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Aaron Plewke ACA D E M I C WO RK Master of Architecture 2011 with Distinction Washington University in St. Louis S am Fox S ch ool of D e s ign an d Vis u al Art s Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design


M M aa pping pping Heterotopia Heterotopia

ID #78

A AP Pub ublliicc Sp Spaace ce R Res eseeaarch rch aanndd An Anaaly lyssiiss P Pro rojjeect ct New New York York City City

NON SANCTIONED (OR) UNACCEPTED TO SANCTIONED (OR) ACCEPTED ACTIVITIES

Mapping Mapping Heterotopia is a public space research research and and analysis analysis project project (conducted with aa research partner). The project began as an on-site investigation of Lincoln Center research partner). The project Plaza and the High Line, two seemingly public places in Manhattan that were recently Plaza and the Line, two seemingly recently the subjects of signifi cant architectural intervention by Diller Scofi dio signifi Scofi + Renfro (in both cases), and James Corner Field Operations (in the case of the High High Line). Line). As As our our work work moved forward, it became apparent that these two places were too atypical to forward, it became apparent that these two places were too atypical to provide provide aa clear and telling narrative, and as a result, we elected to add a somewhat more normative public space—Tompkins Square Park—to the investigation.

SANCTIONED, DAILY USE

= USE TYPOLOGY AND FREQUENCY PATTERN. FOR EXAMPLE, VERY FREQUENT, NON-SANCTIONED ACTIVITY, SUCH AS HOMELESS OR DRUG DEALING.

TO M P K I N S S Q UA R E PA R K

LINCOLN CENTER

THE HIGH LINE

AUDIENCE _ SPECTATOR

PLAYING CATCH

FREE CONCERTS

FILMING CREW _ WITH PERMIT

FASHION WEEK

EN AV

UE

ART VENDOR

DOG PARK INFORMALLY DESIGNATED HOMOSEXUAL PICK-UP SPOT

GRAFFITI - MOMO TAGS A TRAIL ACROSS MANHATTAN

th 10

DOG WALKING

MUSICIANS_ WITH PERMIT

FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY

PROTEST FOR THE ARTS, ALL THEATERS CLOSED DRUG USER - DEALER

DOMROSCH PARK

JOGGING RAMP USER - PARENT

HARE KRISHNA SITE OF THE FOUNDING OF HARE KRISHNA RELIGION IN THE US

BASKETBALL

METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE

MET PATRONS

VIVIAN BEAUMONT THEATER

PROMENADING

SKATEBOARDERS NEW YORK STATE THEATER

YOGA LOCALS

STUDENTS: DAILY USERS SKATEBOARDERS PUBLIC RESTROOMS

LOCALS: WEEKLY USERS OF PUBLIC SPACES

MUSICIANS

TOURISTS AVERY FISCHER HALL

PROTESTORS TOURISTS: ONE TIME USERS OF PUBLIC SPACES

HOMELESS ALICE TULLY HALL

DANTE PARK

LOCALS

FOOD LINE USER

DEFINING DEFINING HETEROTOPIA HETEROTOPIA Heterotopia, Heterotopia, literally [an]other place, is a term that was fifirst used in medicine to describe a cell or group group ofof cells cells living non-malignantly non-malignantly within a host cell or tissue. Michel Foucault adapted the term in the sixties to explain an emerging phenomenon— Michel Foucault adapted spaces and places were coming into being spaces and places were coming into being which which interrupted interrupted the the apparent apparent continuity continuity and normality of ordinary, everyday space, but did so in a way that and ordinary, everyday space, but did so in a way that was was not not detrimental detrimental toto their host. host. By By identifying these places where where processes processes of change and hybridization were were being being harbored, Foucault implied implied that that heterotopic heterotopic spaces spaces could could be be testing testing grounds for future spatial conditions, and that they could effectively give grounds for future spatial conditions, and that they could effectively give birth birth toto new new norms. Moving ahead to the present, Heterotopia has evolved from being understood norms. Moving being understood as as the result of society creating [an]other place within a classical or modernist single center center spatial spatial environment, and is now also theorized as the organizing network or fifield eld within which which distinct distinct and and often contradictory contradictory conditions reside. reside. InIn the the contemporary contemporary public public realm, although claims to territory territory are are becoming becoming increasingly regulated, heterotopic uses persist. Indeed, a careful look at patterns of occupation by heterotopic by socially marginalized groups reveals a defi nition of territory that defi es the intentions marginalized groups definition of territory that defies the intentions ofof planners and urban designers. planners and urban designers. MAPPING MAPPING HETEROTOPIA HETEROTOPIA As As a lens for investigating investigating urban urban public places, Heterotopia is at once an intriguing and elusive concept. In basic terms, concept. In basic terms, we we aimed aimed atat identifying identifying uses and activities in Tompkins Square Park, Lincoln Center and the High Line which could be described as peculiar, Square unsanctioned, or simply illegal. Furthermore, we worked with the added constraint that unsanctioned, these uses and activities should occur with some regularity, over the course of time. In these this way, the uses and activities depicted in our mapping stake a persistent this persistent claim claim on territory. territory.

