Junyuan Zheng Sou Un Teng Tianyi Shen With alarming rate of climate change and ecological disbalance the need of the hour today is to achieve a low carbon lifestyle, or as Kate Raworth’s model suggests - live within the doughnut of social and ecological boundaries. This exercise questions the current market driven growth model, experimenting with alternate delivery models and financing systems that give the opportunity of incorporating a cradleto-cradle approach. It aims to achieve an ecologically driven growth and a circular economy using alternate delivery methods tested with three architectural experiments on new ways of living, education and food production.

A peripheral brownfield area is used to ground the experiment due to the availability of land and the abundance of natural resources for construction, energy generation and carbon capture. The strip chosen by this group cuts across parcels of land where developers do not want to build currently, but which has lots of carbon capture and production potential being located within marshy land, adjacent to steep cliffs and areas prone to flooding by a rising water table. Our scenario tests whether we can generate value by harnessing the potential of the natural capital (and systems) of the site and linking these to our models of delivery and land value capture.

Figure 1.1: Scenario 1 34

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Site Photo

Figure 1.3 Lake

Figure 1.4 Blue Water

Figure 1.2 Site’s Bird View

Figure 1.5 Housing

Figure 1.6 Situating The Strip 36

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Drivers and Disruptors

driver and distruptors

The chosen strip intersects an abundance of natural geographic resources as well as built infrastructure which may drive the strategy for the area. These existing characteristics of given region are the ‘causes’ that drive or disrupt development in this area. These causes form an integral part of reasoning of the strategy and are as follows: · Low- lying land that is surrounded by cliffs on three sides puts this region in low priority hence offering a lower value land · The Blue Water Shopping Centre that is a major economic and tourist center of this region is within walking distance and is well connected by future rapid transport networks.

What delivery model and governance could realise such development where:

· Lake and Marshland have a high carbon capture potential and could become a part of the water management system for surrounding areas of development

structure

Systems for energy generation, urban agriculture and water &waste management act as drivers of change? The systems and architecture create a circular economy or cradle-to-cradle process?

· Adjacency to green belt gives potential for forestry to provide Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) products for the construction industry. Also, existing farmlands could be a local source (low carbon) of food.

Value can be captured and regenerated from land as well as by carbon capture?

· Adjacency to infrastructure such as A2 highway and connection with National Railways

Figure 1.7 Drivers and Disruptors 38

Mark Peterson, “Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things,” Journal of Macromarketing, 2004,

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Strategy - value capture and circular economy Inspired by the classic 5% philanthropy model proposed by Howard, our scenario aims to achieve a regenerative circular economy through values of land and carbon capture. Rescuing land value capture from Howard Ebenezer’s Garden city model the process is initially funded through partnerships among various actors and later in the process as the land value rises, the returns are reinvested into further development. A similar process is attempted as an economic model for value generation from carbon capture. As returns from land value capture increase, so does the carbon capture, reaching economies of scale and thus forming an iterative process. The natural landforms and resources within the given strip are used for carbon value generation, shown by the green and blue lines in the drawing. The aim is to turn these natural features into productive landscapes for water management, energy generation and food production, not just green areas for place-making as proposed in the current masterplan promoted by the EDC. The lower value land, array of existing quarry streets, proposed fast track and proximity to Bluewater, greenbelt, A2 National Highway and the cross rail provides immense potential development value to the site, with opportunities of inviting multiple actors to invest. The possible unique partnerships and projects set up the cycle of land value capture. 40

void - green water system

Figure 1.8 Delivery Model

“Low2no @ Helsinkidesignlab.Org,” n.d. http://helsinkidesignlab.org/dossiers/low2no.

Figure 1.9 Void and Water System

Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-Morrow, Garden Cities of To-Morrow, 2013,

Figure 1.9.2 Formation of Plots

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Carbon value capture Responding to the UK’s climate change concerns and the new carbon capture goal for 2030, all new developments must invest towards decarbonizing. Decarbonizing in our understanding includes both the reduction of carbon emission and regeneration of resources such as water, food, energy, timber etc.

a more efficient public transport system to reduce car use.

form a sustainable and more connected community.

2. Generation of resource is a way to neutralize carbon emission. By off-site wind farm, bio-gas system and some in-site solar panel, we can start to see a self-sustainable community. Also, forestry which located in green belt 1. Limit Carbon emission which means can support CLT industry and capture reduce the use of traditional energy, reuse carbon. Moreover, the urban farming or recycle our waste and water. Establish in site can provide food for residents to

We questioned if the systems for carbon capture could generate a value such that they attract investment and if such systems could govern the design. The argument for such development is supported by two case studies: Energy Weave Izaskun Chinchilla, Europan, 2014 (detailed previously) and Low2No by Helsinki design lab.

Water System

Energy system

Green System

Management and reuse of water is an important factor to be considered in such flood prone areas of land recovering from quarrying activity. The region’s geography is an advantage in this case. Large water bodies and marsh land themselves act as water filter and storage. Hence, not needing huge infrastructure investment other than at source grey water filtration and treatment protecting the quality of water entering the system. Additionally, chalk cliffs are good at water retention, providing potable water from groundwater pits.

We aim to harness electrical energy from sources like solar energy, biogas and wind. The site has an existing landfill area where installation of biogas plant can meet heating and cooling needs partially and forms a regenerative loop with the waste system.

The NHS’s Healthy New Towns Program aims at in-situ growth of food. The existence of biodiversity rich land and adjacency to the green belt gives the perfect opportunity to achieve this goal. Growing food locally not only reduces cost, prolongs consumption time and cuts carbon emission due to transportation, but also could tap into the economy of the region.

The vast riverfront marsh land and the undevelopable green belt provide a perfect opportunity to install wind turbines, away from the developed areas. Full demand of Ebbsfleet can be met with onshore farms on the marshlands and extra generation capacity at off-site windfarms in the farmlands can provide an alternate source of income. Thus, the project is not only 100% reliable on clean energy but also provides the surplus to national grid and hence to surrounding developments.

Lately, there has been a boom in the use of cross laminated timber (CLT) in the construction industry. CLT has an advantage of cost, strength and is a locally produced sustainable material for construction. The bean triangle (parcel of land between the site and greenbelt) along he A2 highway already had some timber wholesalers. This industry could further be taped into.

Low2No Helsinki Design Lab

Figure 1.10 Off-site Investment

source:http://helsinkidesignlab.org/dossiers/low2no.html

42 “Low2no @ Helsinkidesignlab.Org,” n.d. http://helsinkidesignlab.org/dossiers/low2no.html.

Low2No is a construction project that aims to achieve balance economy, ecology and society through strategic investments and interventions; and catalyze the long-term market transformation away from energy and material intensive urbanism. One example of such strategy was to work with the authorities to make multi-story timber construction legal in Finland, providing future projects with

the possibility to use low carbon building materials, whilst opening a new market to the Finnish forest industry. Another example achieves carbon mitigation via investments in renewable energy organized at the district scale. A common investment fund invests in off-site wind power which is sold off to national grid and the returns are invested in development of this project.

Figure 1.11 Water System

Figure 1.12 Energy System “NHS England  Ebbsfleet.” Accessed June 4, 2019. https://www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/innovation/

Figure 1.13 Green System 43


Figure 1.14 Regen Village Eco System source:http://www.regenvillages.com

The Regenerative Loop of Systems

Comparison with the current EDC

Site Area: 36 Ha

Power (estm cost 75million): All the power demand is comprehensively severed by the United Kingdom Power networks under Northfleet supply area. There is currently no consideration of planning for on-site renewable or Combined Heat Power system.

Density: 60 DPH F.A.R: 2.50 Avg Population: 6,500 aprox. The three systems- energy, water and green, together with the special design form a closed system of circular economy. The product of one cycle feeds as the source for the other. This idea emerges from the cradle to cradle concept. Similar looping of systems was studied in Regen Villages design for Almere, which claims to be a completely self-sustained development inhabiting 100 residents. The systems of water, food, electricity and waste revolve around the architecture of the dwelling.

Potable Water (reservoir cost: 34million): Operated by Thames Water to west and southern Water. Thames water have qualified the deficit in supply with respect to the demand. Boreholes and reservoirs have been identified as additional sources but not yet invested into.

Water. The proposal is to use 3 operating sewage treatment plants. The problem is that these are large infrastructure projects that take much investment and time for planning and construction. Alternated like filtering through landscaped areas and grey-water systems have not been considered.

The systems our model proposes are not only low cost and easily scalable, they are also low waste and regenerative. This means in long run they create savings for the end-users. These systems also have a high employment and economic Sewage and waste water (cost 100 potential, hence are drivers to upliftment million): All waste water systems are of value of the urban area. operated and owned by the Southern Figure 1.15 Circular Ecological System

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“RegenVillages.� Accessed February 21, 2019. http://www.regenvillages.com/.

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Partnership Model

educa�onal driver

food hub collabora�on g

value upli� in

ss

blue water

fo o d

p ro

ce

water filtra�on

rate retu gene rn

insert eco-system

substa�on develop housing units

forestry

State GLA

d Hub oo

Kent Power Company

Non-Market Driven

CLT

Government Ins�tu�on

Dar�ord Gravesend

PPP

Market Driven Private Company - developer - Industry - Business

EDC

As seen in the diagram above, all projects intend to invite three to four organisations to for a partnership. The Ebbsfleet Development Corporation (EDC) being the common among all four, acting as the negotiator, governing body for Ebbsfleet and ensuring a holistic sustainable development.

