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Small Scale Decent Change


FOREWORD We have entered a period where there are strong signs of a radical change in the modes of practicing architecture and also in the teaching of architecture. Architects of the future are expected to be working more with the public interest in mind; collaborative practices within the field and across various fields will be common; teamwork at every stage will be regular; they will be developing projects where research and design processes are intertwined; they will be practicing in a more pro-active environment. Within this perspective, we believe that the main goal of architectural education particularly in the graduate level will be completely transformed towards giving young professionals the experience of alternative architectural practices. Only through such an education, the graduates can be empowered to discover and craft our common future. Through this perspective and philosophy, we are hoping that ‘Alternative Architectural Practices’ program will contribute towards the discovery of new professional paths with its design, research and production-based focus. Our students will be part of a real design research process through the projects developed with our program partners from the industry. Beyond these ‘real-world’ research-by-design projects our students will take supportive courses leading to a rigorous graduate program. The program consists of four semesters; however, its structure is slightly different from other conventional graduate programs of architecture in Turkey. In the first two semesters the students take their required courses and also the studio sequence. Student also start developing their thesis during their second semester. In the following summer, the studio will move to prototyping and implementation stage. Finally, in their last semester students focus on their thesis and complete the program. Prof. Dr. Arda Inceoglu, Dean, MEF FADA

SMALL SCALE DECENT CHANGE An architecture soothsayer at the beginning of the twentieth century would not foresee that architects will have to find new ways to survive as the practice itself is eaten by global networks that once carried the architects on top of the ivory tower. Today, ideas that came out as utopias at the beginning of the last century have to be revisited as remedies for the ongoing global crisis. Who would imagine that small scale will offer a way out for architects and societies, after a century full of colossal architecture? When MoMA hosted an exhibition of architectural projects which aim to have a broad effect on the communities they work, titled as ‘Small Scale Big Change’ in 2010, it announced a radical break in the architecture. In 2016, the most prestigious event of architectural world Venice Architecture Biennale, titled as ‘Reporting from the Front’, was occupied by modest and clever projects from all over the world, that are socially engaged with the community they belong. However, these were just the precursors of the closing of an era, since they still used the language of the previous period that expected an unrealistic “big change” from small projects which were fighting in the front. For the next decades, it will get even more complex to propose architectural solutions for a society that is facing cutting edge technological advances at one side, while on the other side being threatened by the ongoing global economic crisis and diminishing resources. While architects will have to be inventing alternative ways to deal with this contradictory situation, it is more realistic and truthful to expect a decent change from small scale projects. In MEF University’s Alternative Architectural Practices program, we develop methods for imagining and building new paths to discover small scale architecture. In partnership with companies from the construction industry of Istanbul, the program aims to use the potential of the industry that has long been engaged with the global real estate market, as a tool to design and make new architectures/structures for the emerging conditions of our world. Sevince Bayrak, Program Co-coordinator, MEF FADA

System Kiosk K67, 1967, Saša J. Mächtig

RESEARCH I DESIGN GUIDE AAP TEAM Students: Ahmet Yaymanoğlu, Aysima Akın, Damla Kaleli, Dilek Yürük, Ebru Şahinkaya, Eda Yavaş, İlayda Baydemir, Nur Gülgör, Sena Hut, Zeynep Ulusoy Studio Instructor: Oral Göktaş Program Coordinators: Kürşad Özdemir, Sevince Bayrak Program Partners: Fibrobeton, Metal Yapı 2019 - 2020 MEF University Graduate Programme

















INTRODUCTION “Human housing is a matter of mass demand. Just as it no longer occurs to 90 percent of the population to have shoes made to measure but rather buy ready-made products that satisfy most individual requirements thanks to refined manufacturing methods. In the future the individual will be able to order from the warehouse the housing that is right for him. It is possible that present-day building industry is still almost completely dependent on traditional, crafts manly construction methods.” – Walter Gropius, Wohnhaus-Industrie, 1923 In the last 100 years, although the recent developments have widened the boundaries of architecture and the ways of performing architecture, it still is mostly dependent on traditional construction methods and it still looks for refined technologies to achieve readymade housing with minimum impact on the environment. Furthermore, the majority of the materials, including green technologies, still depend on non-renewable sources, which creates the problem of energy scarcity. Construction, production processes, transportation, and many other services are still heavily dependent on oil. This relates to the repeating economic crisis as well as the reason for wars, where the governments fight to win with the latest technology, but all other alive creatures constantly suffer. In this continuous loop, there is something seriously unsustainable that is the perception of the earth we live on, there is a common ignorance of accepting that it is a living organism with every single piece of it. In this mindset, we are searching for alternative paths. Our inquiry includes different aspects of design. Socioeconomic problems such as upcoming economic crisis or tense interactions between countries again for petroleum, structural durability problem with the increasing rarity of natural disasters, catastrophic climate change consequences that we are already facing, shaping characteristics of technology in architecture and lastly updated requirements of living space have been among our main interests. To sum up, we have compiled research based on all these conditions and problems. This semester, the research has been examined through five topics; history, durability, technology, ecology, and ergonomics. In MEF University’s Alternative Architectural Practices program, we develop methods for imagining and building new paths to discover small scale architecture.


HISTORY Over 200 years, the dwelling unit has been transformed in many ways due to changing human needs. Key historical events, including disasters, housing crisis, labour problems, and future scenarios; provide the explanatory information of these fundamental requirements of shelter. Potential solutions for the housing problem strongly connect with the economy, technology, and culture, which also depends on local and global diversity. Key features of a shelter rely on it being easy-to-construct, affordable, portable and deliverable.

Strandlund in front of packaged house [1]

GLOBAL TIMELINE Thresholds Innovations Shelters Culture Acts and Events Economy

LOCAL TIMELINE Thresholds Laws Dwellings Culture Social Life Economy


HISTORY 1624 The French Revolution has started in 1789 and ended in 1790s. It has played a critical role in shaping the modern nations by showing the power of people.

Melbourne established on the Yarra River after an abortive bid in 1803.

American Civil War (1861-1865) took place between United States and 7 South States that wanted to keep slavery. The war ended the institution of slavery with United States victory.






Wood shortage was occurred as a result of deforestation crisis.


Voltaic pile was the world’s first battery. Volta was able to prove this by constructing a stack of alternating zinc and silver plates with a piece of cloth soaked in a salt solution between the individual plates.

Jacquard has developed numerical control system.

“Balloon Frame” Augustine Taylor St. Mary Church Chicago

Thompson has invented PNEUMATİC “rubber tire”




First Panellized Wood House: Shipped from England Massachusetts as housing.

Haus des Gaertners Chaux Projekt: Designed by Étienne-Louis Boullée (1728-1799) and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806)

“Manning Portable Colonial Cottage” designed for immigrants by H.Manning.

American Prefabs build in Noctorn Farm Near Uitenhage, first documented prefabricated house.







Harriet Stowe’s best-selling novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” helped popularize the anti slavery movement. Her novel followed the life of black slave Uncle Tom, and was the second best-selling book of the 19th century after the Bible.



Lambot Reinforced Concrete Canoe Joseph Louis Lambot


Mrs. Beeton’s Book of Household Management





The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) was founded.

Royal Commission Report was published Commission reported the condition of the buildings in the Great Britain cities. They analysed poor condition of housing qualities and next several years, published emergent public acts for restoration. 1845

London first World Exhibition World expositions were especially centred on industry, and were fabled for the show of breakthroughs and scientific developments.

Central Park Competition The competition to design Central Park in New York is won by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux.



The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in history which was marked by a shift in the world from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.

Fourier’s phalanstere was a kind of people’s palace, a housing complex for 1,620 residents with a plan echoing that of Palace of Versailles.

In 1858 Andre Godin purchased 45 acres of land next to his factory and personally designed a phalanstery, calling it ‘‘Familiestere’’.

The Second Industrial Revolution: New innovations in steel production, petroleum and electricity led to the introduction of public automobiles and airplanes. In this lesson, learn about the key inventions that spurred this revolution.







“Life in the Woods” (Book) Henry David Thoreau

1912 Edison’s first Electric Station established.

Invention of Radio: Guglielmo Marconi, often receives credit based on his device capable of ringing a bell from 9m away. On the other hand, Nikola Tesla, an immigrant to the United States, demonstrated a wireless radio to audiences in St. Louis the year before Marconi’s demonstration. Although Tesla came first, Marconi patented his invention in 1896 while Tesla patented his in 1900. One year later, Marconi transmitted the first signal to cross the Atlantic from Europe to America.

Galveston Hurricane





Hippomobile, first petroleum engine by Jean J. Lenoir

Edison’s Cinema established

Mushroom Slabs

Duralumin: an aluminium alloy -lightweight and tough- containing 4% copper would slowly harden when left at room temperature for several days. Uses on production of planes.

The first wood wool insulating product was made in 1908 by the Heraklith Company in Ferndorf (Austria) using magnesite and cement as an adhesive. Nevertheless the first products had several disadvantages (flammability, poor dimensional stability) however wood wool insulation soon spread worldwide. 1863

Portable Summer House N.G. Rood By the turn of the twentieth century, architects and inventors had developed prefabricated houses of nearly every material to patent.




Single Poor Concrete System designed and patented by Thomas Edison

Sears Catalog Homes the company sold over 100,000 homes through their “Modern Hornes” mail-order catalogue. House No. 146 went on sale for 1.660 dollars



“The Seven Lamps of Architecture” John Ruskin


A Trip to the Moon: The movie was created by Georges Méliès. The scene of the space capsule landing in the Moon’s eye is one of the most iconic images in the history of cinema. 1902

Paris World Exhibition The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which served as the entrance arch to the Fair.



1873 Economic Crisis known as ‘‘Long Depression’’ happened. In general, the crisis occurred as the producers in the market increased the production in contrast to the demand and then the shortage of cash in the market hit the stock market. Losses occurred and many companies went bankrupt.


Ansonia Apartment Hotel (1904) in NYC: The Ansonia (far advanced for his time) was to have a self-sufficient building with its own rooftop farm.



American System Built Houses Designed by F.Lloyd Wright, which is never built.

1911-1917 Erector Set A.C. Gilbert mass produced toy kit

The Melting Pot: With this play,it was used as a metaphor for defining the fusion of cultures and ethnic origins, and then it became popular in the United States. 1908

“The garden city movement” is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by “greenbelts”


Standard Oil Company John D. Rockefeller formed Standard Oil Company. By 1879, the company not only 90% of America’s refining capacity.


‘Ein Dokument deutscher Kunst’ (Darmstadt) It was the first architecture exhibition that entirely consisted of homes and buildings, which themselves formed the objects that were on display.

Ornament and Crime was published Ornament and Crime is an essay and lecture by modernist architect Adolf Loos that criticizes ornament in useful objects.



Ford Model T: A significant step of mass production

Altena Castle, Germany: The first hostel was purposed to allow young people with lower income who were living in the cities to stay in the hostel.





F.1760 Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was one of the most important points of the world’s history that changing from a handicraft economy to machine dominated manufacturing. The revolution brought greater volume production and factory-produced products and also raised people’s living standards which are particularly middle and upper classes. However, for the proletariat and poor class, life was so challenging. With industrialization, some artisanal activities were replaced by mechanization. Furthermore, the urban and industrialized areas were not kept pace with the migrating people from rural areas, therefore it caused urban areas to transform into inadequate, overcrowded, unhealthy spaces. While governments introduced numerous labour reforms and the workers gained the right to form trade unions, conditions of working-class have improved. The negative and positive developments of the Industrial Revolution that changed the world can be listed in 10 items: The factory system, rise of capitalism, urbanization,exploitation of the working class, opportunity and increase in the standard of living, rise of materialism and consumerism, technological advancement, rise of socialism and Marxism, transfer of wealth and power to the west, pollution and destruction of environment.[2]

Image 1: Industrial Revolution [2]

B.1833 Balloon Frame System “The balloon frame method of wood construction is arguably the first incarnation of prefabricated construction system since it regularized the production of houses into a palette of ready-made units that could be assembled in fast and affordable configurations. The balloon frame is often considered one of the first thoroughly American forms of serial architectural production. It abandoned all lingering traces of European influence, celebrated the abundance of timber in the United States, and abandoned more expensive and labour-intensive materials that were not readily available in North America. Wood construction methods transposed to the United States from Europe had been characterized by elaborate joineries requiring skilled craftsmen largely unavailable in the New World. The method is primarily attributed to the Chicago builder Augustine Taylor, who developed the system in response to the city’s housing shortage. The system eliminated mortised beams and fittings, replacing them with two-by-fours and two-by-sixes set close to one another in increments of approximately one foot spaced horizontally. Studs and cross members were inserted in various configurations and could be increased or decreased in number depending on the anticipated structural integrity needed for the project. Wooden sheathing would subsequently be placed over the frame. Most importantly, the members were held together with manufactured cut iron nails, similar to today’s common steel nail. These allowed for the connection of wooden members with the greater ease and efficiency over crafted joineries. The entire wall unit could be delivered to a site and simply tilted upright, allowing house construction to occur in a matter of days.” [3] Image 2: Balloon Frame System [3]


E.1851 London First World Exhibition


In 1851, the Great Exhibition was held in the Crystal Palace, London which was made from steel and glass. From May to October during 5 months, 6 million people around the world came to visit the exhibition. The flashy display of artworks, inventions, gathering objects from distant lands became the pioneer of the Great Exhibition. Actually, some of the newspapers have mentioned that as such. Furthermore, it had a specific mission: Britain’s rulers had tried to show that the technology transforms the society and Britain was leading on the race. The Crystal Palace was filled with surprising objects but perhaps the most amazing things were the gigantic exhibition halls which were integrated with the new technology. Crowds visited to see the glowing steam engines, which would be used in ships and factories. [4]

Image 3: The State Opening of The Great Exhibition in 1851, colour lithograph by Louis Haghe [4]

D.1854 Life in the Woods - Henry D. Thoreau ‘‘Walden (also known as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is one of the best-known non-fiction books written by an American. Published in 1854, it details Thoreau’s life for two years, two months, and two days in second-growth forest around the shores of Walden Pond, on land owned by Ralph Waldo Emerson, not far from his friends and family in Concord, Massachusetts. Walden was written so that the stay appears to be a year, with expressed seasonal divisions. Thoreau called it an experiment in simple living. Thoreau lived in close geographical proximity to the town Concord: “living a mile from any neighbour,” should be taken literally; he lived about a mile from his neighbours. He did not go into the woods to become a hermit, but to isolate himself from civil society in order to gain a more objective understanding of it. Walden is neither a novel nor a true autobiography, but a social critique of much of the contemporary Western World, with its consumerist attitudes and its distance from and destruction of nature.’’ [5]

Image 4: Life In Woods- Walden [6]



F.1858 Familiestere Jean Baptiste Andre Godin was an industrialist who had been managed a highly profitable factory that produced ovens and stoves in Guise. In the 1840s he joined the phalansteries as a philanthropist. In 1853, after uprising against Napoleon III, he invested 100,000 francs to the United States and then had moved to there. Godin wanted to found a phalanstery called “Le Reunion” near Dallas, Texas. That project was failed. Because the enlisted colonists knew nothing about agriculture and the soil was too bad. And also a locust infestation destroyed most of the crops, therefore after just a year, the colony has dissolved. In 1858, Godin bought 45 acres of land to design his phalanstery called “Familiestere” where was next to his factory. Familistere, which was invented by Godin, contained glass-covered courtyards and water on each level, a laundry shop, a huge pool that could also be used by children, and a garbage chute. The cleaning service was to relieve women of households. Also, the day nursery was to provide an opportunity for them to work. Residents could get service for their basic health care with 2,5 francs per month, and also get drugs for free. There was a cooperative and communal kitchen that residents could buy groceries for a reasonable price. Thus Godin tried to set up an economic model to circumvent the intermediaries system that provides fruit, vegetables, meat, and bread in return money. [7]

Image 5: Familistere Photo by: Stephane Chalmeau [8]

C.1906-1919 Single Pour Concrete System Edison is one of the pioneer designers who thought it is possible to build an entire building with just using a single material repeatedly without do not need second material. By this time Edison had established his reputation as a patent leader holder in the United States, so his approach to the construction of a house of repetitive objects is not surprising. As a result, Edison designed a system that he would later call “Single Pour Concrete System” in which a series of balloon frame molds will be brought to the site and a mold system will be installed that creates surfaces except for window and door spaces. This scheme has illustrated in Edison’s official patent drawing presentation perfectly. A specially designed cylindrical rotating kiln on its wheels and a hydraulic vertical pump system would be brought to the construction site when the mould was finished. And then the vehicle would be pouring the wet concrete mixture from the hole at the top of mould and the mixture would settle to the bottom slowly. Edison first experienced that process on a model, which known as “chicken coop”, in his studio. Edison built about 100 houses in and around Union, New Jersey with the funds of wealthy manufacturer Charles Ingersoli from New Jersey.[9]

Image 6: Single Pour Concrete System [9]

Figure 1: Single Pour Concrete System, Process Detail [9]


F.1908 Ford Model T


Model T is an automobile that had been produced by Ford Motor Company from 1908 until 1927. It was an affordable, durable, multifunctional and easy to maintain transportation vehicle for an ordinary man which was designed by Henry Ford. Model Ts had been produced more than 15 million in Detroit and Highland Park, Mich. Assemblyline production allowed the cost to decrease from $ 850 in 1908 to less than $ 300 in 1925. At these prices, the Model T had been 40 percent cheaper than all models sold in the United States. Even before it lost its popularity against larger, powerful and luxury cars, the Model T, popularly known as “Tin Lizzie” or “Flivver”, had been an icon that helped Ford achieve its goal of democratizing the car. [10]

Image 7: Ford Model T Courtesy of the Ford Motor Company [10]

B.1909 Duralumin A German metallurgist, Alfred Wilm, has developed an alloy in 1903 that including 4 percent aluminium. Wilm discovered that the aluminium alloy would slowly harden when it stays for several days at room temperature. Further improvements have allowed the appearance of “Duralumin” in 1909. That name, which commonly used in popular science to describe the “2000” series or Al-Cu system, was determined by the International Alloy Designation System (IADS) in 1970. Duralumin’s composition and its heat treatment have published before World War I in the German scientific literature. Even that, Duralumin had not gone beyond Germany during World War I. German reports of use during World War I, even in technical magazines like Flight, could misidentify the main alloy component as magnesium instead of copper. [11]

Image 8: The first mass-production aircraft to make extensive use of duralumin, the armoured Junkers J.I sesquiplane of WW I. [11]



World War I: The war resulted in the death of empires and the birth of nations, and in national boundaries being redrawn around the world. It ushered in prosperity for some countries, while it brought economic depression to others.

Wiemer Republic is established: It was Germany’s government from 1919 to 1933, the period after World War I until the rise of Nazi Germany.





Portable baby cage-Emma Read London mothers and nannies, who did not have an open area or garden to leave their children comfortably, used the baby cage hanging outside an open window of the apartment.

First PVC “polyvinyl chloride” Waldo Semon

“Desert Ship” (Wüstenschiff) German engineer Johann Christoph Bischoff





American Army Shelter Experiment was done for the need of shelter during World War I.

Baukasten Walter Gropius, Adolf Mayer would develop a system of standard, industrially produced building elements.

Metal Prototype House, Törten Muche and Richard Paulick designed steel building in Dessau.

Dymaxion House designed by Buckminster Fuller in principle of good house could be produced as systematically as a good car.





American Celotex Company introduced first insulating panels made of bagasse (a waste by product of sugar.)

Towards a New Architecture – Le Corbusier: In this book Le Corbusier advocating for and exploring the concept of modern architecture.

Louis carried Charles Lindbergh from New York to Paris in 33 and a half hours, the first nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean. As Charles Lindbergh piloted the Spirit of St. Louis down the dirt runway of Roosevelt Field in New York on May 20, 1927.






One Week A newly wedded couple attempts to build a house with a prefabricated kit, unaware that a rival sabotaged the kit’s component numbering.



The Irish Home Rule Movement that campaigned for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After Parnell’s death, Gladstone introduced the Second Home Rule Bill in 1893.

Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar The exhibition poster was designed by Joost Schmidt a talented sculpture student who went on to become a Bauhaus teacher.

Woman in the Moon Fritz Lange



CIAM established, responsible for events and congresses arranged across Europe by the most prominent architects of the time, with the objective of spreading the principles of the Modern Movement.

Le Corbusier Foundation The Foundation in accordance with its statutes and its missions, has devoted all of its resources to the conservation, knowledge and dissemination of Le Corbusier’s work.





Berlin Modernism Housing Estates

The public relations campaign “Own Your Own Home” was launched by the National Association of Real Estate Boards. It was taken over by the U.S. Department of Labour in 1917, becoming the first federal program designed to encourage home ownership. The program was largely promotional; there were no financial incentives offered to prospective home buyers or builders.

Co-op Zimmer: The minimum dwelling by Hannes Mayer

Narkomfin Building: The project for four planned buildings was designed by Moisei Ginzburg with Ignaty Milinis in 1928.








Metropolis is a futuristic, urban-style film that shows a future where the city is structured in vertical layers according to the different social strata.

Crocodile Magazine It was the Soviet Union’s most famous and longestrunning illustrated satirical magazine.

1945 IKEA is founded by Ingvar Kamprad: IKEA is a European multinational group that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories, among other useful goods and occasionally home services.

The United States detonate Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Bombings played a role in the establishment of nation architecture and the emergence of architectural Metabolism movement as they caused house shortages and lack of infrastructure problems.

The Great Strike Wave were the largest strikes in American labour history: It was a series of massive post-war labour strikes from 1945 to 1946 spanning numerous industries and public utilities.





Wallace Carothers was an American chemist, inventor and credited with the invention of nylon.

“On Computable Numbers” Alan Turing has set out the theoretical basis for modern computers.

Water Uncycle patented


World War II: The vast majority of the world’s countries- including all the great powers- eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries.

Superglue: While searching for materials to make clear plastic gun sights, Coover and his team at Eastman Kodak examined cyanoacrylates, a material that was used during both World Wars (1914-1918; 1939-1945) as an alternative to stitches on large cuts and wounds, rejecting them as too sticky.





Keck Crystal House (1933-1934) designed and all built at full scale by George Fred Keck.

Usonian House Frank Lloyd Wright design for his friends as affordable housing which cost $5,500 after citing the project.

Packaged House (1941-1952) designed by Konrad Wachsmann Walter Gropius as wood-frame panellized houses.

Demountable House (1944) a 6 meter by 6 meter dimension prefabricated house designed by Jean Prouve.





House of Wheels has all Home Comforts


Modern Times Charles Chaplin

‘‘The Fountainhead’’ Ayn Rand Story of Howard Roark, a brilliant architect who dares to stand alone against the hostility of second-hand souls.

Popular Science 1931 July Issue



Stockholm Exhibition It was an exhibition that had a great impact on the architectural styles known as Functionalism and International Style.


First Congress of Soviet Architects


Great Depression, worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted until about 1939. It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world, sparking fundamental changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policy, and economic theory. Although it originated in the United States, the Great Depression caused drastic declines in output, severe unemployment, and acute deflation in almost every country of the world. 1929-1939


Roosevelt’s New Deal: The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations.


1943 Nine Chains to the Moon, was published by Buckminster Fuller. The book presents Fuller’s overview of technological history.

New York World Fair It was the first exposition to be based on the future, with an opening slogan of “Dawn of a New Day”, and it allowed all visitors to take a look at “the world of tomorrow”.



Bretton Woods Conference officially known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was a gathering of delegates from 44 nations

The Case Study House Program were experiments in American residential architecture sponsored by Arts & Architecture magazine, which commissioned major architects of the day.





B.1923 Portable Baby Cage Emma Read This cage, known as the “baby cage” fora babies living in crowded cities and apartments, It was discovered by Robert C Lafferty. This cage, whose purpose is to ensure that babies can benefit from daylight and fresh air in crowded cities, is also known as the “health cage”. In her autobiography, Eleanor Roosevelt wrote that, due to the importance of fresh air, during the morning nap, she left her daughter to breathe in a box with wires in front of her rear windows, on the top and sides. Although the cages with the same design differ in material, they were actually fora the same purpose. While the cages prevented the child from falling, they were also in such a way that they could get sunlight and fresh air. Some cages had a roof that could protect children from snow, rain and things that could fall from above. [12] Image 9: Portable Baby Cage [13]

B.1927 Desert Ship In 1927, Johann Christoph Bischoff , a German engineer, designed a vehicle which he called as a desert ship to cross deserts. It has 60 meters length with 300 passengers capacity. The vehicle, with 15 meters of gigantic wheels, consisted of 4 floors. It had 2 diesel engines and was designed entirely of metal. According to a news article from back in the day he even went as far as filing patents in all countries with colonial holdings. [14]

Image 10: Desert Ship [14]


D.1927 Metropolis


“Metropolis”, a futuristic, urban style movie that shows the future in which the city is structured with vertical layers according to different social layers, is one of the classics of director Fritz Lang. In the film, which is the current state of many cities today, in a dystopian vision of the future, the bustling Metropolis city lives in high-rise buildings stretching to the sky, while the working classes are structured to live and work under the ground. Although Metropolis architecture shows a general purpose of creating a single and powerful city that radiates power and wealth, conflict is inevitable. The architecture in this film emphasizes the power of the city, while at the same time shaping the values that are constantly evolving and make room fora larger events. While the film emphasizes a city sensitive to human interests. Also film clearly demonstrates the mediating role of architecture in ideologies, the conflicts that lead to cultural pluralism, as well as social unity. [15]

Image 11: Metropolis [16]

F.1933 Roosevelt’s New Deal New Agreement of Roosevelt (1933) that made America the way it is today. The New Deal, which included a series of regulations, aimed to make America a more consumer-friendly nation. The New Deal was designed to encourage consumer spending and promote economic growth. At the same time, the financial industries and banking will face further scrutiny and regulation. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC), It was founded in 1933 by the former U.S. Government Agency to ensure the stability of depreciated real estate during depression and refinance urban mortgage debt. Longterm mortgage loans were granted to approximately 1 million landlords who lost property. HOLC discontinued lending activities in June 1936 under the Landlords’ Loan Act. [17] The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), being an U.S. Government Agency, was partly created by the National Housing Act of 1934 and was founded by President Franklin Roosevelt. The purpose of this organization is to improve housing standards and conditions, to provide an adequate home financing system through the insurance of mortgage loans and to stabilize the mortgage market. FHA, sets the standards fora construction and contracting and insures loans fora banks and other private lenders fora housing construction. [18] The National Housing Act, signed on 27 June 1934 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to reduce the rate of lien, improve housing conditions, and make housing and mortgages more accessible and affordable during the Great Depression. The law was also part of the New Deal. [19] The United States Housing Authority, It is a federal agency designed to lend to states or communities for low cost construction, created in 1937 by the Housing Act of 1937 as part of the New Agreement within the United States Department of Internal Affairs. [20]

Image 12: New Deal Poster Social Security poster of a woman leaning on a fence post. [21]



E.1939 New York World Fair Planners were allowed to develop 1,200 acres in an old ash dump site in Queens for the World fair, the theme of “World of Tomorrow”, held in New York in 1939 at the peak of depression. Government agencies, companies, civil groups and smaller organizations from around the world have come in large numbers, built extraordinary pavilions and set up exhibitions. Iconic Trylon and Perisphere structures became the symbol of the whole fair; they hosted a diorama called “Democracy” in the future utopian city. During the two seasons, 44 million people attended the fair, browsing a possible future, and enjoyed the puppet shows and exciting journeys, girlie shows, and the fun of choreographed aquatic extravaganza. [22]

Image 13: New York World Fair Arlene Warner, “queen of beauty” of Elgin, Illinois, presides at the opening ceremonies of the Elgin Time Observatory at the New York World’s Fair on May 10, 1938. She is unveiling a heroic figure of “Time,” represented as a slave striking a gong sculptured by Bernard J. Rosenthal of Chicago [22]

C.1941-1952 Packaged House Packaged House of Konrad l Wachsmann and Walter Gropius, Instead of representing a revolution in prefabrication, it represents the pinnacle of timber-framed, panelled houses, which were quite common on both sides of the Atlantic until 1942. The system did not have ideal editing models. Instead, he developed a palette of ten different types, consisting of approximately 100 cm x 300 cm panels placed on 100 cm threedimensional space frame panels that make up all horizontal and vertical surfaces. The panel system in general did not have enough specificity to win the patent that Gropius sought. In fact, they are X-shaped wedge connectors that connect each panel against a series of metal plates placed on the edge of the panel, which proves to be innovative. The essentially flat wedge has replaced the standard Y-shaped connector due to its three dimensions, making it more difficult and easier to manufacture. [23]

Figure 2: Packaged House Drawing [23]


A.1943 IKEA


IKEA, a European multinational group, is a home design service that designs and sells other useful products, readymade furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories. IKEA, supported in Kingdom of Sweden by 17-year-old Ingvar Kamprad in 1943, is that the world’s largest furnishings merchandiser since 2008. The company claims this helps reduce costs and packaging usage by not sending air. For example, the volume of a library is significantly less if shipped disassembled rather than assembled. This type of packaging is also more practical for customers who provide transportation by public transport. Flat packs can be carried much easier. Rather than selling pre-assembled items, majority of IKEA furnitures are aimed to be assembled by the client. IKEA claims to be a pioneering pressure in sustainable techniques to mass client culture. Kamprad calls this “democratic design”, meaning the company follows an integrated approach to manufacturing and design (see also environmental design). In response to the explosion of the human population and financial expectations in the 20th and 21st centuries, the company creates production processes that reduce the costs and resource use by capturing material flows by applying economies of scale. [24]

Image 14: IKEA’s first store IKEA founder Ingvar Kamprad (right) shakes hands with Hans Ax, IKEA’s first store manager in 1965 [24]

A.1945 Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki The United States exploded two atomic weapons over the Japanese urban areas of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, separately, with the assent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings murdered somewhere in the range of 129,000 and 226,000 individuals, the vast majority of whom were regular people, and remain the main utilization of atomic weapons in furnished clash. After bombings Japan faced with critical problems such as housing shortage and destruction of infrastructural systems. As a result, atomic bombing brought a new word to the language “tabula rasa”, which describes the place where a torn-down building once stood. Therefore, they saw this as an opportunity for Japan itself to start over with a new, better, structure. The Hiroshima experience -literal for some of our protagonists, who witness the aftermath- encourages existential cynicism in some; others sublimate the shock into a lifelong commitment to new beginnings. The generation that will become the Metabolists share, from the beginning, the Japanese, obsession on tabula rasa. [25] Image 15: Atomic Bombing in Hiroshima [25]



Turing Test: Alan Turing has introduced many of the central concepts of AI in a report entitled “Intelligent Machinery” that aimed to determine if a machine was capable of thinking.

Great Smog of London: Lethal smog that covered the city caused by a combination of industrial pollution and high-pressure weather conditions.





Kunststoff Messe Styropor (Expanded polystyrene)

Computer Numerical Control Richard Kegg

First Operated System The IBM 704





Wichita House, Kansas Buckminster Fuller was first designed house as prefabricated building than adapted to emergency shelter during war.

Case Study House No.8 Charles and Ray Eames build house during experiment that would commission major architects to reconsider the modern dwelling.

Le Cabanon was designed by Le Corbusier for himself and his wife as a prefabricated summerhouse.

All Plastic House designed by Ionel Schien as experimental use of plastic.





Timing Electrical Pulses

Berlin Strike

Foundation of OPEC: The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries was created by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela during the Baghdad Conference.





Western Pacific, Luxurious Comfort, Women’s Lounge, Delicious Meals.



UN Convention relating the status of refugees that defines who a refugee is, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.

2001: A Space Odyssey by Stanley Kubrick

Hungarian version poster of the film by Antal Gunda

1963 Berlin Interbau, The International Building Exhibition It was an urban renewal project in West Berlin, Germany.

1968 Brussels World Fair also known as Expo 58, it was the first major World Expo registered under the Bureau International des Expositions after World War II.

Fair Housing Act, USA “Freedom is Equal Housing Too.”





Levittown: The project – started in 1947 as America’s prototypical postwar planned community.

The HLM system was created in 1950 in response to France’s postwar housing crisis. The new system took its foundations from the HBM (habitation à bon marché – “inexpensive housing”) system, which had been created in 1889 and financed mainly by charitable sources rather than the state.

A panel hanging from a crane was the logo of Camus-Dietsch, a French company which opened its facility in 1954. The factory was the foundation for prefabricated construction across many countries.

The Million Programme is the public housing programme implemented in Sweden between 1965 and 1974 by the governing Swedish Social Democratic Party to make sure everyone could have a home at a reasonable price.








Cheryomushki / Cherry Town by Gerbert Rappaport

“Silent Spring” Rachel Carson Documenting the adverse environmental effects caused by the indiscriminate use of pesticides.

1975 Berlin Wall construction



SDI surveillance drone system Royal Artillery

Computer aided design (CAD) was introduced in 1963




Habitat designed by Moshe Safdie for World Exposition of 1967.

Futuro House Prefabricated house designed by Matti Suuronen.

K67 kiosk designed by Saša J. Mächtig. This street equipment design for Slovenia.




The first Whole Earth Catalogue

Neil Armstrong and his crew landed on the Moon: The historic launch of the Apollo 11 mission carried three astronauts toward the moon. 1969

Hurricane Agnes: America’s costliest natural disaster, effecting 15 states, with 119 deaths and $3 billion in damage.


Brasilia established Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa

1972 Apollo 8 Launched J.Lovell,W. Anders and F.Borman would be on their way to space and to becoming the first three humans to fly around the moon.

The first personal computer Altair 8800


Capsule Tower designed by Kisho Kurukowa and completed in Tokyo.


Domebook One


Lloyd Kahn

Ant Farm

How to Build Your Own Living Structures Ken Isaacs

Stewart Brand




World Design Conferance

Montreal World Fair, B.Fuller The Biosphere is a museum dedicated to the environment. It is located at Parc Jean-Drapeau, on Saint Helen’s Island.

Tokyo Expo The theme of the Expo was “Progress and Harmony for Mankind.”





End of the Bretton Woods monetary system: On 15 August 1971, the United States unilaterally terminated convertibility of the US dollar to gold, effectively bringing the Bretton Woods system to an end and rendering the dollar a fiat currency. At the same time, many fixed currencies (such as the pound sterling) also became freefloating.

Robin Hood Gardens in London

Demolition of Pruitt Igoe: By the mid1960s, however, the complex’s crime rate surged, the vacancy rate rose, and living conditions dramatically declined. On July 15, 1972, the city of St. Louis admitted defeat and demolished 3 of the project’s 33 towers.

Oil crisis: Since oil provides the main source of energy for advanced industrial economies, an oil crisis can endanger economic and political stability throughout the global economy.