FOOD VENDORS: MISCELLANEOUS

FOOD VENDORS: COFFEE CART

ACTORS, PATTERNS OF USE, AND TERRITORY DOG WALKING

FOOD VENDOR: FARMER’S MARKET

JOGGING

AM STER DA M AV

MOST FREQUENT TO LEAST FREQUENT USE

ENUE

PROTESTORS

ND

ST

RE ET

+

W ES T 62

NON-SANCTIONED (OR) UNACCEPTED - TO - SANCTIONED (OR) ACCEPTED ACTIVITIES

SANCTIONED, DAILY USE

BASKETBALL

= A

S

UE

USE TYPOLOGY AND FREQUENCY PATTERN. FOR EXAMPLE, VERY FREQUENT, NON-SANCTIONED ACTIVITY, SUCH AS HOMELESS OR DRUG DEALING.

ST

RE

ET

AV

EN

RAILRO AD LIN

TH

STREET

EET

AVENU E _ MARGI NAL

RE

EAST 9

TH

STR EET

EAST 7

TH

ST RE

1955

CO LUMB

US

AVEN UE

1955

HUDSON RIVER

DELAMATER SQUARE

STR

EET

10

TH

EN AV

WES T 16

UE

ASH W

N GTO IN

ST

WEST

ET RE

WES

T 14

BLOOMFIELD STREET

FUTU

RE

BUILD

ING

S OF

WEST

LIN CO

LN

CENT ER

LITTLE 12 THE GANSEVOORT STREET

ENUE

RE ET

AM STER DA M AV

TH

EN AV

HIGH

UE

TH STR

ET ST

RE ST

STR

EET

HUDSON RIVER

10

TH

UE

WES T 15

TH STR

T 16

EET

TH

STR

T 66

US

AVEN

W ES

CO LUMB

EAST 7

EET

TH STR

EET

STREET

1865

+

STREET

ST RE

14 TH

TH STR

18 TH

NON-SANCTIONED (OR) UNACCEPTED - TO - SANCTIONED (OR) ACCEPTED ACTIVITIES

EET

TH

STR

ET

WEST TH

MOST FREQUENT TO LEAST FREQUENT USE

TH

WES

EN AV

1955 EET

EET

WES T 17

W ES

EET

TH STR

STREET

INE

T 64

STR

TH

9 TH

SHOREL

1885

RE

1865 TH

T 65

B

EET

STREET

W ES

UE

TH STR

15 TH

WEST

ET

EAST 8

EN

TH STR

ILL

ET ST RE T 63 W ES

EAST 10

EAST

13 TH

PROPOS ED SHO RELINE

RD

A

AV

ACTORS, PATTERNS OF USE, AND TERRITORY T 18

EET

EET

OLD

AV

UE

TH STR

LINE

PROPOS ED INF

ST ND

W ES T 62

11

EN

T 17

TH

EET

T 66

STR

W ES

8 TH

WES

WES

11 TH

ET

B

T 65

UE

TH

ST EN

W ES

AV

EAST

ES

STR

ET

TH

W ES T 64

EAST 10

WEST 13

BLOOMFIELD STREET

TH STR

EET

9 TH

AVE

NU

E

UE

EET BOGART STREET

LITTLE 12

TH STR

EET

= USE TYPOLOGY AND FREQUENCY PATTERN.