CLT

oo

d

wetland

unity mm Co n �o

Eco-driven hb o residen�al neig

rh

Local Government

Figure 1.17 Participation of Private and Public Actors

try us

46

foo d

nergy system a nd ite e ffs C L T to Ind es inv

These four experiments not only inform the architecture but also act as pilot projects establishing three key infrastructural and civic requirements – electrical substation, food facility, water treatment and school. Such mixed-use civic infrastructure uplifts the value of the land in surrounding area.

farming

ducing pro

Named from North to south, parcel A, along the lake is proposed to experiment with the changing educational environments and research facilities. Parcel B along the ridge and near the fast track stop to Bluewater is proposed food hub with facilities of food production, processing, dining facilities and training centre. Parcel C adjacent to the site access through existing service road is chosen for electrical substation. This experiment questions the architecture of substations. Also, this low value plot is used to experiment with eco-living delivered by partnership between local government, power company and a community land trust. Parcel D being the lowest point on the site houses the waste water treatment facility along with other uses.

The actors in participating in the delivery of the projects include both governmental organisations as well as private investors. As the graph shows the governmental actors vary from National to location, even community organisations, while the private players maybe market driven companies or nonmarket driven organisations. The three projects experimented with cut across all the quadrants of participants.

Na�onal

F

This region is landlocked by ten to twenty meter high ridges and a large lake formed due to quarrying activity. Given geographical constraints make it a lower value land, The strategy to attract development in this area is to utilise the existing road network abandoned by the quarry, the proposed fast track connection between Bluewater and Ebbsfleet International Station and abundance of natural resources. Four distributed parcels of land are selected to experiment with architecture and different delivery models.

Ed uc a

Land Value Capture

off-site windmill farm

Figure 1.16 Value Upliftment Strategy

Figure 1.18 Partnership Model of Four Nodes 47


Following Experiments

Spatial Strategy The linear site is divided into three zones – north, central and south, divided by functional voids. Anticipating it as car-free area development may be valued more along the fast track belt calling for more mixed use, commercial development, while the four experiments uplift the value in the north and south zones forming a more intricate fabric of smaller projects. This gives us an organically evolved mix of fine and coarse grain fabric.

Experiment A: Food Hub

A

hectare : 1.53 Function: 26% agricultural production, 34% food processing, dinning and retail, 28% food institution, 22% other. Food supply: 30% consumption of residents, 199.1 tonnes/year Figure 1.21

The voids and infrastructure are arranged in a grid serving parcels of 1,5 Ha average area. While the mobility infrastructure, consists a central fast track road, one longitudinal bus lane and a peripheral service road.

B Experiment B: Education Neighbourhood

The model does not want to divide urban area into plots and streets, rather nurture a more flexible, organic fabric. MVRDV’s Oosterwold proposes a Freeland at Almere where one may build whatever they want as long as they use the land for fixed proportion of construction (18%), roads (8%), pubic green (13%), water (2%) and agriculture (59%). It attempts at making a masterplan collectively such that facilities are developed by individuals, collectives and public organizations over time. The absence of zoning allows for rich and exciting program, providing diversity and liveliness always.

Deminsion: 164M *155M Hectare : 2.54 Student Capacity:720

C Figure 1.22 Figure 1.20 Situating Three Experiments

Experiment C: Eco-driven neighbourhood Deminsion: 130M *160M Hectare : 2.08 Dwelling : 160 Desnity :80 dph Figure 1.23

Figure 1.19 Spatial Strategy 48

“MVRDV - Almere Oosterwold,” accessed February 10, 2019, https://www.mvrdv.nl/projects/32/almere-oosterwold.

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A

Basic information of site: Total Area: 18,367 sqm Site Description: The site of education space experiment is on the north-east of the whole territory. One side of it is the wet land and lake while the other one is the void for water system. The rich natural resources shall be taken into consideration for later design.Moreover, one contour line cut through the site forms the level difference.

Education Neighborhood

Figure 1.24 Partnership Model of Education

such that, educational facilities are no longer mono-functional spaces, but comprise a diversified community combined with living, creation and learning. Moreover, in terms of Healthy New Towns Programme, plans include homes with virtual access to GP services, safe green spaces to play and fast-food-free zones around schools are being promoted.

74.2m

164m

Education, as one of the most fundamental elements in neighbourhoods, should work as a driver of transformation. Currently the EDC masterplan shows, education space is treated as a closed and totally secured area. Could educational facilities open themselves up to serve as community space ? Could this become a more extrovert arrangement, promote synergies and exchanges with a wider set of partners and stakeholders and trigger the transformation of the wider area? The delivery model and the partnership model may involve local government, an education trust and research institutions

The relationship between education building and nearby community is considered carefully through the design process, both spatially and programmatically. Figure 1.25 Analysis of Site Context

50

NHS England » Ebbsfleet.” Accessed June 4, 2019. https://www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/innovation/healthy-new-towns/ebbsfleet/.

155m

Figure 1.26 Site in Big Map

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Figure 1.27 Waldschule

Figure 1.28 Shichigahama Junior High School

Figure School

1.29

Fangshan

No.4

Junior

When questioning for an open design for a school in a mixed-use development, one has to give special attention to circulatory logic and security of the students. Some cases of such open schools have been studied in this experiment section.

Figure 1.30 Forest Activity

Figure 1.31 Open School

Case 1: Waldschule This school is not only built for education, but also to meet the requirement of health issue at that time. The designer chose a forest as site to provide an open, fresh air learning environment for children who has tuberculosis. Children could have their meal and activities in the forest, meanwhile the main classroom areas are put on a plinth which also worked as a security boundary for school. Learning from the character of this school, education building in Ebbsfleet will served as a community land trust and infrastructure to serve the whole community. Figure 1.32 Plan

Source: http://www.architectureofearlychildhood. com/2011/05/open-air-schools-in-europe.html.

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Kayse, J. (2011). Architecture of Early Childhood. Open-air schools in Europe. Available at: http://www.architectureofearlychildhood.com/2011/05/open-air-schools-in-europe.html. (Accessed on 22.04.2019)

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Figure 1.34 Spatial Diagram

Figure 1.35 Courtyard

Figure 1.36 Plan

Figure 1.37 Corridor

Case 2: Shichigahama Junior High School

Case 3: Fangshan No.4 Junior School

Shichigahama Junior High School contains the idea of one exterior corridor linking all the spaces. With these exterior corridors, they create a blurred boundary between interior and exterior. Moreover, some interior courtyards with different sizes also serve as activity space for students. The inner courtyard is quiet and peaceful, while the exterior playground is full of energy and lively. The comparison between interior courtyard and exterior area is intriguing.

The school holds the idea of open school, which enable students close to the open playground. The form of this school is ‘branch-like’. One main corridor links other linear space together, which serves as a main circulation space. Moreover, this corridor also works as a internal playground. Activities, like climbing, happen along it. With the exsiting of this corridor, the whole circulation inside is clear and under order.

Figure 1.33 Isometric of Shichigahama Junior High School Source: http://www.inuiuni.com/projects/2157/

54 七ヶ浜町立七ヶ浜中学校 | Inui Architects.” Accessed June 10, 2019. http://www.inuiuni.com/projects/2157/.

Figure 1.38 Leisure Area in School

Source:https://www.archdaily.com/555746/beijing-no-4-high-school-fangshan-campusopen-architecture

Beijing No.4 High School Fangshan Campus / OPEN Architecture. https://www.archdaily.com/555746/beijing-no-4-high-school-fangshan-campus-open-architecture.

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28m

116m

28m

Transition of Form

116m

40m

170m

170m

40m 44m

44m 33m

28m

33m

Figure 1.39 28m Shichigahama Junior High School Floor Area: 4,703.39 sqm

Precedent to Project Plan for the project will be learnt from these two types of circulation. An exterior corridor and one main corridor could be applied into the plan on site. Moreover, linkage between interior and exterior would be weak through dealing with the architecture boundary.

Figure 1.42 School area will be the foundation of the whole community.

Figure 1.40 Fangshan No.4 Junior School Area: 57,773 sqm

Figure 1.43 Stagger the form to create the urban pocket for surrounding neighborhood and enhance the relationship between students and wet land.

Figure 1.44 Step back the ground floor to create blurred boundary, for a better interaction between exterior and interior.

Plan Diagram Under the idea of innovative delivery and partnership model, the school building will be a shared secondary school, part of which is shared with the community. The transformation between these two areas is treated carefully through the design of circulation – ‘the weave”. The design of circulation helps weaving the partnership inside the space, as well as, providing necessary separation between students/staff and out comers. In addition, blurred boundary helps to integrate interior and rich nature resource.

Figure 1.45 Creating the internal courtyard for students and staff, which would have a contrasting atmosphere compared with the exterior. The inner one will be more peaceful and quiet, while the exterior playground will be more active and open to the nature.

Figure 1.46 Residential units will be directly adapted on the top of the podium. The internal space between residential and education will be used as a vertically extended urban space, e.g. meeting rooms, NHS center, sports facilities and so on.

Figure 1.47 Two types of vertical circulation work in this area. One for residents only and the other is for school use. These two types of cores keep the oder of different layers.

Figure 1.41 Diagram of Plan 56

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Partnership Diagram

Zoning and Circulation Diagram

Partnership in spatial arrangement

This area involves four types of partnership as mentioned. The lowest part will be only served for schools, while ground level will be shared with different institutions and community. The upper levels will only be used for living.

Main zoning areas for students are the ground floor and the lower-ground floor. Part of the ground floor will be the secured sharing space with community. In addition, urban activity area for communities will be extended onto the upper podium. Main residential units will be the vertical upper floors. The circulation between different users are weaving in the plot, meanwhile, for some points, they are totally separated.