1972 Earth Day Exhibition It was a day that activists could send a message that the environment needed protection.



F.1947 Levittown Levittown, a development of more than 17,000 detached houses, started in 1947 as America’s post-war prototype community. It has outperformed its boldest supporters and toughest detectors today as something more complex than a monument to the glory of the American dream or the glory and harmony of that dream. The founder’s son, William Levitt, came home from the navy, thinking that every young veteran who returned to the USA would need a home. Then he decided to use the mass production strategies he learned while building the military dwelling. Levitt and Sons, who bought about 1,800 hectares of Long Island’s potato and onion fields, went to work. They built all the Levittown residences between 1947 and 1951. And they started building houses every 16 minutes. Popularly, using systems that are well known in American car manufacturing but are new to home construction. “We are not constructors,” said straighttalking Levitt, the activity’s driving force. “We are manufacturers.” He even ventured to such an extreme as to proclaim his organization “the General Motors of the lodging business”, giving families the local segment of the American dream, similarly as GM gave them the vehicular one. All things being equal, William Levitt called his item – which previously sold for $7,990 with a 5% up front instalment (0% for veterans) and accompanied an implicit TV and greetings of – “the best house in the US”. [26]

Image 16: Levittown [26]

A.1952 Great Smog of London Great Smog of London, a lethal event in December 1952 that caused by industrial pollution dependant on coal burning and high-pressure weather conditions, which caused polluted smog to get trapped on the ground level of London, and resulted in thousands of deaths while it lasted only 5 days. London always had an issue with polluted fog, where water vapour would connect to chemicals released from coal burning factories and produce dark and heavy clouds, therefore, the word smog has invented in the early 20th century as a combination of smoke and fog. After 4 years of the incident, British government agreed on Clean Air Act, which has restricted the burning of the coal in domestic and industrial buildings. [27]

Image 17: Great Smog of London [27] Photo: London fog, 1952 © Keystone—Hulton Archive/Getty Images


B.1952 Styropor (Expanded Polystyrene)


An engineer named Fritz Stastny (1908-1985), he obtained a new raw material after World War II. By developing pre-expanded polystyrene, it was possible to extrude plates or molds in various parts with this raw material, where pentane and other aliphatic hydrocarbons were incorporated into the beads. The patent of this technology was registered in 1949 by Stastny and German giant BASF. In 1952, the first introduction of the molding technique was made at Kunststoff Messe in DĂźsseldorf, while the first products were sold as Styropor. Then, by describing the crystal structure of isostatic polystyrene to this raw material, Giulio Natta contributed. In 1954, Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam was invented. Dylite Koppers Company, based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, started selling under the brand. The first foam containers were delivered by Dart Container Company in 1960. [28]

Image 28: Expanded Polystyrene [29]

C.1956 All Plastic House All Plastic House was designed in 1956 by Architect Ilonel Schein. The house consists of a single level, consisting of eight separate sections that are combined at a central point. The portions stay equivalent in span until the last four areas, so, all in all the range become progressively enormous, shaping an arrangement which reviews a Fibonacci-a structure (an arranged cluster which limits or grows in non-direct interims). For the acknowledgment of an assembled model, each cut was manufactured independently and pulled in on eight separate trucks to be associated nearby. This structure is a new interpretation of round house typology unlike Fuller’s Dymaxion models. The building, which organizes itself from the environment, is organized outwards from the centre point of the building, for example. Maybe considerably more significant than its proper development is the amazingly propelled utilization of plastics, a material up to that point utilized solely in modern circumstances. Slots are provided for glass or secondary inserts as needed for each segment, Large single molds with enormous durability, flexibility and strength were produced to create floors, roofs and faces. Connections with neighbouring sections comprise of basic screw-and-fastener frameworks. Albeit plastic was at that point ending up being a less expensive option in contrast to conventional structure materials, scarcely any designers thought about it for house development. Schein’s project marks the start of an interest for the use of plastic in lodging plan in late-1950s and 1960s France. His work would impact endless different modellers intrigued by the novel form making conceivable outcomes of moderate, replicable structures and configuration objects, for example, Jean Maneval and Eric Clements in France and Gaetano Pesce in Italy.[30]

Image 19: All Plastic House [31]



E.1960 World Design Conference Japan wanted to introduce its architects to the public at the World Design Conference. It was the time Metabolism 1960: The Proposal for New Urbanism acquainted with universe of engineering, Kurokawa and Arazu sells their declaration on the entryway and fundamental draftsmen of the time welcomed this gathering, for example, Jean Prouve, Paul Rudolph, Alison, and Peter Smithson, Louis Kahn, and so forth. Right now, Kikutake, Ekuan, Otake, and Tange’s himself made introductions about their new compositional issues. The Metabolism Movement was officially introduced at this conference. [32] Image 20: World Design Conference, 1960 [32]

D.1963 Cheryomushki / Cherry Town by Gerbert Rappaport To introduce the first years of Khrushchev’s new housing policy, “In view of the operetta of Dmitri Shostakovich (1959), Gerbert Rappaport’s unusual film Cheryomushki (1963) was authorized for advance the early years. The subject of the film is an explosion that pushes his hero Boris into the new panel circle - around the theme of destroying the old hero where the last standing brick house in the newly established Cheryomushki area saw an explosion. Lidochka awaits him. With choreographic movements of flying panels offering an optimistic background view, brings a magical visual to the prefabrication of large concrete residences. [33]

Image 21: Hungarian version poster of the Cherry Town by Antal Gunda, 1963 [33]


E. 1964 Fair Housing Act, USA


The Fair Housing Act of 1968 was signed by the law by President Lyndon B. Johnson to prevent discrimination against people from minority groups when trying to rent or purchase a landlord, apply for mortgages or receive housing benefits. This Fair Housing Law prohibits discrimination based on family status, race, gender, religion. The law was signed on 11 April 1968 by President Lyndon Johnson. This law makes it illegal for a mortgage loan to be charged more than others in a protected group or to change the lease or loan application standards to buy housing. It prohibits rejection, either indirectly or indirectly, to provide these people with shelter. One of the events that encouraged Congress to pass the Fair Housing Act because it could not be enacted earlier, Rev. Fighting for fair housing in Chicago on April 4, 1968. It was the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. With the implementation of the law, although the problem seems to have disappeared, only discrimination of housing has actually decreased. Many of the regions in the South and the Midwest have been racially separated. And blacks continue to be turned down twice as much as white for mortgage loans. [34]

Image 22: The Rev. Martin Luther King unsuccessfully fought for housing equality in Chicago [35]

A.1969 Neil Armstrong on the Moon Apollo 11, the first mission in its history, carried out 3 astronauts to the moon. Spacecraft ensured a transport and self-sufficient place for working and living. In space with an extremely challenging environment, Apollo had to provide everything necessary for the journey. Apollo 11. Protection, flight and working equipment, weather, food, clothing, equivalence of bathrooms and more. The works in this exhibition show creativity and planning unnecessary for a journey from space to another world. The Apollo 11 mission had three spacecraft: Command Module Columbia, a Service Module, and the Moon Module Eagle. As astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin landed on the Moon in Kartal, Michael Collins was left alone in Columbia. It served as a communication link for 28 hours and photographed the lunar surface. After taking Armstrong and Aldrin back from the Moon Module’s exit phase, it was the only part of the Columbia spacecraft that returned to Earth. [36]

Image 23: Buzz Aldrin became the second person to walk on the Moon [37]



Start of modern internet: ARPANET adopted TCP/IP and from there researchers began to assemble the “network of networks”. The online world then took on a more recognizable form in 1990, when computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web.

Chernobyl is a nuclear accident that happened in Pripyat, Ukraine.

Berlin Wall Falls: Demolishing the wall was a pivotal event as it was the most powerful symbol of Cold War.

Somali Civil War caused serious damage to economy, infrastructure and people.





The history of 3D printing begins in 1981 with Dr. Hideo Kodama’s patent application for a rapid prototyping device.

World’s first Passive House in Kranichstein, Germany


Gore-Tex is a waterproof, breathable fabric membrane and registered trademark of W. L. Gore and Associates. Patent

SIP is a sandwich structured composite, consisting of an insulating layer of rigid core sandwiched between two layers of structural board, used as a building material.




Ramot Housing Zvi Hecker is commissioned by the Israeli government to design it.

Yacht House Richard Norden / Cherry LeenArchitects The Yacht House is built with aluminium and stainless steel spars.

Almere House is designed by Benthem Crouwel Architects.




Kim House Waro Kishi designed a small house in the old town of Osaka.





Koyaanisqatsi by Godfrey Reggio A silent film without narration, it’s a collage telling the tale of human evolution, from nature to the invasive man-made world of today.




This Old House Bob Vila Norm Abram




Burning Man has started.

Docomomo International was founded in Eindhoven by Dutch architects HubertJan Henket and Wessel de Jonge



The Right to Buy scheme is a policy in the United Kingdom which gives secure tenants of councils and some housing associations the legal right to buy, at a large discount, the council house they are living in.

Fannie Mae issues: the first mortgagebacks security that will lead to the housing crisis.



1987 Façade Design by Nikolay Jarsky

Blade Runner by Ridley Scott

The design for a nine-storey building for workers of the Tashkent aviation factory in Uzbekistan. 1982

1984 NWR-BouwRAI Two Dutch housing exhibitions that were held in the 1990s triggered a reorientation of the then-current design principles for home plans.

Galerie Patrick Seguin was founded The gallery has brought French designers such as Jean Prouvé, Charlotte Perriand, Pierre Jeanneret, Le Corbusier and Jean Royère into the international spotlight. 1989

1990-1992 HOPE VI is a program of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. It is intended to revitalize the worst public housing projects into mixed-income developments.


Demolition of Kowloon Walled City


2005 Iraq War: It has began with the invasion of the USA and the United Kingdom.

Indian Ocean Tsunami Indonesia Earthquake

Kashmir Earthquake Pakistan





Building information modeling (BIM) The term ‘Building Information Model’ first appeared in a paper by G.A. van Nederveen and F. P. Tolman.

The first USB (1994): The first USB technology began development in 1994, co-invented by Ajay Bhatt of Intel and the USB-IF (USB Implementers Forum, Inc). The organization is comprised of industry leaders like Intel, Microsoft, Compaq, LSI, Apple and Hewlett-Packard.

The first self-healing materials were polymers (plastics made from long, repeating molecules) with a kind of embedded internal adhesive, reported in by Scott White, Nancy Sottos, and colleagues from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In 2001, Pilkington Glass announced the development of the first self-cleaning windows, Pilkington Activ™





Micro Compact Home Horden Cherry Lee Architects and Haack+Höpfner Architects designed for short stay living for students, business people and leisure use and for weekender.

Paper Log House ,India After the biggest earthquake in India in 2001, Shigeru Ban designed this Paper Log House.

Muji House Muji/Net Muji Housing Division Muji is a Japanese retail company and also Muji designed three micro homes.




Wikipedia launch as a free, web-based, collaborative, multilingual encyclopedia project.

Maxi Capsule Luxus Atelier van Lieshout an entirely selfsupporting unit that functions as a mobile hotel room.

Birthingtent Dre Wapenaar




European Housing Expo Bo01 An expo on Ön in Malmö was planned for 2000, however following the council’s acquisition of the Western Harbour it was decided that this former industrial area would be a more suitable location.

The Dome Project: Occidental Installation Occidental Investor information including news, financial reports, and quarterly earnings.

Kalkin Quik House is designed by Adam Kalkin.

2000 Light Architecture Richard Horden


Dolly the sheep: The first successfully cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep, is born at the Roslin Institute in Scotland.

The 1996 John Dinkeloo Memorial Lecture

1996 Serpentine is renowned for the temporary summer pavilion, commissioning since 2000 to some of the most prominent international architects.

Tropical House in Niamey : discovery, dismantle and back to France





The Spanish property bubble is the collapsed overshooting part of a long-term price increase of Spanish real estate prices.

Alan Greenspan begins cutting interest rates, encouraging US mortgage lending.

Incremental House by ELEMENTAL

Rapid increase in sub-prime mortgages in the US.







B.1981 3D Printing by Dr. Hideo Kodama The concept of 3D printing was first introduced in 1974 by David E. H. Jones in his column, New Scientist, in the column named Ariadne. The term “3D printing” is a typical layer where the material is combined or solidified under computer control to form a three-dimensional object, where the material is combined (as liquid molecules or dust particles fuse together). The history of 3D printing, in 1981. It starts with a patent application for a rapid prototyping device of Hideo Kodama. Charles Hull is granted a patent for his system and his company 3D Systems Corporation launches the first commercial 3D printer, the SLA-1. [38]

Image 24: The first 3D printer ever created was made in 1983 by Chuck Hull. [39]

D.1984 Mosaic Façade Panel by The Jarsky Brothers For the facade of buildings in Soviet Tashkent, the brothers Petr Jarsky, Nikolay Jarsky and Alexander Jarsky, who created valuable mosaic artworks, combined Soviet modernism with floral patterns and programmed motifs. “The best place to create something new, beautiful, and useful is a place where much is being built. At the time, Tashkent was such a city,” After the 1966 earthquake, he wrote in the Tashkent Evening Newspaper in 1972 to express the status of the city. Architect Jury Miroshnichenko evaluated the work of talented brothers with these words: “The design bewildered the architects. Its composition, colour, and subject matter did not reflect the Uzbek people’s popular ideas on ornamentation.” In the history of Soviet architecture, the works of the brothers are very important due to the unique examples of its kind. Mass production panel systems had some kind of monotony. Tashkent was trying to distinguish each one with relieves, ornaments and other facade elements. In some of their works, they created concrete panel factories containing propaganda. According to Nikolay Jarsky, the challenge was to “break the monotony of the prefabricated mass housing series, each time with a new image”. The techniques for producing mosaics panels are as follows: “Petr, Alexander, and Nikolay Jarsky draw a full-size pattern on a piece of paper. Mosaic setters then layout colourful tiles onto the drawing, and the finished template is laid into a mould. After the concrete is poured into the mould, the paper is removed, and the tile pattern remains fixed on the panel. The completed panels are delivered to the construction site and assembled.’’ [40] Image 25: Façade design for a nine-storey building for workers of the Tashkent aviation factory in ui. Shaykhontohur 28-30 Tashkent, Uzbekistan, designed by Nikolay Jarsky [41]


A.1986 Chernobyl Disaster


Considered as the worst nuclear disaster in history, it is one of two nuclear energy disasters whose severity was recorded as seven on the International Nuclear Event Scale. It is an area spread over 30 km from the explosion zone. The Chernobyl Shelter Fund was established in 1997 at the Denver 23rd G8 summit to support the Asylum Implementation Plan (SIP).In order to transform the area into an ecologically safe area, the stabilization of the sarcophagus and then the creation of a New Safe Constraint (NSC) were used. A significant economic impact at the time was the removal of 784,320 ha (1,938,100 acres) of agricultural land and 694,200 ha (1,715,000 acres) of forest from production. Agricultural production costs have increased due to the need for special cultivation techniques, fertilizers and additives, many of which have been made available again. [42]

Image 26: Effect of the explosion at the Chernobyl power plant Photo by Volodymr Repik / Reuters [42]

E. 1986 First Burning Man Festival, USA Burning Man, whose goal is to create a society that connects each individual to their society with their creative powers, to create a wider civilian living space and to the larger world of nature that exists beyond society, was founded by Larry Harvey and It was created by Jerry James. It is a festival organized as a small function by building the first “Human�, covering nine days since Labour Day each year, which is usually starts on Sunday and ends the first Monday of September. During the festival, the community focuses on ways of expressing themselves artistically to be created by all participants. Participation is key to society; selfless sharing of unique talents for everyone to enjoy are encouraged. As an example of creativity; buildings, interactive and experimental sculptures, art cars and performances can be given. These contributions are inspired by a theme chosen by the organizers every year. [43] [44]

Image 27: Uchronia, 2006 Photo by: Arne Quinze [45]



F.1993 Demolition of Kowloon Walled City When it collapsed in 1994, Hong Kong’s two-hectare settlement, Kowloon Walled City, hosted 35,000 people. While it was a refuge for immigrants, it was a busy area run by foreigners, gangsters and drug dealers. For business owners, this was a place to avoid annoying regulations. This region had a historical background. This residential area was built as a trading post in the 11th century and later became a garrison of the Chinese army. In 1898, the British government rented a land surrounding Hong Kong Island and its current colony in Kowloon: this also included the area around the garrison. However, Walled City never became part of the British colony, and Chinese officials were allowed to stay there for a long time. Because they did not interfere with the British jurisdiction. The walls of the city, by the Japanese occupation forces. During the Second World War, Kai Tak was used to expand the airport. Refugees fleeing the communist revolution settled in this area in China in the 1950s. This area has become the most populated place in the world because neither Britain nor China paid much attention. Slums, factory owners and organized crime unions also took action. The new settlers were able to do everything they could find before replacing the unstable huts in the 1960s with solid structures. Others have created more than 300 interconnected foundation-laid buildings that span 14 floors, which are not at all safe. These structures had several windows and no ventilation. That’s why the entrances of the city’s factories and shops often remained open. [46]

Figure 3: Info graphic Showing of Kowloon Walled City Courtesy of South China Morning Post [47]

C.2001 Paper Log House ,India The design of the Paper Log House emerged due to the earthquake that devastated Kobe in 1995 by Shigeru Ban. Four years have passed and he changed the Paper Log House to meet the needs of the Turkish people with another disaster, the 1999 earthquake. In 2001, Ban used the Paper Log House in India after recording the country’s largest earthquake. In 2005, SBA was invited to build the Paper Log House for an exhibition. SAFE: At Design Takes On Risk Products and prototypes designed to protect the body and mind from dangerous conditions, respond to emergencies and provide a sense of comfort and safety are offered. The house shown is an exact copy of the Kobe Paper Log House in 1995. The criteria of these residences provided by Paper Log House, which ultimately provides temporary relief for many families, were cheap materials, simple construction methods, satisfactory insulation and at the same time aesthetically pleasing. [48]

Image 28: Paper Log House, India (2001) [49]


F.2003 Incremental House by ELEMENTAL


Elemental’s first project was highly appreciated in one of Chile’s largest port cities, Iquique. They were asked to relocate the family living in 100 slums on the same plot they had occupied for the last 30 years. But he was forced to do so in the standard government subsidy of $ 7,500 per house. And this included infrastructure and construction costs. [50] Given the current values in the Chilean construction industry, $ 7,500 only allowed 40 square meters of construction area. At the same time, they had to pay 3 times more for the land located in the city centre. In Chile, a middle-class family could live in a home of about 80 square meters, while a low-income family could survive only in an area of 40 square meters. They cannot own a large, “good” home, and therefore they usually stay in smaller homes. So why were they not given a small house instead of a half “good” house? [51] ELEMENTAL provided a basic house and two rooms with a total of 40 square meters each, with the necessary sanitary equipment. With this framework, families built the rest of the house after saving enough money and gradually turned their houses into a more desirable unit than social housing. [52]

36 m²

36 m²

72 m²

if the first half of the house cost was and the second half the final value is more than $7,500





Image 29: Value Increase of Quinta Monroy [53]

C.2004 Muji House Having a consistent brand philosophy, Muji is also a Japanese retail company that designs three micro houses. Since 2004 it has been offering simple yet inspiring homes that cover almost every area of life. MUJI House is a small but highly editable “empty” box as a concept. The small-scale appearance of MUJI, which comes in an area of about 90 ~ 130 square meters, has existed since the first models were launched and long before the small house movement. MUJI currently offers three different house models: “Ki no Ie (Wooden House)”, “Mado no Ie (Window House)” and “Tate no Ie (Vertical House).” And in September 2019, the fourth product, Yo no Ie (Sun House), one of the most distinctive features of all three model houses shared is that it reinforced the concept of “oneroom house”. the whole area is designed like a large single room. There is no wall to divide the rooms, and the floors are connected using double ceilings and high windows. Furniture or partitions can be used as dividers if required or desired. [54]

Image 30: Muji House / Mado no Ie (Window House), 2004 [54]



Secure Fence Act: The Secure Fence Act of 2006, which authorized the construction of 700 miles of doublelayered fencing along part of the U.S.Mexico border

Apple iPhone released: The iPhone is a line of smart phones designed and marketed by Apple Inc.

Great Recession (Mortgage crisis): A global economic downturn that devastated world financial markets as well as the banking and real estate industries.

Starting of mass migration from Syria: People’s riots caused by the Arab Spring, Syria in March 2011 leaped. Assad government in Syria, the military violently suppress demonstrations to turn to, was the first sign of the mass migration will begin in Turkey.





YouTube has launched

Twitter has launched

Google Street View launched

Scientists engineer new plastics without the use of fossil fuels





Polar Lab is a temporary Research Habitat in Antarctica.

Final Wooden House is designed by Sou Fujimoto Architects and the architect uses the versatility of Lumber.

The Sustainable Cabin is designed by Texas Tech University. The project is prefabricated, sustainable design-build project.

Halley VI Antarctic Research Station is designed by Hugh Broughton Architects with AECOM.





Wall-E: In 2805, Earth is an abandoned, dystopian planet covered in garbage, with its people evacuated by megacorporation Buy-N-Large on giant star-liners.

Black Mirror: An anthology series that revolves around a group of people’s personal lives and how technology manipulates their behaviour







Sorry Out Of Gas


Glovanna Borasi, Mirko Zardini is written for an architecture’s response to the 1973 oil crisis.



Onedotzero Festival in London create immersive environments, producing culturally significant experiences: merging arts, entertainment and technology.

Home Delivery: Fabricating the Modern Dwelling, MoMA The exhibition, and its accompanying website, display the process of architectural design and production in equal measure with the actual end result.

Dezeen x Design Association Container Design Competition exhibition space in Tokyo.

Small Scale, Big Change: New Architectures of Social Engagement, MoMA. Exhibition says that: ‘‘Architecture is rediscovering its social conscience.’’





Real estate prices in Berlin begin to rise

Torre David in Caracas

Founding of Airbnb: Share your flat and rent it out for as a holiday home.

WikiHouse is an open-source project for designing and building homes.







Amazon Kindle The device used an electronic paper display and was able to download books and other digital content from Amazon, without a computer and without any monthly fee.


2019 ISIS Attacks: ISIS militants has destroyed one of the best-preserved ruins at the Syrian site of Palmyra.

Paris Agreement: Global response to climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

Greta Thunberg & Climate Emergency Protests





First consumer oriented AR drone was released by Parrot.

Large scale prefab MEP installation

First 3D Printed House to Be Built In Amsterdam

Virtual Reality makes a comeback





Alpine Shelter Skuta is designed by OFIS Architects + AKT II + Harvard GSD Students in extreme climatic condition.

Urban Cabin is designed by DUS Architects⁣ and it is a research into compact and sustainable dwelling solutions.

MARSHA Ai Space Factory The project offers a habitat which describes a future of human life on Mars.

Cork House in Berkshire Cork House was designed by Matthew Barnett Howland with Dido Milne and Oliver Wilton.





Elements of Architecture

The Fool (Durak) Set in an unnamed town in Russia, the film follows the protagonist Dima’s unavailing attempt to rescue a crumbling building - and all 820 of its residents. 2014

Rem Koolhas


Facebook Big Data Scandal: Cambridge Analytica has used Facebook data to manipulate Brexit referendum in the UK and Donald Trump presidential elections in the USA.

Small Is Beautiful: A Tiny House Documentary

Martian Depicts an astronaut’s lone struggle to survive on Mars after being left behind, and efforts to rescue him, and bring him home to Earth.

Documentary that explores the complexities of human shelters and shows us that the story of a house 2014


Nine Islands, 3rd Istanbul Design Biennial “Are We Human?” Galata Greek School, Istanbul. Matters Around Architecture is a mixedmedia installation that reflects on the temporal and geographical origins of architectural materiality.

MultiPly, London Design Festival: This pavilion will delve into two of the current global challenges – housing and climate change - and will present the fusion of modular systems and a responsible choice of materials as a vital solution.





U.S. foreclosure crisis refers to a widespread epidemic of improper foreclosures initiated by large banks and other lenders. The foreclosure crisis was extensively covered by news outlets beginning in October 2010, and several large banks responded by halting their temporarily foreclosure proceedings in some or all states. The foreclosure crisis caused significant investor fear in the U.S. A 2014 study published in the American Journal of Public Health linked the foreclosure crisis to an increase in suicide rates. 2010

UK Bedroom Tax: The underoccupancy penalty results from a reform contained in the British Welfare Reform Act 2012 whereby tenants living in public housing with rooms deemed “spare” face a reduction in Housing Benefit, resulting in them being obliged to fund this reduction from their incomes or to face rent arrears and potential eviction by their landlord.

Average house price in London passes 400,000 pounds.

First 3D printed neighbourhood in Mexico: A non-profit organization New Story ,co-op with ÉCHALE and ICON, handled with the housing shortages.




Campus in Camps was founded. It is an experimental education program that activates critical learning and egalitarian environments in Palestinian refugee camps.

2015 Flying Panels Exhibition design by Note Design Studio in Stockholm.



F.2008 Airbnb Providing access to goods and services often facilitated by a community-based online platform is called Sharing economy. It is an economic model defined as a peer-to-peer (P2P) based activity in providing or sharing. [55] Airbnb, an online market that connects people who want to rent their homes and people looking for accommodation in that area, now covers more than 81,000 cities and 191 countries worldwide. For homeowners, joining Airbnb is a way to earn some income from their property, but guests also have the risk of damaging their home. The biggest advantage for guests can be relatively inexpensive accommodation. But there is also the risk that the property is not as attractive as it appears on the list. The advantages of Airbnb: A wide selection, free entries, homeowners’ own prices, customization, a wide search opportunity. Disadvantages of Airbnb: What you see may not be what you get, potential damage, additional fees, taxes may occur. And it is not legal everywhere. [56]

Figure 4: Airbnb economic model scheme [57]

E. 2010-2011 Small Scale Big Change: New Architectures of Social Engagement, MOMA,USA They focus on work that has recently been built or is under construction in small-scale, large-scale, underserved communities by 11 architects and companies. Elemental (Chilean); Anna Heringer (Austrian); Diébédo Francis Kéré (Burkinabé); Hashim Sarkis A.L.U.D. (Lebanese); Jorge Mario Jáuregui (Brazilian); Frédéric Druot, Anne Lacaton & Jean Philippe Vassal (French); Michael Maltzan Architecture (American); Noero Wolff Architects (South African); Rural Studio (American); Estudio Teddy Cruz (American, born Guatemala); and Urban Think Tank (American / Austrian / Venezuelan). These 11 architects and firms have focused on this change, offering work that has recently been built or is under construction in communities with insufficient service worldwide. These architects have developed projects that demonstrate the specificity of the space after utopia, without compromising their concerns about aesthetics. They came up with architectural solutions as a result of close collaboration with future users and ongoing research into local conditions. Projects involving schools, parks, housing and infrastructure interventions have revealed an exciting change in the long-standing dialogue between architecture and society, as the roles, methods, approaches and responsibilities of the architect have been significantly re-evaluated. They also provided an expanded definition of sustainability that goes beyond experimenting with new materials and technologies to cover larger social and economic sustainability concepts. [58] 38

Image 31: Metro Cable, 2003 Courtesy of Urban-Think Tank [59]

B.2010 AR Drone by Parrot


Launched by the French company Parrot, the stoppable remote control quad copter helicopter Parrot AR.Drone is suitable for mobile or tablet operating systems, supported in applications such as iOS or Android. It is also designed to be controlled by unofficial software available for Samsung Windows Phone, BADA and Symbian devices. It was announced at the International CES 2010 in Las Vegas with its compatibility with iOS applications used to control the Parrot AR Drone. Along with AR Freeflight, the application Parrot, designed for the drone to run for free, also released AR.Race, which allows users to take part in solo games or interact with other drones in battle simulations. “The body of the AR Drone, made of carbon fibre parts and nylon, is 57 cm (22 inches) in diameter.� It is put together with two interchangeable bodies. One of them is designed for indoor, the other is designed for outdoor flight. The outdoor body is made of lightweight plastic and provides greater manoeuvrability. The interior body is made of EPP foam and surrounds the blades for protection. In total, the AR Drone has six degrees of freedom, a miniature inertial measurement unit tracks the pitch, roll and deviation for use in stabilization. [60]

Image 32: AR Drone pre-production prototype [60]

A.2011 Starting of mass migration from Syria The Arab Spring, a series of anti-government protests that spread to most of the Islamic world in the early 2010s, went down in history as an uprising and armed rebellion. Starting with protests in Tunisia in 2011, it began as a response to repressive regimes and a low standard of living. Its influence spread to Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain. [61] Turkey has taken its share by hosting a growing number of refugees from the war inside. It has shown its effects for 7 years. [62] When immigrants do not take refuge in temporary protection camps when they have the opportunity to choose, they prefer urban areas to rural areas. In Turkey, 2.7 million Syrians under temporary protection to only 10 percent of temporary protection sought refuge camps, the majority of Syrian refugees living outside the camps are living in urban areas. There are two dimensions to problems arising from sudden and massive mass migration in cities. On the one hand, while immigrant masses faced a number of problems, on the other hand, problems arising from changes in the permanent settlements of the city emerged. [63]

Image 33: Syrian refugee men work at a textile workshop as day labourers in Istanbul [62]



F. 2011 Wikihouse WikiHouse is an open-source housing design and construction project. It efforts to democratize and facilitate the construction of affordable, sustainable and resource-light housing. In 2011, the WikiHouse has appeared with the initiative of Alastair Parvin and Nick Ierodiaconou, who are from a London based strategy and design practice “00”, in collaboration with Tav of Espians, James Arthur, and Steve Fisher from Momentum Engineering. The project was introduced at Gwangju Design Binnale in South Korea. It has grown from the beginning and become a community of contributors worldwide. The WikiHouse allows users to download Creative Commons licensed projects from the online library. Users can customize that downloaded files on “SketchUp”, and create parts of the plywood with CNC router. The frame of the Wikihouse includes simple elements to construct easily, so it can be built in less than a day, even by a non-qualified person. Before the inhabitation, the frame must be finished with cladding, insulation, plumbing and wiring. [64]







Figure 5: Wikihouse building scheme Courtesy of [65]

D.2014 The Fool (Durak) The film is about an effort by a protagonist named Dima to rescue a crumbling building, along with apartment dwellers, in an unnamed town in Russia. When Dima, the plumber, is called by residents to check a pipe burst, he realizes a crack that spilling out from one side of the apartment. “In a housing facility of unique characters, chaos, and limited means, he is at odds with the authorities as well as the unhindered inhabitants of a construction neglected for 30 years.” The story is about just a single night. When Dima fights against the most prominent odds to persuade, the film touches on the issues of community, neglect, morality, reform, and morality. [66]

Image 34: The Fool (Durak) is a film by Yury Bykov, 2014 [67]


C.2019 MARSHA / Ai Space Factory


In 2019, AI Space Factory with its proposal, which is called “MARSHA”, has been awarded first place in the NASA Centennial Challange. The MARSHA proposes a new habitat for humankind in the future on Mars. The project, which was 4.5 meters high and included three windows, was built with 3D printed technology. The CEO of AI Space Factory, David Malott, mentions about the proposal as: “We developed these technologies for Space, but they have the potential to transform the way we build on Earth. By using natural, biodegradable materials grown from crops, we could eliminate the building industry’s massive waste of nonrecyclable concrete and restore our planet.” ⁣[68]

Image 35: MARSHA / Ai Space Factory, 2019 [68]

A.2019 Greta Thunberg & Climate Emergency Greta Thunberg highlighted the following in her speech at the United Nations Climate Action Summit in September 2019; “Entire ecosystems are collapsing. We are in the beginning of a mass extinction and all you can talk about is money and fairy tales of eternal economic growth. How dare you! For more than 30 years, the science has been crystal clear. How dare you continue to look away and come here saying that you’re doing enough when the politics and solutions needed are still nowhere in sight. ... The popular idea of cutting our emissions in half in 10 years only gives us a 50% chance of staying below 1.5 degrees and the risk of setting off irreversible chain reactions beyond human control. 50% may be acceptable to you, but those numbers do not include tipping points, most feedback loops, additional warming hidden by toxic air pollution or the aspects of equity and climate justice. They also rely on my generation sucking hundreds of billions of tons of your CO2 out of the air with technologies that barely exist. So a 50% risk is simply not acceptable to us, we who have to live with the consequences. How dare you pretend that this can be solved with just business as usual and some technical solutions? With today’s emissions levels, that remaining CO2 budget will be entirely gone within less than eight and a half years. ... We will not let you get away with this. Right here, right now is where we draw the line. The world is waking up and change is coming, whether you like it or not.” [69]

Image 41: Greta Thunberg and her book “No One is Too Small to Make a Difference” [70][71]




200 170




140 110 80 50

2010 (Q2)


200 170


DNK 132

140 110 80 50

1979 (Q1)


House prices in real terms between 1975 and 2014. Index numbers (2005=100) adjustes for inflation and cost of living

200 170



140 115 110 80 50

2007 (Q4)


200 170



140 108 110 80 50 20 2008 (Q1)

In the last twenty years, house prices have been sharply increasing in most Western countries across the entire specturum of the market. The growth was fueled, on the one hand, by financial speculation in real estate (after 2000, returns from stocks and bonds were at historical lows), and, on the other, by too-easy access to credit, and thus to mortgages. Such inflated values have resulted in devastating housing bubbles: first Japan and South Korea in the early 1990s, and later US, Spain, Ireland, and others in the late 2000s. Many of the new dwellings, and even new towns, that had been built in the years of the optimism are now empty. Thousands of families who could not afford to repay their mortgage have been forced out their homes. [72]

200 170


SWE 143

140 110 80 50




2013 (Q2)




20 1975

Source: “SQM: The Quantified Home�, p.144-145. The diagram was taken from the book and redrawn.

2007 (Q1)




2007 (Q1)

2010 (Q3)


2007 (Q3)





2007 (Q3)

2007 (Q3)



1992 (Q2)

2007 (Q3)

1989 (Q4)

2014 (Q1)

2014 (Q1)




2005 2006 (Q4)

1991 (Q2)





2013 (Q4)


1995 163



1991 (Q1)


CHE 143


124 113


114 119








18,3 Zagreb

18,2 Santiago

18,7 Vilnius

19,0 Mexico City

17,9 Talinn

19,1 Kuala Lumpur



19,7 Jakarta

17,2 Phnom Penh

20,2 Budapest

35,6 Skopje

39,0 Amman

20,9 Lisbon


9,6 Andorra

9,4 Copenhagen

4,4 Tokyo

17,2 Riga

8,9 Auckland

8,7 Amsterdam

7,7 Tortola

7,4 Vienna

4,3 Mumbai

36,6 San Juan

38,5 Praia

7,2 Shangai

17,2 Bratislava

19,5 Montevideo

37,3 Chisinau

Source: “SQM: The Quantified Home”, p.154-155. The diagram was taken from the book and redrawn.

7,1 Bermuda

3,3 Paris 17,8 Buenos Aires

37,3 Managua


7,0 Taipei

6,6 Sydney

6,5 Luxemburg

6,0 Toronto

3,3 Geneva

3,3 New York City 5,3 Tel Aviv 5,3 Stockholm 5,5 Helsinki 6,0 Roma

3,0 Moscow

2,8 Singapore

2,4 Hong Kong

1,5 London

0,9 Monaco


17,1 Grande-Terre

21 Bo

35,6 Kings

16,2 Manila

21,4 Trinidad

15,8 Limassol

21,5 Ambergris Caye

34,7 Sofia

6 ston

39,1 Quito

15,6 Bucharest

15,5 St. Croix

23,1 Bonaire

24,1 Puerto Plata

34,4 Aruba

15,2 Bangkok

14,8 Ljubljana

24,8 Marrakesh

30,5 San Jose

41,9 San Salvador

14,3 St. Kitts

14,3 Antigua

25,0 Panama City

27,6 Lima

13,8 Bahamas

13,5 Valletta

13,3 Sao Paulo

13,2 Kiev

12,9 Providenciales

12,7 Istanbul

12,2 Cape Town

12,0 Grand Cayman

11,9 St. James

11,9 Warsaw

11,9 Brussels

11,2 Berlin

10,5 Athens

10,2 Madrid

9,9 Dublin

9,9 Dubai


1,0 ogota

16,5 Belgrade


16,8 Fort-de-France

13,5 Beirut

26,5 Montenegro (coast)

26,9 St. Lucia

55,6 Nairobi

71,4 Dar as Salaam

60,2 Cairo

SOURCE: Global Property Guide, www.globalpropertyguide. com/most-expensive-cities. The values are based on a 120 m² apartment in a prime central area, and refer to Q2 2014.















1 R 1792- Gas Lighting Redruth, Cornwall

1778- Flush Toilet City of London

The scale of domestic interior is the contact point of individuals and objects with urban, national, and global infrastructures. The graph represents all the physical structures that, one after the other, have linked the home to the outside world. They are ordered according to the year in which the first home was connected. [72] Source: “SQM: The Quantified Home”, p.198-199. The diagram was taken from the book and redrawn.


1615- Clean Water Supply City of London 100- Waste Water Connection Roma 1700 BCE- Clean Water Supply Minoan Civilization (Crete)

2500 BCE- Flush Toilet at Home Indus Valley (current Pakistan)

2500 BCE

1500 BCE

500 BCE








2001- Fiber Optics Milan and Eindhoven


1989- Internet Brookline, Massachussets

1978- Minitel Brittany, France 1976- Satellite Television San Andreas, California, and Siberia


1975- Telenet Network Washington, Boston, New York, Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Los Angeles 1970- Videophone USA


1948- Cable Television Pennsylvania


1936- Television London


1931- Cable Radio Switzerland 1920- Radio Detroit 1908- Printing Telegraph New York City 1882- Electric Lighting (first street) Pearl Street, New York City 1880- Electric Lighting (first house) Gateshead, UK

1877- District Heating Lockport, New York 1877- Telephone Sommerville, Massachusetts

1841- Gas-fired Kitchen Stove Reform Club, London







A view from Galata Tower to the bridge in 1950s, Old Ä°stanbul Photos archieve [73]

HISTORY 1835 First Constitutionalist Period

Second Constitutionalist Period

31st March Case It is a great uprising against the administration in Istanbul after the declaration of the Second Constitutional Monarchy.





Fire Prevention Regulation With this law, fire prevention measures were taken for houses and stores. Official Record Regulations relating to this law: Regularization and expansion of streets, construction of public squares and docks Encouraging the construction of masonry houses Height of houses: 15m (maximum)

Building Regulation The opening of empty lands and agricultural areas to the zoning is connected to the will of the sultan.

Regulation on Streets Street and Building Regulation It is very important that the regulation will be applied not only in Istanbul but in all cities of the Empire. Because the zoning movements will be based on a certain plan from now on.

Regulation on Construction Methods in Istanbul Only the masonry construction would be allowed in the area east of UnkapanıAksaray axis. In the north of the Golden Horn, the area where only masonry was allowed was Galata, the coastal line between Azapkapı and Ortaköy, and Şişli with Cadde-i Kebir.In other regions, if fire prevention measures are taken, wooden buildings are constructed. could be.





The House of Bekir Reis Büyükdere istanbul - Turkish House Sedat Hakkı Eldem

Abus Efendi Seaside Mansion

Single rooms First co-living places for singles

Designed by Sarkis Balyan in 1875, Akaretler Row Houses was built during Sultan Abdulaziz period for the accommodation of the leading high ranking officials of Dolmabahce Palace.








The Rescript of Gülhane

Tercüman-ı Ahvâl is the first private newspaper published in Istanbul between 1860-1866.


Julia Pardoe Beauties of the Bosphorus



William Henry Bartlett’s XIX. An engraving of Tophane in the second half of the 19th century

Sixth District Municipality



Şair Evlenmesi is accepted as the first western work published in Turkish literature





1892 A photo taken in 1870. A Turkish lady in her outfit. In the hot summer months, women often went out with umbrellas to protect themselves from the sun.


Founding of İstanbul Şehramaneti: First modern municipal organization in the western sense


With the Baltalimani Foreign Trade Agreement, a non-Muslim rich class was formed in the country and the economy of the country was mostly in the hands of that sector.