Di slocated C onditions

A H eterotop i c L and s ca p e | P rog ram : C om m u n i t y Re cre a t i o n E n cla ve R i c hm ond H e i gh t s , S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i

SANAA’s 21st Century Museum at Kanazawa, Japan + Constant’s New Babylon Nord (2004 and 1971, respectively). “...The grid has historically proven to be a particularly effective field operation, extending a framework across a vast surface for flexible and changing development over time...This organization lends legibility and order to the surface while allowing for the autonomy and individuality of each part, and remaining open to permutations over time.” -James Corner, “Terra Fluxus,” The Landscape Urbanism Reader The “Dislocated Conditions” studio began with an analytical process focusing on the non-morphological aspects of our site—a continuously sloping piece of land bound by an interstate highway, a heavily trafficked thoroughfare, and a slower local street. Two parallel analyses were developed. The first series of studies focused on the speed, rhythm and view-sheds of vehicular traffic along the site’s edges. The second series resulted in a subjective geography that measured environmental quality based on sound and view within the boundaries of the site. In lieu of a simple grid, the pair of site analyses generated an organizing geometry on the site that was responsive to its immediate context without sacrificing permutability. After establishing the weighted yet flexible framework, programmatic information was layered into the site.

experience of the site, based on speed, rhyt h m a n d v i ew - shed

Analytical Series 2: M apping t h e pe rce ive d environmental quality of each segment of the site, creating a subject ive ge ography

Heterotopic Recombination: Two horizontal architectures—one built and bound by a circular glass wall, the other unbuilt and suggesting a limitless expanse.


Di slocated C onditions

A H eterotop i c L and s ca p e | P rog ram : C om m u n i t y Re cre a t i o n E n cla ve R i c hm ond H e i gh t s , S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i The preliminary site analysis suggested spreading the program out over the full extent of the site (see previous page). The subjective geography of the site (as measured by the analysis) generated a massing that kept the central areas of the site—which had a high environmental quality—open to the elements. The edges of the site, which had a low environmental quality, would be enclosed and mediated. The programmatic agenda of the “Dislocated Conditions” studio was to address the “RecPlex” building type. The community recreation complex (or RecPlex) has become ubiquitous in suburban America. Earlier and more urban versions of this building type can be seen in the YMCA, which originated in London in the 1840’s, and spread to US cities beginning with Boston in 1851. Our RecPlex, sited in an urbanizing yet still distinctly suburban area of St. Louis County, contains two primary categories of program. The first category included both wet and dry exercise and leisure programs—swimming pools, a basketball court, fitness areas, a large indoor running track, and so on. The second category included programmatic entities often associated with community centers—a small library, a teen room, a senior center, and meeting spaces of various sizes and types. With associated administrative and support space, the total program equaled roughly 100,000 square feet of interior and exterior space, plus 50,000 square feet of parking (which was placed below grade in my proposal). At the outset of the semester, the infrastructure adjacent to the site was undergoing significant alteration. The completion of this work coincided with our mid-term review, at which point we were able to update our base maps with new information and surveys provided by the local Department of Transportation. The shape of the site had changed, and its build-able area had increased by roughly 30%. Since my early analysis directed me toward using the full extent of the site, I followed the site’s new shape, and thereby added nearly 50,000 square feet to my proposal’s footprint. The additional volume invited two things—a secondary courtyard to minimize the amount of added space, and a new programmatic entity to give purpose to the additional square footage.

PLAN 1/16” = 1’

Pla n

SECONDARY BEAMS


Di slocated C onditions

A H eterotop i c L and s ca p e | P rog ram : C om m u n i t y Re cre a t i o n E n cla ve R i c hm ond H e i gh t s , S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i From the earliest iterations, the scheme was a continuous interior space, filled with various types of enclosure, surrounding an open courtyard. The continuity of the interior space coupled with the site’s topography allowed the programmatic entities to occupy their own territory within the section of the landscape while maintaining connectivity. When the need for an additional programmatic entity presented itself, an attempt was made to identify a use that would which bridge the functions adjacent to the newly added volume—the wet fitness area and the community center. Ultimately, the new area was designated as a physical therapy and rehabilitation zone, taking advantage of adjacency to the senior center, the new [secondary] courtyard, and the aquatics center. In order to create a use that would unite all of the programs and take full advantage of the site, a running track was located along the building’s perimeter.