The section shows the scale of different spaces with the idea of multiple partnership involved in this area. The spaces for sharing tend to be the open plate to accommodate different types of activities and events for both community and school. While the school only space will be more regular and smaller space for classroom, offices and other basic facilities. The rest is about the space for housing development.

community residents school Figure 1.48 Zoning and Circulation Diagram

different institutions and NHS housing developer school EDC Figure 1.49 Partnership Diagram

Figure 1.50 Partnership-oriented Spatial Variation 58

The partnership diagram and zoning and circulation diagram are based on this section, illustrating the partnership model on site. This section illustrates the partnership model on site and how it influence the whole spatial arrangement. 59


B Food Hub

Nonmarket Driven

Local Government

Figure 1.51 Partnership Model

60

With innovative partnership and delivery models, the food complex could serve as an experimental hub for the whole farming system and drive the low-carbon development of the strip. Four kinds of farming provide 30% of food that local residents need. After harvested in distributed nearby urban farms, fresh crops and vegetables are transported to the hub. The food hub provides

The spatial design of the food hub evolved from three cases, Food Port by OMA, vertical farming hybrid by SPARK, Singapore and vertical farm by Ilimelgo; it responds to local conditions in terms of land value, terrain and surroundings. The morphology fulfils different needs of functions in the complex and accommodates separated circulations for different people and activities.

m

Farming Company

spaces and core services for most of processes, incorporating hydroponic greenhouse, food processing factory, food hall and market. After processing, fresh food is delivered form the food bub to the local residents and faming waste could be disposed in a biogas station in Ebbsfleet. In this way, the food hub supports a low carbon lifestyle and contributes to the ecologic system.

150

EDC

Food Processing Industry Market Driven Private Inventor

Based on local potentials, the local organic food supply system intends to realize a closed loop circular economy and contribute to value capture. the market-driven system associates with diverse corporate and social partners, such as Bulewater shopping centre, Riverford, Agri-tech East, Agri-Tech, Incredible Edible, etc. to achieve the sustainable development.

190m

State

Figure 1.53 Location Plan m

130

Site area: 1.53 ha Intended Functions: agricultural production, food processing, food market, others. Challenges: low land value, adjacent to cliff, multifunction

Figure 1.52 Location Plan

61


Agricultural Production & Gardening Education: Based on different terrain, land use and density in different space, four types of food production could be implemented to take full advantage of spaces, including green belt farming, communal allotment

farming, hydroponic greenhouse and agricultural terrace. The aim is to provide 30% of food that 6500 residentials need (fruits + cereals +vegetables+herbs, 104kg/capita/year). Collaborating with

other organizations, such as Agri-tech, schools and Incredible Edible, the farming complex provide residents and student chances to participate in experimental farming and develop a sense of community.

biodiversity rich marshland, river, green belt

In-site Food Production

voids for community farming as neighbour

Hydroponic Greenhouse High-tech agriculture in food hub, open space by Agri-tech organic seasonal food

Communal Farming education, community activities by resident association in voids, communal garden

surface area: 5.4ha (18 blocks) yield: 38.9 tonnes/year

surface area: 4.2ha yield: 16.6 tonnes/year

Figure 1.55

Figure 1.56

inhibited land for terrrace farming

potential partnership with local agri-tech produces Figure 1.54 Potential of urban farming in Ebbsfleet 62

Green Belt Farming soil-based farm on green belt by local farmers

Terrace Farming soil-based linear farming on cliff, hillside by Agri-tech

surface area: 26 ha yield: 128.7 tonnes/ year

surface area: 3.8ha yield: 14.8 tonnes/year

Figure 1.57 “RegenVillages.� Accessed February 21, 2019. http://www.regenvillages.com/.

Figure 1.58 63


Case Study ReGen Villages is a new visionary model for the development of off-grid, integrated and resilient eco-villages that can power and feed self-reliant families around the world. The concept has a holistic approach and combines a variety of innovative technologies, such as energy positive homes, renewable energy, energy storage, door-step high-yield organic food

Business model and potential partnership production, vertical farming aquaponics/ aeroponics, water management and waste-to-resource systems. The village would comprise a series of buildings with attached greenhouses, creating spaces where families can grow fruit and vegetables, farm aquaponics or recycle waste products. There would

be closed-loop organic food and waste systems. Residents become part of a shared local eco-system, so different families can take on different roles in the community. As well as fostering a sense of camaraderie, this also helps to lift burdens on struggling municipal governments

Technology support Agri-Tech East Agri-Tech East is the UK is leading membership organisation for agri-tech. The institutionAgri-Tech East is supporting the growth of a world-leading network of innovative farmers, food producers & processors, scientists, technologists and entrepreneurs with a shared vision of improving the productivity, profitability and sustainability of agriculture.

Figure 1.61 High-tech Farming

Source: https://www.agritech-east.co.uk/.

Regen Village

Community benefit society

Residential, Agricultural Location: Almere, The Netherlands Year: 2016 Size: 15.500 m2

Edible City is a community benefit society for those passionate redients working together for a world where all share responsibility for the future wellbeing of our planet and ourselves. The organization aims to provide access to good local food for all, through, working together, learning – from cradle to grave, supporting local business Figure 1.62 Communal Farming

Source: https://www.incredible-edible-todmorden.co.uk/projects

Trade platform and door-to-door delivery Riverford Riverford offers all sorts of veg, fruit, grass fed organic meat and more, fresh from local farm, delivered free to residents’ door. Everything it grow and sell is organic. Riverford can work with the Co-operative Group, trading as the Co-op, which is a British consumer co-operative with a diverse family of retail businesses provide a series food-related services. Figure 1.59

Source: http://www.regenvillages.com/.

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Figure 1.60

Source: http://www.regenvillages.com/.

“RegenVillages.” Accessed February 21, 2019. http://www.regenvillages.com/.

Figure 1.63 Online Business and 24hr Delivery

Source: https://lp.riverford.co.uk/welcome-june?utm_expid=.WIGnO4cKQI-

“Agri-Tech East - Agri-Tech East.” Accessed June 1, 2019. https://www.agritech-east.co.uk/. “Incredible Edible Todmorden | What We Do.” Accessed May 25, 2019. https://www.incredible-edible-todmorden.co.uk/projects “Riverford Organic Veg Boxes.” Accessed June 10, 2019. https://lp.riverford.co.uk/welcome-june?utm_expid=.WIGnO4cKQI-q1ZJeK1IDUQ.1&utm_referrer=.

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Food system

With innovate partnership and delivery models, the food system incorporates farming sub-systems, including insite agricultural production, farming management, farming processing and retail & delivery to form an ecological circular food chain. The system aims to not only promote residents’ low carbon lifestyle, but also capture land and carbon value.   As the hub of the whole system, the experimental farming complex provides spaces and core services for most of processes. Related institutions and offices build their cooperation and business in the food hub achieve this market-driven food chain. After harvest in distributed nearby urban farms, fresh crops and vegetables are transported to the hub, which provide professional pre-processing, processing, packing, storage. The products could be cooked in communal kitchen, delivered to residents and sold to wholesalers. With this sustainable model, food play an important role in local industry, lifestyle, and eco-system; agricultural producers, local residents, farming company gain what they want.

Figure 1.64 Food System 66

Figure 1.65 Food Chain and Partnership 67


Food Port by OMA, West Louisville Farming, processing, distribution, community kitchen, recycling, etc. Land area: 9.7ha

Vertical Farming Hybrid by SPARK, Singapore Residential, farming, processing, commercial, etc Land area: 4.5ha

Vertical farm by Ilimelgo, Paris Education, hydroponic farming Land area: 2000 m²

Figure 1.67 Analysis of Vertical Farming Hybrid

Figure 1.68 Analysis of Vertical Farm

Case Study The morphology and typology of the three cases responds to the requirement of complicated circulation of public activities and food production within the project; different functional circulations are separated vertically and horizontally. Liner spaces are intended to accommodate all steps of food processing while large spaces are used for storage, distribution, dinning and market. To accommodate complete functions in farming complexes, vertical agriculture could be implemented in independent greenhouses or on facade of residential buildings above podiums. 68

Figure 1.66 Analysis of Food Port

Figure 1.69

Source: https://oma.eu/projects/west-louisville-food-port.

“West Louisville Food Port.” Accessed March 10, 2019. https://oma.eu/projects/west-louisville-food-port.

Figure 1.70 Source: https://www.archdaily.com/

Figure 1.71

Source: https://urbanverticalfarmingproject.com/

“The Urban Vertical Farming Project | Urban Vertical Farming.” Accessed June 4, 2019. https://urbanverticalfarmingproject. “Vertical Farming Hybrid by SPARK”. Accessed June 5, 2019. https://www.archdaily.com/

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Condition

voids

circulation

Figure 1.73 From In-site Production to Dinning and Distribution Figure 1.72 Set Diagram of Design Logic

Spatial Logic

Circulation The spatial proposal extracted spatial characteristics of morphology and circulation from three cases to fulfil the requirement of diverse functions. The chain of food determines the circulation and morphology of spatial configuration. Responding to the surrounding of the site, industrial sector is situated next to the service and public space is adjunct to the main road. By developing a hierarchy of space from the open to the private, the morphology creates an opening atmosphere as well 70

as secure staff and residents’ and exclusive space. Individually serving for institutions, food processing and dinning, the three podiums are spatially separated but connected in terms of activities and circulation in order to optimize efficiency but avoid negative influences on one another. Site area: 1.53 ha ntended Function: 26% agricultural production, 34% food processing, dinning and retail, 28% food institution, 22% other.

Figure 1.74 Circulation for Multi-function 71


C Basic information of site: The site of this experiment locates at the west-south corner of the territory. The cliff around the south and west side block out the circulation and connection of that direction while the main mobility route relies on the primary road which punches through the site. The inaccessibility of

Eco-Driven Residential Neighbourhood

This model takes inspiration from Fintry Development Trust, a community-private energy partnership that local residents Figure 1.76 Fintry Development Trust Source:http://fintrydt.org.uk/.

, local business, newcomers and developers team up together. The group invested in energy infrastructure -- wind farm in Fintry Hill and use the income form the energy sales to finance local upgrading project. Taking the idea of the community-private partnership of Fintry Development Trust , a new collaborate delivery model that is being introduced into the project. Instead of market-driven development for vast areas by big developers, smaller development units and residents , together with innovative energy and utlility providers are now taking responsibilities of the provision, maintenance and further investments of the community.