Muhaderat Fatma Aliye Turkey’s first female novelist Fatma Aliye Topuz. In this novel, the subject of marriage which one is forced to do against his own free will is discussed.

Maison Psalty Furniture In Beyoglu Workshop: The store opened by Jean Psalty, They adapt the fashion lines of Europe to the Ottoman Empire and sometimes imitate them completely.



Rescript of Reform: In order to save the Ottoman Empire from collapse, it is an edict issued during the reign of Abdülmecid for fundamental changes intended to be made in the areas of political institutions, human rights and the establishment of new institutions.

Founding of Central Bank of Ottoman



1923 19 May 1919 is the first day of the Turkish War of Independence.

Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established.

Proclamation of the Republic





Istanbul Municipality Law The city of Istanbul is divided into twenty municipalities. In the previous embodiments, when drawing superficial boundaries, The municipalities were both named and bounded.

Building Law It is the first zoning law of the Ottoman period which came into force in 1882. Differences from the previous embodiment first code system for buildings and detailed streets, city planning principles and the practices are remarkable.

Building Law This law contains important regulations on two issues. Types of construction: Complete wall, half wall and wood in some parts of the Old Town building heights: according to the street width

The Constitution of 1921 The first constitution of the modern Turkish state, it was ratified by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in January 1921. It was a simple document consisting of only 23 short articles.





The Helbig(Doğan) Apartment House, Galata


Botter Apartment House, Pera One of the most prominent representatives of the Art Nouveau movement in Turkey

1910 Kaplumbağa Terbiyecisi by Osman Hamdi Bey, Pera Museum, Istanbul. Osman Hamdi Bey is an Ottoman archaeologist, museum, painter and the first mayor of Kadikoy.


Vedat Tek House Nişantaşı: First National Architecture Movement




1914 White Russian Migration to Istanbul After the October Revolution: 20% of Istanbul’s population was refugees. A Russian princess who washes laundry

Levantine Barry Family, Büyükada

Harikzedegân Apartment Laleli: It was built in May 1918 with donations to replace some 7500 homes destroyed in the great fire in Cibali.

The first Turkish cinema ‘The collapse of Ayastefanos monument’

Ömer Seyfettin“New Language” Ömer Seyfettin is one of the founders of the ‘Türkçülük’ movement and is an advocate of simplification in the Turkish language.


The Ottoman Empire participated in World War I as one of the Central Powers.

The first president of the Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on the cover of the Time Magazine, 4, March 24, 1923.

1923 ‘New Family’ in the republic period Nuclear family New marriage Changing house layout Women’s rights New people concept

Republican women Women who live a completely different life from their grandmother.





Düyun-u Umumiye was the institution that supervised the foreign debts of the Ottoman Empire between 1881 and 1939.

Central Bank of Ottoman: The Ottoman Bank was built by the architect Alexandre Valleury in 1892 on the Galata Banks Street in Karaköy.

Bab-ı Ali raid: The military coup that was carried out by a group of ‘İttihat and Terakki’ members, led by Enver Bey and Talat Bey, in the raid of the government building Bab-ı Ali.

İzmir Economic Congress: The conference was held in order to emphasize the importance of Turkish economic development, as the country had been shattered by years of war.







C.1800s Turkish House The architecture of Turkish local houses is influenced by a range of climatic and natural resources, by the traditions of earlier homes remaining in Anatolia from the Byzantine era, and by traditional Turkish culture, that was brought from Central Asia by Turks. Local materials, each natural and inorganic, offer Turkish homes their character and identity; in North Anatolia, the timbered homes from efficient forests; whereas in Central Anatolia, the stone and sun-dried brick houses; in West Anatolia, stone; and in South Anatolia, stone and timbered homes. In conjunction with these principals, the interiors of Turkish homes were planned for different aims, just like the winter and therefore the summer rooms. Additionally, Islamic and Turkish customs played a big role in shaping the house. This issue brought on widespread project, that created Turkish homes a lot of homogeneous, although there have been still environmental condition and regional variations. [74]

Image 1: Turkish House [74]

C.1922 Harikzedegân Apartment After the infamous fireplace that burnt off seven.500 homes within the neighbourhoods of Cibali and Fatih on might thirty one, 1918 a campaign was organized to compose shelters for the victims. Apart from the efforts of the government, civil donations were additionally accepted for that purpose and therefore the Harikzedegan (the victims of the fire) apartment buildings were planned and built from the years 1918 through 1922 by the architect Kemaleddin Bey. The buildings are necessary examples therein bring that event of the Turkish history and therefore the local Turkish architecture. The buildings were at first named “Tayyare (Aeroplane) apartment Buildings”, the previous name of the Turkish Aviation League. [80]

Image 6: Harikzedegân Apartment [81]


B.1848 Building Regulation


In 1848 Ministry of Public Works was established in order to construct a central authority for urban planning and regulations. In 1848 and 1849 two building regulations were issued, which were similar to 1839 Record with differences in only two subjects, building heights and expropriation. The latter one was a new concept, which allowed the widening of roads as implied by the regulations. 1848 Building Regulation defined rules both for streets and buildings (commercial and residential). The regulation prohibited the projection from the buildings; therefore it was not possible to get a building permit for a new construction unless the required distance was left for the street. If there was a damaged building or a public interest for demolishing a building and the government offered to pay its price, this regulation obliged the owner to sell or demolish the building. The regulation included the public buildings as well. When a public building existed in a fire-burnt area, in order to regularize the street lines during the reconstruction, the necessary space would be taken from the courtyard.[77]

Image 3: Plan of Aksaray after the reconstruction in 1850s (Ayverdi, 1958, map no. C3 and C4) The Beauties of the Bosphorus [77]

C.1875 Akaretler Row Houses ‘Akaretler row houses’ are situated in Besiktas district in Istanbul. The row houses have been ordered by Ottoman Sultan Abdulaziz to architect Sarkis Balyan in 1874 and consist of 138 housing units. They were originally built for the accommodation of the workers of Dolmabahce Palace. ‘Akaretler row houses’ are one of the most important examples in Istanbul of this housing option. The owner of the houses was General Directorate of Foundations. The houses have changed habitants many times. They used to be rented for many years as houses to low income earners, car repairers, traditional grocery keepers. They were also used by a political party and also by Faculty of Fine Arts in 1980’s. Afterwards, they have been abandoned until about 1995 when they have been restorated and renovated to be rented again. Finally, restoration and renovation of the row houses complex was finished in 2008. In this complex, 56 residences in different sizes, 34 shops and also W Hotel were opened. The area of the row houses is situated in between Besiktas and Nisantasi on a steep ramp. One of the end of the row houses is Besiktas which is an traditional district, whereas the other end is a trendy zone called Nisantasi. Soon after the opening in 2008, many of the high society shops have been changed into coffee shops and bars mostly thanks to the location. When you walk down to Besiktas passing through the row houses you can find trendy bars, coffee shops, jewellery shops, antiquarie shop, W hotel, shops like Marni, Bottega Veneta... Arriving down to Besiktas you find traditional restaurants such as döner, pide, traditional coffee shops, fish markets… a mixture of colours, lights, odors of the East that compete with Western way of communication of ‘Akaretler row houses’. [78]

Image 4: Akaretler Row Houses [78]



Industrial Incentive Policy This policy has not been as useful as expected due to the economic crisis in the world. As a result, in 1932, the government decided that the state should undertake basic investments based on production.

The People’s Party is the first political party of Turkey: In 1935, the name of the party was “Republican People’s Party”.

In 1924 the Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Party was founded. It was closed in 1925.

Nakiye Elgun: She is reading the declaration of the rights of the child at the Taksim Square in 1930.





Constitution (1924) Rene and Raymond Danger İzmir Master Plan (1924)

Carl Christoph Lörcher’s Ankara Plans :A City Dream Reflecting AntiModernist and Authoritarian Trends

Industrial Incentives Law These incentives are provided by law for the production of private enterprises in building materials, non-smoking building materials produced in verilmiştir. türkiye allow duty-free import of this law, reinforced concrete construction with cement and steel, the main material, insulation materials used for flat roofs, large construction equipment, fine construction materials and finishing materials have been imported.

Hermann Jansen Ankara Master plan





Bahçelievler Building Cooperative Hermann Jansen, Ankara

Ragıp Devres’ Villa-The SwissAustrian architect Ernst Egli, Bebek İstanbul: One of the first examples of modern architecture in Istanbul.






Üçler Apartment, Talimhane: First appearance of the concept of “rental house“


Melek Apartment Nişantaşı

1923 How should we decorate our houses? SÜS Magazine SAYI 48


Nutuk This book describes the history of the republic of Turkey.


‘Excellent and illustrated etiquette guide’ Book - Abdullah Cevdet

Peyami Safa’s novel Fatih-Harbiye, the author describes the pain of modernization in society through objects, individuals, institutions and spaces




Civil Law

Nation Gardens inspired by the French Public Gardens after the Constitutional Monarchy, it was designed as an Ottoman club, library and theater structures in order to socialize the society.

Women’s miting to thank Atatürk

Beer Garden, Bomonti





Founding of Real Estate Bank

The finance ministry was authorized by the government to use budget to build houses for civil servants

Lodging houses in the beginning of 1930s: Social housing projects for workers as low-cost, easy to build, rational, affordable.

Founding of Turkish Cooperatives Institution









1945 Ismet Inonu was elected president. National Chief

First Five-Year Industrialization Plan The greatest weight was given to the weaving sector. Most of the factories were built with Soviet credit and technology. Importance was given to the construction of railways


Law on the Ministry and Devair Buildings and Civil Servant Apartments to be Built in Ankara, 1928 Land Reform, 1929 Municipal Law, 1930 Establishment of municipal zoning committee, 1933 Municipal building and roads law, 1933 Title Deed Law, 1934

Municipality Expropriation Law



Kozlu Zonguldak M.K.İ. Workers Houses- Zonguldak Seyfi Arkan

Kozlu Zonguldak M.K.İ. Workers Houses- Zonguldak Seyfi Arkan- Bauhaus style



Independent Painters and Sculptors Association Exhibition

National Protection Law Capital tax



Henry Prost İstanbul masterplan (1937)


Law on the Construction of civil servant dwellings The immovables deemed necessary for the implementation of this law shall be expropriated in accordance with the provisions of Municipal Expropriation Law no.

1944 Tüten Apartment: There were budgerigars in our apartments and flowers in front of our windows. The surrounding apartments have increased. Yet everyone who crossed the street looked at this.


Daw of a New Day- Expo 39 in New York Turkey Pavilion Sedad Hakkı Eldem

1946 Lüküs Hayat Musical

Nation Gardens inspired by the French Public Gardens after the Constitutional Monarchy, it was designed as an Ottoman club, library and theater structures in order to socialize the society.



Village institutes in Turkey was established in 1940 to train primary school teachers.

Aysel Bataklı Damın Kızı: The first movie shot on villages in Turkey



Salacak Beach

Republic village project





Founding of Sümerbank and Halkbank to support of artisans housing cooperatives.

With the National Protection Law enacted in 1939, it was decided to restrict housing rents and this limitation lasted until 1963.

Civil Servants Housing: Saraçoglu Neighbourhood by Paul Bonatz

First housing bonus has given by “Yapı Kredi Bank” in 1944 for the first time.






1934 Yapı Kredi Bank Poster First housing bonus

Poster for ‘The Association for Combatting Rudeness’’ Ihap Hulusi



D.1926 Süs Magazine How should we decorate our houses? The article within the magazine mentions that the furnishing of the rooms has become more important and also the choice of furniture requires more responsibility. It emphasizes that the rooms aren’t designed with some furniture like before, and also the points to be considered in choosing the acceptable furniture. Designed in artistic movement style, this room features upholstered armchairs, wallpapers, a corner tea table with tapered sections, a functional buffet and an identical curtain and chandelier. It is a room design with angular and infrequently decorated with exotic materials, polished with a highly polished finish, geometric shapes, small and thin decorations, and cosy, easy-to-use furniture. The room design, which is in line with the free plan understanding, where handwork is seen from time to time, includes both the fluid lines of art nouveau and Bauhaus’s simplicity, is an example of art deco approach. [85]

Image 9: Süs magazine [85]

C.1932 Bahçelievler Housing Cooperative, Hermann Jansen Bahçelievler residential campus was designed between 1935-38 by Hermann Jansen, who won the international competition to plan the development of Ankara. The campus, which was realized by Bahçelievler Cooperative, was built on a land in the west of Ankara, outside the boundaries of the development plan of the period. Although Jansen’s initial plan included single, twin and row houses proportionally, the majority of the houses in the project were realized as single houses within the garden, with adaptations by local architects in line with the demands of the members of the cooperative. Bahçelievler Cooperative, which was an example by leading the cooperatives established to meet the housing needs of the rapidly increasing population of the capital Ankara in the early years of the Republic, was responding to the space needs of the modern life of the bureaucrat class of the period. These houses, with their rooms, balconies and simple facades, which assumed different functions, offered a choice away from traditional residential typology. The structures of this campus, which applied the Garden City model with its sparse settlement texture, were demolished over time and replaced with high apartment blocks. Of the garden dwellings of Jansen’s design, only a few structures have survived to the present day. [86] Image 10: Bahçelievler Housing Cooperative, Hermann Jansen [87]


C.1936 Tüten Apartment


The building, one of the most important examples of the struggle for modernity given in the interior and exterior spaces of the house, is located on Gümüssuyu, Inönü Street, one of the most important axes of the city’s apartment building process. The building owned by the tobacco merchant Sabri Tüten is designed by Adil Denktas. The circular staircase of the building, consisting of ten storeys, with large square metres of flats, is located on the side facade in an adjacent plot. All the rooms in the apartment are drawn from both sides and side facades and open to light and courtyards, providing natural light and ventilation. The street facade, which gives the building its original character, is dominated by curvilinear lines in the plan and facade openings. Horizontal band windows that open in accordance with the rounded facade of the hall and the outward curvilinear balcony emphasize the curvilinear and horizontal continuity of the facade. [88]

Image 11: Tüten Apartment [89]

C.1937 Republic Village Project In the plan under both the intellectual and formal influence of E. Howard’s garden-city theory, the settlement was designed as circular. In the first series of buildings surrounding the square with a monument in the middle, there are various public buildings and parks such as school, village mansion, public room, cooperative, hotel, public toilet. The second series was completely devoted to housing. Half of the third series is devoted to large open spaces such as nurseries, guilds, sports fields, and public buildings such as nursery buildings and factories. In the immediate vicinity of the village, functions such as the cemetery, fertilizer, fairground, forest areas, which are thought to be outside the village, were defined. Although this project draws attention with its architectural form, the public functions it contains and the new rural life model it proposes are more interesting. [90]

Image 12: Republic Village Project [91]



Marshall Aid The first substantial aid went to Greece and Turkey in January 1947.


In 1950s started with a multi-party system and a liberal economic development model where priority was given to rapid industrialization and urbanization.

Turkey was accepted into NATO: Turkish membership to NATO can be regarded a solution to her security problems, but it may well be argued that the main cause behind that policy was the continuation of the polices of westernization and modernization.




Incentive and Unauthorized Building Construction Buildings Law The lands belonging to the municipality within the boundaries of the municipality and which will become the property of the municipality shall be determined by the decision of the municipal council and allocated for the construction of houses.

The Condominium Law, which was passed in 1965, encouraged the demolition of single family housing units to build multi-family apartment blocks in their places.


Building Construction Incentive Law Unlike the first law at the local level, Law No. 5228 stipulates that land can be produced within the boundaries of the zoning plan at the country level.

Democratic Party founded: The DP defended liberal regulations in economy and politics.

Zoning Law, 1956 Constitution State, 1961, the characteristics of cities and environmental conditions within the framework of careful planning, to meet housing needs takes measures and supports public housing enterprises The Condominium Law, which was passed in 1965, encouraged the demolition of single family housing units to build multi-family apartment blocks in their places.




Small Villa, (57,00 m2) Architect Rahmi Bediz

The first slums were built by immigrants who came to work in the city. They built these houses by imece method

The housing estates of Emlak Kredi Bank were built on Levent Farm, Levent İstanbul.

German Tower Houses - İzmir 27 sqm 44 residences for Roma





Zeki Müren ‘The Sun of Art, had his first live concert on 26 May 1955. He would usually wear his self-designed clothes on stage.

First reconstruction congress




Porter/Tunny Akaretler Beşiktaş

Migros - Mobile Market

Village Institutes closed





Bank Lottery Houses: From the beginning of 1950s until the end of 1970s, it occurred as an important production and development culture of housing in Turkey.

Social Insurance Institution has built more than 200,000 houses for workers between 1952 and 1984.





Bus Travelers film


Füreya Koral The first ceramics workshop in Turkey



Tokalon Cream Advertising

2nd Turkish Economy Congress


Emergence of slums in Zeytinburnu, İstanbul: With the industrialization the communities who are migrated the metropolitan to get jobs in factories, settled on public lands illegally.




1980 68 generations: Yankee go home! Student actions-Yön magazine-DISK actions

The Military Coup “to bring peace to a polarized society where thousands of people were being killed on the streets.”

24th January Decisions: Neoliberal economic policies started with Turgut Özal in 1980.





Cooperatives Law, 1969. The Land Office, established in 1969, aimed to produce cheap land with infrastructure to provide low-cost housing in cities under population pressure. Land and Agricultural Reform Law, 1973. In 1977, the Constitutional Court annulled the this law.

Corporate Housing Law, 1981. 1982 Constitution 57 of the social and economic rights section of the 1982 Constitution, we can see that housing is regulated under the title of housing right.

Law on Metropolitan Municipalities, 1984. Expropriation Law, 1983. Corporate Housing and Presidency of Public Partnership Administration Law, 1984.





Ataköy 1st Stage

The first camp portable homes in Turkey two rooms on the left with kitchen and one room on the right with kitchen

Floating House Bosporus

Earthquake shelters like igloo established by The Farben-Bayer Company in the Gediz earthquake.





The Squatter Law, which was passed in 1966, aimed to prevent, demolish or rehabilitate squatter settlements which had been widely spread in urban areas since the 1950s.

Keşanlı Ali Destanı Cinema The film takes place in a slum called Sineklidağ. (Hoca Hüsrev and Kuştepe)

Kapıcılar Kralı Cinema

Housing Congress Cartography Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Civil Engineers, Architects, and Urban Planners


The Military Coup and a liberal economic development model where priority was given to rapid industrialization and urbanization.

Arabesque Music





Open-air cinema, was one of Turkey’s most important entertainment and socializing area- Adana

Nebioğlu Resorts, the “resort” concept was first built with tourist facilities in Turkey

Colour television

Miltur Tatil Sitesi- Kumbağ Kılıç Ailesi Arşivi





Condominium law: For middle-class to had their own housing needs. It caused to build-sell system.

First 5-year Developing Plan: The housing problem has been dealt with for the first time as a whole and its relationship with development has been established. The concept of social housing has been discovered and ways of making cheap and small housing have been sought.

Effect of Oil Crisis on Turkey

National Housing Policy: It had aimed to produce affordable housing in accordance with Turkish-Islamic traditions. It provided the allocation of land, projects and basic construction materials to public housing institutions.







C.1950 Levent Neighbourhood Houses The construction of the first houses of Levent, which forms the core of today’s Levent district, was started in 1947 within the framework of the housing projects of Emlak Kredi Bank and the first neighborhood was finished in 1950. At a time when the average monthly wage was 500 pounds, house prices here were between 14,000 and 60,000 pounds (with 20-year interest). Despite its relative distance from the city centre, Levent has long been home to the middle classes and civil servants. The Levent project, which was later continued with the second, third and fourth neighborhoods, was completed in 1960. Levent, one of the few examples of the Republican period for modern urban life (for example, another is the Saracoglu district in Ankara), is also a very progressive ecological project in its era, with about 30,000 trees that are now adults. For the same reason, today, a Yesil area around the Istanbul Metropolis is a “garden-city”. Levent, which was influenced by the urban transformation process that accelerated in the 1980s and the central business areas that shifted to the north by the construction of the Bosphorus Bridges, is today under the pressure of a physical and social transformation. Levent is a protected area within the Istanbul metropolis due to its very different historical, natural and social features. [103]

Image 19: Levent in 1950 [104]

C.1969 Nebioğlu Resorts Nebioglu Tourist Facilities was opened in 1969 in Çesmealtı, concerning thirty kilometre from Izmir. Also bungalow-type units have a unique position within the contemporary architectural heritage in Turkey because of the reinforced concrete domeshaped rooms. Nebioglu Tourist Facilities area unit few samples of a contemporary era in harmony and balance with natural life. Even throughout the land arrangement and construction, no huge machinery was introduced into the land. Even during the construction process, it is a project that considers harmony with nature. These ecological concerns continued during the landscaping process.[109]

Image 22: Nebioğlu Resorts [109]


C.1970 Floating House in Bosphorus


Koray and Gömüç’s project was praised in the newspapers of the period in the context of having an American Bar and referencing the two-storey chalet/Hut (Melih Koray Archive). At this point, it should be emphasized that the interaction between America and Turkey in the 1950s was very important. America perceives Russia’s ideology of communism as a threat and gives various assistance to the country to improve its relations with Turkey, as it considers Turkey to be highly vulnerable to this threat. For this reason, the daily life in Turkey and the culture, art life, especially the practice of architecture are influenced by America. Therefore, the American Bar emphasis on this naval home can be read as a reference to how effective post-war American everyday life and architecture approach is still for Turkey. The emphasis on the chalet can be attributed to the reconsideration of the wooden hut, an ancient archetype of architecture, by the architects. In fact, it can be thought that the architect, who seems to have followed overseas publications and architectural approaches from his personal archive, also reflects the idea of the weekend house, which was often seen around the world in the 1960s. The summer house of Jens Risom, who applied both the practice of mass production and the concept of the chalet project, may have inspired Melih Koray and Ergin Gömüç as an example of the premise at this point. Thus it can be said that the ideas of a modernist floating house and mountain are brought together in the catamaran House. [110]

Image 23: Floating Catamaran House [110]

D.1970 Iglo Shelter in Akcaalan Gediz Earthquake occurred on March 28, 1970. The earthquake affected an area of about 3,000 square kilometers. Approximately 3,500 houses were completely demolished, 7,000 heavily damaged and 10600 buildings damaged. 33000 families, about 80000 people remained without shelter. Relief aid was sent from many countries and organizations, disasters. West Germany’s contribution to the massive problem of restoration cant in several ways. First, aid in the form of food was immediate. Quickly sent 115 plane-loads of supplies. Secondly, it provided team to construct, for the first time after a disaster, a new form that resembles an igloo. The Farben-Bayer Company of West unique shelters, 300 of which were assembled within days of the Akcaalan. The shelter is a dome-shaped styrofoam shell about four thick, with a sixteen-foot diameter on the ground. It is cast at the styrofoam substance on an inflated balloon. The shell is then proofing compound and can be set into place by two men. After doorway and circular ports for windows are cut out for plastic “igloos” appeared badly weathered but were still being used in Akçaalan. [105]

Image 20: The Fırst Tıme Published Images Of The 1970 Gediz Earthquake [106]


HISTORY 1980 In 1987, the public was asked whether politicians who were politically banned by the provisional article of the Constitution after the 1980 coup would be abolished. The people wanted the bans to be lifted.

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge

5th April Decisions





Law on the protection of cultural and natural assets, 1982. Five zoning forgiveness, 1982-1987.

The Mass Housing Law The Mass Housing Law, which was passed in 1984, was a comprehensive law which aimed to encourage large scale and prefabricated housing, and for the first time was provided with an independent budget, financial support and an institutional framework to carry out its mission.

Law that allows foreigners to buy real estates in Turkey, Turkey was adopted by the Grand National Assembly.

Constitutional Referendum: political bans lifted after coup.





Kemer Country

Sarıgazi, Samandıra and Sultanbeyli developed as a slum city consisting of illegal apartments”

First 1+1 Studio Flat- Ataköy

In 1992, thousand 300 houses in European standards will be made with the Esenkent project, rural origin, Istanbul residents will be shown as an example of city life ‘





Sesame Street - TRT: The aim of Sesame Street was to have an idea about the learning ability of children between the ages of 3-5.

Bizimkiler Series The daily life of seven different families living in the same apartment is a series about their relations with each other.



The Jetsons in Turkey

Ataköy Şirinevler Civilization Bridge




Turgut Özal was the ruler alone


Aysegul of family life and the life was like in no turkey conditions. They live in a luxurious mansion with a garden, garden of the church. 1980

Muhsin Bey: Directed by Yavuz Turgul

1987 First restaurant of a global fast-food chain in Taksim


Consumer culture, moda, advertisements




Emergence of ‘post-gecekondu’: After zoning amnesty 3 to 7 storeys slums has been emerged.

Founding of Public Housing Administration and Funds of Housing: It founded by President Turgut Özal in 1984 to production of social housing.

Increasing of co-operatives: The number of housing cooperatives increased from 279 in 1983 to 5201 in 1987.

The Public Housing Administration has started to produce houses for immigrants from Bulgaria








2002 Customs Union Agreement was signed with EU.

Gölcük Earthquake

2001 economic crisis: It causes the change of the government.





1995 Constitutional amendment With the constitutional amendments of 1995 and 2001, the constitutional guarantees for political parties were significantly strengthened.

Following the 17th August earthquake, the first criminal decision was given in the cases against the contractor. Contractor Kemal Uz, who was responsible for Pelit Building Cooperative, who built an apartment in Yalova, where 20 people died, was sentenced to 4 years in prison.

Transfer of shares controlled by Emlak Bank to TOKİ, 2001. Repeal of the Mass Housing Fund, 2001.

Realization of G status after the transfer of Emlak Bank’s shares to TOKİ.





Ataşehir- Satellite town- Emlak Bank

Alker technique-Prof. Dr. Ruhi Kafesçioğlu İTÜ Ayazağa Campus

Paper Log House- Shigeru Ban after marmara earthquake

TOKİ has been producing mass housing for the 1999 earthquake




2000 Habitat II Istanbul


Eşkıya: Directed by Yavuz Turgul

C Block- Directed by Zeki Demirkubuz

Kemal Derviş He resigned from the World Bank and became State Minister in charge of the economy. He conducted negotiations with the IMF.

Someone is watching us Turkey and the reality show which is a phenomenon in the world.





Neighborhood culture: kids playing on the street

In 28th April 1993, a methane explosion shook a slum quarter in Ümraniye, a district of Iıstanbul.

Alken 2000 Büyükçekmece ‘Yours New World’

Residential Marketing Strategies





Implementing Regulation on the Production and Crediting of Mass Housing and Urban Environment on Municipal Lands

Gölcük Earthquake: It causes the 2001 economic crisis.

Increased state-capital cooperation: The capitalization of the city

“Throwing the Constitution booklet” The stock market fell by 14.6 percent, repo interest rates jumped to 760 percent, foreign exchange outflow was $ 7.6 billion. 510 thousand people were unemployed. Black Wednesday







B.1984 The Mass Housing Law The “Right of Shelter” was included as a paragraph heading in the 1982 Constitution for the first time: “State takes necessary steps to provide for the housing need within a planning context that reflects the special characteristics and environmental conditions of cities and also supports the construction of large scale housing”. Thus, while in the previous period the government acted as a regulator, the new policy was to play an active role in the provision of housing. The Mass Housing Law, which was passed in 1984, was a comprehensive law which aimed to encourage large scale and prefabricated housing, and for the first time was provided with an independent budget, financial support and an institutional framework to carry out its mission. Financial support was provided by the Mass Housing Fund, which was developed independent of the national budget, and the Mass Housing Administration was attached directly to the Prime Ministry with the objective of participating in house production. Priority was given to large scale construction firms that used industialized construction techniques.[113]

Image 25: Göztepe Soyak Housing Development [114]

D.1996 Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements We, the Heads of State or Government and the official delegations of countries assembled at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul, Turkey from 3 to 14 June 1996, take this opportunity to endorse the universal goals of ensuring adequate shelter for all and making human settlements safer, healthier and more liveable, equitable, sustainable and productive. Our deliberations on the two major themes of the Conference - adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world - have been inspired by the Charter of the United Nations and are aimed at reaffirming existing and forging new partnerships for action at the international, national and local levels to improve our living environment. We commit ourselves to the objectives, principles and recommendations contained in the Habitat Agenda and pledge our mutual support for its implementation [121]

Image 30: HABITAT II Poster [121]


C.2000 Paper Log House


Shigeru Ban, noted for his paper houses in Kobe and Rwanda, came to Turkey to help the earthquake victims. He brought 30 grand with him. He received a promise of support from a firm in Bursa. $1750 worth of houses, cardboard, beer cans, fabric and plywood! The famous Japanese architect Shigeru Ban came to Turkey to build houses out of compressed paper with his own method. The architect, who was carry out a joint work with the Human Settlements Association, have built houses in Degirmendere that are resistant to all kinds of natural disasters. Shigeru Ban collected 30,000 dollars and brought 500 tent cloths for the earthquake victims in Turkey in his own country. The cost of the house from the paper developed by Shigeru Ban is very low. It can easily be made from recycled paper, even by someone with no knowledge of construction. Construction of a house takes two days when the necessary supplies are provided. The purpose of these houses, which are absolutely unharmed by hurricanes and earthquakes, is to protect people from cold and rainy weather. The famous architect says: “I found a company in Bursa that produces rolls made of cardboard, which is the main material of these houses. They promised to provide support. A house costs around $1750. I need 50 grand for these paper houses to accommodate 120 people in the first place.” [123]

Image 31: Paper Log House Courtesy of Shigeru Ban Architects [124]

C.1993 İTÜ Alker House Alker is an earth-based stabilized building material produced by the addition of gypsum, lime, and water to earth with the acceptable granulometric structure and with a cohesive property. Unbaked and produced on-site either as adobe blocks or by pouring into mouldings (the rammed earth technique), it’s significant economic and ecological advantages. The word Alker is an abbreviation combining the primary syllables of the Turkish words for gypsum (alçı) and adobe (kerpiç). Alker was inspired by a conventional plaster material consisting of a mix of earth, gypsum and lime, which has been in use within the earthen architecture of Anatolia since the Neolithic era thanks to its high water resistance. At the start of those studies at Istanbul Technical University, professor Ruhi Kafesçioglu was found for years. [119]

Image 29: Alker House [120]


HISTORY 2002 Turkey is the first country of reception for Syrians refugees escaping the civil war. ‘Open Door’ Policy

Occupy Gezi

301 people were killed in what was the worst mine disaster in Turkey’s history.


AK Party wins elections




TOKI Reconstruction The Law Recognizing The Authority To Make The Plan (Slum Transformation Project Applicable Areas), 2004. Tourism Incentive Law, 2003. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Law, 2003.

Metropolitan Municipality Law

Law authorizing the Housing Development Administration to make maps and zoning plans of slum reclamation and prevention areas

The Soil Conservation and Land Use Law from provided a framework for the State to regulate land uses leading to significant soil deterioration.





New era in architecture: LOFT Levent Loft

Urban transformation- Istanbul Bağdat Street



The Dark Side Of Urban Renewal: Gentrification,Sulukule Displacement, Spatial Exclusion


B2 House - Han Tümertekin, a winner of 2004 Aga Khan Award for Architecture Çanakkale




Sustainable Living Film Festival

Tahribad-ı İsyan- Rap Group Sulukule

Ekümenopolis- Documantary

Fikirtepe covered in dust” by 140journos - video





Silent victims of urban transformation: The Elderly

İmece House Ecovillage New Peasantry

Çuva-Alakır River Brotherhood





Law allowing TOKI to make zoning plan in areas where squatter transformation project will be implemented

2008 economic crisis: Impacts of mortgage crisis (great recession) on Turkey.

At the beginning of 2010 state-capital housing projects has increased: The commercial value has been more than important than exchange value.

Syrian refugee policy









Roma of The Sulukule


2019 July 15 coup attempt

Global Objectives for sustainable development

Turkish local elections İstanbul-Ankara-İzmir





The authority of the Ministry of Public Works is transferred to TOKİ.

Adoption of the law which partially exempts Emlak Konut from all capital market regulations applicable to other REITs (excluding tax exemption).

Municipalities have been granted wide authority on the implementation of urban transformation and development projects with the amendment to the Municipal Law.

Planned Areas Zoning Regulation One of the most significant changes brought into effect by the Regulation is the abolishment of studio apartments, which are defined as dwellings that consist of one main room and one bathroom. every single detached dwelling must consist of at least: (1) one living room, (2) one bedroom, (3) one kitchen or cooking area, (4) one bathroom or washing area, and (5) one toilet.





Slum Apartment Urban Transformation- Küçükçekmece

Tezek Evleri- İstanbul

Fold and Float Istanbul Design Biennial

ReYard House Solar Decathlon Africa Competition 2019 competition





Go home before it’s late exhibition

Turkey’s zero waste project, led by First Lady Erdogan, aims to reduce volume of non-recyclable waste.

25 liters Documantary 16th Istanbul Biennial Unveils Artist List For The Seventh Continent


Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.

Ozan Atalan- Monokrom 16th Istanbul Biennial Unveils Artist List For The Seventh Continent





Refugee Camp Sanlıurfa

Örnekköy, Uzundere Houses have been transformed but habits have not changed.

Tiny House Family

New happy advertising family Urban Transformation Advertising





Law on Transforming Areas at Risk of Disaster

Düzce Umut Atölyesi: After the Düzce Earthquake, the victims has organized and they found Düzce Umut Atölyesi in 2015.

Beginning of the stagflation: collapse of construction sector with heavy inflation and unemployment.




Zoning amnesty: To revive the economy, the zoning peace law was enacted before the election.




D.2011 Ecumenopolis “Ecumenopolis: city without Limits” tells the story of Istanbul and alternative Mega-Cities on a neo-liberal course to destruction. It follows the story of a migrant family from the demolition of their neighbourhood to their on-going struggle for housing rights. The film takes a look at city on a macro level and via the eyes of professional, going from the crack of mushrooming skyscrapers to the depths of the railway tunnel below the Bosphorous strait; from the historic neighbourhoods at intervals the south to the forests at intervals the north; from isolated islands of impoverishment to the villas of the wealthy. It’s an Istanbul going from fifteen million to thirty million. It’s an Istanbul going from a pair of million cars to eight million. It’s the Istanbul of the longer term which can presently engulf the complete region.[129]

Image 34: Ecumenopolis [129]

F.2015 Düzce Umut Evleri After the 1999 Marmara earthquake, tenant earthquake victims started their struggle for the right to housing in 2003 by establishing the ‘Homeless Earthquake Victims Housing Cooperative’. After 15 years of struggle, the state allocated a plot of land for the earthquake victims. Tenant earthquake victims made an open call to co-design the neighborhood where they lived. People from many different disciplines and colleagues who responded to this open call founded the “Düzce Umut Atölyesi” in 2015. Their main goal was to show that it was possible to ‘produce together’, especially against monopolizing housing production after 2000. In this sense, they constantly reminded them that they are a part of this design by including the neighborhood in the work and tried to understand the ways and wishes of the members in order to produce user-oriented designs. For example, the determination of the site plan, the number of floors of the housing units, such as decisions, the residents will live on the model is determined by the experience of the area. In this way, the members of the cooperative developed more realistic predictions by foreseeing the land conditions. They also played an important role in the development of architectural projects and public spaces. Public spaces are designed as organic garden, community center and urban gardens. In addition, a ‘women’s production cooperative’ was established and a cooperative kitchen was built in order to generate revenue. As a result, the idea put forward by Düzce Umut Atölyesi has enabled the lowincome neighbourhoods to reach affordable housing. It went beyond being affordable housing and offered a strong communal life with the public and communal spaces it created. [132] 68

Image 37: Determining on Site Plan with Participatory Process [132]

E.2013 Imece House- Ecovillage


Imece house-even if it is only a temporary part- the only conditions are to be able to get your own responsibility; not being under psychologic treatment; not having any addictions such as to smoking, alcohol, drugs etc; to be an adult or accompanied by your parents; to know how to listen rather than talk; to desire being a part of a big family and to volunteer for any possible duties. Our expectations from those, especially the volunteers, we share the Imece areas with: Do not bring any substances causing addiction, beverages with gas, any plastic covers and/or plastic bottles. In stead of those, take your will of cooperation, your love, your knowledge, your tolerance together with any musical instruments you play, your tent and sleeping bag to live in the field-only your sleeping bag is enough if you stay in the village-, your boots, your raincoat depending on the season and any special food you like with you! It can be chilly in the evenings even in mid-summer. Therefore you should take a warm top with you. You have to have a hat to protect yourself from the sun during the day and of course, some light and comfortable shoes. Do not forget your swimming costume if you wish to swim in the stream or in the pool of the water-fall to feel cooler. You can use the WC connected to the drain if you wish to use your own tooth-paste, shampoo and toilet paper. In all the other areas, on the other hand, you have to use only the products we produce for your personal cleaning to be able to keep the nature under protection. [131] Image 36: Ecovillage [131]

C.2018 Fold&Float Istanbul-based practice SO? has designed and built a prototype floating structure for post-earthquake relief. “Fold&Float” is formed of a light, temporary, foldable steel structure specifically designed for emergency situations. Developed off the back of emergency assembly points being designated by the authorities in 2001, SO? questioned where people could be housed in the event of an earthquake. The question of where temporary buildings can be built in Istanbul in the event of earthquake meeting areas and in case of a possible earthquake was addressed to this project. The questions have gained added significance in the last twenty years, with Istanbul having privatized 70% of the land set aside for emergency assembly. The result was a floating structure that depends not on vacant, stable land, but on managing water. Fold&Float is composed of 2 main parts: an upper structure will fixed, folded furniture, and a floating concrete pontoon. The attention to quality of living within the structure is derived from research suggesting that earthquake and flooding victims spend at least one year in temporary housing following a disaster.’’The structure’s development coincides with the ‘Hope On Water’ education project organized at the 4th Istanbul Design Biennial 2018, a collaboration between civil engineering and sociology students from Bogaziçi University and architecture students from MEF University.’’ [135]

Image 39: Fold & Float on the Water Courtesy of SO? Architecture and Ideas [135]


STRUCTURAL DURABILITY This chapter deals with the capability of structures to withstand loads without unacceptable degradation. We focus on the subject by asking what kind of forces the single unit may be exposed to and which type of precautions should we take against these forces that may cause structural damage. Within this research, we deepen the forces that structures are exposed to under extreme conditions such as earthquakes, wind, snow and floods, the effects of these forces and the precautions that can be taken against these forces. Also, we investigate how a single unit establishes a relationship with the ground, what methods are used to prevent damages that may occur during the transportation of these units, and some alternative structural systems from the past to the present.