He te ro to p ic Recom bination

O MA’s Parc d e L a Vi l lette i n Pari s + A n O cean L i ner from a C h i ld re n ’s E n cyclo p e d i a C o n ce p t

OMA’s competition proposal for Parc de La Villette in Paris + an ocean liner from a children’s encyclopedia (1982 and 1908, respectively). “During the life of the park, the programme will undergo constant change and adjustment. The more the park works, the more it will be in a perpetual state of revision. Its ‘design’ should therefore be the proposal of a method that combines architectural specificity with programmatic indeterminacy. In other words, we see this scheme not simply as a design but mostly as a tactical proposal to derive maximum benefit from the implantation on the site of a number of activities...The underlying principle of programmatic indeterminacy as a basis of the formal concept allows any shift, modification, replacement, or substitution to occur without damaging the initial hypothesis.” -Rem Koolhaas, “Congestion without Matter: Parc de la Villette, Paris, France, 1982,” in S, M, L, XL


A Wonderful World

Framework for A Heterotopia | Program: A New Map of the World + A Prototype Building Ba ck b a y, M u m b a i , I n d i a

S u b c o n t i n e n t a l N e t w o r k I n d i a c. 2 0 1 0

EURAFRICA

ASIA

THE AMERICAS

Global Ne t wo rk Cit y c. 20 8 0 “A Wonderful World” was a research-based studio which began with a fundamental assertion: The world is quickly developing into a collective living space for all of us. Our charge was to develop “A New Map of the World” based on research into a topic of importance to the future development of the world, and to project forward 50 years or more, indicating how our topic would effect the future condition of the world.

c. 2 0 10

S u b c o n t i n e n t a l N e t w o r k I n d i a c. 2 0 3 0

My initial research drew upon a body of work previously conducted by Saskia Sassen and others, focusing on Global Cities, their relationships to one another, and their role as centers of Global Power. By mapping the data collected by Sassen et al, I created a visual representation that served as a starting point for a projection of how cities in the Global South could be folded into the existing systems of global exchange—but in a way that empowered the Global South, allowing it to develop a parallel trajectory toward success, independent of reliance on existing power centers. Zooming in from the global and continental scales, my investigation addressed the Indian Subcontinent, for which I created a long-term development framework. Continental Network A

BE EIJ EIJIN JIN J IIN NG N SEOU SEOU SEO SEOUL EO EO OU UL

TOK TO OK KY Y YO O OSA OSAK SAK AK A KA KA FUK FU UK KU KUO UO U O OKA KA A

SHA SHANGH SHA ANGH AN NG GH HAI

TA TAI TAIPE AIP AI IP PE P EI HON ON NG K NG KO ON NG N G

Subcontinental Network India c. 2 03 0

S ubcont inental Net work India c.2080


A Wonderful World

Framework for A Heterotopia | Program: A New Map of the World + A Prototype Building Ba ck b a y, M u m b a i , I n d i a

Mumbai Metropolitan Development Strategy: Infill without Land Reclamation

Zooming in to the metropolitan scale, I addressed ongoing and interrelated problems with overpopulation and ecological degradation within the hyper-dense city of Mumbai. My proposal called for an ecologically sensitive method of utilizing coastal inlets and bays as large-scale development sites—as an alternative to the typical forms land reclamation that have been used since the island of Bombay was first colonized.