220 m

155 m

Figure 1.75 Partnership Model

The traditional understanding of the peripheral neighbourhood is always low-rise detached or semi-detached housings with individual gardens. This is also shown in Ebbsfleet’s’ original proposal which has shared green and parks but  are neither productive nor support a range of social interactions. To shift this understanding of peripheral neighborhood,one experiment here is to seek out the potential transformation generated by new partnership models that link energy companies with residential units and in so doing start to generate both ecological and social value.

the site lower the land cost and have the potential to provide a pedestrian-friendly environment. Moreover, as it situated between the farming cliff (base on the previous proposal) and linear wetland, the residential neighbourhood could make use and benefit from this productive green.

Experiment C: Eco-driven neighbourhood Deminsion: 130M *160M Hectare : 2.08 Dwelling : 160 Desnity :80 dph

ETL

Figure 1.77 Location Reading

Figure 1.78 ETL

72

“Fintry Development Trust – Doing Good Stuff in Fintry.” Accessed May 20, 2019. http://fintrydt.org.uk/.

73


Figure 1.78 source:https://www.google.com/maps

deminsion: 100M*130M hectare : 1.3 dwelling : 60 desnity : 46 dph

Figure 1.80 Existing Condition of Ebbsfleet

Existing condition of Ebbsfleet

Figure 1.79 Existing Condition of Ebbsfleet source:https://www.google.com/maps

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Current Ebbsfleet, like many other peripheral development , is marketdriven and mobility-driven. To ensure the best effiencyCurrent Ebbsfleet, like many other peripheral developments, is market-driven and mobility-driven. Plots are shaped by mobility route to ensure the best efficiency of transportation. Houses

and garages are placed at the edge of the plot to make sure that everyone can drive from home. The individual gardens are as empty as the big, open green park. The low utility rate and low density are doing no favour for the activeness of the neighbourhood.

Figure 1.81 Zwicky Sud, Zurich , Switzerland

Figure 1.82 New urban substation, Finland

Source:https://www.swiss-architects.com/de/schneider-studerprimas-zurich/project/zwicky-sud?nonav=1.

Source: https://new.abb.com/substations/references-selector/newurban-substation-lauttasaari-finland.

Case Study 1

Case Study 2

This residential project from Switzerland shows the potential housing morphology of the peripheral area. By creating clustered pocket spaces and open up the ground floor, retail and meeting space are introduced into the site in which create a more active neighbourhood. The form is also supporting a car-free environment that circulation can be organised in a more organic and spontaneous.

This new urban substation in Lauttasaari, Finland shows that there is a possibility that energy infrastructures can be integrated into residential neighbourhoods. This low-loss, quiet and energy-efficient substation shifted the traditional understanding of an energy substation. we can see this transformation of this structure as an opportunity to collaborate energy company and the local community.

“New Urban Substation, Lauttasaari, Finland - References Selector | ABB.” Accessed March 15, 2019. https://new.abb.com/substations/references-selector/new-urban-substationlauttasaari-finland. “Zwicky Sud” Accessed June 6, 2019. https://www.swiss-architects.com/de/schneider-studer-primas-zurich/project/zwicky-sud?nonav=1.

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160 m

130 m

Deminsion: 130M *160M Hectare : 2.08 Dwelling : 160 Desnity :80 dph

80 m 18 m

16 m

50 m

20m

60 m

18 m 16 m

9m

9m

20 m

43m

20 m

18 m

Figure 1.84 Scale and Dimension

Clustering Neighbourhood

Figure 1.83 Plan of Clustering Neighbourhood

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With the new understanding of management and delivery model, we may twist the morphological understanding of the peripheral residential neighbourhood. A higher density might be provided to attract more residents and support an active neighbourhood. Isolated blocks and buildings are opened up, with a more organic circulation. The voids within

and between the development units not only form the clusters and build up the hierarchy, but also reserve space for the future installation of eco-systems and social networks. This experimental design concept aims to provide a potential resolution of post-carbon collective lifestyle at both institutional and architectural scales. 77


shared pockets

formation of void

circulation in uplift platform

open ground floor

community space

mobility pattern Figure 1.85 Set Diagram Of Spatial Logic

The form of clusters is more open and interconnected while the placement of the clusters generates a diversity of pockets within the sites. The uplifted platform separates the common spaces within and between the housing unit and provides a different level of openness. The substation will integrate into the site 78

as the central point of the development, and along with the main circulation, first floors or more space of the housing units will open up to serve as community spaces (meeting space, classroom, exhibition room etc) that form a more open and collective neighbourhood.

The uplift platform reshapes the circulation in a more organic way while limited access of the platforms gives hierarchy and richness to the mobility. Figure 1.86 Illustration of Potential Scenario 79


Collective Neighbourhood Uplift platforms and clustering units shape the shared pockets and give layers of openness. The open space in housing units would support activities in smaller scale while the central common area accommodated neighbourhoodscale interaction. The open ground of

residential units and the central integrated substation together form an actively shared space and connecting different housing units. This relationship not only improves the spatial quality but also create a collective neighbourhood which different partners work and collaborate.

Figure 1.87 Collective Neighbourhood 80

81


Conclusion The scenario reveals that alternate delivery and financing systems can drive low carbon growth such that it is not just profit driven but also creates value for the community and the society. Hence, value capture is used as an enabler that attracts investment from multiple actors, also creating a process that is regenerative. The three architectural experiments helped us get multiple answers to the questions posed in the beginning. In each case, the Ebbsfleet development corporation acted as the governing and negotiating body among different stakeholders ranging from private to nonprivate and national to local. The different

stakeholders get different values to the region and having a common negotiating body ensures they all fit into a holistic system of regenerative circular economy. While, the existing resources become the tools for informing the negotiation. This model helped us realise that a carbon neutral development is possible even without any large investments into infrastructure, but only forming the right partnerships and policies. A further scaling up of such a model may call for national or regional policies and financing models to be set up in order to reach UK’s carbon emission targets.

Figure 1.88 Collective Neighbourhood 82

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2. Industrial Ecology Mohamed Yousry Zakria Nawei Huang Ziyue Ju

In order to rescue the under-estimated value of the eastern part of Ebbsfleet by following the main idea of regenerative urbanism, we propose a new development corridor of that merges local industry and local ecology to generate what we call an industrial ecology. This industrial ecology provides not only regenerative benefits to the local environment and community but also generates economic benefits and values through a carefully orchestrated symbiosis between existing resources. The strategy harnesses the potential of the Ebbsfleet River and is extended to include an integrated loop through upgrading existing mobility infrastructure and creating several nodes that act as incubators for low emission, clean industries. These two elements work together spatially and institutionally to enhance proposals of the Ebbsfleet Development Corporation (EDC) and provoke a discussion of how industry and ecology might work together to support local neighborhoods and ecosystems.

Figure2.1 Scenario2 84

85


The proposal of a mixed use industrial and housing proposed recently through Ebbs-fleet development project on east north-fleet side.

Figure2.2 Recent Ebbsfleet proposal

The street that connects the west and east loop side of our proposal which we are proposing to be a car accessible zone to form an intersection with the loop connecting Dartford and Gravesend. We are proposing to be a temporary structure and good opportunity for recreational facilities and open parks.

Figure2.3 “The Greek Road“

Recent condition of northfleet of nearly weak industrial activities on the south Thames bank based on the lime trades and some food packing factories. The conditions are inadequate for industrial activity and low street escape and planning quality.

Figure2.4 Recent condition of northfleet 86

Figure2.5 Northfleet waterfront

Figure2.6 Situating the strip 87


Figure 2.8 GLA proposal about creative industry zone source: https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/tepc_vision_2017.pdf

Potentials & Missed Values

Figure2.7 Cover of the project “Places that Work“

source: http://www.architecture00.net/ places-that-work 2.1 “Places That Work“, 00 architecture studio, http:// www.architecture00.net/places-that-work

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Ebbsfleet, located along Thames River between London and European cities as a gateway connecting them together, has great value in terms of mobility and natural resources but has not reached its full potential. Similarly, the Ebbsfleet River remains hidden and although subject to current studies that seek to re-mediate it as a piece of landscape we feel that it could do more to contribute to local industry, community and economy. Lots of works have been done at the mo-

ment to test the relation or combination between industry and housing. The project called “Places that Work”2.1 is one of the examples for a mixed use industrial neighborhood. Normally, we pay attention to the social interaction, however, not much has been written or built about how we might integrate ecology and industry. Can we build an argument that explores the potential of their co-existence? Harnesses there? What spatial form would this take?

Situating Ebbsfleet in a Larger Territory Through our understanding of the Greater London Authority (GLA) Thames Estuary Production Corridor Vision2.2 of forming such creative industrial district, new communities are rising across the region, making a sustainable, future-proofed economic plan, the Cultural Infrastructure Plan and the South East’s ‘Towards A National Prospectus for the Creative Econ-

omy’ identify future needs. The vision targets the local talented labor force of Kent, with such old industrial background the region has, the institutional plan delivered by both GLA and South East Local Enterprise Partnership (SELEP)2.3 support the delivering of an institutional frame to support the creative industry zone.

Situating Ebbsfleet in such environment, we discover that the current situation is still far from the GLA ambition. The gap between reality and proposal brings us to focus on the industrial field in order to follow and enhance the strategic potential of this history understood by GLA and Thames Estuary Vision.

2.2 Greater London Authority Thames Estuary Productio Corridor Vision, https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/tepc_vision_2017.pdf 2.3 South East Local Enterprise Partnership, https://www.southeastlep.com/

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17min To London

Existing mobility

Potential natural resource

Potential mobility elements

Proposed connections

Figure 2.10 Understanding of the existing reservoirs and voids

Figure 2.9 Situating our strategy in territorial scale

2hr To Paris

Reframing Productive Infrastructure Based on fundamental proposal of GLA, we understand Ebbsfleet in a richer environment in terms of the hierarchy of blue and green system, the hierarchy of mobility, the hierarchy of industrial area and the hierarchy of various governance. What we want to clarify here is the potentials and missed opportunities as key drivers in future development. 90

First of all, Ebbsfleet is highly connected to London and Paris through international and national railway systems, which might bring business opportunities in future. The location situated between Green belt and Thames River is quite unique which enables the possibilities to generate value from natural resources. However, different from the GLA vision,

the dispensed traditional manufacture generates low value which might be removed or demolished. Which means, a large number of locals might lose their job opportunities due to their low skills which can not reach the modern industrial requirements any more. At this stage, it would be the key task to keep or even increase the employment by and how to retain and transform the local industry.