Kaiser Dome, Don Ritcher, Hawaii,1957 [122]

EXTERNAL FORCES Earthquake Flood Wind Snow

FOUNDATION Mobile Platform Wheeled Sled

Fixed Platform Pile

TRANSPORTATION Loading Unloading



STRUCTURAL DURABILITY EXTERNAL FORCES Earthquake Turkey is at risk of earthquakes because of its geographical position between 2 massive tectonic plates. Düzce Earthquake has occurred on August seventeen, 1999 and injured population density and economic activity. According to official figures, 18,337 individuals have died, and 48,901 individuals were blistered within the earthquake. The consequences of this earthquake are still present, and unfortunately, the problems concerning the design of small buildings to resist lateral forces have been largely neglected in the engineering literature: ‘’Most of the research and the development of mathematical tools for studying earthquake response have concerned themselves with the larger structures or the structures whose dynamic properties can be rather simply expressed in mathematical terms.’’ [2]

Dynamic Conditions During static mode, imposed load (direction is towards gravity) is carried by slab to beams and then to columns and to foundation. (Fig.1) During dynamic mode, imposed load (direction is horizontal to the floor levels) is in the form of lateral force, which is applied at the floor level (diaphragm), transferred to the beams and then to columns and foundations. (Fig.1) This horizontal load quivers walls, floors, columns, beams and the connectors that keep them together. The disparity in movement between the base and top of buildings exerts intense tension triggering fracturing of the supporting frame and collapsing of the entire framework. [3] Static Conditions (No Earthquake)

Image 1: Aluminet tent at Burning Man festival in Nevada. [1]

A force can cause an object to change its movement or shape and it can cause permanent damage to the structure. Building a stable structure is a challenge for designers, especially in extreme conditions. A detailed analysis of all forces affecting the structure should be performed. In this section, we investigate the structure’s behaviour against external forces such as strong winds, heavy snowfall, floods, and earthquakes. Instead of seeing these forces as a handicap, we are looking for ways to exist with them without harm. As Bucky once said, “Don’t fight with the forces, use them!”

Dynamic Conditions (During an Earthquake)

Figure 1: Static and Dynamic Conditions

Figure 2: Displacements of frame structure

Horizontal displacement distributions are given above for multistory frames under earthquake loads (Fig.2). Each statistic reflects the heights of storeys, the displacements of storeys, and the structure’s top displacements [3] A research analysis of the earthquakes in Turkey since the 1980s reveals that there are 3 errors during the catastrophe causing more than 95% of the damage. These causes are faults in building geometry and system selection (vertical carriers do not have sufficient cross-sectional area), construction errors and problematic details.[4]



Image 2: Earthquake survivors survey the reconstruction efforts in Yang Liu, China [5]

Earthquake Resistant Building Design Structural Framing: The building requires a consistent structure in which the total weight is appropriately distributed. If this consistency is achieved, the structure becomes stable.

Poor Design

Safer Design Figure 3: Distribution of the mass

In different configurations of the modules, an equal distribution of the mass is required.

Braced Frames: It adds additional elements to a frame in order to increase the ability to withstand lateral loads. Braces are most commonly of timber or mild steel angles which can carry compression as well as tension (Fig.4). [6]

Figure 4 : Bracing Frames

STRAIN ‘‘Stress is a measurement of strength. Strain is a measurement of deformation. Stress/strain curves are used to describe the physical properties of materials in comparison to one another. Steel is an expensive material when compared with wood and concrete, but its strength-toweight serviceability is superior. Able to be erected quickly, steel is a prevalent choice in prefabrication. Because of its strength and speed of erection, steel is the most economical and efficient material for structuring long-span, high-rise, and unique geometric designs.’’ [7]

Figure 5: Stress and strain curves [7]



Lightweight Construction: Lightweight construction is one of the most effective approach for resisting seismic waves. Because the horizontal force applied by the earthquake to the structure is directly proportional to the weight of the structure. According to Newton’s theorem, as the weight of the structure diminish theoretically, the earthquake loads affecting the building and the possibility of the building collapse decreases.

Inertial Response

Ground Motion

Mass Inertial Force

Earthquake Acceleration Figure 6: Newton’s Law

Image 3: damage caused by horizontal forces Loma Prieta earthquake, 1989 [8]


Figure 7: Weights Of Buildings By Years [9]

‘‘The recent development of western society could be seen as a development towards lightness. Nothing influenced our society in the 20th century as strongly as transportation. The concept of worldwide mobility for all became possible with the invention and mass production of cars, bicycles and aircraft. Movement is a basic concept of the perception of space and modern time-space automatically incorporates the concept of speed. The everyday use of cars, high speed trains and aircraft is changing our concepts of physical space. Space becomes lighter and more open, since we can more easily move through it. The possibilities of transportation make our globe smaller. People become closer together and are exposed to different cultural concepts. This “being close together” will only be possible by having “light borders”, a process that the European Community is going through today. But much more than physical borders it needs a lightness of thinking - tolerance and open-mindedness.’’ [9]



Image 4: Building the earthquake-proof geodesic dome. [10]

‘‘In April 2005, at the University of British Columbia in the Department of Civil Engineering’s Earthquake Engineering Research Facility, researchers put the wood frame of a 24 foot-diameter dome to the test on a shake table. The table simulated several earthquake scenarios and even heavily loaded, the dome shape enabled it to withstand the simulations with no damage. The equal distribution of weight throughout the structure makes it stable during earthquakes and similar hazards.’’ [11]

1- Foundation and outside seating bench 2- Door frames acting as structural agents within the framework 3- Wiring of the bracing frames 4- Roof construction 5- Lattice system 6- Clamping profiles connecting bracing frames and truss system 7- Trusses

Figure 9: Axonometric view revealing the bracing frames in the masonry.[13]

Image 5: Reinforcing tool, a proposal for Building 4 Humanity Design Competition [12]

Image 6: Alternative for bracing [13]

Figure 8: Outline drawing of each emergency reinforcement method [12]

First aid: Proposal for emergency earthquake-resistant reinforcement is an alternative bracing for wooden building with PP band: The reinforcement method with the packing band is to provide a simple tensile bracelet. Hang the packing band tied back using fastening hardware near the joint of columns and beam material. (Fig.8) (Img.5) [12]

By re-imagining the use of common building materials and systems, the design team has developed a novel structural lattice system to counter the earthquakeinduced structural failures. ‘‘The system is based on a latticework of timber batons that penetrate the stone wall at a grid of 105cm x 60cm. These are secured by an exterior diagonal bracing grid of galvanized wire and reciprocated on the interior by vertical timber members and timber boarding. The layered system counters the effects of wall de-lamination in the event of an earthquake.’’ [13]



DISASTER SCENARIO ‘‘This competition called on architects, engineers, designers, and students from all over the world to design a proposal that tries to produce solutions for possible disaster scenarios. There were 3 scenarios.’’ [14] Scenario 1: Island countries affected by earthquakes, storms, and flooding; Scenario 2: Mountain and inland areas affected by earthquakes and landslides; and (Fig.10) Scenario 3: Coastal areas affected by storms and flooding. This example is designed for Scenario 2. ‘‘The main challenge in this scenario is to design a house that is not only an earthquake and landslide resilient but it also needs to take into account the increasing remoteness and difficulty in transport as altitude rises. The house is designed with a heavy stone-filled retaining wall at the bottom and a light wooden structure on the top. Materials and technologies that would be easily available in the local context and can be easily transported via small pickup van. A balance between local knowledge and modern construction techniques is incorporated in order to encourage community participation and ownership. Earthquake resilient features are integrated into the traditional building practices with minor changes to the available skill set so that its construction does not require expert or non-local craftsmen.’’ [14]

Shape The shape of the house is derived from the ratio of 1:2 to make the building profile strong. It also leads to simplicity of plan, making a stronger earthquake resistant structure instead of scattered blocks.

Portal Frame Instead of using traditional truss systems, a portal frame is introduced. During the earthquakes, the heavier trusses with their rigid joints tend to remain immobile and slide off the roof. A portal frame with the pin joint at the junctions and a rigid joint on the ground enables lateral forces.


Earthquakes up to 7.0 on Richter’s scale also resulting in landslides


Mountain & inland areas (example: Nepal, northern India, Peru etc.)


Harsh winters and mild summers

Added Challenge

Terrain difficulty in transporting heavy construction material

Construction Cost

Material: $120/sqm Labour: $50/sqm Transport: $50/sqm


Assume a 20 m x 20 m plot size in a rocky terrain which is part sloping (gentle gradient) Figure 10: Disaster Scenario [14]

Light / Heavy

Gabion Walls

Heavier load-bearing gabion walls acting as retaining structure for the sloped site, form the lower level of the building. A light wooden portal frame with separate footing inserted in the gabion retaining wall forms the upper level of the house. Both systems are complete by themselves giving it enough flexibility and stability during an earthquake.

Traditional random stone masonry, which was generally used is susceptible to damage in earthquakes. Gabion walls as retaining structures are very efficient in earthquake zones. The ductility of the chain-link cage tied with binding wires and the self-weight of the stone boulders prevents the walls from falling apart or cracking at joints.


Avoiding Gable

Cross bracing made from twisted cables are introduced to resist lateral forces and K bracing made from wood to resist shear forces in the portal frame. It prevents the structure from collapsing onto itself.

Using a hip roof instead of a free-standing gable wall is a useful strategy to avoid damage to the walls and roof in earthquake-prone zones. When all walls are tied to each other, they allow for movement.

Figure 11: Resilient Features for Earthquake Resistant[14]


Flood Resistant Building Design

Flood load is the pressure exerted on a house when it obstructs the flow of moving water, and it may cause serious structural damage. These loads cause one of the most frequent and most damaging disasters in Turkey as well as in the world. Floods in Turkey mostly seen in April, May, and June due to the increase in precipitation and snow melts. Some of the factors that cause flooding are: • Above-average rainfall • Extreme snow melting • Destruction of plants • Destroying trees • Settlements established in creek beds • River / sea water overflow • Sewerage and groundwater overflow

There are many methods to design a flood-resistant building (Fig.14). While some solutions methods are related to the organization of the whole city, others may be smaller-scale structural interventions. During a critical flood, the structure may be subject to the horizontal effect of the crashing waves. This may cause serious damages. Even though there are no apparent waves at that moment, the accumulation of flood water around the building may still be moving with an active current. This movement generates hydrodynamic loads that constantly attack the structure, damaging it and meanwhile accumulating sediments against the structure. The weight of this sediment enhances more pressure to the building and it contributes to the damage. [16] Flood-resistant -or damaged resistant- is defined by the NFIP (National Flood Insurance Program) as “any building product [material, component or system] capable of withstanding direct and prolonged contact with flood-waters without sustaining significant damage.” [17]

Figure 12: Forces During Flood

‘‘Many people think that if they do not live near a stream or creek they are not in danger of flooding; however, this is not true. Flooding is the nation’s number one natural disaster. Flash floods, inland flooding and seasonal storms flood every region of the country. Flood maps don’t show all areas at risk! Flooding may often occur outside the mapped floodplain. It can also happen along smaller streams and creeks that are not shown on any flood maps. Non-creek flooding can occur from overwhelmed storm sewers, low-lying areas that do not have proper drainage or water mains that break. Much of the true risk of flooding is its unpredictability.’’ [15]

rate of overflowing water

Flooding is a natural formation that occurs within nature’s own cycle. Annual flooding may bring benefits to some areas through nutrient and water replenishment. The transformation of this into a disaster is a result of the intervention of human activities on natural balance. (Fig.13)


Figure 13: Relation of urbanization to flood risk

Figure 14: Flood-resistant building design [18]





Setbacks: Setback levees are earthen embankments that are located at a distance from a river channel in such a way to occupy some or all of its natural floodplain during high water events. [19]

30 x erosion rate

First line of stable natural vegetation

Raised Soil: It is a method of raising land to bring structures above the flood level.(Fig.17, Img.8)

Figure 17: Raising Land

Image 8: In La Crosse, fill was added on Charles Street to elevate new homes above the floodplain. [22]

Ocean 30 x erosion rate

Primary Dune

First line of stable natural vegetation

Dry Flood-proofing: Water should not be in direct contact with the structure. In this context, using waterproof materials provides water resistance during submersion (Fig.18, Img.9).

Frontal Dune

Ocean Toe of frontal 30 x erosion rate dune

First line of stable natural vegetation Figure 18: Mobile Barriers

Ocean Figure 15: Minimum Setback Example in North Carolina Ocean Erodible Areas [20]

‘‘Your project should be set as far back from the ocean as possible. At minimum, all buildings must be located behind the crest of the primary dune, the landward toe of the frontal dune or the erosion setback line’’

Image 9: Mobile Barriers [23]

Wet Flood-proofing: Structures should be designed so that the water can flow without causing permanent damage to the structure during a rapid flood. (Like parking areas or transportable first-floor use storage areas) (Fig. 19). Wet floodproofing is a minimal effort and cost-effective solution, but it is short-term; therefore, the result in the deterioration of the building materials depends on repeated exposure to floodwaters.

Figure 19: Mobile Barriers

Image 10: Wet Flood-proofing [24]

‘‘One of the solutions is preventing excessive pressure on the walls by allowing water flow into the basement.’’ [25]

Depending on height, space under the house may be used for storage or access

Figure 16: Post-Tsunami sustainable reconstruction [21]

‘‘ELEMENTAL recommends planting forests along the flood-prone areas to dissipate the energy of waves through friction and implementing specific restrictions on the use and layout of ground-floor spaces in the risk zone.’’ [21]


Figure 20: Mobile Barriers [25]


Figure 8: BAT Srudio- Green House

Image 11: Adjustable Piles of Green House [26]

‘‘Constructed in an area which experiences frequent flooding, the Greenhouse That Grows Legs incorporates a novel approach to flood protection. The building is fabricated on a bespoke steel frame with four hydraulic legs, capable of lifting the building 800mm from the ground on command.’’ [26]

Adjustable Piles: Allowing flood waters to easily flow under the structure in order to minimise structural damage.

The direction of bracing frames is important. Bracing can become an obstruction by increasing exposure of foundation to wave and debris impact. Bracing is often oriented perpendicular to the shoreline so that it is not struck broadside by waves, debris, and velocity flow.

Figure 21: Elevating on pile

Elevating Piles | Bracing Frames: Elevating on piles is another effective method for resisting flood loads. However, only this sole solution may not be sufficient. As the pile rises, the stability of the structure deteriorates and its resistance to horizontal loads decreases. Under these circumstances, the structure should be supported with some additional elements called ‘‘bracing frames’’. ‘’Include knee’’ and ‘’diagonal bracing’’ are some of the common bracing methods. Knee bracing is an effective method of improving the performance of a pile system without creating an obstruction to the flow of water and debris from a design event (Fig.22). [27]

Figure 22: Knee Bracing [27]

Figure 23: Flood Direction | Bracing Frames

Image 12: This house had inadequate pile embodiment and cross bracing [27]



Amphibious architecture purpose an alternative floodresistant approach. An amphibious foundation of the structure maintains the building’s connection with the ground by ensuring the structure stable under normal conditions. During the disaster, it allows the structure to float on the surface of flowing flood-water, instead of struggling with flood loads. [28]

Figure 25: Process [29]

Existing Raised Home - Dry

Existing Raised Home - Flood

Retrofitted Home - Dry

Retrofitted Home - Flood

‘‘Traditionally, houses in the region are raised above ground to mitigate property damage during flood events. However, as the area anticipates increasingly severe floods, the current level of static elevation of these houses may no longer be adequate to protect residents and their property. Rebuilding or repairing homes after a flood event is costly and can require a lengthy period of time. During these repairs, residents are often displaced from their homes, increasing their economic burden and vulnerability.’’ [29]

Figure 24: Typical raised home in dry and flood conditions [29]

The posts of the vertical guidance system allow the house to slide up of its foundation when water comes in and then move back down to its original place once the water recedes.

Rear elevation of Nguyen Van Nao’s Home in dry conditions

Rear elevation of Nguyen Van Nao’s Home in flood conditions Image 13: Dry and flood conditions [29]


Possible Damages: Even a well-designed building may

Wind Wind loads act on a building as uniform surface loads. These can create both positive and negative pressure from inwards and outwards loads on building surface (Fig.26).

be damaged in an unexpected wind occasion (Fig.28). Therefore, depending on various factors, the suction force can be significant enough to cause damage to individual building


components or the structure of the building itself. [30]

The amount of wind load is dependent on the following: • Geographical location • The height of the structure • Type of surrounding physical environment • The shape of the structure • Size of the building The wind pressure originates from two components: Mean velocity and gust velocity. Since static mean velocities are averaged over longer periods of time, the resulting wind pressure is also average pressure and exerts a steady deflection on the building. [30]



action and reaction

Sliding/shear Figure 28: Possible damages of strong winds


Despite their vastly different wind speeds, damage patterns near the landfall locations of fast-moving Hurricane Charley (Img.14) and slow-moving Hurricane Frances (Img.15) were remarkably similar. [31]

Figure 26: Wind loading

‘‘First, positive wind pressure applies to the building components on the side of the building that faces the incoming wind (the “windward” direction). The windward wind load is essentially the force of the blowing wind pressing on the building. Secondly, the negative wind pressure applies to the building components on the side(s) of the building that faces away from the incoming wind (the “leeward” direction). The negative wind pressure is also known as “suction.” The suction force will be applied to vertical surfaces such as walls, and also horizontal or sloped surfaces such as roofs. The suction force can be thought of as acting like a vacuum that pulls on a building and its components.’’ (Fig. 27) [30] Image 14: Collapse of a large portion of a metal building (Florida, 2004) [32]

Figure 27: Pressure and Suction

Image 15: Some examples of structural damages after hurricane Frances [32]



EFFECTS OF WIND ACCORDING TO THE SHAPE OF STRUCTURE ‘‘In the flat roof (a), the low-pressure coefficient occurs due to the flow separation on the leading edge of the roof, resulting in some vortices at the top of the roof. In the case of the gabled roof (b), the low-pressure coefficient occurs on the leeward area of the roof and flow separation occurs at the top of the roof. The same case is true for the pyramidal roof (c) where the lowpressure coefficient occurs in the leeward area of the roof. In the case of vaulted (d) and domed roofs (f), there

a a-Flat



is not so much of a low-pressure coefficient due to the fact that no recirculation occurs in the roof area. High stream-wise velocity occurs at the very top of the roof, causing a low-pressure coefficient in this area. In the case of the wedged roof (e), the flow separation occurs at the topmost portion of the roof and flow recirculation occurs in the leeward area, resulting in a low-pressure coefficient here.’’ [33]








f- Domed

Figure 29: Mean velocity and pressure coefficient contours with mean velocity vectors for different roofing designs of detached structures: (a) Flat roof, (b) Gabled roof, (c) Pyramidal roof, (d) Vaulted roof, (e) Wedged roof, and (f) Domed roof [33]


Additional Material / Tension: Known as ‘‘Guy-wire’’ dissolves as a side force that resists the wind load that exerts compressive force on some bending structure due to wind force. They are used commonly in ship masts, radio masts, wind turbines, utility poles, and tents (Img.18).


Image 16: Yurtdome, Burning Man [34]

Figure 30: Guy-wire

The Burning Man festival, which has been held since 1986, takes place in the Nevada Desert, known for extreme conditions such as desert winds, dust, cold and dry nights, rain and heat. Since 1986, Burning Man Festival develop many inspirational shelter designs that have been produced and built quickly and have not left a trace in the desert after the end of the festival, relatively self-sufficient, able to withstand strong winds, cold nights and hot days. These designs are very impressive for the sheltering methods in temporary or extreme conditions. [35] “These shelters have been of interest to organizations exploring mass housing such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and commercial ventures such as Shelter Systems and World Shelters.” [35] “Although many of these concepts have roots in the experimentation of the last century, including those of Buckminster Fuller, more recently some innovative ideas have emerged too. For example, “yurtdomes,” (Img.16) the folding ICOSA Pod (a structure based on triangular tensions), or the IKEA-funded flat-packed houses (originally produced for refugees on the Somalia/Ethiopia border by Swedish designer Johan Karlson), have all been tested at this festival.’’ [35] Image 18: Wind turbine and Guy-wire [37]

Image 17: North Face releases a Geodesic Dome tent [36]

Image 19: Guy wire support for extreme conditions [38]

‘‘Reinterpreting the teachings of Buckminster Fuller, North Face has announced the latest tent in their collection; a geodesic dome tent. Thanks to the most spatially efficient shape in architecture, it can withstand winds of up to 60 mph as the force is spread evenly across the structure whilst even providing enough height for an approximately 1.80m tall person to stand comfortably inside.’’ [36]

‘‘Structure is located near to a rocky ledge at about 3290m of altitude with its characteristic hole in the rock. It is able to withstand the continuous combined action of extreme weather conditions such as extreme weather temperatures even below -20°C, wind speed up to 200 km/h, heavy precipitations and meters of snow on the ground.’’ [38]




“Octayurts are an incredibly simple, and affordable design to make a self-supported fully enclosed building using common materials with a few simple cuts, and no material waste. If made out of plywood, they are animal proof, and if made out of insulation foam board, they are light and foldable. An Octayurt has 8 sides, and with light materials, it can be held together with tape. The core physics principles behind both Octayurts is that the roof stays up as long as it has something pushing it in, and the connected outer ring provides that stability. The roof is resistant to too much force pushing it in because it reciprocates against the roof pieces next to it.” [41]

Figure 31: Glamcocks Camp, Tiger’s Octayurt [41]


Image 21: Inside of Glamcocks Camp, Tiger’s Octayurt [41]


Burning Man organized for the first time in 1986 in San Francisco and continued to be held in the desert land called Black Rock City in Nevada in later years. The festival is described by the organizers as a community and art experiment which takes its name from the temple burned at the end of the event. It presents valuable examples of temporary structures such as temples and shelters. Also, these various structures and tents, which are resistant to desert climate condition are mostly produced just for this event. Image 22: The Octopods Anomalous by Chris Yamane and Benny Lichtner [42]

“The Metal Pods are inspired by Fuller’s geodesic dome. These metal domes are light, strong and easy to set-up. A recycle window curtain covers a steel frame, while recycled painter drop cloths are stretched on the domes. Pods take one to two hours to set up and to take down. Three-level structure has a kitchen with a stove on the first floor, shower in the middle floor, and bedroom on the top floor.” [42]

Image 20: Burning Man 2018 [39]

Image 23: Metal Pods Village by Scott Parenteau; [42]

Image 24: The Cube Village by Scott Mahoney [42]

“The Cube by Scott Mahoney is flat pack system as vocation beyond the limits of Black Rock City to provide a fast, stackable and expandable shelter solution in disaster-stricken areas. This experiment in communal living would worth doing on the architectural point of view. The Cube with its Node is a very well designed shelter offering a temporary comfortable living space that sustained the extreme conditions of the Black Rock Desert. It is a great alternative for a tent as becoming flat-pack, light and easily assembled make it easy to use. However it is not cheap with its metal frame structure.” [42]

Image 25: The Cube by Scott Mahoney [42]




Possible Damages

Snow load is a force exerted by the accumulated snow on the roof as a result of heavy snowing. When snow accumulates on the roof, vertical loads increase and this can cause permanent damage because this load generally does not distribute uniformly and it adds weight.

The most common structural damage is the breaking of the roof due to the excessive accumulation of snow. Buildings may be vulnerable to structural failure and possible collapse if basic preventative steps are not taken in advance of a snow event. Some causes of structural damage from snow accumulating on roofs are given below: [43]

On a flat roof, the snow load tends to be uniformly distributed. The load is then distributed to the beams and joints that make up the roof and then sent down to the columns that are supporting the beam at its ends. Because the columns are supporting at the both end of the beam, the bending moment at the middle of the beam is the greatest; therefore, the beam’s weakest points is at the middle. As the load presses down onto the beam, it will experience tension on the bottom and compression at the top going through deflection.

• ‘‘Actual snow load significantly exceeds design snow load’’ • ‘‘Drifting and sliding snow conditions’’ • ‘‘Deficient workmanship’’ • ‘‘Insufficient operation and maintenance’’ • ‘‘Improper design (Roof geometry etc.) ’’ • ‘‘Inadequate drainage design’’ • ‘‘Roof geometry’’[43]

‘‘Unbalanced snow loading is the condition in which snow accumulates at different depths in different locations on a roof, resulting in differential snow load. Unbalanced snow load poses a greater risk to the roof structural system than a uniform snow load. Hence, the danger of drifting and sliding snow is that both create an unbalanced snow load.’’ [43] Figure 33: Roof break

Figure 32: Snow loading effects on the structure

Image 26: Roof break [44]

Figure 34: Unbalanced snow load from drifting and sliding snow on typical commercial or industrial building [43]



Image 27: Illustration from Charles Francis Hall’s Arctic Researches and Life Among the Esquimaux, 1865 [45]

Snow Resistant Building Design Accumulated snow applies force to the roof. The roof must be resistant to this force. The main issue is to reduce the accumulation of snow on the roof and to ensure that the accumulated snow load is evenly distributed. At this point, the wind direction and the shape of the roof are very important. Gable roof prevents snow accumulation compared to flat roofs, and as the roof slope increases, the amount of accumulated snow decreases. Therefore, direction of the roof slope should be determined according to the direction of the wind force. (Fig.35).

“The igloo is a temporary winter shelter built by native Eskimos primarily for use in winter hunting camps. Snow is used because the air pockets trapped in it make it an insulator. On the outside, temperatures may be as low as −45 °C (−49 °F), but on the inside, the temperature may range from −7 to 16 °C (19 to 61 °F) when warmed by body heat alone’’ [45]

Figure 36: Configurations, Igloo Satellite Cabin [46]

Image 28: Transportation, Igloo Satellite Cabin [46]

Figure 35: Snow accumulations

‘‘Wannabe Eskimos looking for an updated version of the familiar ice dome. Igloo Satellite Cabin, a prefabricated remote shelter designed to withstand sub-zero temperatures, high winds, ice, and snow. The basic Igloo Satellite Cabin, weighing 250 kg and 3m wide x 2.1m high, is pre-fabricated, insulated and made from 8 wall panels and 4-floor panels. The whole Igloo is bolted together and secured to the ground anchors by 8 wire tie-down lines. Igloos can be extended and interlinked with tunnels. Units can be flown fully assembled by helicopter, and are ideal short-term accommodation for exploration, research, and ecotourism. Igloos have been in use since 1982.’’ [46]



The shape of the geodesic dome allows the wind to help naturally shed snow from the dome. This is why it is used quite often in extreme environments such as Alaska and the like. The Eskimos build their Igloos in a dome shape for the same reason: A Dome is the strongest and best shape for handling snow! The total static weight that can be supported over the entire dome is much greater than any snow load it will have to support, as snow does not accumulate on a round roof. [47]

The most known effect of the accumulated snow on the ground is the prevention of entry into the structure. However, excessive accumulation of snow between the structure and the ground can cause structural damage. In order to prevent this, some protrusions may be formed on the floor of the structure in a direction not to cause snow accumulation. (Fig. 38, Img.31)

Figure 38: Prevention of snow accumulation

Figure 37: Snow accumulation on Geodesic Dome [48]

Image 30: Maison des jeunes, designed by Gerard Grandval, Maurice Calka, 1967 [50]

With its soft, rounded shapes imitated from those that the snow itself is gathering. The cabin-shell made of polyester-coated moulded wood protrudes against the cavity thus reducing the accumulation of snow on the floor of the structure.

Image 29: Lightweight and Compact Shelter [49]

‘‘At an altitude of 3,800 meters, Ice-Age architects have designed and produced a compact and lightweight shelter as the last base before climbers venture up Mount Elbrus, the highest point in Europe. Inspired by Buckminster Fuller’s 2V geodesic dome, it can sleep up to 16 people as they acclimatize to the altitude and wait for the appropriate weather for the climb.’’ [49] Image 31: Ice Huts [51]

Image 32: Ice Huts [51]



‘‘Bruce Hamilton, who worked for the company from 1970 to 1989, recently wrote a few poststelling the story of the North Face / Buckminster Fuller connection. It began in his first year on the job, when the company’s owner Hap Klopp asked a friend whose family had connections to Fuller to send the already worldfamous architect-systems theoristinventor a letter. Describing The North Face as “a small company that produces what I believe to be the finest equipment presently available,” the friend asked Fuller for ideas on how to improve the “archaic designs” then used to construct tents.’’ Fuller replied: [53]

“I have thought a great deal in the past about your subject of the compact, lightweight, back-packable environment controlling device,” Fuller replied. “I am accepting your challenge.” [53]

2018 Geodome 4

Image 33: The North Face Geodesic Tents [52]

‘’Comfortably accommodates four occupants in its unique form, while toughing out japan’s most harshest weather.’’ The North Face kept incorporating Fuller’s ideas into their tents, and they hammered out the terms of direct collaboration on a new model in 1983, a month before Fuller died. Judgments about other tensegrity structures — geodesic dome homes, for example — have varied over the years, but the Oval Intention lives on in the form of the new Geodome 4. It can withstand winds of up to 60 mph. The structure can be assembled easily with only five main and one equator poles. It is packaged in a weight of 11.07 kg. [51]

Image 34: Bucky stepping out of the door of the 3 meter, six frequency tent, 1977 [53]

Image 35: An example from The North Face correspondence with Fuller, 1977 [53]

Image 36: The North Face Geodome 4 [54]


Buckminster Fuller

STRUCTURAL DURABILITY FOUNDATION Mobile The mobile relationship can be applicated as platform, footing, wheeled and sled.

Platform As we have seen in Shigeru Ban’s example, the platform can be made with recyclable materials such as a vegetable fruit box. This is a fast material that can be found after the earthquake * and also creates a system that can be assembled and produced quickly without considering the combination details.

Figure 39: Temporary platform made by recycled vegetable boxes

Image 37: Views of the components and assemblage of the Total Filling Station [55]

In shelter design, there are many variations of the relation with ground during setup. These variations occur according to the climate conditions, geographical characteristics, functions, social situations or life-styles. Shelters diversify relations in different cases to improve its durability. This connection with the ground can be seen as mobile or fixed. As seen in the previous topic “external forces”, to design a cabin as fixed is useful in windy areas that contains so much horizontal forces, but designing as a flexible/ mobile cabin is also better in earthquake hazard areas. There is the same situation in geographical characteristics of an area, the way of setup is changing according to the touching point between the earth and cabin. Structures which are placed on rocky areas are mostly fixed to the earth, on the other hand the cabins that are considered on snowy areas are mostly mobile to battle with changeable snow height. In addition, function of a shelter is important in terms of the way of setting it up. Like temporary cabin design for seasonal use is mobile, whereas a permanent cabin for long time use is considered as fixed. The temporariness is also vital in the refugee camps or disaster relief projects and they need mobile quick shelters. Dissimilarly to these situations, people manage their lives just for personal desires. Some people make a stale connection with the ground and feel belonged therefore their cabin could be fixed. On the other hand, other people could desire more freedom with their cabin to take it away with them and experience lots of different places.

Image 38: Mock-up of temporary house by students of Shigeru Ban Lab at Keio University in Japan [56]

Image 39: Mock-up of temporary house by local architects and students at Quito in Ecuador [56]

*Temporary House is disaster relief project after the earthquake in Ecuador in 2016. [56]


Figure 40: Mobile platfrom made by wooden sticks

The cabin that Donna Irvine photographed near Nellie Lake could be a site specific solution created by the owner in a way to protect it from factors such as rainfall in the area. It fixes two large and shaped stones on top of each other and places the cabinet on top of them.

Figure 42: Stone masonary platform

Figure 41: Section of Flake House by Olgga Architectes at Nantes in France [57] Image 41: Cabin built with repurposed windows, skylight, and palettes for the floor, near Nellie Lake in notheastern Ontario, Canada; Donna Irvine [58]

Image 40: Flake House by Olgga Architectes at Nantes in France [57]



In the Flake House project, the platform was provided with wooden raiser placed crosswise. The raiser has protected the cabin from rain and similar factors with adding some gap between ground and cabin so it is easy to convert it into another form and transport to somewhere.


Footing The feet in Ken Isaacs’ 8’Micro House are one of the first attempts in 1974 to establish a relationship between the ground and the cabin. Isaacs considers the cabin as a temporarily space and illustrates it to show how this temporary structure is designed by the user. In Figure 43, we see that the legs called “tetrehedron” are formed by welding or brazing the steel rods supporting the 3 surfaces in the corner of the cabin and this structure is fixed to the plywood feet.

As shown in the example, AbleNook is made for portable dwelling and has little touch on the surface by placed it on the floor. The adjustable steel footing foundations allow the unit to be placed on uneven surfaces so they can be deployed anywhere. Numerous adjustable feet compensate for small elevation differences or uneven terrain on the ground. [61]

Figure 44: Mobile adjustable footings

Figure 42: Mobile tetrahedron footings

Figure 45: Section of AbleNook by Sean Verdecia and Jason Ross [62]

Figure 43: Leg detail of 8’ Micro House [59]

Figure 46: Diagram of AbleNook by Sean Verdecia and Jason Ross [62]

Image 42: Replica of Ken Isaacs’s 8’ Micro House, 2010 [60]


Another micro home experiment of Richard Horden, which he developed with his students, is the micro research laboratory in Antarctica. The feet of the laboratory can be adjusted according to the structure of the ground, additively it adapts to the melting snow level with the sledges at the end of the feet.

Figure 47: Adaptable footings

Figure 49: Mobile sled footings

Image 43: 1:1 Construction detail of Fly Off, Alps [63]

Figure 50: Section of Polar Lab, Antarctica Research Habitat, Antarctica [65]

Image 44: Fly Off, Alps [63]

Image 46: Polar Lab, Antarctica Research Habitat, Antarctica [65]

Image 45: White Winter, River Saulgrub [64]

Figure 48: Adaptation diagram of Fly Off , left to right; iclined plane, water, rocky slope, cliff [63]



Working with the concept of micro homes, Richard Horden produces projects on this concept with his students. Sometimes they are inspired by the arms of an insect or the wings of a butterfly. Like these insects that have the ability to adapt to different situations, the “fly off� project opens or lowers its wings according to the change of the ground. It sometimes places itself on a rock and sometimes sits on a snowy peak.



Figure 51: Inflatocookbook, second editon by Ant Farm [66]

“For the past year Ant Farm has been a group of environmental nomads building inflatable structures/ air building/geodesic domes and developing a vocabulary of images that project architectural alternative methods. We built about 20 inflatable polyethylene structures for schools, confrences, festivals and gatherings from California to Vermont. The largest one, at 100’ X 100’ white and clear pillow, the smaalest a tetrahedron that folds out of a suitcase.”[67]



Figure 52: Inflatocookbook, second editon by Ant Farm [66]

“Searching out a means, a way of doing, a spacial expression alternatives to the rigid architectural paths we were led down as children. Images of what environment can mean when a person takes it in his own hands, feeling it and molding new forms. A beginning, a method so simple we can share it at will and never lose the security of being sheltered. The INFLATOCOOKBOOK is our attempt to gather information and skills learned in process and organize it for easy access. It is catalyst for our thought process and further development.� [67]



Wheeled One of the most used mobile homes, wheeled cabins can be transported in many different ways. As shown in figure 53, the wheeled cabin can be turned into mobile with the help of a hook. So it can be taken to a certain location with a vehicle and then it can continue its life alone. So you just need a basic vehicle to changing your location.

Figure 53: Mobile cabin trasported by help of a hook

Mobile homes can consist a limited mobility, as shown in the example of the kalhöfer - korschildgen (figure 55). Fahrt ins Grüne is an additional building of old wooden house. The location of the structure can be changed by the wheeled piles with the rail system on the ground.

Figure 55: Wheeled mobile annex on the rail system

Image 47: Moving Icon, kalhöfer - korschildgen architekten [68]

The most common example of mobile home is caravan. The caravans, which are designed to be the living area with the vehicle, can change their location without the need for anything additional.