A Wonderful World

Framework for A Heterotopia | Program: A New Map of the World + A Prototype Building Ba ck b a y, M u m b a i , I n d i a

Mumbai Urban Prototype - Productive Loop

At the scale of the urban site, the prototype building—Productive Loop—attempts to create a financially viable and socially sustainable combination of worker housing and industry for three worker groups. First, he intervention provides basic infrastructural improvements to the existing fishing village, accommodating both their trade and their need for more sanitary dwelling and retailing conditions. Secondly, a vertical farming component coupled with a farmer’s market augments the existing food-based economy while generating a sorely needed commodity. Finally, a circuit comprised of a data center, call center and media lab provides for a degree of diversity and further economic opportunity.

f a r m +house

d a t a +house da

f i s h i n g

p i e r

f i s h +house

f i s h ma r ket

ta

ve pro

ces

sin

g

rt

ic

al

fa

rm

in

g

-

fo

od

pr

oc

es

si

ng

f a r m e r ’ s

m e d i a

l a b

m a r k e t


Outsider/Insider

A n Urb an Sp a ce An a ly s i s a n d M a p p i n g E l Ra va l, Ba rce lo n a , S p a i n


+ ADAPTABILITY

Di s ciplinary Overlap

Pa rti c i p a ti ng B od i es , Sel f- Innova ti ng C od es | P rog ra m : A C o lle ge P re p a ra to r y S ch o o l Fai rg round s Park, No r t h S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i

CENTRALIZED

DECENTRALIZED

“Participating Bodies, Self-Innovating Codes” was a computation-based studio that began by deploying parametric modeling tools (including Rhino’s Grasshopper plug-in) toward the study of building codes, regulations, and other bodies of knowledge. As a second step, the studio utilized Processing, an advanced scripting platform, to generate dynamic, performative models that were able to evolve and self-innovate. The studio’s loosely defined programmatic theme—education—provided a filter and a guide to our often tangential lines of inquiry.

DISTRIBUTED/MESH

7 SUBJECT AREAS x 6 CLASSROOMS PER AREA = 42 CLASSROOMS

+ 15% CIRCULATION

My initial attempts to answer the simple question, “How do we learn?” led me toward the field of Cognitive Neuroscience, and ultimately to Network Theory. My preliminary parametric models focused on the morphology of networks and the connectivity of nodes within a field. By wiring Centralized, Decentralized and Distributed networks from scratch, I was able to understand their fundamental attributes, and demonstrate their suitability for a given scenario. To augment this abstract study of networks, a precedent analysis of various scales of educational environments was conducted. The precedent analysis measured proximity and connectivity at the scale of the university campus, the campus precinct, the individual classroom building, and the single classroom unit. After selecting a College Preparatory School for 225 students as the program for my continued exploration, I used the classroom unit as a scalar entity, arranged it in various configurations, and evaluated the configurations based on degrees of proximity and connectivity. To fine tune the location and scale of the various school programs, I used a series of Processing scripts to create a Programmatic Topology. This carefully calibrated topology generated an initial plan geometry, which was then run through a series of iterations using a combination of conventional planning techniques and parametric modeling aids.

Studies in Network Morphology, Nodal Proximity, and Programmatic Connectivity

Programmatic Packing Script, Series 1 (via Processing, an open source programming environment)

Generative Topology via Processing

From Topology to Plan Geometry

Programmatic Packing Script, Series 2 (with looser strings)

Voronoi Patterning Overlay via Grasshopper

Plan Diagram

Programmatic Topology


Di s ciplinary Overlap

Pa rti c i p a ti ng B od i es , Sel f- Innova ti ng C od es | P rog ra m : A C o lle ge P re p a ra to r y S ch o o l Fai rg round s Park, No r t h S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i Hybrid Classroom “Disciplinary Overlap” refers to the relationship between subject areas within the project. The 6 core subject areas—Mathematics, Life Sciences, Social Sciences, Humanities, Language Arts, and Visual/Performing Arts—are arranged as a circuit, with the 7th subject/programmatic area, Wellness, at the center. Each of the 6 subject areas occupies a suite containing 3 classrooms: a single “autonomous” classroom that maintains a strict disciplinary focus, and two hybrid classrooms that overlap with adjacent subject areas. For example, a hybrid classroom between Mathematics and Visual Arts could hold a course on the Visualization of Data. In section, the hybrid classroom units interlock in a manner similar to Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation, with a central corridor acting as a way of mediating between the two subject areas. The interlocking section also creates a range of spaces within the volume of the classroom, providing students and teachers with places of differing scale and type. In order to maintain the clarity of school’s organization and pedagogy, each suite of subject area classrooms can be reached from a dedicated courtyard. However, in addition to the more expected entry and exit, a continuous circuit links all of the hybrid classrooms to each other, providing opportunities for an increased degree of interdisciplinary thinking.