All such situation pushes our concern about facing such problems and support the industrial productive corridor. What if ecology & industry work together to generate value through natural resources and create new lifestyle? Through the understanding of geography, what we think can be developed here is to introduce the green belt and Thames

water inside Ebbsfllet to utilize the existing resources. We start looking to them as energy streams and development corridors where we can start merging ecology and industry together and spatially extending them to the area of intervention. We created a north to south corridor accommodating institutional system, traditional new defined industries islands and ecological support systems on its

sides. Such corridor extends from north to south is surrounded by a ring road extends around the water corridor where we provide low carbon, different speeds and connective loop that ties the different program together and starts to introduce a new definition of low carbon and hightech fast track ring road accommodates new activities on its side. 91


Opportunities

Buildable Zones

Territorial Morphology Before locating the industrial zone and institution framework, the territorial morphology was studied first and our design process can be basically divided into four steps. 1. Understand the site in terms of mobility and natural resources and try to merge green belt and Thames water together by exposing the tiny hidden stream.

Territorial Morphology

2. Understand the build-able zones according to the existing development and proposals. 3. Further divide zones through geographical and hydrological study.

Geographical & Hydrological Study

Ecology, Industry and Mobility

Figure 2.11 Design through territorial morphology 92

4. Consider the relation between ecology, industry and mobility. Figure 2.12 Overall Strategy

Potential collective parking zones Existing building Built-up zone New development potential zone Water development line Municipality driven development zones Green landscape Built up zone limits New infrastructure roads New roads extension Institutionally driven potential zones Incorporate low carbon mobility stops

Eastgate Religious Organization Northfleet Cemetry Northfleet Police Station St.Joseph Primary School Hive’s Local Library Ebbsfleet Internationsl Railway Station Water Treatment Facility

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infrastructure grass wetland orchard

Figure 2.13 The ecological corridor & Industry framework 94

The ecological corridor & Industry framework

The integrated loop & Institution framework

Based on the understanding of territorial morphology and hydrology, we figured out the land for different use of green elements, such as farming for food production, wetland for water purifying and forestry for carbon capture and the key industrial zones.

Based on the study of existing road system and geometry, we defined the location of the loop and the low value land to be developed in terms of local labor training framework to enhance the local employment.

The ecological stream can help transform the traditional local industry into a new defined green industry which we proposed to help local employment and economy generation. The industrial islands are located along with the stream to build a particular environment for community life as well.

potential zones loop

Figure 2.14 The integrated loop & Institution framework

For the loop, we understand it as an integrated system more than simply strong connected road network, what we want to do is to integrate Eco-stations in terms of energy generation system and water supplement system within the road to support surrounding industry and housing as well, and help build a greener cleaner environment. 95


Restructuring Mobility System Through the unfolded loop drawing we are trying to demonstrate the possibility of a car free loop that supports industrial life and creates an manipulation between pedestrian and public mobility system supported by a clean energy bus stops associated with bikes spots within the walk-able range. The allocation of some collective parking spaces that keeps the car away from the loop and only allows the vehicular movement from east to west to connect Dartford with Gravesend. 96

Figure 2.15 Intersection of mobility system through the unfolded loop 97


1. Unqualified employment

2. Partnership could help

3. Can we invest in a Structure

4. Education is the growth

5. Invest in clean energy

6. Returns could help to grow

Figure 2.17 Partnerships

Local Farming

Land Value Capture

7. Introduce creative industries

Figure 2.16 A hint from the story-board 98

The economical and social strategies to uplift our two low-value-land that we are targeting were supposed to work together spatially and institutionally. What we argue here is to attract investment through the combination of ecology and industry and institute framework, which is mainly based on the labor circulation between

industry and training institutions. Part of the benefits generated through the circle would be contributed to Eco-corridor and loop development to create greener, cleaner living environment. After certain years of capital accumulation, the cooperation of different partners, the value of surrounding land would be higher to

Wetland Orchard Water System

Figure 2.18 Regenerative Economics & Resources 2.4 High House Production Park, http://hhpp.org.uk/

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95

m

21

m

Weave as Introducing different partnerships

37m

88

m

Size:4.76 ha

15

m

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34m

28m

m

Site1- Reshaping Industrial Zone Along the ecological industrial corridor, we defined some area with similar conditions, such as the sequence of water, wetland, vacant space and essential roads connected to the main transport system. Those repeating situations allow our strategy to be modified and applied in a number of sites. Based on one of the sites, we simply define the area according to the hydrology and contour lines in order to take advantage of them. The change of height level and water level brings the variation of temporary architecture and fixed architecture, the thick100

22m

Voids as arranging movement

ness of ground floor, and the possibilities of use and un-use in terms of flooding seasons. The key task is to deal with the separation and the relation between different use, ecology and industry, industry and working space, working space and housing through geological and hydrological study. How those various elements can function better with the hep from each other to form a new way of lifestyle here should be explored through architectural approaches.

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Weave & Voids as bringing in eco-systems

Figure 2.19 Weave & Voids

Figure 2.20 Spatial arrangement 101


Weave Weave, as an approach to bring in different stakeholders and partnerships not only horizontally but also vertically to decentralize and increase resilience.

Figure 2.21 Multi-stakeholders

Voids In order to take full advantage of the particular environment of waterfront industrial environment, communal space is arranged across the site in terms of the access and voids. While the residential building might be higher depends on future development and investment.

23m

80m

22m

35m

20m

35m

12m

18m

Figure 2.22 Thickness of ground floor

Lines Through the definition of blue, green, black lines in terms of both architectural structure and landscape arrangement, the internal and external systems work together to form a self-supporting environment. 102

Figure 2.23 Merging eco-system 103


1. Weave & Voids

Inclusive Shed

2. Solid Volumns

To integrate industry into its residential environment and apply the partnership model between different stakeholders, the performance of large industrial structures is to be redefined in the riverside eco-industrial park. 1.The intervention of weave and voids breaks down the huge volume by introducing connection and movement on the ground level.

3. Extended Deck

2.A new layer is then inserted between the huge structure and its internal envelopes, within which most of the ecology system of the building takes place. 3.As for the topographic level change along the river, a extended deck makes a direct introduction from the higher level to the riverside.

4. Programming

Figure 2.24 The notion of transformation 104

4.Each sub-divided volume is taken by different stakeholders and performs differrent function, which changes from the riverside to the inner land in terms of degree of privacy and intervention.

Figure 2.25 Integration of weaves as systems under one roof 105


The typical dimension of industrial shed could accommodate richer possibilities and flexibilities, which allows it to be cut through to create movement beneath it, and host different functions within it. The function of each volumn changes in term of the degree of flexibility and adaptibility from the river to the inner land. The pavilions that support community use set closest along the river, on the wetland, with their lightest structure and smallest scale. The industrial space takes largest space, giveing its cultural value through transparent facade. At the end of the shed, where the industrial park meet its residential surrounding, seated multi-functional studios which can be used as either rented living space or working space, on the upper level of the industrial volumn. 106

Figure 2.26 Hierarchy between internal voids and structural morphology (Plan + section + Perspectives)

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A group of layered systems that creates a common community platform that support energy, economical and social sustainability. And offers a redistribution of land between community and private household.

Railway

Size: 0.6 ha

Community partnership

Figure 2.27 Layers of platform The building establish an integration of energy and recycle strategies that contributes a wider urban benefit with the hosting community. Green, blue and black stands for energy systems.

Site2 - Reframing the Institution Building

West east mobility corridor 0

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Figure 2.29 New community

Laminar Slab A narrow limited site 240m X 25m is located next to a noisy railway side with low land value, which would be contributed through morphological thinking to maintain a wider urban benefits and support our proposed business model in processing this void. The proposal brings institutions in cooperation with educational and creative industry sectors to create a hub that support a three dimensional space with various potential uses and support the social integration and the democratic participation of community. 108

Figure 2.28 Wider systems

Figure 2.30 Supporting loop mobility system

Instead of the traditional way to organize the linear building with a long corridor in the middle, which limits the varieties and possibilities of spatial arrangements. Here we are asking if we can get rid of the central corridor and reorganize the circulatory space and other service space. Can we explore more possibilities of this particular typology through the re-organization logic to accommodate different use, partnerships and various space environments. 109


Ecological weave The structure creates a platform that supports the creation of greener community, looking for alternative clean energy. with circulation among diffrent energy streams where the building acts as a energy vessel through solar batteries and water treatment tanks.

Economic weave The open slab provides a range of possiblities for diverse activities between work and education, which could create a sustainable economy. And the lower floors allow the integration of leisure, commercial and art activities through collective uses.

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Figure 2.32 Laminar slab to accommodate various working space

Fixes Flexible

Social weave The free ground floor stretches the possibility in the creation of different community activity supported by institutions as food markets, art exhibitions, etc. The parking and service facilities could support the mobility system and the material transportations. Finally, noise barriers along the railway side are integrated with energy system.

Figure 2.31 Weave of ecology, economy, sociology 110

Dual space Fixed grid Potential protruding balconies Core & structure Phase1/ 1650 sq.m / 0-5 year Phase 2 / 4170 sq.m / 5-10 year

Expansion

Structure load barring Sub-structure load

Phase 3 / 6270 sq.m / 10-20 year

Figure 2.33 Articulated voids

Figure 2.35 Fix & Flex

Shared circulation Collective serviced units Private serviced units Future extensions

Figure 2.34 Structure

Figure 2.36 Flexibility by segmentation & layered facade 111


The morphology creates a surprising range of spaces for large varieties of potential uses and the distribution of the voids allows the inclusion of range of energy system. The digram (Figure 2.32) shows us an understanding of business model where the building could expand in three phases

according to the Built-up area or according to the demand of spaces. The open slab morphology associated with frame structure supported the internal void flexibility in creating collective and private voids according to demand.