Image 49: Fahrt ins Grüne, kalhöfer - korschildgen architekten Remscheid [70]

Figure 54: Caravan

Image 48: Apollo euro star 4-seater Motorhome [69]


Image 50: Fahrt ins Grüne, kalhöfer - korschildgen architekten Remscheid [70]


Image 51: Ice Village # 261, Neenah, Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, USA, 2018; Richard Johnson [71]

Since 2007, photographer Richard Johnson has been traveling around Canada, documenting the architectural variations in ice fishing huts. “As with its distant cousins the Teepee and the Igloo, the Ice Fishing Hut has its own essential purpose” Now in its eighth year, the project encompasses photographs of 800 huts from one coast of Canada to the other. Together, they form a typological study of the fishing culture and architecture across the country’s regions. “As with its distant cousins the native Teepee and the Igloo, the Ice Fishing Hut has its own essential purpose,” says Johnson. “Sheet metal, faux wood paneling, tarpaulins, peak roofs, modified camping trailers all fulfill the requirements for shelter.” [72] “For me, an ice fishing hut is the most fundamental expression of architecture. It is designed and built by the owner. It is transportable. It is shelter with a hole in the floor serving a common purpose. Yet with a similar list of design criteria each one is uniquely different; a testament to the owner’s personality.”[73]

Sled Mobile homes are changing according to the climatic conditions, a wheel on the soil helps to move, on the other hand, the ski becomes a vehicle of movement in snowy areas. As you can see in Image 52, the snowmobile can change the location of the sled cabin with the help of a hook. Figure 56: Fishing cabin wheeled by side surface

These fishing huts, built by the owners of the region for fishing purposes, are valuable in their relationship with the ground because they are located in snowy areas. As I will exemplify in the “sled” section, the cabins provide their mobility mostly with sled on snowy areas. The cabins which are photographed by Richard Johnson has designed their mobility with a different system. The walls and floors of these huts in Ice Village #261 are interchangeable. These huts are taken to the area with the wheels on their floors during the relocation and then the walls become the floor and the floor becomes the wall on the site. Although it is a wheeled cabin during the set-up and it turns into a cabin adjacent to the ground during fishing.

Figure 57: Fishing cabin wheeled by side surface

Image 52: Ice Hut #180 & #427a, Beaveton, Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada, 2008; Richard Johnson [74]



Fixed The setup of the fixed cabins, can be partitioned as platform and pile according to the relation with ground.


Fixed cabins are mostly provided with fixing the structure on the platform made of a certain material in the relation with ground. The example shows fixing bamboo structured pavilion with a steel fixing detail to concrete platform.

The fixed platforms can also be constructed with a material which has no connection between the ground and platform. As shown in the example in figure 59, a relationship where it is fixed to the ground is possible by pouring concrete onto the rock. In addition to the steel fixing between the platform and the cabin, it can be secured to the ground by providing tension with ropes in order to increase the strength in windy areas (please check wind section).

Figure 59: Cabin fixed to concrete platform and supported by ropes Figure 58: Structurally fixed to concrete platform

Image 54: Winter cabin on Mount Kanin by OFIS arhitekt in Slovenia [76]

Image 53: Bamboo Pavilion for the Expo Shanghai by Markus Heinsdorff in China [75]


The Shed was fixed ground with the reinforced concrete platform. The concrete platform is fixed to the ground by their weight and also it has concrete sheets entering the earth on each side. These sheets provide cracking caused by the soil in concrete. After the concrete is removed from the mold, the horizontal and vertical wooden planks are fixed to the platform.

Figure 60: Cabin fixed to existing rock base

Figure 61: The platform fixed to the ground

Figure 62: The section of The Shed, NARTARCHITECTS [78]

Image 55: Boathouse (Naust paa Aure), TYIN tegnestue Architects, Norway [77]

Image 56: The Shed, NARTARCHITECTS, Nagybajom, Hungary [78]



As seen in the example of the Boathouse, the relationship of the cabin with land during set-up can be not only on the floor but also on the wall. This cabin, which was installed on rocky terrain, was designed not as on top of the rock, but also by taking the rock in and fixing its walls to the rock, as shown in figure 60.


Pile Fixed cabinets can be setup on the ground with piles. For cabinets with a certain weight and square meter, piles may not always be under the ground. The stakes can also be durable and permanent by filling them or fixing them to a heavy foot in place. In Beach Matrix, one of the pioneering examples of this, most of the designed structures are fixed to the ground by the feet that are adapted to the structure.

One of the solutions is to connect the piles to the concrete foots so that the cabins do not lose their durability as a result of being exposed to various weather events. In Carter Williamson Architects’ Emergency Shelter project, the adjustable legs that are stuck in a small concrete feet provide both terrain compatibility and a solution for extreme conditions. In the street exhibition of the project, instead of concrete feet, they provided the durability of the cabin with a few sacks of sand.

Figure 63: Piles with feets that can be buried in the sand

Figure 65: Adjustable piles

Figure 66: Section of Emergency Shelter / Sustainable house prototype by Carter Williamson Architects at Melbourne, Australia [81]

Figure 64: Feet detail of Old Micro House [79]

Image 57: Installation view of Beach Matrix, Ken Isaacs in Westport, Connecticut [80]


Image 58: Emergency Shelter / Sustainable house prototype by Carter Williamson Architects at Melbourne, Australia [82]

Peak Lab is one of the projects Richard Horden has developed together with his students for extreme conditions. Although not constructed, the project is valuable with the idea is developed. The cabin is fixed to the rock by horizontal steel piles at three main points. While the connection in Detail 1 supports the ladder, we see the connection which carries the most of the cabin in Detail 2.

Figure 67: Hide cabins fixed ground by long piles

Figure 68: Cabin fixed the rock by steel piles horizontally



Figure 69: Section of Peak Lab, Zermatt [84]

Image 60: Detail 1 on the left and Detail 2 on the right of Peak Lab Project [84]

Image 59: Cabins from “Hide”, a series documentating deer stands in Wisconsin; Jason Vaughn [83]



The cabins from Jason Vaughn’s “cabins from hide” series was raised for a variety of reasons. Piles, which are one of the easiest ways to gain height in a cabinet, turn into a rather prominent object in these examples compared to the cabinet. Piles can be perpendicular to the ground or with various cross systems. Ladders that help to enter an elevated entrance may in some cases be part of the pile structure.


The piles are not always vertical, but may also be conical. As seen in Studio Morison’s Escape Vehicle project, conical legs cladding with aluminium/steel panel(1) are fixed to concrete foot. The upper legs are connected to the primary support beams (2).[85] Approximately 2 meters long legs create a floating feeling on the grass as well as protecting itself from various factors in the forest area such as flooding and insects.

Figure 70: Cabin fixed the ground by conical legs

JR’s Hut at Kimo Estate ,is a interpretation of classical “A frame” house fixed with classical piles, provides its relationship with the floor with concrete strip footing(1), while the support wooden pillars that from A form sit on the floor with concrete pad footing (2). The wooden pillars and concrete legs are fixed with steel fitting. The gap created between the steel fitting and the floor is filled with pebbles and does not take the water into the house.

Figure 72: Cabin fixed the ground by concrete strip footing and concrete pad footing


Photo name: Lorem ipsum

2 Image 61: Escape Vehicle #9: ICE by Studio Morison in Netherlands, 2018 [86]

Due to the fact that the structure is A form, the stakes can also be shaped according to the form. In Robin Flack’s Nolla Cabin project, wooden piles are fixed on existing rock base with A form piles.

2 1 Figure 73: Section of JR’s Hut at Kimo Estate by Anthony Hunt Design and Luke Stanley Architects, Gundagai, Australia [88]

Figure 71: A frame structure fixed the rock by a frame piles

Image 62: Nolla Cabin by Robin Flack at Vallisaari, Finland, 2018; Fanny Haga [87]


Image 63: JR’s Hut at Kimo Estate by Anthony Hunt Design and Luke Stanley Architects,Gundagai, Australia [89]


“Artist Benjamin Langholz created a circular staircase of stepping stones to allow revellers to tune out the immersive atmosphere at this year’s Burning Man and focus on themselves. Langholz arranged 27 stones in an ascending ring, supported by a central pillar and three surrounding pairs of columns, to create the installation named Stone 27. Intended to provide a “shift into a new reality”, the journey up and around the elevated stones was designed to take visitors on a “floating walk to experience a moment of complete presence”.

Image 64: Sketchbook detail, drawn by Maaz Jan [90]

“The idea of pathways of floating stones appealed to me because you can present an alternate reality,” explained Langholz to Dezeen. “One where something heavy and stable suddenly becomes light and floats in the air.” Three pairs of columns were angled to fan outwards from the central pillar, with each stone attached to four points in the structure – using to over half a mile of steel rope. At the base of steel support, a pile of basalt rocks placed by the artist hid the structure inserted into the ground. Rather than removing the black basalt blocks found on the Black Rock mountain, the artist sourced similar local stone so as to not disturb the natural landscape.” [92]

Image 65: Stone 27 by Benjamin Langholz at Burning Man, 2019 [91]


STRUCTURAL DURABILITY TRANSPORTATION Loading / Unloading Heatherwick Studio’s Paperhouse is loaded and unloaded with help of a crane. The cabin, which was built as an off-site, is fixed and carried by the metal strong points where the crane can be mounted. When lifting the crane, these points should form the balance center of the structure so that the structure does not topple over.

Figure 74: Cabin is unloaded by metal strong points

Image 67: Paperhouse by Heatherwick Studio at London, UK, 2002 [94] Image 66: Views of the components and assemblage of the Total Filling Station [93]

Transportation is one of the important factors for cabins. There is no meaning of designing a structure that cannot be transported. Because of that, it is also a part of designing process. For instance, if there is a project made with panels, their lengths, and widths not exceed transportation vehicular size. The limited dimensions of the vehicle create again limited size of panels. The standardization of 2,40 m width of containers is as reason of international maximum vehicular width which is 2,45 m. The one of the significant criteria is durability of the package, as a whole cabin or separated parts, in the transportation process even if the dimension standard was okay. There is three different point such as loading, delivery, and unloading according to the durability of it. It is mostly loaded with cranes to the truck and there are lots of types to carry with them. Although, cabins which has a central point could be carried in that point, cabins which has multi central points such a container could be carried by dividing its loads. The methods of carrying are diversified according to the their connection points and materials. The other vital criteria is the external forces during transportation. Most of cabins are not durable against that forces during the delivery period because of the shape of either panels or materials and these are should get strong against them. Helicopters are used when the environmental conditions do not allow. Therefore, they are challenged with strong wind forces.

If there is no point to fix the structure during loading and unloading stages, it is supported by a belt to avoid damaging the structure. Two-end cranes are used to transport the structure without compressing.

Figure 75: Cabin is unloaded by belts

Image 68: Flake House by Olgga Architectes at Nantes in France, 2009 [95]


Figure 76: Cabin is carried by distributing the load to three parts

Structures formed by folding systems tend to have easy transportation processes. Although the higher volume or height of the package can be problematic in the limited areas during transportation, the folding system can overcome that problem. MADI Home is minimized its volume to nearly a quarter by folding technique. (Image 71) The folded form of it creates more safe process against external impact and allows transported more houses at the same time.

Figure 77: Cabin is loaded by belts

Image 69: Marmol Radziner Prefab House, California [96]

Image 71: Loading of folded MADI Home [98]

Image 70: 24-Story modular student dormitory, O’Connel East Architects (OEA), United Kingdom [97]

Like the previous example, the 24-Story modular student dormitory which is designed by OEA is carried by the load distribution method to place each module. But it is different from the previous in some points such as the connection between the crane and container. The container has connection points to prevent some accidents during transformation.



Loading prefabricated systems, such as containers, are different from basic shaped cabins. They probably have a bigger volume and more complicated gravity points caused by a rectangular shape. Therefore, the divided load has a more clear transportation process in that kind of form. Marmol Radziner Prefab House, which is photographed by Todd Jerry, is being hosted with three belt straps and one spreader bar to distribute load the hydraulic crane. (Image 69)


Delivery Another important factor is the situation of a part of the structure or the whole of them should not be damaged during the delivery. Various factors are taken into consideration such as the size and fragility of the object being transported. For avoiding the damage during transportation is the sheathing of the structure. System 3 Prototype House is a project where most of its parts are built off-site and for this reason, its parts are designed to be transported as covered. So that their parts do not clash during the delivery and to prevent any foreign matter from being damaged. The sheath is removed after reaching the site and the assembly is completed.

During the transportation of the New Amsterdam Plein & Pavilion, there are disadvantages such as the length of the parts exceeding the truck width of 2.40 m and the fragility of the form. As a solution, the parts were transported in traffic control with an “oversize load” warning sign, and the structure was supported by woods and ropes from inside to prevent jolts.

Figure 79: Cabin is stabilized by woods and ropes during transportation

Figure 78: Cabin is protected by a sheath during transportation

Image 73: New Amsterdam Plein & Pavilion by UNStudio at New York, USA [100]

Delivery affects the design process. We can see an example of that in the Snow-House project. Walter Klazs was designed folding footing for that project for transporting easily.

Figure 80: Transportation section of Snow-House, Walter Klazs [101]

Image 72: System 3 Prototype House by Oskar Leo Kaufmann and Albert Rüf at MoMA Exhibition, New York, USA, 2008 [99]

Figure 77: Transportation image of Snow-House, Walter Klazs [101]



Figure x: Cutaway view of bottlenosed dolphin within transport unit.

Image 74: An orca is shown being lifted from its pool [103]


‘‘Over the last 20 years, specialized marine mammal transport techniques have been developed to cope with the unique physiology of marine mammals. Safe, successful transportation can be achieved with proper attention to detail and the use of appropriate technology.’’[102] ‘‘Adequate body support techniques have been developed to allow normal breathing during transport. Cetaceans are now moved in fabric stretchers, suspended in water-filled transport units, more closely approximating the near weightlessness provided by water. Additionally, the widespread use of aircraft has allowed successful movement of cetaceans over vast distances by shortening the amount of time the cetacean is removed from the water environment.’’ [102] The whale is placed on a canvas hanger covered with a strong fabric, then pulled from several points of the hanger with the help of a crane. This is important both to distribute the load and to avoid hurting the whale. This canvas is attached to the transport container. The container must be leak-proof and should therefore be constructed of suitable corrosion proof metal, or heavy duty plastic of sufficient strength. Then, the Container which is handled by crane or fork-lift, is transported by truck, ship or aircraft.

Figure 81: Cutaway view of bottlenosed dolphin within transport unit [102]

Image 75: The whale used for dissection is lifted from the ocean [104]

Figure 82: Transport unit [102]

Image 76: A cargo plane being loaded with two Beluga whales [105]


Assemblage of Total Filling Station


Image 77: Assembling a Total Filling Station, Gagosian Gallery [106]

While technology develops, the human desires for creating, discovering and making increase. Cabins are the first examples of this motivation with small scale possibilities. In this part of the research, there are some examples of alternative systems. Some of them were forgotten despite they were very popular in their past periods, some of them are still in use with some differences such as form or scale and many of them continue to be developed by the contribution of modern technologies. All the examples have advantages and disadvantages in particular situations. For example, the fast assembly systems are important after a disaster situation or the local/man-made systems are vital where transportation not possible. The examples can continue with the folding systems in the needs of bigger areas and do it yourself methods when labour is limited.

Flying Seedpod

Image 78: A folding-out geodesic structure, Flying Seedpod, Buckminster Fuller and his team at Washington University, St. Louis, 1953 [107]

Flying Seed-pod is a structure developed by Fuller and his students at Washington University in 1953. Fuller explains the aim of the structure with these words “The prototype of the structural principles that we may use in sending history’s first (little) scientific dwelling to the Moon. As you see all the structural members are tightly bundled together in parallel so that they may be transported in minimum volume within a rocket capsule.” This structure was created four years before Sputnik 1(1957) which gives a start to the idea of space travel. Because of the aim, the team worked on a folding system that has opportunities for space-saving and easy assembly. It is a combination of a folding system and a geodesic dome developed by Fuller again. Flying Seed-pod formed by tripod sets that contain three magnesium tubes and each set has a ball joint. These sets can be transported as folded and then they can be fixed by connection points. All tripod feet fastened with ball joint and each ball joint formed by five or six tubular-tripod feet. After the connection of sets, nearly 90 kg gas pressure is applied from the head of each tripod and the feet of the tripod is opened. [108] 112

Mud Wall / Casting


Figure 83: Casting production [109]

Image 79: Adobe houses in Viranşehir, Şanlıurfa [110]

Image 80: İTÜ Alker building by Ruhi Kafesçioğlu 1995 [111]

Casting application method; As a mud wall element, it is poured like concrete in large wooden moulds in place, thoroughly compacted and allowed to dry. In this method, which is made with a ramming method, the wall is completed by adding a new mourning adobe as the stage-by-stage adobe dries.[112] As a result of the stepwise drying of the adobe, the mould is removed and the remaining areas are completed in the same way to form the structure. The example in Image 79. is a photograph of adobe building efforts attempted creating a city with adobe houses in 2009 Sanliurfa, Turkey. Since it is a local material, it allows the people to build their own houses. In Image 80, there is a building built by Ruhi Kafesçioglu in 1995, ITU. Although the adobe is known to be non-resistant to earthquakes and floods, Mr. Kafesçioglu has proved that it can be resistant to earthquakes and floods with adding plaster to adobe (alker).[109]

Mud Wall / Brick

Figure 84: Mud-brick production [109]

Figure 85: Girder types [109]

Image 81: Construction of mud brick wall [113]

Mud-brick application method; The suitable consistency previously prepared for mud-brick production is usually shaped by pouring into wooden moulds. If mud-brick wall blocks are to be produced, the mud is poured into wooden moulds beforehand and it is left to dry and then the mud bricks are walling with different types of girders. Despite the differences from region to region, the most commonly used adobe sizes in Turkey are the mother and baby adobe.[112] Girder types with mud: Adobe walling methods are important. In the case of corner studs and crossover walls, the connections must be made correctly. Particularly in earthquake zones, the details of the corners should be strengthened with wooden(a,b), reinforced concrete(c) or wire(d) grid to make the structure more robust. Reinforced masonry continues as in Figure 85. The adobe structures are cheap thanks to the use of local materials and a fast process through which everyone can participate in the building. Soil as a construction material forms a sustainable structure. By additional materials, mud-brick provides resistance against rain and earthquake.[109] 113



Image 82: The Supine Dome, Buckminster Fuller at Black Mountaion College [114]

“Models are essential. Don’t try build a dome without first making or studying a models. However, don’t get so involved with model that you never try a real structure.” Domebook 1 [115] He firstly tried the model of Geodesic dome in Black Mountaion College University, but it fall down (Image 82). He continued to enhance that system with different techniques and materials. First successful example of geodesic dome, Woods Hole dome, is built with Fuller and his students. The first “Bucky”s dome has a wooden structure, and it was using as a restaurant that years. In the Image 83, Fuller was swinging with a rope to check its durability. After a lot of successful examples of geodesic dome had been constructed, several dome construction guides showed up in 70s such as dome-books and most of them focused on geodesic principles.

“R. Buckminster Fuller spent much of the early 20th Century looking for ways to improve human shelter by: Applying modern technological knowhow to shelter construction, and making shelter more comfortable and efficient, and making shelter more economically available to a greater number of people. After acquiring some experience in the building industry and discovering the traditional practices and perceptions which severely limit changes and improvements in construction practices, Fuller carefully examined, and improved, interior structure equipment, including the toilet (similar to the ones now used in airplanes), the shower (which cleans more efficiently using less water), and the bathroom as a whole. He studied structure shells, and devised a number of alternatives, each less expensive, lighter, and stronger than traditional wood, brick, and stone buildings.” [116]

Figure 86: Simple Geodesics in Domebook 1 [115]

Geodesic dome is a “shortest path of two points on a sphere or curved space” Rene K. Mueller [117]

Image 83: Buckminster Fuller was swinging from the Woods Hole dome while it was still under construction [118]


Figure 87: Geodesic Geometry in Domebook 2 [119]

First Geodesic Dome in the World is engineered by Walther Bauersfeld. RESEARCH

Mostly geodesic dome known as Buckmister Fuller’s innovation, but before him, Walther Bauersfeld made first geodesic dome in Germany. It was constructed for “planetarium” in 1926 which is 22 years before Supine Dome. We don’t know that Fuller was aware of Jena in those years but he developed lots of forms of geodesics and got patents of his works. The dome was popular with advantages such as rapid construction, easy adaptation, clear span etc. For example, the erection time of Kaiser Dome, designed by Don Ritche, was 22 hours and it was impressive for 55 meters span structure with 1957’s technology. One year after of Kaiser, Union Tank Dome, largest clear span structure in its period, constructed by Fuller’s geodesic system as developed by Howard of Synergetics. Image 84: Construction of a planetarium of Carl Zeiss in Jena (Germany) 1922 [120]

“Revolutionary new building ... The first of its kind! The Kaiser Aluminum Dome 20 Hours and the dome was up!” [121]

Figure 88: Geodesic Dome Patent Lithograph signed by Buckminster Fuller, Thomas Zung and Shoji Sadao of Buckminster Fuller [123]

Image 85: Erection process of the first Kaiser Aluminum Dome, Honolulu design by Don Ritcher [122]

Figure 89: Geodesic License Agreement [115]


Ford Rotunda

Kaiser Dome

Union Tank Dome

Jena, Germany Planetarium Iron Structure Sprayed Concrete Walter Bauersferd

Black Mountain, USA Experimental Venetian Blend B.Fuller and Students

Black Mountain, USA Experimental Aluminium Aircraft Tube Vinyl-Plastic Cover B.Fuller and Students

Dearborn, USA Company Headquarter Aluminium Structure Polyester Fiber Glass Buckminster Fuller

Honolulu, Hawaii Multi Purpose Aluminium Panel

Baton Rouge, Louisiana Tank Garage

*First Geodesic Dome

*First test structure and it is failed.

*First succesful large geodesic dome building.

Metal Sheets Howard of Synergetics

Don Ritcher


1 Day



*It was the largest clearspan structure in the world of it’s time.

117 Meters

2 Years

50 Meters

6 Months

28 Meters 5 Weeks

4.26 m 1 Day

14.4 Meters Failed

25 Meters


Necklace Dome


Supine Dome


Zeiss I

‘‘You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.’’ R. Buckminster Fuller South Pole Station

Eden Project

Colorado, USA Dwelling Recycle Metals, Woods Recycle Materials Droppers

Montreal, Canada Expo Steel Tubes Acrylic Panels Buckmister Fuller

South Pole, Antarctica Ice Station Metal Framework Aluminium Panel Buckminster Fuller

Epcot, USA Planetarium Steel Structure

St.Petersburg, Russia Botanical Garden Steel Frame Therma Plastic Grimshaw Architects



38 - 125 Meters

3 Years

26 Months

76 Meters 1.5 Years

1 Year

50 Meters


Buckmister Fuller

50 Meters

42 Meters 6 Months


St.Louis, USA Green House Aluminium Pipes Glass Panels Howard of Synergetics


Drop City


Montreal Biosphere

Spaceship Earth

(Great Pumpkin)

5.5 Meters 1 Day



Demontable House

Figure 90: Montage Diagram, Jean Prouvé: Maison Démontable 8x8 Demountable House [124]

Image 86: Jean Prouvé 8x8 Demountable House by Galerie Patrick Seguin in Miami, USA [125]

Jean Prouvé is a French metal craftsman working on prefabrication systems and he made early examples of prefabricated home with Demountable House. It developed for urgent home needs caused by the destruction of World War II. In that period, there was a need for light compact dwellings assembled by a few people easily and quickly and Prouvé developed it according to these needs. The house formed by metal-frame structure and wooden panels. There is iconic shaped steel in the center of it and the folded-steel structure which carries to the roof compass of it. The wooden panels placed the metal frame and the house was done. The simple process of the assembly and disassembly allows everyone to build it in terms of the conditions of the period. Nina Azzarello said in her article on Designboom, “It sits among the contemporary and fashionable new works celebrated at Miami’s massive exhibition, yet entirely resonates in its evident relevance to the creative sphere today — a paragon of timeless composition and design.” [126]

Total Filling Station

Figure 91: Preliminary drawing of Total Filling Station by Atelier Jean Prouvé [127]

Image 87: Assemblage of Total Filling Station [128]

Image 88: A new kind of service station [129]

After many experiences on prefabricated house, he made first prefabricated filling station in 1969 with similar techniques of prefabrication. “The buildings used a radiating central-plan structure of galvanized sheet steel with a central cylinder and perimeter poles.” The reason of the cylindrical shape was the diversity of the sites and the structure allows vertical expansion. “As a manifesto for prefabricated architecture, this light and rapidly, easily assembled structure was rebuilt as a demonstration piece outside the architecture school in Nancy in 2000.” It was popular in that period and nearly a hundred of filling station were build but, most of them are relocated or demolished now. [130]


Beach Matrix


Image 89: Fitting module of Beach Matrix [131]

Figure 92: The Matrix System [131]

Figure 93: Beach Matrix [131]

In the 70s, there was a tendency by people to make their own houses and create a village formed of them with the counter-culture movement. For this reason, lots of do it yourself guide book published and Ken Isaacs’s “How to build your own living structure” is the important one of them. In the book, there are lots of examples of construction steps and materials and The Beach Matrix is one of the applied examples of them. In this project, Isaac uses the matrix system which he developed and adapted to different systems previously and unique joints which are produced for pipes in x,y,z axis. The structure has a potential expansion and volumes with adding new pipes and boxes in it. When the boxes placed in these volumes, different actions can be created in both indoor and outdoor areas.

8’ Micro House

Figure 94: The assembly steps of 8’Micro House [59]

Image 90: 8’Micro House [59]

The other significant example of Ken Isaacs is the 8’Micro House. The cabin is a micro dwelling unit formed by eight deformed wooden cubes and four tetrahedron feet. By opening gaps on wooden panels, the doors and windows are created. The deformed cube modules have a structure itself and raised a little bit from the ground with tetrahedron feet. Isaac describes the project in his book, “When I was first discovering & applying the Matrix Idea I couldn’t help wondering why people had to shackle themselves to some kind of corporate clerkship for twenty years to get the money for a home in the country. Why wasn’t it possible to apply your best consciousness & information to develop a new shelter? It had to be compact & mobile using a minimum material list & buildable in your apartment with simple tooling. Fabricate the parts in winter, slip into a van or wagon in spring & trek to a short-termleased spot on a farmer’s back 40 & set her up in a day. It’s kind of like “freedom now” instead of waiting until you can “afford” it. Living put off is lost.” [59]



Navette Bamboo Pavilion

Image 91: Navette Pavilion by Markus Heinsdorff in Munich, 2009 [132]

Navette Bamboo Pavillion is structured by bamboo tubes as a primary building material. Markus Heinsdorff combines bamboo sticks for creating boards as well as laminates. The importance of bamboo is about its sustainable character as an old building material. 20 meters a month, it grows faster than any other plant, and its hallow tubes mean that it is not only light and elastic, but also a very stable and long-lasting building material. “The outside walls consist of vertical bamboo tubes and bamboo laminate bars running horizontally around the structure which are connected using brackets.” [133]

Prada Transformer

Image 91: Transformation of Prada Transformer by OMA in Seoul, Korea, 2009; Iwan Baan [134]

Prada Transformer is a structure formed by four different shapes - a hexagon, a cross, a rectangle, and a circle - with four different cultural activities which are represented Prada as a fashion showcase of Miuccia Prada, a cinema hall shown films selected by Alejandro González Iñárritu, an art exhibition curated by Germano Celant, and a special event area. The 20-meter high structure installed in the center of Seoul which is near Gyeonghui Palace. The pavilion rotated by four cranes placed in four edges during the exhibition periodically for changing the activity. Every ground presents a different experience with different events and also, it is a roof or a wall of other grounds. The Transformer is full of grounds and walls that are transformed into each other. [135]


Ten Fold


Figure 95: Expanding Structure, Ten Fold Engineering [136]

Image 92: Stealth, Ten Fold Engineering [136]

“Eight minutes. That is the length of time UK-based company Ten Fold Engineering’s self-deploying structures can transform itself from a portable rectangular container into a fully habitable space that can be used for either the residential or service sector. Transported by truck, the company offers a shelter that is energy efficient, eliminates labour costs, and is highly customizable prefabrication and construction. With the only requirement for installation to have a stable ground, the options for Ten Fold’s structures are expansive, including the ability to stack units for more space. Not only does the portable structure represent a rethinking of residential design, but also an easily implemented solution to help communities in need. The shelters have the potential to provide services such as mobile clinics or grocery stores.”[137]

Tensairity Beam

Figure 96: A basic Tensairity beam [138]

Image 93: Development of foldable Tensairity structures. Prospective concepts AG, 2005 [138]

Image 94: A tensairity slab, 3 m span, Empa, 2009 [138]

Tensairity is a new lightweight structural concept. It is a synergistic combination of struts, cables and an inflated membrane. The tension and compression elements are physically separated by the air inflated beam, which – when inflated – pretensions the tension element and stabilizes the compression element against buckling. “The outcome of this interaction between the different elements is a structure with the load bearing capacity of conventional steel girders and the low weight of an air beam.” [139] The “fold-able truss” is a conventional truss where the horizontal tension and compression bars are divided in two and reconnected with an intermediate hinge (Image 93). This way, the truss becomes a mechanism. “The compression and tension bars are in the deployable Tensairity structure continuously attached with the hull, and this way, the truss is stable when the air beam is fully inflated. The diagonals can be included or excluded and vertical cables connecting upper and lower strut can be applied.” [140] The innovative concept Tensairity provides more features than a few conventional structures have, such as a fast assembling/ dismantling, and a compact storage and transport volume. This technological invention creates potential mobile and temporary architectural applications. [141]



SPACE FRAMES “Nature’s simplest structural system in the universe is the tetrahedron. The regular tetrahedron does not fill all-space by itself. The octahedron and tetrahedron complement one another to fill all space. Together they produce the simplest, most powerful structural system in the universe .’’ Buckminster Fuller [142]

‘’A space frame is a 3D truss formation that consists of lightweight interlocking members that create a latticework. Space frames are used for long-span roofs and can be formed to make hollow columns or girder elements. Their strength-toweight ratio is high, making this an ideal solution for few points of support and prefabricated structures that have a high degree of repetition’’ [143] Alexander Graham Bell from 1898 to 1908 developed space frames based on tetrahedral geometry and was granted a patent for Connecting Device for the Frames of Aeriel Vehicles and Other Structures in 1907. This patent shows a modular octahedral-tetrahedral system “adaptable to a great variety of structural uses.” It was used quite frequently in the automobile and aircraft industries. In 1943, Max Mengeringhausen developed a space grid system called ‘MERO’ in Germany, thus initiating the use of space trusses in architecture. It was a modular system consisting of nodes and tubes of different sizes. The system is still in use today.

Image 95: The MERO system potential uses proposed in 1943 [144]

Image 96: Alexander Graham Bell’s Tetrahedral Kite [145]

Image 97: Alexander Graham Bell (right)’s tetrahedral kites, 1908 [145]


Years later, Bucky patented his invention as an The Octet Truss in 1961, which is widely used in space frames today. The Octet Truss is a building component made up of a tetrahedron and an octahedron with equal edge lengths which are made using struts. Space frames are attributed to Alexander Graham Bell at the turn of the twentieth century, but Buckminster Fuller made them popular in architecture. [146]

Figure 97: The MERO system potential uses proposed in 1943 [142]

M.A.D.I Home


Image 98: Assembly steps of MADI Home [98]

The M.A.D.I Home company develops a cabin that is assembled within seconds with the help of a crane. The folded form of it can easily be shipped everywhere in a simple container and after the delivery, the crane unfolds the wooden structure by raising the top point. The company defines a project as an earthquake proof with A-frame construction and also a possible disaster relief structure because of the fast assembly. The cabin is formed by a frame and it does not need any foundation but it is adjustable for different situations. After the temporary need is done, the structure can be folded in the same way and removed for another need. Although a basic module is 27 square meters included as a ground floor and a first floor, the area can be expanded with additive panels or changing scale.

Kiosk K67

Figure 98: The diagram of Kiosk K67 [147]

Image 99: Possible layout of the K67 system [147]

Figure 99: Expansion options and combinations of Kiosk K67, Saša Mächtig [147]

K67’s design allowed the possibility of growth and change with its modular structure, method of production and flexibility. It was based on five modular spatial elements made of reinforces polyester that allows the possibilities of many configurations and reinvent itself. These elements could be freely assembled. Its flexible design allows it to be used in many parts of the world, such as fastfood stand, tobacco, flower shop, petrol stations, ski lift ticket booths and many others. The enclosures could be horizontally and vertically assembled into linear or spatially diverse configurations (While the concept design from 1967 envisaged the stacking of individual elements into vertical configurations, this was never realised in practice.). Kiosks K67 are therefore more than just individual units or modules, they can form dynamic spatial structures that embody the relentless potential for change and growth. ‘‘‘Prior to the expansion of industrialisation and the development of new technologies and materials kiosks had mainly been built on construction methods as mini architectures or houses. Sometimes even designed for a ‘’specific one-off location,” rather than as products designed and produced according to the industrial logic of mass production.’’[149] 123

TECHNOLOGY According to the Cambridge dictionary, technology means ‘‘knowledge, equipment, and methods that are used in science and industry’’. Technology is a collection of all kinds of methods and tools that have emerged in every aspect of our lives. In this sense, it is directly related to architecture. With the development of technology, especially in recent years, the boundaries in which the product of architecture is defined have begun to change. In this context, as AAP, we will explore the possibilities that emerge with developing technologies. To investigate technology through the architectural product and the architectural process, we will consider the building methods, production methods, transportation ways and material of the architectural object. Moreover, this chapter aims to question alternative solution methods with technological opportunities.

Kugelhaus, by John William Ludowic, 1950 [1]

ALTERNATIVE BUILDING METHODS On Site Masonry System Casting System 3D Printing System

Prefabrication Frame System Panel System Box System

PRODUCTION METHODS Standardisation Mass Production Mass Customization




TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVE BUILDING METHODS On Site The components of the building are brought together in the project area. The raw material that forms the building can be moved to the project area. This raw material is usually processed in the project area. Therefore, it is important to organize the construction site during the construction phase of the project. It is not possible to move the structure created in the project area to another area. It is fixed to the ground. In this chapter there will be three systems examined; masonry, casting and 3D printing systems for on site projects.

Masonry System It is a building method, which do not have any skeletal system and whose walls are of a carrier nature, working on the principle of transferring the vertical loads to each other by placing different elements on top of each other and connecting with mortar. The compressive strength and tensile strength of the components are low. These materials may undergo deformation when subjected to pressure and tensile action. They can not withstand the tensile stresses caused by earthquake forces or changes in the ground. In masonry structures, the walls have both divisive and carrying functions. The walls form both the volumes and separate the internal partitions created by the function of the structure. As the walls are carriers, any damage to the walls directly affects the carrier system. [4] With fire bricks: Earth as a building material is known to have high compressive strength when dry, but in the presence of water to be extremely vulnerable. Therefore, the earth is fired at high temperature to ensure its water resistance. Conventionally the most common structural application in the world is the fired brick. [5]

5 mm

Figure 2: Craneloft by Yorgos Rimenidis + Michalis Softas [2]

“Architecture is an art we can not avoid. It’s more than a shelter, a useful commodity, a little game. ’’ (Roth, 2006) [3]

Figure 3: Fire Brick [6]

Today, architecture is beyond architectural product. The building methods, have changed with the changing technologies, transforming forms, increasing number of materials and differentiating methods of representation. Considering both economic and usage value, alternative building methods will be discussed in this section along with the important breaking points in the history. In addition, alternative building methods will be examined through current systems and examples. 126

Image 1: Making Bricks, Masasi, 2010 [7]

Figure 4 is about making fire bricks process. Firstly, in the dry season the ground is baked hard by the sun. Then, laying out bricks to dry, covered by straw. Secondly, nearly ready for lighting the fires and the brick pile is a kiln with fire inside. [7]

Figure 4: Earthbag system [9]



With earthbag: The construction process begins with a trench opened to form the foundation. This trench is usually filled with stones and gravel. However, it is recommended to construct a concrete foundation in areas with an earthquake risk. ‘‘Earthbag buildings can also be built on conventional concrete slabs (though this is more expensive and uses more embodied energy than a rubble trench foundation) and can have a underground “floating” foundation like an earthship as well.’’ [8] The relation of earth bags that come into contact with the ground with water should be considered. It should be supported with material (such as gravel) to provide waterproofing. The bags are placed cross to ensure that the earthen bags do not slip. Earth bags are supported by nets, barbed wires. In addition, the form of the building is also very important. [8] The earth can be pre-filled in bags and placed on top of the project area, or it can be built by filling earth in tube bags in the project area. The clay and humid soil in the bag will ensure the stability of the structure.


With earthship: Many waste materials are left to nature by people. These wastes lead to consumption of raw material resources beyond volumetric space. Therefore, it is very important to recycle waste materials. In this sense, some waste materials can be used as building materials for building. To get rid of the waste material and to make it functional provides many ecological benefits.