Plan 01

Continuous Section

Plan 02

Roof Plan


Fram e/Infill

Ma teri a l and Sp ati a l System s w i thi n a Ni n e S q u a re C u b i c M a t r i x C o n ce p t

1

Opaque Black + Translucent Red

Translucent Corrugated White

Translucent Blue

Opaque Perforated White

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 - Empty Framework

Displace and Rearrange


P unctuated Mat

A H eterotop i c Soc i al C ond ens er | P rog ram : P ub l i c Hy b r i d / Po ro u s E n cla ve The Del m ar L o o p , S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i

1/4” = 1’ - 0”


P unctuated Mat

A H eterotop i c Soc i al C ond ens er | P rog ram : P ub l i c Hy b r i d / Po ro u s E n cla ve The Del m ar L o o p , S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i Socially and urbanistically, Punctuated Mat is a strategy for increasing density and uniting disparate communities on a contested site. The Delmar Loop in St. Louis—a typical example of “Main Street USA”—is the city’s dividing line between low income African-American residents (to the north), and upper class and [upwardly mobile] middle class residents (to the south). A third community, a transient student population, lives along the Loop, and in the past twenty years a local university has purchased significant amounts of real estate on the north side of the dividing line, re-purposing this property as student housing. These 3 communities, augmented by suburbanites who visit the Loop as a weekend or evening destination, mix and often clash, resulting in increasing degrees of regulation on and around the Loop, which are directed primarily at the low income residents to the north. Architecturally, the mat-building type is utilized for its ability to fill in voids within the urban fabric, and as a field-like framework that can accept and mediate diverse programs, activities and users. Early conceptual models focused on finding reciprocity between distinct systems within a cubic matrix. The relationships developed in the cubic studies informed the spatial and organizational qualities of the mat.

Plan 00

Plan 01

Opaque Black + Translucent Red

Translucent Corrugated White

Translucent Blue

Opaque Perforated White

Roof Plan Material and Spatial Systems Integration


P unctuated Mat

A H eterotop i c Soc i al C ond ens er | P rog ram : P ub l i c Hy b r i d / Po ro u s E n cla ve The Del m ar L o o p , S t . L o u i s , M i ss o u r i

MAT LAYERS

Programmatically, the project was developed as a Public Hybrid, containing three primary program types—leisure programs (including a basketball court and other fitness-related activities), civic programs (including a small library and black box theater), and finally, quotidian programs (including a DMV, post office, and similar). Using the cubic framework studies as a guide, these programs were juxtaposed around shared voids, creating the potential for overlap, with the hope that each would be enriched by mixing with the other.

STREET KNOT

To “punctuate” the mat, three specific programmatic entities were selected to represent each of the Loop’s 3 primary communities. First, a basketball court—a program sorely lacking in North St. Louis—was placed on the most prominent corner of the urban block, directly on the Loop. Second, a black-box theater was located on the site’s northern edge. Third, a tower for the local university’s fine arts department was located at the center of the block, intended to augment the MFA program’s existing studio and gallery offerings while creating a venue for public outreach.

PARASOL

RAISED GROUND

As an intricately sited, large scale, publicly funded project, Punctuated Mat would necessarily be built in phases, ideally in a critical and deliberative way, with the specific and changing needs of the community addressed as the project progressed. Phasing would also serve as an opportunity to differentiate the architectonic expression of the project, avoiding the pitfalls of the many large scale urban blocks that deny the variation of their surroundings in favor of singularity and expediency.

POROUS BLOCK

BASEMENT

DE

LM

AR

BL VD

LVD

RB

E INK

SK

Mat Layers

B

A

A

S e cti o n a l Pe rsp ec tive A A - Fine A rt St udios, Exhibit ion Spaces and Public O utreac h Storefronts

B

Portfolio 2009-2011  

Academic Work WUSTL M.Arch

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