Figure 2.37 Growth strategy From les Bassins Ă flot Housing in France, we learn from its spatial strategies and its ability to grow tactically while preserving the internal space quality. We can preserve the internal voids

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at threshold by fixing the internal agora and allowing expansion of the external volume. The dotted lines in the perspective (figure 2.23) indicate the possible expansion strategies.

Figure 2.38 Multi-dimensionality

Figure 2.39 Expanding tactically

The section illustrates the possibility of different partnerships among institutions and community while freeing up the ground floor and ensuring the democratic participation of the community and the creation of collective spaces. The opportunity vertical and horizontal expansion of the void can accommodate various uses.

The flexibility offered by the laminar structure slab we mentioned earlier generates a section full of articulated voids with double heights and opened patios that support variant spaces of activities and generate social and economic values associated with strong understanding of different energy strategies. Finally, Section offers to us the expansion ability over time and the creation of new layer of interior spaces by either demand or tactically.

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Case Study 1 Siedlungsprojekt Zwicky Süd, Zurich Size:13,600 sq.m

Case Study 2 Maison du project, France Size: 600 sq.m Maison du project gives us a concept of things in between can bring the advantage to accommodate the system and create rich environment.

By understanding this housing project in terms of the spatial arrangement of various floor plans, the intriguing part is the way it introduces the landscape inside the site and to create a sequence of various environment by free ground floor plan and carefully arranged orientation. The spatial quality it creates is quite attractive and rich, which can be adapted whether for housing or working space.

The idea of thickness of the envelope can be linked to other functional space and work together to function greener and cleaner in terms of energy, water recycle system, etc. Meanwhile, the rest space could be released for community living.

Figure 2.43 Thinkness of envelope to free up main space

Figure 2.40 Merging landscape within architecture

Figure 2.41 Free ground floor for community events

Figure 2.42 Various eco-approaches

2.5 “KWE784_Zwicky_Sued_03.Pdf,” accessed June 10, 2019, https://www.kraftwerk1.ch/assets/downloads/ publikationen/siedlungen/zwicky_areal/KWE784_Zwicky_Sued_03.pdf.

2.6 “Les Bassins à Flot Housing / ANMA,” ArchDaily, July 9, 2015, http://www.archdaily. com/769885/les-bassins-a-flot-housing-anma.

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Figure 2.44 Eco-system in architectural structure

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Case Study 3 Køge Culture House, Denmark Size: 6,000 sq.m The Køge Culture House is the city’s living room which aims to contain the diversity of people and functions in one single building. It creates a large “Cultural Frame” with a big roof and timber structure covering a village of 5 “houses”, nu-

Case Study 4 Les Bassins à flot Housing, France Size: 27,363 sq.m

merous informal spaces and an interior cultural plaza. The wooden frame is a reference to Køge’s many historic houses with exposed timber-frame construction. By densifying the wooden structure, it in essence becomes an ubiquitous bookshelf and a flexible frame for cultural events and exhibitions.

ANMA give us a relevant example in how they can transform the function of such huge structure into residential apartments and form a main atrium that accommodates different activity.

The economic value achieved here is quite noticeable due to the space efficiency and the increase of the stakeholders and the space productivity. Increasing the possibilities of the mixed functional uses that could accommodated in the ground floor in such huge atrium and increase the impact of the building towards the public realm.

Figure 2.48 Void as transational space Figure 2.45 Generation of inclusive shed

Figure 2.46 Additional layer between envelopes and exterior 2.7 “COBE - Køge Culture House,” accessed June 10, 2019, http://www.cobe.dk/project/koge-culture-house. roject/koge-culture-house

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Figure 2.47 Envelopes beneath the shed

Figure 2.49 The void as a tool that structure the cluster

Figure 2.50 Threshold as a fixed void

2.8 Bert Provan and Celine Kuklowsky, “Report to Plan Urbanisme Construction Architecture on Progress in France’s Former Industrial Cities,” n.d., 113

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Site2

Site1: Industrial sustainability

Site2: Social sustainability

Figure 2.52 Similar inclusive strategy dealing with different context

Typological Understanding Site1

Figure 2.51 Two strategies working parallel not corresponding 118

Through the understanding of precedents and architectural experiments of big wide shed and long narrow laminar building, comparing these two typology, we do believe that they have specialties to be adapted into our site and response to social ecology and environment ecology as well. The benefit of the big shed is mainly about that it could host a range of various volumes beneath it to build multi-facade and rich movements, which can accommodate systems and structures and create rich spatial environments.

Figure 2.53 Comparison: Weaves and possible extensions 119


17 min to London Relocation of industrial zone

Grays

Conclusion As the proposal of GLA, industry area of Northfleet is possibly going to be removed to the north-eastern area of Dartford. Although we do need other ways of dealing with industry zone in Ebbsfleet, removing them to another area, can we find a way of retaining some of them to benefit local employment and economy? And can the combination of ecology and industry do more than imagined in such a post-carbon era to generate values to both environment and community? What we try to do is to achieve the valuable waterfront but also retain some of industry islands with key sites of higher 120

Dartford

value, greener system and more linked to GLA proposal to build more active and sustainable working and living environment. Institutionally, surely we need EDC to structure housing here, but we also need them who have strong local governance to structure the links between industry and community. They might take the responsibility to ensure that industry would be promoted and brought forward sustainably in terms of energy, ecology and local capacity as well. They could also promote local investment and bring other partnership within them to decentralize

capitals and enhance the resilience so that we can achieve sustainably regenerative economics.

Gravesend

Besides, industrial zone can bring a certain unique type of spatial quality within existing landscape and neighborhood, which might build more active neighborhoods and increase the living quality. In a word, the experiment here is to open an initial conversation about the combination of ecology and industry to test the benefits and values they might bring to both neighborhoods and ecosystems.

2 hr to Paris

Figure 2.54 Industrial Ecology for Local Benifits

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3. Dynamic Value Matrix An alternative delivery model Humaira Kabir Jingchao Sheng Marcel Rofatto The project proposes an alternate delivery model for Ebbsfleet to capture the currently neglected values like ecology, variety, and long-term stewardship, which will encourage a regenerative cycle of transformation based on dynamic values sets. This model leverages a complex tool of interwoven limit lines to recalibrate development process in order to produce a institutionally, financially and environmentally robust scheme.

Figure 3.1: Scenario 3 122

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3.1 Site and Context

Our site of interest is a 500m X 2000m strip that is situated west to Ebbsfleet international and south to Swanscombe. It is one of the the main development areas in EDC’s current proposal. All plots have been sold to private developers in large parcels, which are going to be built into residential neighbourhoods. Visions of land-use masterplans have been made to locate critical services. Construction has already started in Castle Hill, with repetitive housing typologies but without integrating employments. Developments in high value lands near the train station have been stagnant because of uncertainty and high risk. This project considers that the land has not yet been sold or built upon.

Figure 3.2: Current Ebbsfleet and Visions

Source: https://ebbsfleetdc.org.uk/

Figure 3.3: Situating the Strip 124

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3.2 Introduction If we were to create a handbook for planning and design, what will be the fixed, negotiable and flexible conditions to develop the brownfield site? How can the critical question of ‘Land Value’ be negotiated among a spectrum of stakeholders from Community-owned to housing co-operations to volume-builders to share benefits and responsibilities? How to design a delivery model which can accomodate changing values and be resilient to economic and social shift? How does space and design play a role in the developing model? The strategy develops a plausible scenario which starts answering some of these questions while raising radical ones in the process. The operational structure is based on forming an interweave of four V’s : Value, Voids, Viability and Variety, to enable a systemic change in peri-urban territories. The success of this model relies on these parameters to work in a holistic framework to deliver a regenerative urban area and associated spatial qualities.

Figure 3.4: Strategy Voids

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Plot Division

Strategic Starting points

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Value

Void

Viability

Variety

This delivery model aims not only at capturing a set of value, but also at establishing an institutional progress that can accomodate unexpected and dynamic values.

A network of static and dynamic voids acts as productive landscape, spatial structure, and reservoirs for future developments.

A system of viability index ensures the contribution of each plot to the wider urban area. This index is like a playboard of fixed and flexes for different actors to contribute what they are good at.

By overlaying multiple systems, this delivery model creates differentiated land, which inpires various uses and spaces.

Ecology, variety, longterm stewardship, and urban integrity are the matrix of values that are mainly considered in this proposal. Nonetheless, the negotiation and the responsibility bearing embedded in the spatial framework will be correspondent to localized assets and resilient to economic and political shifts.

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The approximate voids of 35% consists of energy, agricuture and landscape, which ensures ecological sustainability. The spatial structure of voids interweaves with plot divisions and roads. It acts not only as public space and micromobility network, but also as a tool to distribute responsibility of the stakeholders, and to articulate the relationship between the public space and architecture.

Viability points include a series of parameters like social value, shared responsibilities, reduced risk factors, ground floor control, mixed-funding and financial returns, eco-productivity, etc. Viability index responsibility is distributed according to the importance of each plot.

The system safeguards the weaker financial groups while still inviting the big investments. Different plot size, ownership models, and different relationship to infrastructure and voids jointly drive a unique urban process that generates a variety of tenure and stewardship patterns, different housing typologies, and a spectrum of productive activities.

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3.3 Interweave of Limit Lines: Voids, Plot Divisions, and Viability Index

Figure 3.6: Interweave

Figure 3.5: Key An interweave of limit lines, assembly of voids, mobility infrastructure, diverse land-ownership divisions, and a viability index leads to a multi-layered urban area instead of a mobility and land-use driven masterplan.

site, one has to consider its relationship to the mobility route and contributions to the void and adjacent future developments, while simultaneously calibrating the economic returns of the ownership pattern.