Image 3: Gimme Shelter, Michael Reynolds, 2013 [11]

Figure 5: Cappadocian Topak, illustrated by Mukund Iyer, 2017 [10]

The “Earthship” building, designed by Michael Reynolds in new Mexico, was built by combining waste such as rubber wheels, cans, glass bottles with earth. ‘‘The building is horseshoe-shaped due to the difficulty of creating sharp 90 degree angles with rammed tires. In Reynolds’s prototype at Taos, the opening of the horseshoe faces 10-15 degrees east of south to maximize natural light and solar-gain during the winter months, with windows on sun-facing walls admitting light and heat. The thick and dense walls provide thermal mass that naturally regulates the interior temperature during both cold and hot outside temperatures. The outer walls in the majority of Earthships are made of earthrammed tires, but any dense material with a potential to store heat, such as concrete, adobe, earthbags or stone, could in principle be used to create a building similar to an Earthship. In an effort to cut down the use of concrete even further, they also use “squishes” tires rammed in between a tight space to even out the course or to compensate for varying tire sizes.’’ [11]

Image 2: Cappadocian Topak, Oba Ruhu, 2017 [10]

The Cappadocian Topak was built by the Oba Ruhu. Tubes consolidates the moist clay-containing fill and the surface of the bags was plastered with soil belonging to the region. [10]


Image 4: Gimme Shelter, Michael Reynolds, 2013 [11]

Casting System

With rammed earth: Making rammed earth involves compacting a damp mixture of sub soil that has suitable proportions of sand, gravel, clay, and stabilizer, if any has poured into a formwork (an externally supported frame or mould). Soil mix is poured into the form work to a depth of 10 to 25 cm and then compacted to approximately 50% of its original volume. The earth is gradually placed in the moulds. In this layer-by-layer system, it is very important to place each layer tightly. While tamping can be applied manually with rammers with long compression arms, it can also be done with machines today.

Figure 6: Rammed Earth Wall Construction [13]


Casting is the process of pouring the liquid prepared material into moulds prepared in desired shapes and sizes. The liquid substance solidifies in the mould. The production is completed by removing the moulds of the solidified part. Casting materials are usually metals or various time setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together such as epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting provides the construction of parts that are not economical and easy to do in the project area. It eliminates the transportation problems in bringing big building elements to the construction site. [4]

The process is not finished by completing the compression process in the formwork. ‘‘After a wall is complete, it is sufficiently strong to immediately remove the formwork. This is necessary if a surface texture is to be applied, e.g., by wire brushing, carving, or mould impression, because the walls become too hard to work after approximately one hour. Compressive strength of rammed earth increases as it cures. Cement stabilised Rammed Earth is cured for a minimum period of 28 days.’’ [12] ‘‘The construction of an entire wall begins with a temporary frame, denominated the “formwork”, which is usually made of wood or plywood, as a mould for the desired shape and dimensions of each section of wall. The form must be durable and well braced, and the two opposing faces must be clamped together to prevent bulging or deformation caused by the large compressing forces. Formwork plays an important role in building Rammed Earth walls. Historically, wooden planks tied using rope to build walls. Modern builders use plywood and/or steel to build formwork.’’ [12]

Image 5: Modern Rammed Earth Home in New Mexico, Signer Harris, 2012 [14]



3D Printing System Although traditional construction methods seem to make it difficult to adopt developing technology, many advances in technology greatly affect the way of construction and building materials. Therefore, it is impossible to think of architecture and technology independently. ‘‘One steadily rising technology is 3D printing. The introduction of this technology has already caught the attention of many enterprises who have accelerated in designing and printing tons of objects using a wide variety of materials. Therefore, introducing 3D printing to the construction industry is the focus of many pioneers who acknowledge the potential of this technology as a new strategic challenge. Automated printing with layers allows for flexibility and freedom of architectural design and more accurate applications, in addition to saving tons of material that would otherwise to go waste in a conventional construction site.’’ [15] ‘‘In the construction industry, 3D printing can be used to create construction components or to ‘print’ entire buildings. Construction is well-suited to 3D printing. The latest emergence of building information modelling (BIM) in particular may facilitate greater use of 3D printing. Construction with 3D printing may allow more and more accurate construction of complex or bespoke items as well as lowering labour costs and producing less waste. It can also be used in a harsh or dangerous environment.’’ [16]

Image 6: 3D Printing Detail [17]

This method involves the building material being deposited to create a large-scale 3D model with a smooth surface finish. ‘‘Rails are installed around the building ground that will act as a structure to direct the robotic arm. It moves back and forth to extrude the concrete, layer-by-layer. Trowels placed on the side and above the nozzle to flatten the extruded layers and ensure the model’s strength.’’ ‘‘In this process, conventional concrete can not be used as it would need to be harden before you could continue the process. If it was 3D printed it wouldn’t be able to support its own weight. Therefore, concrete is used with quick setting properties. The base material (a finely calibrated mix of cement, sand, plasticizers, and other aggregates) gets poured into a hopper at the top of the printer and flows onto the rising walls below.’’ [16]

Figure 7: Building through 3D Printing [16]

Image 7: Casey Dunn, Census Bureau, 2018 [16]



Figure 8: Jacquard Loom, 1801, [17]

“Jacquard, in 1801, developed a numerical control system for automating weaving patterns in a loom allowing textile design and manufacture. This was accomplished by using punch cards as the numerical input similar to numerical sequencing drives in contemporary computing.� [17]



Prefabrication Prefabrication is the practice of the assembling whole of the structure or its components in a factory or other manufacturing site. Parts mounted outside the construction site are transported to the project area. Unlike traditional onsite construction methods, prefabrication makes construction site conditions flexible. Production affect to a minimum from environmental factors, weather conditions, etc. There are 3 systems to build prefabricated building: frame, panel and box.

The components of the prefabricated building are produced on line up, stand, aggregate areas in factory. ‘‘The term prefabrication also applies to the manufacturing of things other than structures at a fixed site. It is frequently used when fabrication of a section of a machine or any movable structure is shifted from the main manufacturing site to another location, and the section is supplied assembled and ready to fit. Prefabricated parts of the body of the machine may be called ‘sub-assemblies’ to distinguish them from the other components.’’ [18]

Image 8: Habitat, Moshie Safdie, 1967 [17]

Figure 9: Prefabricated System [19]

Moshie Safdie designed this housing complex called “Habitat” for the 1967 World Expo in Montreal. At age 24, Safdie developed a complex of 158 dwellings from 354 precast modular units.[17]

Figure 10: Step by Step Prefabrication [20]


Figure 11: Prefabrication Building Systems [17]

‘‘Building systems are generally thought of in five different categories: site, structure, skin, services, and space and stuff. Prefabrication can be used to deliver everything but the site. Most “stuff,” including furnishings and fixtures, are so easily changed and their lifespan varies from year to year that it will not be considered as a prefabricated system. Therefore, for the purposes of organizing the information herein, the focus will be on off site fabricated structure and enclosure systems with a brief discussion of interior space and service systems of buildings in relation to architecture.’’ [17] ‘‘The theory behind the method is that time and cost is saved if similar construction tasks can be grouped, and assembly line techniques can be employed in prefabrication at a location where skilled labour is available, while congestion at the assembly site, which wastes time, can be reduced. The method finds application particularly where the structure is composed of repeating units or forms, or where multiple copies of the same basic structure are being constructed.’’ [18]

Figure 12: Cost of On-site-Off-site Construction [17]

‘‘For traditional construction loans that make draws throughout a project, off site construction allows for a more consistent draw schedule throughout the construction process compared with on site construction that has difficulty anticipating the large draws that are necessary and often difficult to make cash liquid in a short amount of time.’’ [17]


Figure 13: Degree of Prefabrication Diagram [17]

“ Prefabrication can be classified by the extent to which elements are completed prior to assembly on site. From left to right: materials, components, panels, and modules. Generally, the benefits of prefabrication can be realized as projects move to increasingly greater degrees of prefabrication.”[17]



‘‘Prefabrication avoids the need to transport so many skilled workers to the construction site, and other restricting conditions such as a lack of power, lack of water, exposure to harsh weather or a hazardous environment are avoided. Against these advantages must be weighed the cost of transporting prefabricated sections and lifting them into position as they will usually be larger, more fragile and more difficult to handle than the materials and components of which they are made.’’ [18]



Figure 14: Project Delivery Methods [17]

‘‘Design-build contracts, including integrated project delivery in the United States, have consistently increased in project delivery since their inception in the 1980s from a few percent of total construction projects to just over 40 percent in 2010. On the other hand, traditional design-bid-build contracts have steadily declined in use. Construction manager delivery has stayed relatively the same.’’ [17]

Figure 15: Bathroom Service Pod, Kullman Building Corporation [17]

‘‘Prefabrication of services as it relates to architecture refers to a higher level of unitization. Services may be produced as modules that can be located in buildings. Bathrooms, kitchens, communication rooms, utility rooms, and service walls are out fitted in the factory and then placed efficiently inside building structures. This bathroom service pod is fabricated with plumbing, fixtures, and finishes and shipped to be installed as an interior module within a building structure.’’ [17]


Figure 16: Assembly Diagram, Kieran Timberlake, 2008 [17]

“Assembly diagram that has become a staple of the work of KieranTimberlake outlines the goals of the Cellophane House, designed and built for the MOMA exhibit “Home Delivery.” While on-site methods employ many materials and processes of construction that eventually are demolished and replaced, prefab solutions offer the potential for disassembly and reuse.” [17]


SOVIET PREFABRICATED BUILDING SYSTEM “For Flynt and Maciunas, the Khrushchyovkas exemplified the three principles of revolutionary leadership in culture: they increased productivity, promoted equality and solidarity among workers, and satisfied the workers’ desire to cope with reality.” (Henry Flint, ‘Communists Must Give Revolutionary Leadership In Culture’, 1965. Design by George Maciunas. Published by World View Publishers. Collection Emily Harvey Foundation.) [21]


Large concrete panels received the attention of Henry Flynt and Fluxus founder George Maciunas, who in 1965 published a pamphlet entitled ‘Communists Must Give Revolutionary Leadership in Culture, Appendix 1’. ‘‘The pamphlet praised the Soviet panellised prefabrication method as the most efficient way of providing housing because it proposed design solutions based on technological advancement rather than national traditions or stylistic choices.’’ [21]

Figure 17: Soviet Prefabricated Building System, 1965 [21]



Frame System

Panel System

Frame systems are installed using linear elements that provide load transfer in vertical and horizontal. Connectors that connect horizontal and vertical elements to one are very important. ‘‘Steel studs are laid at on the floor and joined to make divider edges. The divider edges are sheathed for non-combustible construction; the divider edges are tilted up, screwed down to the edge, and propped. The upper stage is surrounded, then the upper dividers. At last, the roof and rooftop are encircled similarly as in a confined house. Prefabricated assembled trusses of edge frameworks which are screwed or welded together are regularly used to casing roofs and rooftops.’’ [22] There is a different meaning between frame systems and framing. Framing, in construction is the timber work or steelwork that encloses and supports structural components of a building. Figure 19: Panel System [24]

‘‘Panel System is one of the prefabrication systems ideal for straight, curved or angled facade applications and has an elegant and light appearance with smooth rounded edges. Prefabricated panel is set in position and layer of cement or mortar are connected to both sides. Boards are utilized as a part of the development of outside and inside bearing and non-load bearing dividers and floors in a wide range of construction. The board gets its quality and unbending nature from the inclining cross wires welded to the welded-wire fabric on each side.’’ [22]

Figure 18: Frame System [23]

Figure 20: Panel System Assembly [25]


Box System


Figure 21: Box System [26]

Box system is a modern system where burden bearing dividers give the essential vertical backing and horizontal solidness for floors. Outside divider boards, lift centres or staircases are utilized to give the obliged longitudinal dependability. ‘‘Connecting parts, for example, floors, rooftops and pillars are bolstered by the heap bearing dividers or facade divider. In box system, components are conveyed to site ‘in the nick of time’. Concealed joints and ties, both on a level plane and vertically are grouted set up as the work creates, avoiding dynamic breakdown.’’ [22]

Image 10: Study Dormitory Building Process, 2010 [17]

O’Connell East Architects (OEA) designed a 24-story modular student dormitory for Wolverhampton Development in the United Kingdom in 2010. ‘‘This building contains 805 embedded steel structural modules and was built in 27 weeks.’’ [17]

Image 9: SpaceBox, Holland Composites, 2003 [27]



The basis for the theory is to increase variety and customization without increasing costs. More than this goal, however, the concept has become consistent with meeting the individual needs of customers without sacrificing efficiency, effectiveness, and affordability.

5 mm

Image 11: K-7 Panel,1960 [28]

“In modern times we’ve focused on new manufacturing methods, shifting from mass to lean production, and are now at the next wave of manufacturing innovations: mass customization’’ (Liker, 2003) [29]


‘‘Industrialization: As related to the industrial revolution of 1848, this marked a change in an economic and societal thinking by virtue of advanced machinery that is still pervasive today. Standardization: As a result of the industrialized society, products became standardized. This was most prevalent in developing standards related to military production. Mechanization: This is an effort to move standardization to greater economies of scale, but introducing additional mechanized processes that were developed during the war years, but furthered by virtue of more advanced mechanical machinery, thus reducing human labour. Mass production: Thriving on the economies of scale, this concept is to produce as much of the same thing in order to bring down the cost of a single item. It has grown concurrently with consumer demand. Automation: The development of digitally informed manufacturing machinery via computer numerical control and CAD/CAM software. Mass customization: This concept brings together mass production and automation to deliver an economy of scope. Mass customization works to maximize the benefits of mechanization and automation production methods, reducing labour costs, but works to preserve the benefits of variability and customization in the output.’’ [17]

Figure 22: Standardization to Customization [17]

This is a listing of the developments in manufacturing technology from industrialization in the mid-1800s to today’s mass customization by virtue of CAD/CAM technologies. These concepts are not exclusive, but represent when concepts developed and how we understand industrialized building today. [17]


The idea of architecture of machine was led to several generalizations: ‘‘Firstly, that a well stated problem naturally finds its solution; secondly, that since all men have the same biological organization, they all have the same basic needs; and thirdly, that architecture, like machinery, should be a product of competitive selection applied to standards which, in turn, should be determined by logical analysis and experimentation.’’ (Collins, P.,1965 ) [30]


‘‘Standardization is the limitation to the variety in product produced so that machines may be able to output certain lengths, widths, and assemblies. This removes the waste associated with variability options and the margin of error in end products. Although manufacturing has moved progressively from standardization to customization, the concepts of mass production are the modes of production still used and understood in design and construction today.’’ [17]

Figure 23: Citrohan House, Le Corbusier [17]

Figure 4, Le Corbusier’s ideas for a “machine for living” included the 1920– 1930 Citrohan House. This house was inspired by the manufacturing methods employed in early standardized automobile production. [17]


Image 12: Lustron Factory, 1949 [31]

‘‘Lustron Factory prefabricated home lie on the ground prior to installation April 16, 1949 in Columbus, Ohio. The production of Lustron’s prefabricated home was a result of the urgency for affordable housing for veterans returning home from the war.’’ [17]



Mass Production Mass production is a system in which a large number of the same products are produced, usually using assembly lines and automation technology. The efficiency of each standardized product has been optimized. Mechanization is used to achieve high volume, detailed organization of material flow, careful control of quality standards, and division of labour. If the production is stringently monitored, mass production results in a precision assembly as production line machines have set parameters. Labour costs are often lower for massproduced products. This cost savings is from the automated assembly line production processes requiring fewer workers. [17]

‘‘Further, assembly of mass-produced products is at a quicker rate due to increased automation and efficiency. This rapid assembly aids the prompt distribution and marketing of an organization’s products with the potential to create a competitive advantage and higher profits.’’ [32]

Image 13: Ford Motor Company,1931 [34]

Figure 24: Process Mass Production [33]

‘‘From Ford model T car to today, mass production system is used. To achieve Henry Ford’s goal of mass consumption through mass production, productivity needed to increase. At the factory , workers were placed at appointed stations and the chassis was hauled along between them using strong rope. The chassis stopped at each station, where parts were fitted, until it was finally completed. [34]

Figure 25: Construction and Architecture of Leningrad, 1964 [28]

Assembly-line system for manufacturing outer walls of Series OD at the Obikhov combine in Leningrad (mid-1960s). [28]




İmage 14: Toyota Housing,1975 [35]

İmage 15: MUJI Houses, 2004 [37]

Toyota Housing Corporation

MUJI Houses

BoKlok by IKEA



1961 Panasonic Homes


‘‘MUJI entered the home building only in Japan to provide a simple, compact yet highly editable, universal platform that will last for decades. In 2014 the company launched a 15-foot-wide three-story prefab perfect for Japan’s disposable home culture. It sells for just $180,000. They also came out with a line of Muji Huts three cabin-like structures more suited to be used during a vacation rather than permanent residency. They reportedly cost $25,000-$40,000.’’ [37]


‘‘Since Toyota Motor Co. entered the housing business in 1975, it has conducted business under the banner of “truly wanting to make Japanese homes better”. The company developed a line-up of detached housing products using a variety of different building techniques and expanded its business to include condominiums and rental housing. Their modular homes, which go from $200k to $800k, can be assembled in less than 45 days and come with a 60-year guarantee.’’ [36]

BMW And North Face Camper Concept

İmage 16: Panasonic Homes,1961 [38]

‘‘There is no business more important than to build home’’... ‘‘There are hundreds of business now even so among them all, there is one business that I would like to venture in. That is building homes’’ Kōnosuke Matsushita, founder of Panasonic ‘‘In 1961, Panasonic announced and started sales of the Matsushita Type-One Housing Unit with a ground-breaking structure of bolted steel-frame pillars and beams under Matsushita Electric Works Co., Ltd.’’ [38]

İmage 18: BMW and North Face Home, 2019 [41]

İmage 17: BoKlok by IKEA,1939 [40]

‘‘The BoKlok (pronounced “book look” and meaning “live smart”) concept is simple: to provide space-saving, functional, high-quality properties at affordable prices IKEA and Skanska came together to offer sustainable, quality, low-cost home ownership. They complete most of the houses in the factory as they can, and try to complete the installation on the construction site with less heavy vehicles. They have built more than 11,000 homes throughout Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway. On average this amounts c. 1,200 homes a year.’’ [40]

‘‘In collaboration with outdoor specialists from The North Face, the BMW Group subsidiary presented its innovative concept camper. Thanks to “nano-spinning” technology, its novel outer skin is said to be one of the most watertight and breathable fabrics in the world and therefore ideal for protecting the occupants of the camper from bad weather. Inside, the innovative trailer provides sleeping space for two, as well as a bench, shelves, and small windows. The fabric designed with nano-spinning technology to withstand extreme cold.’’ [41]



Mass Customisation ‘‘Mass customisation, in marketing, manufacturing, call centres and management, is the use of flexible computeraided manufacturing systems to produce custom output. Such systems combine the low unit costs of mass production processes with the flexibility of individual customisation. Mass customisation is the new frontier in business for both manufacturing and service industries. At its core is a tremendous increase in variety and customisation without a corresponding increase in costs. At its limit, it is the mass production of individually customised goods and services. At its best, it provides strategic advantage and economic value.’’ [42]

Figure 27: Mass Customisation Diagram [44]

Joseph Lampel and Henry Menitzberg‘s classification of customisation strategies. Gray boxes indicate standardization, and the others customization.[44]

Figure 28: Cost Diagram [17]

Figure 26: Increased Flexibility in Production and Manufacturing on Demand [43]

‘‘Left: Fordist mass production relies on the economies of scale: as repetition increases cost per unit decreases. Middle: Likewise, as variation increases, the cost per unit exponentially grows. Right: Mass customisation suggests that variability is possible within an acceptable margin of cost increase.’’ [17]


Case Study No. 18, or house Fields is a house built by Ellwood in 1958 with a pre-cast system. There is a steel frame system painted in blue for structure and panel parts for the walls. Incorporated into the structure of terrazzo floors, wood panelling and a mosaic mural, created by its client-oriented in the exterior wall to the pool. [45]


Figure 29: Case Study House 18, Craig Ellwood,1958 [45]



Figure 30: 3D Printed Housing, New Story + ICON + Échale, 2017 [46]

‘‘The world’s first 3D printed community founded underway in a remote area in Mexico. The printer has been created as a solution to minimise homelessness and provide safe and adequate shelter for individuals. This community proposal will aim to produce a total of 50 homes using the 3D printer referred to as the Vulcan II. The Vulcan II is designed to build resilient singlestorey homes at a faster rate than traditional construction methods. The machine uses a cement-based mix to produce the walls and has the capacity to build a 2000 sqm home if required. The homes that are built/to be built are 500 sqm in size and the general layout will consist of a living space, kitchen, bathroom and 2 bedrooms. The families who will live in them have provided feedback on what they require for the community and the homes themselves. The families that were chosen to receive these homes are the ones that were in the most physical and financial need. The design was built to be resilient against difficult climate conditions such as seismic activity and flooding.’’ [46]

Image 21: Lloyds Building, Richard Rogers, 1986 [47]

‘‘This structure is less dependant on the core (stairs and lifts) for structural support and bracing, using post, beam & bracing. This allows for the vast majority of the building to be prefabricated and connected into a matrix on site. Cells can thus be changed at will, allowing the building to be refurbished with other prefabricated elements quickly. A further addition to this concept is the building as a mother board with ‘Plug & Play’ pre-wired/ serviced elements quickly coupled to the frame.’’ [47]




‘‘The Capsule Tower architecture design, establishment of the capsule as room and insertion of the capsule into a mega-structure, express its contemporaneousness with other works of liberated architecture from the later 1960’s, in particular England’s Archigram Group, France’s Paul Memon, and Yona Friedman.’’ [48]

Image 22: Nakagin Capsule Tower, Kisho Kurokawa, 1972 [48]


Figure 30: Nakagin Capsule Tower Plan and Detail [48]

LOGO OF CAMUS-DIETSCH FACTORY The Marienau factory closed in 1982, two years after the passing of Raymond Camus, the inventor and promoter of large-panel construction. Original emblem of the Camus-Dietsch factory, circa 1960, Collection de la Ville de Forbach.’’ [21]


‘‘A panel hanging from a crane was the logo of CamusDietsch, a French company which opened its facility in Marienau in 1954. The factory was the foundation for prefabricated construction across many countries, including the Soviet Union, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Japan, Iraq, Syria, Cuba, Chile, Zaire, Gabon, Taiwan, Bahrain, and many others.

Figure 31: Logo of Camus-Dietsch Factory, 1954 [21]




Image 24: Portable modular classroom, Jennifer Sieg Country School [17]

Planning of the transportation system is important in the design of the parts and their coming together. Elements must be broken down to be shipped. This limits the size of individual panels, modules, or components. The elements of the structure to be transported must be designed separately and then their coming together must be calculated. [17]

Image 23: Flying Panels: How Concrete Panels Changed the World [21]

“ The specifications for prefabrication should outline how the module, panel, or component is going to be picked up (Smith, 2010) .� [17]

In addition to transport and installation, the sequence that affects design staging should be examined. Although ideally off site manufactured elements are not standing still, staging does occur on every job site. How the materials will be protected has a importance especially if they are finished and ready to build in.

Image 25: Transportation of American Prefabs [17]

In buildings where the production of parts is designed elsewhere and the combination of the structure is designed elsewhere, it is very important to move the components to the project area. Therefore we need to know the dimensions of the vehicles that will transport these components (or the box-produced structure itself) to the project area. In this section, the transportation of building components or building will be examined under the headings of land, sea and air. In addition to these, the carrier technology has changed with the developing technology. Today, drones are being used in construction sites. It is interesting that projects always carry such concern in history. The striking effect of changes in transport technology can be understood with examples. Figure 32: Carrying by Drone [49]




The first method for transportation is land-way. It is an important and quite common way of transporting prefabricated buildings. This transportation can be differentiated by moving the building materials to the production site or by moving the finished architectural product (box system) to the area to be used. At this point, it is necessary to know the limitations and possibilities of the products to be transported to the ground as in other transport methods. This topic will be elaborated with different historical and current examples.

Figure 34: Transportation by truck, Prefab Architecture [17]

Figure 33: Roll Your Own Mobile Home [50]

Although truck regulations vary according to state, trailers do not necessarily vary. The three standard types of trailers used to transport components, panels, and modules include: Top: flat-bed trailer for longer elements Middle: single-drop deck Bottom: double-drop deck for tall elements. Generally, these trailers are progressively more costly to procure from top to bottom. [17]

Image 26: Michelle Kaufmann has designed a 16-module development, Colorado, her first modular co-housing development to date. [28]



Figure 36: Dimensions for transportation [28]

Figure 35: Regulation for land transportation [51]

Pierson College modular set crane path rehearsed in detail before actuation. The delivery, pick, hoist, and sets were all planned in an integrated manner during the design and fabrication process. [28]

Image 27: Transportation of t Halley VI British Antarctic Research Station [52]

Halley Research Station is located in an area has a special climate. It is used to observe the atmosphere and space. This internationally important platform is located on the 130-meter-thick Brunt Ice Rack. An advanced research facility is divided into eight modules, each sitting on hydraulic feet with ski equipment. These can be upgraded individually to overcome the accumulation of snow. Each module is taken to a new place independently. This method was used in the summer season of Antarctica 2016/17, when BAS successfully placed Halley in his new home on the Brunt Ice Shelf. [52]



Pre-Mclean 1937, Global economy held back by the expense of ocean*going freight. Trucker Malcom Mclean fumes at slow cargo loading.


“ There has to be a better way.” Mclean THE EARLY YEARS

Early Cargo Ship: 500-800 TEUs Containers go international, rapidly expanding after 1968

1950, US Army uses containers for supply movements during Korean War. 1956, Maiden voyage of Mclean’s Ideal X. Mclean’s fitting system improves security and loading times. Image 28: Conex box hoisted onto US army truck, 1952 [54]

Image 28: Malcom Mclean [53]


Fully cellular ships: 1K-2.5K | 215X20X10m By 1973, container ships carry 4 million TEUs annually.

1970, ISO regulations simulate international container shipping.

1972, RegistWered East Coast longshoreman has fallen by in the 20 years.

1977, US transport deregulation enables intermodule companies. 1984 Carriers operate round the world services with larger ships. Image 30: Sealand Galloway, slides down the ways, Mclean Foundation [56]

1985 The first double stack train service begins.

Image 29: Sealand Factory, the first ship to Rotterdam, 1966 [55]


Post Panamax: 4K-5K | 200x43x14.5m Chinese manufacturing takes off

1991, Six of the World’s ten largest ports are now in Asia. 1991, London’s Docklands opens an example of urban rejuvenation re-using vacant dock land.

1999, China’s annual GDP per capita growth reaches up to 13%


during the 1990s.

Post Panamax Plus: 6K-8K TEUs | 200x43x14.5m International supply chains grow more intricate and inclusive, supporting the growth of e-commerce.

2001, First residential container complex opens, other re-purposing includes agriculture, open markets, disaster relief.

2008, HCL develops 4FOLD fold-able containers heralding new generation of containers.

2009, Raleigh NC, tops decade’s metro growth: more new jobs are in liveable cities, in part because of containerisation.

Image 31 : The Maersk Sealand designation on the hull of the 2004-built Maersh Denver identifies photo:199-2005 era. [56]


TripleE: 18K TEUs | 400x59x15.5 m By 2013, 90% of global trade is seaborne, shipped in 700 million containers every year. Image 33: Container Guest House, 2010, Poteet Architects [53]

2017, Remote tracking systems are predicted to reach over 1 million containers. New technology is improving service reliability.

Image 34:The Caterpillar House 2012 [53]



PANELS DISTRIBUTION According to the map, distribution of the panels around the world can be observed. It is clear that the panel is mobile, transported from different parts of the world and sent to many different places. There are many different limiting factors in these transport stages. Panel dimensions of transport vehicles are effective in terms of labour. Furthermore, the agreements between countries and the position of trade routes are important in ensuring this distribution. For this reason, in some cases, the panels are subject to transfer points during transport. [21]



Figure 37: Flying Panels: How Concrete Panels Changed the World [21]



Air Another method of transportation is air transportation. Cargo planes and helicopters can be used with this method. Particularly difficult to reach places, extreme conditions, natural disasters, reasons such as rapid access may be preferred. With this method, box systems can be transported as well as frame and panel systems. The size and weight characteristics of the units are distinctive to select type of methods.

Image 35: Maisons Tropicale, Jean Prouve, 1949 [57]

Image 37: Transportation of Futuro House, Matti Suuronen [58]

Image 36: Loading of Maison Tropicale’s prefabricated elements to the aircraft Jean Prouve, 1949-1951 [57]

Figure 38: Maison Tropicale’s prefabricated elements, Jean Prouve, 1949 [57]

Three prototype of Maisons Tropicales are designed by Jean Prouvé in 19491951 . They were designed to serve for the shortage of housing and public buildings in the French colonies in Africa. In 1949, the first prototype was built in Niamey. Than it was exhibited at the Port Des Champs Élysées. Two years later, other two buildings at in Brazzavile were used as office business information for Aluminium Français and housing for director. The houses of Niamey and Brazzaville are made from folded sheet steel and aluminium. To facilitate transportation, all components were flat, lightweight and neatly were packed in a cargo plane. [57]


Image 38: Micro compact home 016 Brissago, [59]

Micro compact home, M-ch 016, was located in June 2012 at Brissago, near of Lake Maggiore, Switzerland. It was put in position with a huge helicopter and set in just 4min 09secs using a helicopter from Heli Swiss, Eleticno based close Locarno in May 2012. A ground group of three engineers each in radio contact with the pilot situated the micro home into three 35mm distance across finding gaps within the aluminum subframe. [59]



Another transportation method is maritime transport. This method, which has an important place in world trade for many years, can be done with large cargo ships. In this context, containers occupy an important place for the transport of various units. The standards and usage methods of the containers that change and develop in the historical process vary around the world. It doesn’t always have to be with big ships, project-specific solutions can be produced.

Image 39: Round house being transported down the River Thames, [50]

Designed by architect Juni Ludowici, Das Rundhaus is a prefabricated building developed as a creative solution to the problem of overcrowding and limited space for new buildings in urban centre. Round houses occupy the maximum volume for a given area and make the most of a small piece of land. In addition, the air circulates around the outer walls more easily and makes them safer in the storm and facilitates the warming of homeowners. [50]

Figure 39: The World of International Shipping [60]

Getting Shipment From Overseas : The Process - An order is put for goods from an abroad supplier. - Abroad provider liaises with cargo forwarder to manage transport from the nation to the person/company that places the order. - A trucking company assembles the order and puts it into a 40ft holder with other orders. - The holder is shot closed and fitted with a tall security seal. - The container shipping line submits shipment documentation to government authorities in the exporting and importing countries. - Before approaching the port, the captain presents a report to the target government with information about the ship, the crew and the Cargo. - Once clearance is received, the docks at a berth close to the cranes used to unload the Cargo. - Customs officers who will have all the relevant documents choose the containers for inspection. [60]

Image 40: Transportation of Futuro House, Matti Suuronen [58]

The pre-assembled Futuro Houses were frequently delivered on-site by ship. It was developed by Suuronen in 1968 as a one-off mountain holiday home for a friend. To supply construction work on a remote plot and install it on rough terrain, the architects designed it as a prefabricated egg-shaped building with 16 fiberglass parts bolted each other and a reinforce structure made up for four concrete scaffolds and a concave steel frame. [58]




Image 41: [21]

Pont VI factory, worker manually hoisting a winch to de-mould a panel. [ımg.41] Panel transportation to a construction site on an American trailer. [ımg.42]

Panel assembly for Building A on Lot 17 on August Normand Street [ımg.43] Building in Le Havre built according to Raymond Camus’s technology. [ımg.44] Image 42: [21]

Image 43: [21]



Image 44: [21]



Figure 40: Neme Studio, Matters Around Architecture, 2015 [61]

Exterior Bamboo Bamboo is a solid, quick developing and profoundly maintainable fabric that has been utilized basically for thousands of a long time in numerous parts of the world. In modern times, it has the potential to be an tastefully satisfying and cost-effective against to more conventional materials such as wood. It can be used in many different functions from the formation of the structure to its insulation. [62] Image 41: American Bamboo Society Annual Conference [63]

Image 42: Prototype of ZERI bamboo pavilion Simon Velez [64]

Image 43: Harvest [66]

Image 44: SCL Straw-Bale House [67]

Straw Bale Straw bale is a building material which can be used as a framing material for building because of good insulating features. They can also act as soundproof materials. Non-load bearing walls of straw bale can be used as fill material in between the columns, and in between the beams frame work is recommended. Since air can not pass through them, straw bales also have some resistance to fire. [65]



Adobe is actually a dried mud brick, with the natural elements of earth, water, and sun. It is an ancient material as a rule made of with firmly compressed sand, clay, and straw or grass blended with dampness, shaped into bricks. It dries in the sun without an oven. Adobe’s quality and versatility shift with its water substance: for example much water debilitates the brick. [68] Image 45: Casting [68]

Image 46: La Mesa Residence [69]

Image 47: Sewing bags [71]

Image 48: Earthbag Projects in Rwanda [71]

Earth Bags Earth bags, sandbags are used in military bases, near water sources, etc. Visible. In general, bags made of sacks are used, but they are easy to rot, and therefore polypropylene bags are common today. It has a good insulation thanks to the sandbag coating. In addition, another good feature is that they do not ignite easily. It is strong and can protect users from rain, wind and sun. [70]

Gabion Gabion is formed by filling a cage or box with materials such as stone, concrete, sand or soil. It is used for slope stability and erosion protection as a flexible block. Various types of gabions are built in different engineering structures. It is also used in different systems in architectural structures. [72]

Image 49: Construction [72] Image 50: Metropolitan Park South Access [73]

Hempcrete Hempcrete a carbon-negative material is an alternative for contractors to use in construction works. It is prepared by mixing hemp shives, water, and lime as the binding agent. Hempcrete has low thickness and fabulous warm and acoustic cover properties. But Hempcrete encompasses a compressive quality and versatile modulus which makes it unacceptable for bearing coordinate loads so it needs a outline to carry the loads. [74]

Image 51: Hemt blocks[74]

Image 52: Hempcrete Homebuilding [75]



Rammed Earth Soil is an alternative material for aesthetic, sound control, durability, temperature control, minimum maintenance and fire resistance. Rammed Earth is a system that can be constructed by compressing moist soil of a certain ratio and type with the help of simple moulds. It is a natural and powerful construction system with thousands of years of traditional usage, modern interface and many advantages coming from the nature of the material. [76]

Figure 41: Made in Earth [76]

Image 53: Construction [76]

Image 54: The Great Wall of WA [77]

Image 55: Mycelium, Aleksi Vesaluoma [79]

Image 56: Hy-Fi, Queen, The Living, [80]

Mycelium Mycelium brick is an organic brick consist of organic waste and cork. Fine root-like fibers obtained from mushrooms that extend underground turn into super strong, water, mold and fire resistant building materials when dried. This material, along with the architectural and construction industry, has been developed over time in multiple disciplines and is used as a building material. [78]

Ferrock It is produced from waste steel dust from industrial processes. The iron in the steel powder reacts with CO2 and corrodes and iron-carbonate is formed. It can withstand compression without breaking and is quite flexible. It can resist the effects of soil movements caused by industrial process. [81]

Image 57: Paul Tumarkin, Tech Launch Arizona, [81]

Card Board Cardboard has the potential to make a valuable contribution to a more sustainable structure in the future. It is mainly made of post-consumer waste paper and card, a material with limited market availability. The carton itself can be recycled to more cartons at the end of its life. It is a suitable alternative material for quick and practical solutions.[82] Figure 42: Paper Log House [82]


Image 58: Paper Log House, New York [82]

Image 59: Paper Log House,Turkey [83]



Plywood is a treated wood material consisting of three or more layers. The layers are glued together to form a flat layer. Plywood can be produced from softwood, hardwood, or both. Made from hard wood, maple, oak and mahogany. Then the log is combined with thin wood layers with a lathe machine. Each layer is usually 1 to 4 mm thick. [84] Image 60: Herzog & de Meuron, Plywood House [84]

Earthship Earthship includes natural and recycled materials. It is generally constructed to operate independently and is made of rubber filled with soil to naturally regulate the indoor temperature. They also often have their own special natural ventilation systems. In addition, metal cans, canned boxes, glass bottles can be reused in different ways. [85] Image 62: Sustainable School, Michael Reynolds, [85]


Figure 44: Earthship Materials: tire [86]

“Michael Reynolds is an architect who considers waste a natural resource. In his projects from the early 1970s, discarded steel beverage cans and old car tires take on a new function as building materials when remodelled into bricks. Cans are secured together with bailing wire and stacked into walls with mortar. Car tires are packed tight with dirt to form rammed earth bricks.� [86] Figure 43: Plan of earthship house, Michael Reynolds [86]



Seaweed Algae forms such as seaweed are a sustainable alternative to plastics and other materials in conjunction with the climate crisis. Seaweed is naturally non-flammable, resistant to decay, carbon negative and completely waterproof after about a year. It also insulates the structure well, comparable to stone wool. The result is an alternative construction material that can be used as a product by placing it on the surface of the panels. [87]

Fıgure 45: Detail [87]

Image 63: Seaweed [87]

Image 64: Seaweed thatch updated into prefab panelling, Kathryn Larsen [87]

Self Healing Concrete A kind of self-renewing “living concrete.” The mixture of calcium lactate and various bacteria in its structure initiates a reaction when it comes into contact with water, repairing cracks, fractures and holes on the surface or in depth. When the cracks eventually form, water enters and opens the capsules. The bacteria then germinate, multiply and feed. [88] Figure 46: Hendrik Jonker, bio-concrete [88]

CLT Panel (Cross Laminated Timber) CLT cross laminated panel system is a durable material obtained by stacking wooden layers. With its strong structure, it is frequently used as a wall in the wooden building industry. In addition, today it has become a component used in many different areas such as floor and ceiling material, stairs and wind turbines. [89] Figure 47: CLT Panels [89]

Image 65: The CLT House / KAWA DESIGN GROUP Architecture [89]

SIPs Structural insulated panels (SIPs) is a system used in residential and light commercial buildings. The panels consist of an insulating foam sandwiched between two specially oriented structural coating boards (OSB). SIPs are produces under factory controlled conditions and can be custom-built to appropriate almost any building design. The result is a very strong, energy-efficient and cost-effective structure. [90]


Image 66: Kingspan [90]

Image 67: Passivehaus home [90]

Papercrete RESEARCH

Papercrete is a type of industrial strength material made with paper and cardboard, sand and Portland cement. There are many types of Papercrete. Basically, when components are mixed in different proportions, it causes PaperCrete to have various properties. It is suitable for making low cost houses with limited life and durability. [91] Image 68: Mixing papercrete and forming papercrete blocks. [91]

Image: 69 Papercrete House, Rural Studio [91]

Biodegradable Materials for 3D Printing A natural mud mixture made from soil from the surrounding area is used together with waste materials from agricultural production such as straw and rice husks. The final product is biodegradable. If the building is not maintained or specifically requested, the building may re-enter the soil. The mixture is layered using a 3D printer suspended from a crane, forming walls with vertical voids therein. [92] Image 70: Printing and its area [92]

Image 71: The Gaia House, WASP, [92]


Figure 48: 3D printing system [93]

“There are a variety of 3D printing methods used at construction scale, these include the following main methods: extrusion (concrete/cement, wax, foam, polymers), powder bonding (polymer bond, reactive bond,) and additive welding. Potential advantages of these technologies include faster construction, lower labour costs, increased complexity and/or accuracy, greater integration of function and less waste produced.� [93]



Potato peelings into MDF This alternative material is based on the principle of reuse of food waste. It is made by mixing bamboo, wood or hops fibres into the potato peel to obtain a binder. Unlike MDF, it does not contain formaldehyde or other toxic resins and chemicals. The composite is heat pressed to a robust sheet layer which can be used for various purposes and is ready for use. [94] Image 73: Compressing Chips board. [94]

Image 74: Chip[s] Board : Recycle potato peelings into MDF [94]

Translucent Wood A group of researchers from Royal Institute of Technology has developed Optically Transparent Wood, a material that could impact the architectural projects. This transparent wood is created by ensuring that the wood material is quite white by removing the outer layer by some chemical processes. A transparent polymer is then added to this white porous structure. This process matches the individual optical properties of the cells and makes all the material translucent. [95]

Image 75: Translucent Wood [95]

Image 76: KTH Royal Institute of Technology [95]

PTFE & ETFE “PTFE, commonly known as Teflon, is a film made of carbon and fluorine. This material in non-reactive, hydrophobic, and has a very low coefficient of friction. Because of these non-stick, corrosion resistant, and waterproof properties, Teflon is a material which is ideal not only for building construction but also for other commercial applications such as cookware. Teflon was patented in 1945, and shortly thereafter, Dupont began producing massive quantities of material,mostly for commercial use. Image 77: PTFE & EFTE [28]

Figure 49:Teflon (PTFE) [28]


Figure 50: ETFE [28]

ETFE is a film with even more impressive properties. This fluorine-based plastic is extremely lightweight and strong, while maintaining a high resistance to a wide temperature range and corrosion. This product surpassed polyethylene technology by maintaining a stronger resistance to ultraviolet light, a benefit which was not required in the military use of plastic but was ideal civilian applications.� [28]


“ The polyvinylchlorid (PVC) polymer, the third most widely produced plastic, having many applications from inflatables to pipes. ’’

Figure 51 : PVC [28]


Image 78 : [28]

Image 79 : [28]

Image 80 : [28]

“1970 : The Japan Tele-Communications Pavilion at the Osaka Expo was clad in PVC coated vinyl stretched over an internal structure. (Img:78) The Fuji Pavilion at the Osaka Expo was the largest multi-membrane structure built up until that time. (Img:79) The sixteen tubes, each with a diameter of four meters, were made of PVA coated on the outside with Hypalon and on the inside with PVC. (Img:80)” [28]



Bio-Brick Loose sand, an enzyme-producing bacterium, and human urine are combined in a mold that will shape the brick. Urease induces chemical reaction. Calcium carbonate, which is the main component of cement, is produced by breaking down urine. This strengthens the bricks. The longer they stay in their mold, the bricks get stronger. The bricks formed as a result of these processes can be used as an alternative material. [96]

urine, bacteria, cement

Image 81: Production of Bio-brick [96]

Image 82: Bio-brick, University of Cape Town (UCT) [96]

Image 84: Using bacteria [97]

Image 84: Production of textile structures [97]

Image 85:The potential of using knitted textile structures [97]

Bacteria-Textile This material relates to the potential to use biologically solidified knitted textile structures as sustainable building materials. The knitted column is made of jute fibre and permeable polyester. The column was mounted in a rotating bioreactor before spraying. Thanks to the use of bacteria, a high-strength building material can be obtained. [97]

NOBILITY OF METALS “The noble metals are a subset of the metals, but the membership in the group is not well-defined. The strictest definition of a noble metal is metal with a filled electron d-band. According to this definition, gold, silver, and copper are noble metals. Another definition of a noble metal is one which resists oxidation and corrosion. This excludes copper, but adds in other platinum group metals, such as rhodium, palladium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. The opposite of a noble metal is a base metal. Noble metals are valued for use in jewellery, coinage, electronics, medicine, and chemistry as catalysts. The galvanic series determines the nobility of metals, the differences in the conducting potential of metals. Electrons may be transferred from the surface of one metal to the other. The less noble metal will corrode as a result of the reaction. The more likely corrosion is to occur in the less noble metal. This figure illustrates which are more likely to corrode due to galvanic action because they are less noble.� [28]

Figure 52: Nobility of Metals [28]



“ The polyethylene polymer. Commonly used in plastic bags and bottles, nearly 80 million tons of this material are produced every year globally.’’