Two key advantages of an interweave were revealed through exploration of morphologies; it forms a spatial matrix that creates inherently differentiated characteristics of each plot through layering without land use designations. (Figure 3.6)

Secondly, it establishes a framework that ensures shared responsibility and negotiations across varied financial groups throughout the timeline of site occupation. This framework considers plausible actors to develop and maintain larger areas, like community aquaponics farm, to smaller areas, like kindergarten playground.

For example, to start a project on a specific

Roads

In the following pages, the different layers will be unravelled, and one can imagine how it carries the ability to performs efficiently to uplift land value within a regenerative and dynamic framework of development and use the uplift to sustain a variety of vocations and stakeholders.

Anticipated Buildings Plot division Construction area Constant Void Resevoir Voids Dynamic Voids

+4 +5 +6

Viability requirement Negotiation area Ground floor control

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3.4 Voids: a Systemic Approach

Case Study: Melun Senart and Regen Village Voids are integral to the development model as they interweave with plot divisions to sustain urban metabolisms and also accommodate future development. In a revised interpretation of the proposal of Melun Senart1, the voids have the potential to sustain the urban metabolisms and accommodate future developments. The area programme in Regen Village2 presses on the crucial nature of critical mass and quantum limits to deliver a systemic approach of uplifting land value and eventually, a regenerative urban area. For instance, within a wide block of 250mX300m, a local energy farm can sustain a co-operative food industry and the surplus profits from the two can cross-subsidize housing for their employees. There can be infinite combinations of such symbiotic urban relationships supported by spatial interweaves of voids and development plots. According to the study, we retain 35% of voids that accommodate water, food, mobility, communications, to sustain development.

Figure 3.7: Void in Melun Senart design

Figure 3.8: Systems’ Programme Source: https://www.effekt.dk/regenvillages

3.1. “Ville Nouvelle Melun Senart,” OMA, accessed June 7, 2019, https://oma.eu/projects/ville-nouvelle-melun-senart. 3.2. “ReGen Villages,” effekt, accessed June 9, 2019, https://www.effekt.dk/regenvillages.

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3.4 Voids: a Systemic Approach

Figure 3.10: Assembly of Voids

Constant void: no-build area

Figure 3.9: Quantum Limits A network of articulated voids in terms of their scale and occupation are divided into two broad categories of: static, dynamic and reservoirs. The void amounts to 35%. Static voids are fixed, while dynamic ones have a certain percentage of unbuilt area, being fixed in quantum but flexible in shape to allow articulation between architecture and landscape. They together form an assembly of large green corridors and smaller distributed lots for eco-productivity. The framework encourages a shared responsibility of maintaining and operating these productive landscapes through partial or fragmented ownership. 134

Reservoir voids are strategically reservoirs of land value capture. They are a network of distributed plots which are preserved in the initial stages of development and sold/ rented at higher values after years of surrounding development. They fuction similarly to other voids before construction. Meanwhile, these voids don’t always remain as fenced plots, they might become pop-up urbanity. For instance, temporary structures like Boxpark may take advantage of cheap rented land and low investment and respond to trends of leisure and retail. These spaces are created on public demand, activate and deliver desired characteristics and can vacate effortlessly.

10m

These voids offer a bigger scope for sustainability and flexibility to not only capture the ecological capital but also accomodates the inevitable changes in the future.

Constant void: no-build area 10m width * 10m height 30m

Dynamic void: 50% unbuilt, 15% productive 30m width 20m

Dynamic void: 70% unbuilt 20m width

Construction plots in void: 70% unbuilt

Resevoir voids: unbuilt for 10 years

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3.5 Plot Divisions: Complex Ownership Models

Case Study: Tubingen, Germany

Figure 3.11: Baugruppen Model, Tubingen

A former army barracks area in Germany, Tubingen, has been transformed into a diverse urban neighborhood under a differentiated model of Baugruppen development (refer Figure 3.9)3.3,3.4.

Variety in typologies (Left to Right: Tubingen Housing, Mehrs Al Wohnen, Zurich)

The strategy of dividing the site into smaller plots of self-commissioned builders not only promoted affordable housing units but also revealed an alternate method of uplifting land value in stigmatized urban areas. The success of Mehrs Al Wohnen, a co-operative housing in Zurich, is another key example to support this alternate way of uplifting land value and delivering a multi-layered urban character. The cases highlight the crucial importance of plot divisions and a framework to enable the processes of partnerships, like negotiation and responsibilities, between the future stakeholders to deliver an area of diverse and bespoke spaces of inhabitation, engaging public realm and a strong community.

Source: https://issuu.com/architecture00/docs/compendium_for_the_civic_economy_publ

Source: https://righttobuildtoolkit.org.uk/case-studies/alte-weberei-tubingen/#

Source: https://arcspace.com/feature/mehr-als-wohnen/

3.3. Compendium for the Civic Economy : What Our Cities, Towns and Neighbourhoods Should Learn from 25 Trailblazers, 2nd rev. & extended ed. (London: & Design Council CABE, 2012). 3.4. Jennifer McMaster, “Mehr Als Wohnen,” Arcspace.Com (blog), accessed June 9, 2019, https://arcspace.com/feature/mehr-als-wohnen/.

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3.5 Plot Divisions: Complex Ownership Patterns

The success of the interweave relies on plot divisions and associated ownership patterns to invite multiple stakeholders and actors to add resilience and diversity to the development model. For example, some plots are developed by EDC or community land trusts, rented at a reduced-rate, where the rental surplus is further invested into community services, and the local authority has more power of control. In other cases, a volume-builder may build on a large plot with certain responsibilities that will bring a large number of residents that will further entail the community services. The plot subdivisions (with its own viability requirement) are fixed, the ownership patterns are designated but flexible,

while the area that is owned by one actor might be negotiated (Figure 3.12). It might consist of different ownership patterns to encourage affordability and a diverse mix of multi-functional architectural typologies. Strategically, small plots are assembled together in the first stage to safeguard the interests of smaller financial groups while the land is still lower in value as compared to 10 years in the future.

Figure 3.12: Differentiated Ownership Models Ownership division Plot sub division Construction area For civic “Anchors� Sold to identified actors Sold to and from EDC only Sold in free market Rent to identified actors Rent with conditions Rent in market Flexible plot Reservoir voids

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3.6 Viability Index: Choices of Contribution

Figure 3.13: Viability index

Compulsory, +0: • Maintain and operate the voids; • Reach a negotiated outcome in certain areas; • Ground floor facade transparent, or / Operated by local authorities: without specification, 20% with specification, 50%; • Promise of occupation;

Low investment, +1:

Within the interwoven lines, the viability index sets an alternative criteria that enables each actor to contribute what he is good at. It is a point-based system which is fixed to plot subdivisions. The details carry an argument of how mandating community requirements to all developers, private, community or state, can deliver a range of dynamic values that add quality and financial assets in an urban area. There are three key categories of this viability index (figure 3.13): Compulsory; Low investment +1; Higher investment +3.

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For every extra 1 point 5% subsidy is granted by the EDC to encourage initial investments into social services and development. For example, in a +4 plot, one is compulsory to score 4 points altogether, and if he scores 6 he will receive 10% government subsidy. In the initial stage of development, the viability index is higher. This index paves a path for a scenario of transformation of common good based on shared contributions. For example, a research institution might operate aspecialized training workshops; a co-op housing might use philanthropy capital to deliver more affordable housing and gain more government subsidy.

• Work space (non residential, non retail, non public institution): 30%-50%; • <1500m2 per similar flat type & more than 4 flat types; • Rooftop greens or solar panels >60%; • Rent land

High investment, + 3: • Build a list of community services: library / kindergarten /primary school / elderly nursary / church; • Public carpark: number=own expected users; • Affordable tenacy of houusing / workspace, under 60% market price: 25% (stackable); • Collaborative design method;

Plot sub division

+4 +5

Viability requirement Compulsory negotiation area Ground regulations with spcification

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3.7 Stages of Development

Case Study: Hafen city, a negotiated process The development of Hafen city on an area of 157 Hectares in Hamburg is a key example of how an innovative development model could steer a cohesive vision of generating a diverse urban character. The key concept related to inclusive economic growth in Hamburg is ‘sustainability’, which includes both environmental and social sustainability.

For instance, Hafen city starts with a modest quantum by a coherent morphological masterplan, in which each developer can accomodate different programs in the same initial building morphology, and by negotiation among the developers, they form a rich environment and reduce the risk. Meanwhile, the Hafencity succeeded in bringing in cultural institutions.

The formation of HafenCity Hamburg GmbH further highlights the role of an independent development corporation which enables innovative planning and implementation methods that combine incentives for private investors with the city’s expectations of quality. The eventual outcome of a dense mix of different uses in the neighborhood is representative of the whole district. [3.5]

Another example is that Unilever, a consumer-goods company, delivers housing and shares its open spaces with the city, in exchange of its trategic location. It suggests the key role of negotiations and its socio-economic impact. As a result, all players benefit: both the city and the developers minimize their risk, costs and delays – and maintain quality.

Throughout the process, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH, the authorities and the buyer remain in constant dialog. The specific conditions valid for a particular piece of land and the requirements of the building concept are also reflected in the negotiations between the developer and HafenCity.

Birds eye view / Riverfront Initial development / Uniliver

3.5. “Projekte_engl_final.Pdf,” accessed June 10, 2019, https://www.hafencity.com/upload/files/files/Projekte_engl_final.pdf.