Figure 53: Nylon [28]

Figure 54: Advertisement of Nylon at that years [28]

Image 86: Wallace Carothers [28]

“The development of fabric Technologies for architectural purposes occurred with the invention of plastics and synthetic fibres at the turn of the century and their commercialization after the Second World War. Plastics first appeared in the mid1800s. Parkesine, the first plastic, was patented by Alexander Parkes in 1856. Shortly thereafter, Celluloid, also known as imitation ivory, was patented in 1870 and rose in popularity as the Parkesine company collapsed. Polyethylene, now the most common plastic, was discovered by accident in 1933.” [28] Inventor Wallace Carothers stretches sample of polyamide, a miraculous new synthetic fabric (ımg 86).



Interior Tadelakt This traditional practice, which has been used almost unchanged for centuries, was created using limestone in the high Atlas mountains of Morocco. The material produced using local construction techniques and natural dyes is an alternative to chemical materials. Also the word “Tadelakt” means “caress” in Arabic. [76]

Figure 55: How to use tadelakt [76]

Image 87: Production of tadelakt [76]

Image 88: Application of tadelakt [76]

Figure 56: How to use natural plaster [76]

Image 89: natural plaster [76]

Image 90: Cafe interiors, Museum Road [76]

Image 77: Storage of OSB [98]

Image 78: Bcredi Office, Arquea Arquitetos [99]

Image 79: Mixing natural paint [76]

Image 80: Aditi Organics Office in India [76]

Natural Plaster It is ecologically important that the building is breathable. Plasters are the first layers that come into contact with the air outside and inside the building. They are effective in regulating humidity and temperature. Applying chemical paint prevents this exchange. Natural plasters can be smooth, finished with sponge. Or it can be finished with a trowel or brush, hand-finished, fibrous and grainy. [76]

OSB The main raw material of OSB material is pine, mostly coniferous wood. Chips 8 to 15 cm long are combined to form different layers. Therefore, OSB received such a name. Sounds like “oriented chipboard” or OSB. The flexibility of the material increases with this multi-layered structure and large size chips. Thanks to these features, the amount of glue that brings the material into solid wood can be reduced. [98]

Natural Paints They made with raw ingredients such as clay, marble, earth can significantly improve the air quality in your building, positively impacting your health. Additives such as starch, casein, flaxseed oil, used with plant and mineral pigments, provide a less energy-consuming coating. These natural ingredients improve breath-ability of the wall, and eliminate potentially harmful chemicals present in conventional paints. [76] 166

Figure 57: How to use n. paint [76]


Figure 58: Krokodil, 10 October 1963 [17]

“Illuminating shortcoming in the Soviet furniture Industry In this case, poor quality - this satirical cartoon contrasts what one might see at an exhibition of model wares (top) with what is actually available for purchase in shops (bottom). The exhibition proudly offers a comment book for visitors, and the shop - a complaint book. While covering up her new contemporary furnishings for fear of ruining their polished surface, this home-maker openly displays her outdated accoutrements of decor the elephant figurines behind the guest just arriving, the ‘puppy dog’ adorning the television set, and the antiquelooking clock in the upper right-hand corner.” [17]

Figure 59: Krokodil, 10 October 1963 [17]



Animal Byproducts There are designers who choose to recycle animal wastes rather than remain unused. It is possible to use animal by-products in the structure by forming semitransparent tubes that naturally bend around an LED luminaire. This design creates unusual lighting effects and draws attention to the natural details of the organic materiall. [100] Image 81: animal byproduct [100]

Image 82: Production [100]

Image 83: Sculptural lights made from animal byproduct [100]

Food Waste Every year, 1/3 of the total food produced in the world is weighed at 1.3 billion tons. The vast majority of foodstuffs disposed of in the US and Europe are in agriculture and in final consumption processes. It is now possible to recycle food. Fruits, grains, vegetables, grass, leaves, bushes are able to used for this methods. So a variety of vast-food can turn into different objects such as a lighting equipments or coffee tables. [101]

Figure 60: Raw Materials [101]

Image 84: Orange Lamp, Palm Leaves Table, Onion Lamp, Ottan Studio [101]

Clothes Used and unwanted clothes can be turned into building materials instead of being thrown away. Old clothes can turn into different interior objects. Sometimes a coffee table can sometimes be reused as a seat. There are also research studies in which clothes are turned into solid outdoor panels. In this way, the recycled fertilizers can be reused. [102] Image 85: Panels made from unwanted clothes University of New South Wales [103]

Image 86: Sophie Rowley, Denim jeans table [102]

Image 87: Harry Nuriev, Sofa with old clothing [104]

Image 88: Production [105]

Image 89: cork lighting, Digitalab [105]

Cork Cork is a material preferred by many designers and architects because of its properties that can be combined and recycled. The cork-mixture obtained from the bark is brought together and pressed. It is combined with a layer of cotton fabric to form a thin layer. It is then subjected to various processes with the yarns obtained from this fabric. This product can be used in the construction of many interior materials. [105] 168

In-between Cellulose RESEARCH

A type of wood or paper-based product is used to fill empty spaces in the structural part of a house to slow down the transportation of heat or cold. Its technically can come from any cellular plant source, such as corncobs or sisal. But commercial cellulose insulations are generally derived from wood, and more specifically from common waste paper products. U value: 0.19W/m²K at 200mm [106]

Image 90: Foam- formed Cellulose [106]

Image 91: Application of Cellulose [106]

Image 92: Blanket cotton [107]

Image 93: Application of Cotton [107]

Cotton Cotton is a natural and renewable resource, which makes the green insulation products. Cotton insulation is similar to fibreglass insulation in several ways. According to National Cancer Institute, unlike fibreglass, cotton insulation does not include formaldehyde, which scientists have linked to some types of cancer. It wouldn’t cause any respiratory problems. The material is good at absorbing moisture. Cotton insulation is also insect repellent. [107]

U-VALUE, G-VALUE, NET-TO-GROSS RATIO AND DAYLIGHT FACTOR: THE WAR OF COEFFICIENTS “If the modern curtain wall aesthetics of thinness is now clearly in recession as an effect of these regulations, there is a conflict between the U-Value and the Net-to Gross ratio. Moreover, the increasing occlusion of daylight due to the fenestration ratio’s exponential decrease promises to evolve into a true war of coefficients within these regulatory frameworks as the provision of daylight is now considered the most important factor for energy saving in office buildings.

Figure 61: U Value Diagram [28]

In order to solve these conflicts, the industry is developing a variety of insulating yet thin and transparent products: triple glazing, argon-filled glazing, and now vacuum cavities and nanogel translucent insulation. Products like Kalwall, Okalux nanogel glass panels, or Litracon and Luccon translucent concrete indicate that translucent insulation may be a solution to this brewing conflict.” [28]



Sheep’s Wool Sheep wool, which is a natural product, is an alternative insulation material. Due to the hygroscopic nature of sheep wool, it provides a natural insulation by controlling the condensation levels inside the building. It absorbs more than 35 percent of its weight as moisture and does not affect its thermal performance. U Value: 0.20W/m²K at 200mm [108] Image 94: Production of wool [108]

Image 95: Application of Sheep’s wool [108]

Image 96: Harvesting - Storage [109]

Image 97: Cork Studio, Studio Bark [110]

Image 98: lime technology [111]

Image 99: Kensington Hempcrete Home [111]

Expanded Cork Cork is an all-natural, renewable, recyclable and biodegradable material made from the bark of the oak tree. With cork insulation, energy consumption is greatly reduced and energy saving is achieved. Its features continue for many years. Cork is a very ecological material with its high insulation range, stability and reducing thermal bridging. [109]

Traditional Hemcrete Hemcrete is a bio-composite building material made from a combination of hemp shive and a lime-based binder. It is usually casted in-situ around a timber frame to form the walls of buildings, but is also particularly well suited to renovation projects. U-value : 0.19W/m²K at 300mm [111]

WATERTIGHT SPECIES Locked Species of lock-joint standing seam metal cladding, each with a different articulation, sometimes subtle and sometimes very drastic. [28]

Figure 62: Watertight Species [28]



“The insulated facade is perhaps the assemblage which is most closely tied economic ebb and flow. Over the last 100 years, every economic downturn has seen a subsequent thickening of the envelope and increase in thermal resistance, whereas times of economic prosperity have born emaciated façades which are wasteful in their energy usage. So closely tied is insulation to economy that the energy crises of the 1970s engendered ad national shortage of insulation material in the United States as home owners scrambled to increase the thermal resistance of their homes. Crucially, there is no technology capable of producing visual transparency and insulation at once, and therefore insulation is inevitably linked to opacity with all its associated semiotic: the free-flowing, borderless, transparent space of modernism is at odds with energy saving and the postmodern cellularization of society.” [28]

Image 100: Cellular [28]

Sunflower The sunflower crop waste into biomaterials for use as a sustainable insulating material. Sunflower, which is usually grown to produce oil, seeds or biofuels, creates agricultural waste that has the capacity to turn into valuable resources. In the panels where every part of the sunflower crop is evaluated, a non-synthetic binder and a non-toxic varnish are used. [112] Image 101: Panels from sunflower [112]

Image 102: Panels aplication Thomas Vailly, Studio Thomas Vailly [112]

Acoustic bio-panels Panels made of material developed from cellulose fibres of Swedish pine and spruce trees are strong, waterproof and lightweight. At the back of the panels is a nano-perforated surface that allows sound waves to enter and trap into the hexagonal channels on the rear surface. While applying this surface, technologies used to minimize the material used in aircraft and spaceships have been used. [113] Figure 63: Raw material alternatives for bio-panels [113]

Figure 64: BAUX & Form Us With Love [113]



SILICONE: ENABLER OF A NEW ARCHITECTURE “New façades, desperate to develop a single exterior surface with a perfect seal, found their greatest ally in silicone. Silicone forms an impermeable, web-like membrane, which is able to fill in seams and gaps between materials. Silicone is capable of sticking strongly to nearly any modern construction material including metal, concrete, masonry, vinyl, and plastic yet is flexible enough to absorb the movement of thermal cycling. Traditional oil-based caulking compounds would no longer fit the bill, and the Word of choice became sealant instead of caulk. ” [28]

Figure 66: Silicone [28]

Figure 65: Advertisement of that years [28]

Aerogel Aerogel consists of a gas with almost no thermal conductivity. NASA uses this material to protect astronauts and equipment from their extreme cold. The production of different types of aerogel varies with different types. Aerogel, produced by replacing the liquid component of the gel with gas, is an alternative insulation material used in extreme conditions. [114] Figure 67: Aerogel Production [114]

Image 103: Aerogel [115]

Perlite Naturally formed from siliceous rocks, perlite is used for thermal insulation in buildings. Perlite glass fiber with R-value 2.7 shows insufficient performance compared to other insulators such as wool and cellulose. However, it performs better than loose fill wood products and straw. [116]

Image 104: Lightweight perlite pours easily into masonry blocks Perlite Institute [116]


Image 105: LNG tanker, insulated with perlite. [116]


Image 106: A coat sale in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1936 [117]

“Overstocked with a large supply of men’s spring and winter coats, a clothier in Copenhagen, Denmark, adopted a unique sales scheme. He erected a scaffolding around his store building and completely covered it from roof to sidewalk with more than a thousand overcoats. The novel display attracted prospective customers in such droves that police were summoned. Although the police ordered the proprietor to remove the display, he succeeded in selling all the overcoats.” [117]



MARSHA AI SpaceFactory 2018

The Volontariat Home and MARSHA projects are similar in terms of local material using. In Marsha project, the soil of Mars is used after being treated with 3D printer. Similarly, in the Volontariat Home project, local soil was used as building materials.

Both projects are constructed on site so it means that solutions can be produced by using local materials.


In addition, although these structures are designed for different technologies and purposes, the window at the top for light indicates that some things have not changed.

As it can be understood from the sections of the structures, they have a similar form. It is interesting to point to the similar form according to the durability and climatic data analyzes made with different technological infrastructures.


The Marsha project has been designed with high technology by imagining a new life on Mars. Current high technological data are used in construction and design. However, the Volontariat Home project was designed for homeless children in India in a participatory process with very low cost and technology with local materials. In addition, Marsha Project does not create a interior space from a shell in accordance with the environmental conditions and needs, while this is not the case in the other project.

VOLONTARIAT HOME Anupan Kundoo, India 2008


ECOLOGY The ecological science and sustainability, which is a branch of biology until 1700s, have always developed in relation to catastrophic human actions. Between 1550 and 1700, wood was the key material for heating, therefore forests had to be harvested more than they can regenerate and caused a serious shortage in wood [1]. Following this, sustainability was mentioned in a handbook of forestry in 1713 as “sustained yield� that means never harvesting more than the forest can regenerate [2]. The link between ecology and man-made disasters continued with Industrial Revolution by coal mining and oil refining. Besides, it created the most disastrous problem, which we are currently facing with the consequences, the climate change. Amazon rainforest wildfire in 2019 [3], is a contemporary example of the damage of human being on ecosystem as the background photo shows. There are two theories behind the fire that it is either caused by drought and climate change or human action on purpose to create farmland [4]. Amazon Reinforest Wildfire in 2019 [3]

ENERGY MANAGEMENT Solar Energy Wind Heat Pumps Biomass Generators Case Study: Ecocapsule®

COMFORT MANAGEMENT Heating Ventilation Cooling Lighting Case Study: MightyHouse

WATER MANAGEMENT Drinking Water Management Domestic Water Management Sustainable Devices Case Study: 6x6 Demountable House

FOOD MANAGEMENT Production Process Storage Case Study: Greenhouse dwellings

WASTE MANAGEMENT Organic Waste Inorganic Waste Case Study: Street Farmhouse



70s OIL CRISIS In 1973, an oil embargo has been imposed to the countries that are supporting Israel in the 4th Arab-Israeli war, including the United State and the Netherlands, and oil-producing Arab countries cut the export of oil by 5% in September 1973, and threaten to continue cutting by 5% every subsequent month; however, it had broken out after 1 month [7].

Image 1: Fuel shortage scene from 70s [8]

5 mm

Figure 1: The Carbon Brief Profile: Turkey [5]

Coal mining has started to become the main source of heating in Great Britain, which was afterwards linked to the Industrial Revolution in 1760s [1]. In the 19th century, new resources and materials has emerged in daily life. Oil was one of the most important resources, which has affected various sectors from energy production to construction industry. However, during the world wide economic crisis Long Depression between 1873 and 1896, energy consumption and related to this the cost of fossil fuels have increased, which has resulted in thermal power plants to look for alternatives to reduce heat losses through buildings [6]. The time period between 1914 and 1945, has included two world wars and a devastating economic crisis in between called the Great Depression, and ended up with shortages in resources, which has encouraged people to recycle goods in Europe and the USA. In 1973 OPEC, which includes Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela at that time, decided to decrease oil production by 5% and double the price per barrel to the USA and some European countries that support Israel on the 4th Palestine War. As a result, the price of a barrel of oil in America has quadrupled and there has been compulsory cuts in oil consumption, which has encouraged people and governments in the introduction of alternative energy measures [7]. 178

Figure 2: Article from October 18, 1973 Š The New York Times [9]

Solar Energy Solar energy is the most important renewable energy source as the resource is the sunlight with its enormous power. According to an interdisciplinary MIT study (The Future of Solar Energy, 2015), it would be possible to produce all the electricity the U.S. consume through a year by only covering 0.4% of the land area with the current PV technology. However, the amount of solar energy generated in the U.S. is less than 1% of total electricity generation [14]. Advantages • • •

Figure 3: Total primary energy supply by resources in 2011 [12]

Related to the population rise, rapid industrialization and urban growth,the primary energy consumption increases. Based on extensive research it has been estimated that 82% of the worlds energy consumption is generated by fossil fuels in 2011[12], it may create demonstrative consequences in the near future as it is claimed that fossil fuels have a limited time before their exhaustion such as coal has 142 years remaining, natural gas has 61 years, and petroleum has only 54 years [11]. In relation to the rest of the world, Turkey is currently ranked as the 18th country which has 1,0% of all primary energy consumption in the world [13]. Therefore, it is a serious issue for Turkey to be interested in energy efficiency as fossil fuels which have a finite lifetime, constitute 52 % in Turkey’s energy consumption in 2013 [12].

It is a clean source of energy and there is no harmful gas emission during the generation process [15]. It is suitable to use solar energy for all regions of Turkey except the Eastern Black Sea Region [15]. Even though the mean annual global radiation decreases from South to North of Turkey, it is still changes between 1400 to 1500 kWh per m2 for Istanbul [16], which represents an adequate level of solar energy.

Obstacles •

Cost is the most important limitation for solar energy to compete with fossil fuels. There is an artificial cost disadvantage as the fossil energy users does not pay any penalty for the damage that is caused by emissions [14]. Material constraint is another limitation for the solar panel industry which depends on silicon-based materials. However, this would be problematic only if the solar technologies increase more than 50 times from 2013 levels [14]. Variable power outcome is the final limitation that is connected to the location, climate, season and time. Therefore, it is dependent on battery technology.

TURKEY FUTURE CLIMATE PROJECTIONS The Mediterranean Region is identified as one of the future climate change hotspot [17]. Turkey as a part of the Mediterranean Region, is in the group of risky countries that are estimated to have critical effects of climate change. It has already started to affect temperature rise in Turkey such as the average temperature of areas that are located around the sea, having a slight increase between 19502000; and Anatolia that is used to have fluctuations in average temperature, has been warming up since 1993 and continues to do so [18]. Furthermore, the projections demonstrate that the average temperature will increase between 2.5 to 4 degrees Celsius; therefore, there will be risk of serious drought in the south of the country, and the level of precipitation in winter will decrease by about 2050% [19].

Figure 4: Future climate projections for Turkey between 2011 and 2099 [13].



In the 21st century, population increase has started to become another key aspects in terms of energy as it meant that decreasing the energy consumption will be challenging with increasing population. Moreover, it is predicted the human population will rise to approximately 10 billion people by the 2050s which is currently around 7,2 billion in 2014 [10]. Turkey has 1,0 % of the world’s population and it is estimated that it will reach 9,3 % by 2050 [11].


Photovoltaic Panels

Solar Water Heating

The first modern solar cells were used on a US satellite in 1958 [14]. Since then this technology relied on silicon-waferbased approach; therefore, it is not possible for them to make a significant contribution to global electricity generation as a result of materials scaling considerations [14]. A typical solar panel, which is usually 1m by 1.5m with a peak power of 320W with the most efficient one, consists of a glass sheet and laminated encapsulation layers for various protection reasons, up to 96 number of individual solar cells, a fluoropolymer back sheet and an aluminium frame for mounting [14].

Solar water heating is more practical and achievable than space heating due to the timing of the demand as space heating is usually required at night and in winter when there is not sufficient sun light to generate adequate energy, whereas hot water is used throughout the year at any time of the day [21]. However, efficient sizing of the system gets important, which should be calculated according to the summer potential of the system, because if the system size defined from winter solar heating capacity then the system will be oversized; therefore, not economical.

A photovoltaic panel (PV) system generates direct current electricity (DC electricity) from radiation through the sun. Afterwards, the inverter converts the direct electricity to alternating current electricity (AC electricity), which is the type of electricity home appliances need.

The solar water heating panels should be located to the roof with a 30 degrees of inclination and it should be orientated to the east and west of south to get the maximum benefits from solar radiation [21]. There two types of collectors, flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors. They both work with solar radiation to be trapped between glass sheets and creating a greenhouse effect to warm the fluid, which can then warm the hot water tank. However, evacuated tube collectors are more efficient and also more expensive than flat plat collectors as they are using a different technology for the same process.

Batteries Solar energy as well as wind energy are dependant on batteries, as the electricity generation is not stable over a time period, and it fluctuates between hours of the day or time of the day due to solar radiation, weather situation or wind speed. Therefore, batteries are commonly used in combination with renewable energy systems; however, they are usually the least efficient component of a solar energy system as their lifetime is only up to 5 years [22]. Lead-acid batteries are more advantageous than nickelcadmium batteries due to their wide availability in size and low cost; therefore, they are used more often [22]. They also have 96.6% of recycling rate [22]. Figure 5: Percentages of materials that a silicone based solar panel consists [20].

SOLAR HOUSE Starting from 1938, universities such as MIT has started to focus on the construction of both active and passive solar houses, which active solar house was placed with flat-plate collectors to capture solar radiation and passive solar house was without any mechanical hardware and only has architecture, orientation and architectonic components acting as heat collector and thermal storage [7].

Image 2: MIT Solar I [23].



Figure 6: Estimated PV waste volumes [20].

Solar panels usage increases rapidly all over the world as the effects of climate change is getting more serious and people are more conscious about generating energy from renewable sources and consuming it to the minimum. Therefore, solar PV panels are the most common type of renewable energy technology that is used all over the world. However, these panels have a life expectancy of approximately 30 years, and also the efficiency of the panels are decreasing by 10% by every 10 years of usage [20]. For after use, they are defined as e-waste in the WEEE Directive and the manufacturers are bound by law to meet the specific requirements so that they do not harm the environment [20]. Currently recycling efficiency is nearly 95% for silicone based PV panels; however, this should be higher in the future [20].





Wind is the second most important renewable energy source after solar energy. After the 1970s energy crisis, generating energy from wind power got seriously important, and by 2006 Denmark, Spain and Germany generated a significant amount of electricity through wind power with 20%, 9% and 7% [24]. Even though, energy consumption is mainly based on fossil fuels, according to International Energy Agency statistical data [24], 2,4% and 6,5% of the electricity generation is provided by solar energy and wind respectively in Turkey.

• •

Wind turbine consists rotating propeller, which is rotated by the wind, and the reason it needs to be rotated to a high position to get into the high wind velocity area away from ground obstacles [21]. It has benefits compared to solar energy as there can be adequate wind to generate electricity any time of the day or year. However, the most challenging issue is the lack of consistency and continuity of airflow and related to this the amount of electricity generated is not predictable [21]. Therefore, when there is ongoing electricity generation, it would require to be stored using batteries to be used later.

Clean, natural, renewable and endless source of energy. Possible to generate electricity any time of the year as long as there is adequate wind. Suitable to use wind power for all regions of Turkey. [15]

Obstacles •

• •

Requires considerate planning as it can cause damage to migrating birds. Needs to be on a high position away from the ground obstacles. Increase the noise levels as most of them are above the ambient wind noise. Gives variable power outcome that is connected to the location, climate, season and time.

ENERGY TOPIC IN GAMES Oil crisis had affected every subject in daily life between 1973 and the mid 1980s, and alternative energy sources were hot topic. As a result, game manufacturers turned this to their advantage by selling three different types of board games. First group of games treated oil as a source of power and wealth, where the aim was to get rich in Petropolis by owning the most oil wells such as North Sea Oil [7]. In the second category, the story has combined oil production with war, and focused on exploring military manoeuvres to protect oil-producing nations [7]. Last one like Energy Crisis Game focused on different strategies in an oil crisis situation such as planning the demand for oil and considering energy saving methods in a game concept [7]. Image 3: North Sea Oil: The Oil Exploration Game, UK, 1974 [7]

Image 4: La Conquete du Petrole, Societe Fernand Nathan, France, 1973 [7]


Image 5: Energy Crisis: Peppermill’s Energy Conservation Game, USA, 1977 [7]


Image 7: Buckminster Fuller’s article on The New York Times, 17 Jan 1977 [25]




Figure 8: Integral Urban House self-reliant domestic ecosystem diagram [26]



Figure 9: Integral Urban House energy diagram [26]

The Integral Urban House was designed as a selfreliant domestic ecosystem in an urban context. The project, which was funded by non-profit organisation Farallones Institute, has put into practice by retrofitting a Victorian house in urban California [26]. The project has aimed to create a healthy natural system and had 3 key concepts: • Closed Loop and Negative Feedback Loop systems of energy and resources • Webs of alternate channels for energy and resources, diversity of systems and species, and built redundancies • Multifunctional Components; permeable boundaries between multiple systems; flexibility and fail-safe system designs, labour-time-saving strategies and structures [26]. The project needed constant maintenance from its inhabitants to continue the ecosystem and it required a new life style, which was extremely demanding for a person who spends majority of their time in an office building [26].

Image 6: Integral Urban House [26]



Heat Pumps Heat pumps are an energy efficient solution for climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, and they are a better alternative to furnaces or air conditioners [27]. Their working concept is similar to the refrigerator by electricity to transfer heat from a cool space to a warm space and the reverse [27]. Therefore, they only transfer the heat between the ground, air or water to the house, and they can reduce the energy consumption for heating up to 60%, even though they don’t generate energy [27]. There are three types of heat pump depending on the heat transformation source; air source, water source and geothermal. The air-source heat pump, which transfers the heat between the house and the outside air, has the most common usage. There is also a ductless version that is called a mini-split heat pump and it is suitable for homes to use it without ducts [27]. However, air source heat pumps efficiency is approximately 30% and it is the least efficient system type compared to others. Water source heat pumps achieve a better efficiency rate; however, it requires to be nearby a water source, which is quite specific requirement for an urban house. Geothermal or ground source heat pumps are the most efficient type by reducing the energy consumption about approximately 60% and they are more reliable [27]. However, they are quite expensive to install and they require either wide area of clear land or usable deeper area as it can be applied either vertically or horizontally.

Figure 10: Air source heat pump diagram [28]

Air source heat pump consists of a compressor and two copper coils one inside and one outside, which are filled with liquid refrigerant and wrapped with aluminium fins for better heat transfer [28]. The outside coils extracts heat from the air and evaporates into a gas; afterwards indoor coils release heat from the refrigerant as it condenses back into a liquid [29].

Advantages • • • • • •

Provide running cost savings for off-grid sites with no access to mains gas. Reduce fuel bills significantly, especially when it is compared to a conventional electric heating. Lower carbon emissions, depending on which fuel it is replacing with. Don’t require fuel deliveries. Provide both space heating and hot water for a dwelling. Requires very little maintenance.

Obstacles • • • • •


Takes longer to heat up to warm the hot water cylinder as air source heat pumps tend to be much smaller than traditional gas boilers in terms of heat output. Require the installation of an external box for air source heat pumps, which can be obtrusive in terms of noise and appearance. Consume energy during cold weather to defrost air source heat pump, so may not be cost efficient during extended cold periods. Require a significant area of external land to install the ground loops for ground source heat pump. Take longer to heat the space and domestic hot water to reach the set temperature in ground source heat pumps as it tend to offer lower outputs.

Figure 11: Ground source heat pump diagram [30]

Ground source heat pump extracts heat from the ground to transfer this into the house via a loop of pipe filled with fluid [30]. It consists of ground loops that is a network of pipes buried underground; a heat pump at the ground level with an evaporator, compressor and condenser; a mixture of anti-freeze and water; and a water cylinder [30].


Biomass is a word that means materials derived from plants and animals [21]. Biomass boiler have developed after the concerns about the sustainability, and minimised its carbon footprint, which is negligible when compared to fossil fuels and it also provides a solution for waste management and storage [21]. There are various products that are using biomass for energy generation such as timber, farming and packaging waste, and these waste materials are used burned in the biomass boiler after the process of turning them into pellets or briquettes [21].

There are three types of generators, which are portable generators for emergency use, inverter generators for recreational use and home standby generators for whole house backup [33]. All of these three types require either natural gas, diesel or propane to generate electricity, and non of these sources are renewable. Therefore, it is not an efficient solution for energy generation. However, with improving technology there are new methods of generating energy with burning bio-oil generators or water generators, and those systems are more sustainable than the typical generator.

Bio-oil generators Bio-oil generators are both good at generating energy from clean sources that doesn’t harm the environment, and also they makes the waste management easier [34].

Figure 12: Biomass system description diagram [31]

In domestic scale either wood pellets or wood chips boilers are used for energy generation. Wood pellets, which is manufactured from waste timber from sustainably-managed forests, have a higher density and lower moisture content than wood chips; therefore, they are more efficient in terms of both energy and space savings, but less preferable as they are more expensive [21]. The only difference of wood chips than pellets is the method of processing that wood chips have irregular sizes and shapes; therefore, they take more space for storage, cheaper and they produce more ash [21].

Figure 13: Bio-oil generator system diagram [34]

Water generators Microhydropower could be a very efficient way of generating energy for a home, if there is a flowing water source nearby the land that would need a turbine, pump, a generator, regulator and wiring to deliver the electricity to unit [35].

Image 7: Wood pellets vs wood chips [32]

Figure 14: Microhydropower system diagram [35]





ECOCAPSULE EcocapsuleŽ is a self-sustainable micro home, which can generate its own energy. It has first designed for a competition by Nice Architects in 2008, although the project wasn’t awarded, it is selected as the most interesting picks by online magazine Inhabitat. After this recognition, they got massive amount of inquiries to develop the project further; however, it took them 5 years to complete the prototype design with suitable technology that can sustain long periods of time without external resources [36].

Image 8: Ecocapsule internal photo by Michal Chudik [36]

Image 9: Ecocapsule internal photo by Michal Chudik [36]

Image 10: Ecocapsule external photo by Michal Chudik [36]



Figure 15: Floor plan by Nice Architects [37]

EcocapsuleÂŽ is aimed to provide long term off-grid living with minimum impact on the environment. It is 4.67m long, 2.20m wide and 2.50m tall, which could be extended to 4.50m with the wind turbine pole [36]. The capsule has a gross floor area of 8.2m2 and it weighs 1350kg when empty and 1650kg with full water tanks. It has a compact shape with minimised heat loss surface area so that thermal performance of the design is almost on the level of a passive house with its steel frame external wall structure filled with high quality polyurethane foam insulation [36]. The capsule has a battery with 9 kWh capacity to powered by wind turbine that provides approximately 750W and solar panels covering the roof with 880W peak power. It also has a central ventilation unit that provides heating, cooling and air exchange, in addition to water filtering system either from rainwater collection or via an external source such as a lake, stream or camp water [36]. The capsule has a separating, waterless toilet. Image 11: Ecocapsule internal photo by Michal Chudik [36]

Figure 16: Energy scheme by Nice Architects [37]


ECOLOGY COMFORT MANAGEMENT Indoor environment has been an important subject since the beginning of history as we are fragile like all mammals to excessive heat and cold. Therefore, human beings have come up with various strategies to avoid exposure to the extreme weather conditions such as heat, cold, wind or rain. Comfort has been defined as a state of physical ease and well-being in a given environment [38]. Climate is the key driver while assessing the necessary features for indoor comfort.

Turkey is located in a temperate climate where the main shelter issue copes with the seasonal variations, and it means that there is potential overheating problems in the summer as well as over-cooling issues in winter [21]. Thus, a shelter in Istanbul need to have a less compact form and an optimum surface area, it can benefit from solar gains in winter by providing wide openings with shading elements to avoid overheating in summer.

Figure 17: Thermal comfort illustrations by Elisa Géhin for Saint-Gobain [38]

VITRUVIUS - TEN BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE Vitruvius explains in Ten Books on Architecture how to find South and North by taking A as the centre, drawing a circle from the point B, which is the location of shadow in the morning. Then in the afternoon shadow draw point C, where the intersection of B and C will show the North. He also mentions about how climate should shape the design in Book 6, Chapter 1 as ‘‘If our designs for private houses are to be correct, we must at the outset take note of the countries and climates in which they are built. One style of house seems appropriate to built in Egypt, another in Spain, a different kind in Pontus, one still different in Rome and so on with lands and countries of other characteristics.’’ [39]

Figure 18: Wind direction and compass [39]



Figure 19: Best plants to fight pollution and decrease SBS [40]

Heating Thermal comfort is defined by British Standard BS EN ISO 7730 as ‘that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment’ and it depends on 3 parameters, which are physiological that changes depending on various factor such as gender and age, physical in relation to surrounding environment and socio-psychological in connection to the feelings [38]. Architecture is interested in the physical environment, where the human body is interacted with the surroundings via conduction, convection or radiation of the heat. Indoor thermal comfort would be optimised by wrapping the building with adequate thermal insulation, providing an air tight envelope, balancing solar gains between space heating and summer overheating problem, proposing an efficient ventilation system.