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3.7 Stages of Development

The strategy aims at enhancing land value of all sites, but not only those in proximity to the station or the shopping mall, which essentially means a rather malign method of development based on locally situated assets and opportunities. A scenario of three stages of development, as shown in Figure 3.12, is envisioned wherein conditions for the third stage are curated in the first stage and so on. 1. One of the areas of the dispersed development may take advantage of the Swanscombe residents, and how a public event in architecture can transform the currently mono-functional area and further mobilize development in Ebssfleet with the help of an interweave of voids, smaller plots and multiple actors. For example, a public library with training programs can not serve as a leisure space but also act as incubator for local studios/workshops required by future Ebbsfleet residents. 2. After a period of 2-5 yeas, the plots away from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;social anchorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; may consist of larger developments which will increase the land-value and variety of new partnerships. This stage requires long to negotiate, and evaluation of what contributions does each actor bring forward and at what cost in exchange. 3. After 15-20 years, some of dynamic voids may be sold at high land-value and the surplus can be efficiently reinvested by the EDC into operating static voids of ecosystems or for social housing stock. Throughout envisioned stages of development, decentralization and resilience is leveraged to ensure an uplift in land-value and how it can be captured to mobilize a systemic change to achieve fundamentals of regenerative urbanism. Figure 3.13: Stages of Development (0 - 5 - 15 years) 144

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3.8 Partnerships and Vocations

Training Centre

Community Centre for Health

Leisure Student-Housing

Bio-Diversity Conservation

Community-led Urban Farm

Co-working Studios

Public Parks Pop-up Urbanity Temporary Event Spaces Temporary Flower-and-herb Industry

Figure 3.15: Civic Synergies in Peri-urban Territories

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3.9 Encouraged Outcomes

13

2

3

1

8 6

9

4 5

7

Figure 3.17: Limit lines and the outcome 10

5

11

11 12

Figure 3.16: An Encouraged and anticipated outcome 148

5

1. Local authorities 2. Library 3. Training program 4. Affordable workspace 5. Market housing 6. Co-op housing 7. Affordable housing 8. Shopfront 9. Largespan space 10. Elderly nursery 11. Temporary structure 12. Kindergarten 13. Food processing

Owenership division Responsibility area Land ownership pattern Limits of dynamic voids Limits of no-built area Configuration of voids Negotiated outcome

This drawing shows the actual configuration of voids together with the limit lines, the spatial responsibility of each actor, and the negotiated outcome. Since each builder is responsible for certain amount of voids, the actual outcome will depend upon their own design and thus totally different from the limit lines. The area between plots are compelled or encouraged to be negotiated. For instance, in the north

area at the top, two actors might share one car entrances while leave the rest for pedestrians. Responsibility of design and maintenance might be flexible as well. In the big constant void and reservoir in the middle, the commercial developer in the east might operate most of the agriculture, which help them maintain it.

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Figure 3.18: Mobility and ground

Figure 3.19: Ownership and program

Residential Productive and work

This drawing shows the mobility patterns of the ground floor. According to the ground floor control regulations, a certain percentage should be open or glass facade, or it should be governed by the local authorities, which encourage shopfronts, transparent workspace, or public functions. Because of the interweave of the voids, plots, and roads, it is better for each building to corresponds to the established mobility network.

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With encouraged negotiation, buildings across or around the voids may better open up to each other and create functional synergies, like an elderly nursury plus a kindergarten.

Cars

Public functions

Pedestrain and bikes

Sold to identified actors

Pedestrian

Sold to and from EDC only

Main entrances

Sold in free market

Important spaces

Rent to identified actors

Secondary spaces

Rent with conditions

Tertiary spaces

Rent in market

This drawing shows primary and secondary onwership models, together with the programmtic functions. The ownership patterns of the plot and the viability index together drives the actual outcomes. For example, the big development plot on the east are divided into 2 sub plots, the north is rent with conditions, the south is sold freely on market. In the north building, under negotiation with the EDC, the developer rents the flexible lower floors

for shops and offices, sells the apartments on the top, and builds a big space for workshops of events and an underground carpark, all of which at profitable market price. In the south part, the developer sells certain spaces to a licensed elderly nursery, which scores him +3 viability points. He also sells most of the housing at marktet prize to subsidize the affordable apartments further south.

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152 5% subsidy

Rooftop garden +1

Collaborative design +3

Kindergarten +3

Temporary structure

Future building

Reservoir void

Rooftop +1

Nurser fo rthe elderly +3

Subsidy 5%

Rented land +1

Carpark +3

Rooftop solar panels +1

34% workspace +1

Subsidy 10%

Rented land +1

25% affordable housing +3

Rooftop garden +1

Colabborative design +3

Training program +3

Rooftop garten +1

This section shows the limit lines as 3 dimensional volumns, as well as marks out how the viability index are scored. The cutting line of the section can be found in the initial plan (figure 3.16). Library +3

3.9 Encouraged Outcomes

Figure 3.20: Scoring the viability index

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3.10 Quality and Variety of Space

Figure 3.19: Quality and variety of space This drawing highlights the articulation between building and voids, the negotiated outcome of a coherent ground floor mobility system, and the shared responsibility of the voids. 154

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3.9 Quality and Variety of Space

Figure 3.21: Void as market place

Figure 3.20: Void as agriculture The alternate delivery model generates conditions for innovative partnerships and a differentiated scheme of stakeholders and site occupations. For intance, these figures show a variety of uses of the dynamic voids during different stages of developments. The figure 3.20 exhibits the performance of the void in its full eco-productive potentials, sustaining the urban metabolisms.

Reservoir voids, owned by the community, have the flexibility to perform according to the current trends; they can be rented to host temporary events or structures.The figure 3.21 illustrates the advantageous collaboration of cared-housing and the processes of a flower-and-herb industry. Additionally, the scope for hosting civic events can be seen in figure 3.22.

Figure 3.22: Void holding events 156

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PART C

158

Assembling the Future

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Conclusion The question raised by EDC lead designer, “Where should the Ebbsfleet Council invest for more returns?” has been answered in multiple scenarios under a unified vision to create longerlasting legacies of regenerative returns. The current conditions of Ebbsfleet and its strategic location gives immense potential to capture values of a civic economy and mobilize a systemic approach to deal with the crucial concern of climate breakdown. In order to achieve so, we call for a shift of emphasis from short-term interventions to creating the conditions for a systemic change; across layers of governance, collaboration, community participation, and systems’ awareness. The current value of Ebbsfleet is seen only in terms of proximity to two assets – the Eurostar station and Bluewater shopping complex (Fig 18). The vision proposes an integrated regenerative scheme instead of the current trajectory of speculative growth. The architectural intelligence helps envision new ways of life, new patterns of economic exchange and common wider benefit through design of political and social spaces, interaction spaces and so on. Hence, design could transform urban areas and indeed generate a spectrum of values for the 21st century. (Fig 19)

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‘Land Value capture’ is a key driver of change and is enabled through multi-actor partnerships embedded in alternate delivery models to mobilize an ecologically sustainable approach to recalibrate the development process that is profitable, sustainable and regenerative which strives for a common good. All together, these three models form a rich mix of projects and delivery methods that could create a multi-layered and differentiated fabric of diverse urban synergies. (Fig 20) These experiments have helped us realize the challenges and pose a bigger question – how can the direction of development of rapidly developing peripheral areas be steered from a market-driven consumptiononly approach to an ecology and regenerative approach in order to attain the climate and sustainable development goals of the UK? What should be the extent of governing responsibilities of the development corporation? How can such a ‘pilot’ model be implemented in territories of different political and topographical conditions? How do we incentivize partnerships on large single-ownership territories? To what extent, do the delivery models inform the scope of architectural experimentations?

Figure 18: Current Value Assessment

Figure 19: Identified localised assets and partnerships

Figure 20: Vision - Overlapping Regenerative Assemblies The intent of the research is to incessantly find answers to be able to ask more questions regarding shifting urban values.

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References “Agri-Tech East - Agri-Tech East.” Accessed June 1, 2019. https://www.agritech-east.co.uk/. Armitt, Sir John, Sadie Morgan, Lord Norman Foster, Alice Gast, Gregory Hodkinson, Sir George Iacobescu, Sir Stuart Lipton, et al. “Thames Estuary 2050 Growth Commission,” n.d., 36. “COBE - Køge Culture House.” Accessed June 10, 2019. http://www.cobe.dk/project/koge-culture-house. Compendium for the Civic Economy : What Our Cities, Towns and Neighbourhoods Should Learn from 25 Trailblazers. 2nd rev. & extended ed. London: & Design Council CABE, 2012. Coorporation, Ebbsfleet Development. “Ebbsfleet Garden City Implementation Framework Summary,” 2017. Corporation, Ebbsfleet Development. “Ebbsfleet Framework Materplan, Baseine Corporation Framework Mastrplan,” no. May (2016). “Ebbsfleet-Summary-Framework.Pdf.” Accessed June 5, 2019. https://ebbsfleetdc.org.uk/wp-content/ uploads/2017/10/Ebbsfleet-Summary-Framework.pdf. “Europan-Europe Thematized Project.” Accessed June 6, 2019. https://www.europan-europe.eu/en/project-andprocesses/forest-city-parking-city-habitable-abacus. “Fintry Development Trust – Doing Good Stuff in Fintry.” Accessed May 20, 2019. http://fintrydt.org.uk/. Howard, Ebenezer. Garden Cities of To-Morrow. Garden Cities of To-Morrow, 2013. doi:10.4324/9780203716779. “Incredible Edible Todmorden | What We Do.” Accessed May

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Acknowledgements (Informal) Jorge, for bringing “light” in our lives (and for making the best of the slides). Mamma Elena, for forever changing the meaning of the song “Fill the Voids”! Rodrigo O’Malley, the case studies King and for his humorous wits. We would like to thank James for (messing) everything. Carol, for her “what???”and “no no no no no. Arunima, for her peaceful aura in times of crisis. Humaira, for keeping us safe from James. Tianyi, for (not) waking up early and her classic facial reactions during tutorials. Lily, the diagram queen and for her ‘yes yes yes” Julia is too formal to be informally acknowledged. Zak, for all the wonderful drawings that we never used. Joey, the only guy that really captured what is land value capture. And Marcel, for monitoring James and Humaira’s unforgettable/unforgivable fights.

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Housing & Urbanism MA/MArch, Group 3 Regenerative Urbanism  

Housing & Urbanism MA/MArch, Group 3 Regenerative Urbanism  

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