Insulation Thermal insulation is the main material in the construction that keeps heat within the home. Examples are mineral wool, rigid board PIR or sheep’s wool insulation. The building regulations require that all new buildings have a minimum level of thermal insulation. Building elements could be insulated in three possible ways, which are internally, externally and in between the main structure. However, external insulation is the most efficient way as it reduces thermal bridges, which is the additional heat loss through a junction in the building where the insulation thins, geometry means there is extra surface area, or an uninsulated element passes through the insulation.


Sick building syndrome is defined as “the situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified” [41]. There are serious health effect that can be caused by SBS such as headache, dizziness, nausea, skin irritation, dry cough, fatigue, allergies and asthma attacks [42]. However, it doesn’t include radon and asbestos cause long-term diseases as these ones occur after a few years of exposure, whereas sick building syndrome effects occupants in shorter time periods [40]. Understanding responsible factors for SBS can make it easier to find the solution. The reasons causing SBS are chemical and biological contaminants, and inadequate ventilation, which is especially got worse after 1970 oil crisis as people focused on making their buildings more energy efficient and air tight; however, they forgot about providing sufficient ventilation rate for an indoor space [42]. Therefore, in addition to providing adequate ventilation to prevent SBS, it is claimed that the introduction some plants to a indoor space cleans the indoor air from harmful substances, and act as a natural humidifiers; therefore, creates more comfortable indoor conditions for inhabitants [40].

Air tightness Losing heat through uncontrolled air movement to outside is a waste of energy and a significant contributor to poor energy efficiency. Therefore, achieving airtightness is very important for the thermal performance of a building and it starts with establishing an airtightness strategy during the design. To achieve a good practice level of airtightness it is imperative to have one single layer acting as the air-barrier that completely wraps the heated volume. It is very important to have an early ‘leak finding’ test at first fix, when the air barrier materials and connections are exposed.

Services Airtight layer Structure Insulation


Wind-proof layer Skin

Figure 20: Building systems diagram showing the location of insulation and airtight layer



Thermal mass

Trombe wall

Thermal mass is the ability of a material to absorb heat [21]. In winter it absorbs heat from direct sunlight and releases that energy slowly at night. In summer, it can cool the room if it is shaded during the day. Effectiveness of the envelope increases due to the area of thermal mass surface with concrete, brick or stone. However, when interiors of even high thermal mass surfaces are isolated with lightweight finishes, it won’t be as effective as plain surfaces with high thermal mass [43].

Thermal storage wall is actually first tested by Edward Sylvester Morse in the 1880s, afterwards the same principle used with water and eutectic salts as a thermal mass in MIT house in 1947 [7]. However, none of these trials became successful to be effective in terms of storing thermal energy as much as Felix Trombe’s 60cm thick concrete walls in 2 houses built in France [7]. Trombe’s collaborator architect Jacques Michel, updated the design by adding vents to the top of the glazed wall to provide air circulation [7]. In theory, the Trombe wall is 30-60cm thick concrete wall that is orientated to the South to store maximum amount of solar gains during the day [7]. There is a glass panel in front of the concrete wall to create greenhouse effect so that the air coming through vents could be heated and risen warm air gets in to the room. This cycle would continue during the day; however, the vents are required to be closed at night to prevent the room from reverse convection [7].

Figure 21: Effect of distribution of thermal mass [43]

Passive Solar Design Passive solar design is used for using the radiation from the sun to warm the buildings when it is needed, also protect the living areas for excess heat. It has five key elements, aperture that is the area to collect the sun light, absorber that is the surfaces of direct sunlight hits, thermal mass, distribution by using the natural heat transfer modes -conduction, convection and radiation- and finally control that are shading devices such as louvres or overhangs [44].

Figure 23: Principles of the Trombe-Michel solar wall from section of Solar House [7]

Figure 22: Passive solar design [44] Figure 24: Kelbaugh House Trombe wall with greenhouse [7]

Kelbaugh House is designed in 1974 with two Trombe walls on top of each other for the first time with the same purpose of providing heating in winter and cooling in summer [7]. 192


The term “earth-sheltered� has commonly used after 1970s for any style of building that are either earth-covered and it is entirely sunken to the ground or berming where only one or two external walls have direct connection with the earth without whole being below the ground level [7].

Figure 25: Earth-sheltered and recessed structures [7]



Ventilation The key air pollutants are gaseous pollutants such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and radon. Most of them come from vehicle exhaust emissions, and can be found in the internal environment of a building. The level of local pollution cannot be directly affected by the building design, other than through the selection of the heating system and the incorporation of electric charging points for cars. However, building design should take into account the level of local air quality. It should also be noted that National Air Quality objectives and the European Directive set limit values of 40 and 25 ug/m3 for NO2 and PM2.5 respectively. As much as external air pollutants, indoor air quality is important because people are spending 80% of their time indoor and the majority of this time is in their homes. Therefore, it is very important to consider air quality in order to minimise problems in human health such as respiratory issues. Beyond the impact of external air quality on indoor air quality, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most important organic chemicals to consider. These pollutants are emitted by internal building elements such as paints, adhesives, coatings and furniture. Therefore, a well designed ventilation system is very important. Figure 27: Supply and extract via single stack [43]

Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery helps to provide filtered fresh air to all residents and to recover heat from the air extracted from each unit. Its location, specifications and insulation around intake and exhaust ductwork are critical. Its benefits include: • Continuous year-round ventilation • Reduced condensation and mould risk, reducing potential damage to building fabric • Less noise from outside and from intermittent fans • Good air quality with filtered air

Figure 26: Indoor air pollutants [45]

Natural ventilation Ventilation is fundamental for a house as it exchanges air between indoor and outdoor spaces; therefore, provides fresh indoor air in most cases when the outdoor air is not pollutant [43]. There are two types of situations required for natural ventilation, which the first one is wind pressure and the other is stack ventilation. Cross ventilation is a wind pressure driven system, which circulates air through the space via adequate opening sizes. However, it doesn’t work as efficiently when there is not enough breeze for the air movement. Stack ventilation on the other hand works on a vertical system, where air let into the room from a low point and warming air rises and leaves the room from ventilation gap on the high located vents, and it also is the traditional form of tropical urban buildings [43]. Figure 28: MVHR system [46]



Figure 29: Autonomous Dymaxion House (The Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller) [47]

In 1920, Fuller designed an autonomous single family dwelling as the living machine of the future, which was has included influential innovations especially in sustainability with its integrated mechanical ventilation system [47].



Cooling Passive cooling is the least expensive means of cooling for a home, it only needs strategical planning of passive measure such as shading, ventilation openings and avoidance of unnecessary artificial lighting. As Turkey, and especially Istanbul requires both heating during winter and some sort of cooling in summer for a comfortable indoor temperatures, it is important to find the balance between these two weather situations [48].


Solar chimneys Solar chimneys uses stack ventilation with a high designed air passages, where the warming air rises up through the passage and increase temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air, which creates an air circulation [48].

Figure 30: Solar chimney diagram [48]

Earth coupling Earth coupling provides the building from external temperature extremes as ground temperature has lower temperatures in summer when compared with the outdoor temperature [48]. The effect of earth coupling could even be increased by providing passive shading around it [48].

Figure 31: Earth coupling diagram [48]


Figure 32: Noise transmission depending on window design [43]

Insulation materials, especially the woolly textures, increase both the thermal performance and acoustic comfort of a space. However, there are three conflicts between passive design and acoustic comfort, which are related to thermal mass, internal partitions and ventilation openings [43]. Firstly, the use of heavyweight materials to provide high thermal mass, increases the risk of having a reverberant space by reducing the acoustic absorption [43]. Second aspect is the internal partitions, which could be weak in terms of acoustics; therefore, it can create privacy problems. Lastly, the ventilation openings such as trickle vents or even windows, can cause problems if the outdoor space is noisy. Therefore, it can affect natural ventilation negatively as the user will shut the vents down. The figure 1 shows the influence of window design on noise transmission that upper window design lets the noise get in to the building easily whereas the below one provides both acoustic absorption and adequate ventilation [43].

Anidolic ceilings


There are various passive lighting design methods, such as introducing shading elements or louvred vents to use this sustainable energy more efficiently.

Anidolic ceiling has developed as an experimental method after light shelf, and it has aimed to limit glare for occupants that are directly in the path of light beam [49]. Various measurements have been taken in the experimental module that occupants turned on the artificial lighting seven times lower than the reference module, which proved the increase uniformity ratio [49]. It also showed that the system also increased the daylight factor at the back of the room [49].

Light shelf Light shelf is a light coloured horizontal thin surface that is positioned inside and/or outside a window, which should be placed above eye level and prevent glare while not becoming an obstacle for the view [21]. It usually doesn’t affect daylight factor in the room; however, it helps to smooth the daylight factor distribution along the depth of the room, which helps occupants to perceive the room more lit [49].

Figure 35: Cross-section of anidolic reflector and light duct [49]

Figure 33: Light shelf drawing [21]

Light pipes Light pipe system consists of a light collection aperture, which redirects the light deep into the room as a passive lighting method [21]. However, this system works the most efficient way when it only passes a flat roof thickness; therefore, it means that it doesn’t act more than a roof light window [49].

Image 12: Outside facade of a test module with an anidolic ceiling [49]

Artificial lighting Artificial lighting should be designed very carefully especially depending on the different tasks. In addition, it should also be energy efficient such as LED lighting; however, the colour of the light should be considered according to the time of the day and type of activity in the designed room as the colour and intensity of the light could harm human circadian rhythm. Lighting control devices are also important in terms of energy efficiency. There are technologies such as manual dimming, photosensors, occupancy sensors and centralised controls that could increase the energy savings rather than simple on/ off switch.

Figure 34: Light pipes drawing [21]



Natural lighting is the free source of energy for lighting at indoor spaces; however, glare and overheating especially in summer months are the biggest concerns for maximising daylight intake to a building. Therefore, it should be designed careful to have an efficient balance in between all parameters.


MIGHTY HOUSE The Mighty House is a tiny Passivhaus project that is designed by DimensionStyle. It has 23 m2 of treated floor area with the dimensions of approximately 2.5m by 24m as it is on wheels, the dimension should be in suitable size for the roads and highways [50]. By positioning in the right angle, the cabin could reduce the energy consumption by 90% when compared to a traditional house, and it could even get closer to achieve net zero energy with the introduction of either a solar array or a wind turbine [50].

Figure 36: Floor plan of Mighty House [50]

The wheeled cabin is constructed with using the least toxic materials, which means no foams, no VOC paints, glues or finishes [50]. Thanks to its super insulated envelope and ductless heat recovery ventilation system, it doesn’t require any heating or cooling system [50]. It also has a grey-water system that is connected to the sinks and showers, and then diverting it to the plants [50]. Architects claims that the cabin is extremely cost effective with its minimum budget of $45,000, and without labour it is $120 per m2 that could be a great solution for both affordable housing projects and energy efficient buildings [50]. Figure 37: Roof and wall details of Mighty House [50]

Image 13: 3D image [50]



Image 14: Photo before external finishes with weather proof layer [50]

Features of the house include: • Annual heat demand of 4.07 kWh/m2yr • Annual primary energy value of 119.87 kWh/m2yr • Air tightness value of 0.6 air change per hour @50 Pa • Super efficient building envelope (U-values of external walls: 0.237 W/m2K, floor: 0.247 W/m2K, roof: 0.177 W/ m2K) • Average window U-value of 1.136 W/m2K) • Foam free construction (no EPS, XPS, Rigid Foam, Spray Foam, etc.) • Low formaldehyde plywood options (Columbia Forest Products) • No VOC paints, (American Paint Company) • No VOC tapes (SIGA) • Non-toxic adhesives (Eco-bond) • Double wall mineral wool insulation assemblies (with Roxul Comfort Board and Batt) • High performance fiberglass windows from Alpen (525-S Series) • SIGA building wrap (interior and exterior) • Ductless Highly efficient HRV (Lunos E2) • LED lighting throughout

Image 15:Floor construction and insulation [50]

Image 16: Inside photo from the cabin during construction [50]

Image 17: Window detail on construction [50]

Image 18: Timber structure system [50]

Image 19: Low VOC tapes for air tightness [50]


ECOLOGY WATER MANAGEMENT Drinking Water Management Safe and readily available water is important for public health It’s used for both drinking and food production. Contaminated water are linked with many diseases. In 2017, 5.3 billion people can reach safely managed drinking water services that improved and liberated from contamination while there are 2.2 billion people who does not have access to safely managed services. [55]

Figure 38: Conventional Undersink Filter [56]

“Conventional Under-sink Filter gets its water from the under-sink cold water

5 mm

pipe at point A, then sends it via a flexible plastic tube to the water filter (B), It leaves the water filter through a flexible plastic tube and is delivered to the user through the filter’s own special faucet (C), mounted on top of the sink. The system is under constant pressure so that when the user opens the filter’s faucet at the sink water flows through the filter and out the faucet. Only drinking water delivered via the special faucet is filtered” [56].

Image 20: Man-made waterfall by Olafur Eliasson [51]

For life on the planet, water is an essential resource. Only three percent of the water resources on earth is fresh and two-thirds of the freshwater is inside the caps and glaciers. Remaining one percent, a fifth in remote are inaccessible areas. [52]. At a worldwide level 70% of water is utilized for agriculture about 25% for industry and just 6% for domestic use. [53]. At Turkey 73% of water is used for agriculture about 11% for industry and only 16% for domestic use. On the other hand there is high amount of freshwater used by different industries such as for agriculture. It was from 53% surface water resources, 38% ground water resources were used. For industrial usage %34.7 freshwater were used. Water that discharged without any treatment gives serious hazard Turkey’s main water resources. Researches shows in 2050 Turkey’s main watersheds will face with increasing water amount %10 to %70 [54]. Activity of planning developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water sources called water management [53].


Figure 39: Simple Undersink Filter [56]

“Simple Under-sink Filters “In this arrangement the entire cold water supply for the sink is diverted through the filter and filtered water is dispensed through the regular cold water sink faucet. The hot water remains unfiltered. The simple version without a separate ledge faucet is becoming more popular and more” [56].


Figure 40: Ceramic Water Filter [57]

Ceramic Water Filters are one of the cheap and effective ways of water filtration. The ceramic material that small pore litres of water size filters to dirt flower pot shaped filter holds than it’s collected in storage and via spigot embedded storage, treated water can be used [57].

Figure 43: Conventional Sand Filter [60]

In Sand Filter sand and gravel layered according to their density and particle size, It trap and strain water through the particles. Water flows 5-30 meters per hour between the particles then it pass through and collected for next treatment process [61].

Figure 41: The Hamster Ball-shaped Solar Ball [58]

The Hamster Ball-Shaped Solar ball was invented by graduate student Jonathan Liow from Monash University. It uses sunlight to evaporate dirty water then condense it on recipient walls and leaving the contaminants behind [58].

Figure 42: LifeStraw Products [59]

LifeStraw products were remove bacteria and parasites from contaminated water that comes from streams lake etc… Creating a filter that has smaller pore than bacteria and parasites size provides treated water. Water is able to pass but contaminant stuck into the filter. Some LifeStraw products use a two-step filtration process and reduce heavy metals like lead [59].

Figure 44: WaterSeer [62]

WaterSeer is a slight film sun based force module guarantees that it runs throughout the day, and the over the ground wind turbine sends air into a build up load. “The unit pulls moisture out of that air and uses the natural cooling of the ground to bring the air to its condensation point.” The condensation drips down into the underground reservoir, where it can be extracted through a hose and pump to be used as needed or transferred to a larger water storage reservoir. WaterSeer don’t need any infrastructure , filtration or chemical purification process like other water systems. [62]



Domestic Drinking Water Management According to TUIK 2016 data, for domestic usage, municipal water consumption is approximately 217 litres. For member states that the European Union, this rate is about 150 litres/ day. Percentages of amount of water that we use listed as; 26% of the water we use at home is used in toilets, 22% in washing machines, 17% in showers, 16% in taps, 2% in bathtubs and 3% in other areas; We lose 14% of leaks in domestic installations [63].

The territory depends on the “foot-print” of the rooftop, which can be determined by finding the region of the structure and including the zone of the rooftop shade. The conveyance system is a word used for gutters and down spouts. They are the networks of pipes for moving water from the roof to storage tanks. Preferring both proper sizing and installation is important. Storage Tank should keep stored collected water safe. The tank should be located far from children and also animals. Treatment of rainwater provides safe water to human use. The first one is roof water quality, detecting potential contaminants in rainwater for the treatment process. There are two steps of treatment on of them pre-storage treatment it makes water clean before It reaches the tank. The second one is an after-storage treatment which filters and disinfects the water for safe use [68]. Advantages • Reduces flooding and erosion. • Reduces water bills. • Reduces demand on ground water. Disadvantages • Unpredictable rainfall. • Initial high cost. • Providing maintenance. • Certain roof types may seep chemicals or animal droppings. • Storage limits. [69]

Figure 45: Groundwater [64]

Groundwater is water that occurs below the surface of Earth, where it occupies all or part of the void spaces in soils or geologic strata. It is also called subsurface water. For distinguishing it from surface water, which is found in large bodies like the oceans or lakes or which flows overland in streams. An immense measure of groundwater is dispersed all through the world, and countless groundwater supplies are as yet underdeveloped or uninvestigated. Furthermore, groundwater supplies are not seriously affected by short droughts and are available in many areas that do not have dependable surface water supplies [65].

Figure 47: Roof Footprint [70]

Figure 48: Catchment Area Calculation [70]

Image 21: Fog Collector Panel [71]

Figure 46: Rainwater Harvesting System [66]

Rainwater harvesting is a collection of rainwater from the roof with pipes to tank for storing in the tank for human usage. This method also called the rainwater collection system, rainwater catchment system or rainwater harvesting. [67] This system has range from simple barrels to more elaborate structures with pumps and purification systems etc... The catchment area is related with several features. First, as a roofing material selection metal roof is recommended because they easily shed contaminants. Second, the slope of the roof affects how quickly water will run off during a rain event. A steep roof will shed run-off quickly and more easily clean the roof of contamination. Third sizing a catchment area the size of the catchment area or roof will determine how much rainwater you can harvest.


Fog Harvesting works with boards made of fine-mesh nylon nets are extended between two support poles and put in a territory where the overall breezes blow the mist through the nets. When fog passes from the nets, water that contains in the fog were captured. The beads drop into a collection trough and after that are put away in a tank or cistern. Captured water can be used in different areas such as agricultural, domestic use, etc. For better turnout from Fog harvesting systems locations that have frequent fog periods such as coastal areas are better. Small fog collectors cost between $ 75 and $ 200 each to build. [72] Advantages • It’s easy to build. • For collecting or transporting the water, no energy is needed. • Maintenance and repair are minimal. • The cost is relatively inexpensive. Disadvantages • Community participation is needed for success. • Distance of the collection sites from the community. • Water may not meet drinking water quality.[72]


Figure 49: Fog Collection [73]


Image 22: Warka Tower Arturo Vittori by [74]

Warka Tower is a lightweight, effectively developed, and infrastructureindependent framework. The tower comprises of a bamboo outline supporting a mesh polyester fabric inside. Rain, haze, and dew condenses against the mesh and streams down a pipe into a store at the base of the structure. A texture canopy shades the lower areas of the tower to prevent the collected[75].

THE NETHERLANDISH PROVERBS Figure 50: Diagram of Water Flow [77]

Image 23: The Netherlandish Proverbs by Pieter Brueghel [76]

“1559 Pieter Breughel the Elder, “The Netherlandish Proverbs” The two backsides poking out of the latrine over the bridge illustrate either the proverb “they both crap out of the same hole (meaning to be in agreement) or hangs like a privy over a ditch” meaning it is obvious). To the left “to wipe one’s ass on a door” (meaning to treat something lightly)” [76].

“Whether within a nation or space habitat, robustness and redundancies in such meshes are key. The habitats designed in Summer Study were intended to be -like Asimov’s spomes largely closed with respect to matter and open with respect to solar energy. These closed systems relied on close attention to, and the design of, their internal workings. As in Carson’s case studies in Silent Spring, Water is not only crucial to survival but also as a system of transportation for waste in underground streams. Water used for waste transport and other needs adds a factor of 25 to the amount of water simply needed to sustain the animals, plants and humans in Stanford Torus. Animal waste, human waste, food processing waste, fish pond waste, and the rest waste from all flushed, as shown in a network diagram drawn for the Summer Study report, to a node labeled “ Ware Processing.” Since the habitat is open with respect to energy, waste matter can be processed with energy-intensive methods like wet oxidation. This is a system that has been used on Earth since the 1950s to treat industrial wastewater and sewage sludge.” [77].



Figure 53: Daily Water Consumption Rate [79] Figure 51: Blackwater Treatment System [78]

Blackwater is water that mixed with waste from bathrooms and toilets that contain fecal matter and urine. Blackwater requires several steps of treatment and disinfection before reuse. For single dwelling, It can be used only outdoors, mostly subsurface irrigation after treated and disinfected. For blackwater usage you should: • Minimise the use of cleaning chemicals. • Household’s chemicals should be avoided to disposing down to toilet. • Use a sink strainer in the kitchen to help prevent food scraps [78].

According to the studies that have been conducted taking 120 litres of daily water consumption per person, in a house with 4-5 people that uses the Greywater Recycling System, annually up to 80.000 litres of clean water (mains water) can be saved. Thus, annually 80.000 litres can be saved from the mains water and water costs can be reduced to half [79].

Image 24: Burning Man Everporation Pond Example [80]

Figure 52: Greywater Treatment System [78]

Greywater Recycling is water that comes from non-toilet plumbing fixtures such as basins, showers, and taps. For indoor usage such as flushing and clothes washing, greywater should properly be treated With appropriate precautions such as using low or no sodium and phosphorus products and applying the water below the surface greywater also be used in garden watering. For greywater usage you should: • Minimise the use of cleaning chemicals. Use natural cleaning products where possible. • Usage of chemical cleaners is important such as soaps shampoos and detergents • Use a lint filter. • Not dispose of household chemicals down the sink. [78]

Burning Man Evaporation Pond In Burning Man Festival It’s forbidden to leave your greywater in the desert soil because It’s harmful to playa’s itself.” It’s some sticks laid on the ground to hold up the edges of a black tarp. Used wash water left behind these pools and It evaporate here then It left some sediments and crusts behind. “That gets bundled up with the tarp and thrown away somewhere away from the playa.” [80].

Advantages • Saves cash. • More conscientious water use. • Reclamation of supplements. • Reduced water use. Disadvantages • Dual plumbing is required to oblige reuse and source division. (greywater/ blackwater). • Preventing wrong substances going down the channel. • Well-being dangers, maintain a strategic distance from potential for contact and additionally ingestion. • Environmental risks.[78]

Image 25: Burning Man Evaporation Pond Example [81]



Figure 55: Diagram of Water Flow in a Closed System [77]


Figure 54: Diagram of Energy Flow in a Closed System [77]

“On Earth, reference texts like Brand’s Whole Earth Catalogue gave Americans access to tools for building their own experimental societies, and experimental ecosystems, during the 1960s and 1970s. The Portola Institute - a funder of the Catalog, and also through its sister organization the Point Foundation, a supporter of O’Neill’s early work with Brand- was also funding the Farallones Institute. The institute complemented the theoretical frameworks in Brand’s Whole Earth with practical domestic demonstrations, applying systems thinking to daily life. Farallones and its founder, architect Sim Van der Ryn, operated a rural centre for research and teaching related to autonomous off-the-grid living. It also operated on urban “home-stand,” in Berkeley, California, the subject of book published in 1979 by the Sierra Club , The Integral Urban House.” [77].

LIVING POD Living pod designed by David Greene - one of the members of Archigram- in 1966, that time human-kind had not yet landed on the moon surface. On the other hand design of “Living Pod” suitable for usage as both habitat and vehicle such as it complies with unidentified environments with providing Earth’s atmosphere in a certain area. This project leads the other experimental architecture projects in the 1960s. “The house is designed as an appliance to be transported around with the owner, the city becomes a machine people plug into,” wrote David Greene.” [83].

Image 26: Multiple Organization of Living Pods [82]

Image 27: Living Pod by Archigram [82]



Sustainable Devices For preventing wasting water there are appliances that we used in our daily life, these appliances offer both sustainable and economical solutions.



Figure 58: First “S Pipe” [76]

Image 28: Composting Toilet [84]

Figure 56: Section of Composting Toilet [85]

Composting toilet is also called biological toilet or dry toilet. It has a “waterless sewage treatment system that decomposes human excreta into an inert nitrogenrich material similar to humus on the contrary of water use associated typical toilets. With this system, traditional sewage systems can be redundant.” If human waste was properly composted, there are no pathogens or viruses that can be detected in the end product, it becomes nutrient-rich fertilizer so it can be used on plants. There is various type of composting toilets that have different complexity of the design. It can be built from a simple bucket, some pieces of woof and a pile of hay or more complex ones can be purchase [86]. In the storage/ composting chamber the wastes are reserved after the dropping action. This is space where the poop falls awaiting the decomposition process and also solid and liquid waste converting stable organic compounds in this chamber. Ventilation unit helps the making toilet predominantly aerobic so malodorous gases can let go naturally. It designed for providing a healthy degradation process. Allowing quick elimination of excess liquid in case of end up with mixing the wastes leachate management mechanism was developed [87]. Advantages • It’s an environmentally friendly. • Compost toilets require less water usage. • Plants in locations wherever soil change is permissible. • Well suited to remote areas. Disadvantages • Poorly maintained systems can lead to odour, insects, and health hazards. • Compost toilets usually require some type of power source. [88]

“The “S Pipe” was Patented by Alexander Cummings in 1775. Valve closet has two defences against the stink of the cesspit below: a releasable metal flap (the valve) and a water seal created by the s trap curve into the waste pipe, a revolution in plumbing that enables the toilet -It’s odour reduced or even eliminated- to be welcomed into architecture.” [76].

Figure 59: Dual Flush vs Low Flow Toilet [91]

There are two types of Low-Flow toilet; gravity and pressure-assistance. In Gravity-driven toilets gravity carries the waste down and then the pipes. On the other hand, Pressure-assisted toilets contain a pressure tank that Works like a big water balloon. When water filled It held with pressure inside the toilet tank so the flush valve opens pressure and gravity provide powerful flush [92]. Advantages • It saves water. • It helps to saving money. Disadvantages • Low flow toilets flush performance not good as much as regular toilet because of less pressure and reduced volume of water that used while flushing. • It may not work with traditional plumbing systems. • They are more expensive than regular toilet in case of maintaining and installing. [93] Fıgure 57: Eco-san Toilets [89]

The Eco-San latrine could be a closed system that does not require water, so is an alternative to filter pit toilets in places where water is rare or where the water table is high and the chance of groundwater defilement is expanded. The toilet is based on the principle of recovery and reusing of supplements from excreta to form a profitable asset for agriculture. [90].


Dual Flush Toilet contains two separate flushing volumes for disposing of waste according to the type of excrement. There is half flush for liquid waste and a full flush option for disposing of solid waste [94].


1885 All porcelain one piece bowl, wash down style built in S trap

1884 Thomas Crapper’s valveless Water Waste Preventer is the model for the water saving elevated cistern, with gravity-assisted flush.

1880’s The roll allready widely in use in the US and England before the model is patented by S. Wheeler in 1891.

Figure 58: Water Waste Preventer [95] Figure 1: [67]

1877 Sanitas toilet, raised on plinth adjacent to sink, in wellappointed bourgeois home, illustrated by S. Stevens

Figure 59: Patent of Toilet Paper [96]

1884 Standard connection from the home to the municipal sewage system . Drainage and Sewerage of Dwellings. W.M. Paul Gerhard

2014 Fast forward to the 21st century components of the toilet remain the same, except or the lowered cistern. The most generic -and normative- possible toilet , from Wikipedia’s “toilet” page.

“In the space of 20 years at the end of the 19th century, all the ingredients of the fully-functioning, hygienic toilet reach a satisfactory stage of evolution, achieve wide public acceptance, and are firmly embedded within architecture. The standard components for managing excreta will not change substantially for more than a century .The western system - in which toilet is “wet” and the cleansing is “dry” - will begin to spread around the world, reversing cultures in which the toilet is dry (or uses less water) and the cleansing is wet...” [76].

Figure 57: Establishment of Toilet [76]



Image 29: Vacuum Toilet [97]

Image 30: Space Toilet [99]

On the contrary of the typical toilet’s passive siphon system, vacuum toilet use an active vacuum. After flushing, valve that opened in the sewer line vacuum to stance out of the bowl and into a tank. Vacuum toilets are flush toilets that use suction for the removal of faces and urine resulting in a minimal requirement of water (0.5 to 1.5 litres).” With the minimized amount of flush water, a vacuum toilet saves cost according to a typical toilet while providing the same level of comfort. Vacuum toilets can “adaptable with separate greywater and blackwater treatment or aerobic digestion treatment for bio-gas production.” [98].

A space toilet also called zero-gravity toilet can be used in a weightless environment. With the use of airflow “the collection and retention of liquid and solid waste” was provided. For preventing waste doesn’t float around flowing air were used on the contrary of the typical toilet that uses water to flush. The waste pull away from the astronaut’s body then flushes. For removing bacteria and odour, the air is filtered. In case of drying all moisture, wastes are compressed and kept in storage on the board. The solid waste preserve is plastic bags while liquid waste sent into space and also liquid wastes can be recycled with special treatment plants [100].


Figure 61: Diagram of Tiger Toilet [101]

Tiger toilets provide the same experience for the user as using a septic tank or a pour-flush latrine. Tiger worms also called Eisenia fetida are animals that consume waste and using these worms in the drainage layer reduces the amount of solid above %80 and effluent quality is higher than from a septic tank [102].

Figure 60: The Water Closet [76]

“The water closet “consists of a small chamber about a meter in width and two meters in length, resembling in it’s shape and size a smaller room in a modern house. Outside the intel of the room is a flagstone sloped towards a hole, which opens into a short drain beneath the floor and down which water could be thrown for flushing purposes, and also the household “slops” From the groove seen in the wall there appears to have been a wooden seat about 57 cm from the ground.” [76]. Figure 62: Diagram of Nano-Membrane Toilet [103]

Nano-membrane Toilet removes the water from human waste so leftovers can be used as fuel or fertilizer this process named as a pervaporation where “mixtures of liquids are separated by vaporization through a membrane.” [104].



Figure 63: Diagram of Garderobe Toilet [105]

“After the garderobe waste can fall either cesspit. (a), be conveyed into a moat,(b) breteche style garderobe, (C), or evaluated in multiple styles (D) After the garderobe waste can fall either cesspit. (a), be conveyed into a moat,(b) breteche style garderobe, (C), or evaluated in multiple styles (D) After the garderobe waste can fall either cesspit. (a), be conveyed into a moat,(b) breteche style garderobe, (C), or evaluated in multiple styles (D)” [76]

“We want to reinvent the toilet so it doesn’t need water piped in or out — just a chemical process, so that even Indian cities that will never spend $1 billion can have a toilet as good as a Western one,” -Bill Gates [107]

Image 31:Gardorobe Toilet [106]


Image 32: Life Support System Racks [108]

“From left to the right are the shower compartment, two water recovery system racks and the oxygen generation rack. The water recovery racks provide clean water through the recycling of waste waters. Included is a urine processor and a waste processor. The oxygen generation rack produces oxygen for crew and laboratory animal respiration and tops up oxygen loss in the system. It comprises a cell stack that electrolyses clean water into oxygen and hydrogen molecules and separators that harvest the gases from the water after electrolysis.” [108].




Image 43: TOTO smart Toilet [118]

Image 33: Simple Pit Latrine [109]

Cost: $0 [76]

Image 35: Pour-Flush Latrine [76]

Cost $70 [76]

Image 36 Porcelain Squat Toilet [110]

Cost $8 [76]

Smart Toilet is a type of toilet that has additional features to traditional toilet such as It’s automatically opens up when user approach, after finish going automatically closes and the toilet flushes itself and it also have automated cleansing system. There is a seat that warms itself with various temperature settings and also several features that done remotely. One of the biggest smart toilet producer firm is “TOTO” [119].

Image 34: Open Defecation [111]

Cost $40 [76]

Image 44: Toilet with Lid Converted to a Sink [120]

Image 37: Eco-san Toilet [112]

Cost: $78 [76]

Image 38: Composting Toilet [113] Cost: $1.865 [76]

Toilet with Lid Converted to a Sink is saves space, water and money at the same time. “When you flush the toilet, clean water comes out of the faucet and drains into the sink immediately below. The sink water then drains into the toilet bowl, where it helps displace the water that would otherwise refill the bowl after the toilet is flushed” [120].


Image 39: American Standard two piece flush Toilet [114]

Image 40: Toto Toilet [115]

Cost: $5.200 [76]

Cost: $160 [76]

Image 45: Toilet Truck Bangkok [121]

Image 41: Swarovski Crytstal Toilet [116]

$75.000 [76]


Image 42: Nasa Space Toilet [117] $23.400.000 [76]

Bangkok Municipal Administration’s provide 31 toilet trucks to provide public restroom who in need. These trucks have been used during the protests and public occasions. Old mobile green trucks have the potential to contain 2000 liters of water which adequate for 500 flushes. “Detritus is pumped out periodically via tanker trucks.”[117].

Faucets and Showerheads


Image 46: Low flow faucets [123]

Figure 64: Aeretor [124]

Low flow faucets and shower heads Aerators that have flow rates of no more than 1.0 gpm provides maximum water efficiency. With procuring aerators that with shut-off valves provides to stopping the flow of water without affecting the temperature [125].

Figure 66: Eco-friendly Public Urinals [131]

In 1800s public urinals or pissoirs were used in Paris. Today new urinals are converted into the flower boxes and inserted into Paris streets fully exposed with their colour of red and signs that highlight their existence. Officials argue that this implementation is eco-friendly and they are going to provide compost for gardens and parks. “According to the statement, one year of a person’s urine holds enough nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium to fertilize 400 square meters of wheat.”[132].

Image 47: Feet Operated Faucets [126]

Feet Operated Faucets For preventing wasting water using the food levers allow a user to turn the water on and off with controlling the volume of water released with foot pressure [127].

Image 48: Cencored Faucets [128]

Cencored Faucets With the presence of a hand, the valve allows water to flow in. This system also called an automatic faucet or tap (also hands-free faucet, touchless faucet) [129].

CENTRE FOR ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY Founded by the environmental entrepreneur Gerard Morgan-Greenville, the Centre for Alternative Technology (CAT) started up in 1974 in Machynlleth, Wales, first as a community, then the public. It was located in a slate quarry that had been abandoned since the 1950s. Aligned with Schumacher’s thinking, CAT did not reject completely the scientific method and the tools provided by technology but instead offered an alternative way of life -outside the urban context and the industrial production system [130].

Figure 65:Diagram of Alternative way of life [130]




Figure 66: Adaptation of 6x6m Demountable House by Richard Rogers [133]

Image 49: Adaptation of 6x6m Demountable House by Richard Rogers [133]

For Design Miami/ Basel 2015, Jean Prouvé’s ‘6x6m Demountable House that designed for war victims in France in 1944 adapted and presented as a selfcontained holiday retreat by Richard Rogers of RSHP. While adaptation adhering to the original plan as an addition there are “modern living facilities including a satellite bathroom and kitchen, as well as a series of service trolleys that produce solar-powered energy and also greywater and blackwater recycling system.”

Six of the original wooden panels replaced for providing bridge connection to kitchen and bathroom pods. With counter balance system, shutter can be used as an outdoor space when it’s pulled down. “All components can be manually assembled and dismantled easily onsite, and different panel locations can be configured to suit specific locations.” [133].

“What I stand for is more important than what I have achieved.” Richard Rogers [134]

Figure 67 : Services Distribution Diagram [134]



Figure 68: Diagram of Assembly Stages for the RHSP Adaptation [134]

Figure 69: Diagram of Assembly Stages for the Services Distribution Network [134]


ECOLOGY FOOD MANAGEMENT Production With a high amount of population growth, food production has tripled over the past half-century. As a result of this food production environmental problems has been occurred such as the depletion of freshwater resources, eutrophication from injudicious fertilizer use, greenhouse gas emissions from livestock, rice paddies, mechanization, and fertilizer denitrification, and agricultural expansion [137].


Figure 70: Istanbul Plant Types and Their Needs [138]

5 mm

Istanbul is under the influence of Mediterranean, Black Sea, Balkan and Anatolian continental climate. The average annual temperature is 13.5 ° C. The annual rainfall is 720-788 mm [139]. According to these data, the needs of plants in this region are listed above.

Planting Area Image 50: Astronaut Try to Eat Food in Zero-gravity [135]

1.9 million years ago with cooking has been started to took place in daily life It was one of the cornerstone of humankind’s evolutionary development. “Biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham argues in Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human (Profike, 2009) that cooking made possible the largest increase in brain size in human evolution. With the control of fire. Homo Erectus is able to consume higher quantities of calories at lower caloric costs of digestion. Rather than spend all day chewing, precious calories could be devoted to other activities like hunting and travelling.” Humans could now develop expensive organs like the brain and digestive tract which require a lot of energy. Estimates suggest that brain size and body weight would have increased by 60 percent.”While shaping of social relations, distribution of labour was not sexoriented but food-oriented. For instance women took part in gathering and cooking while men were in the hunting.[136]


Image 51:Raised Bed [140]

Image 52: Vertical Farming [142]

“Raised Bed soil that formed in beds, which can be of any length or shape, but are usually about 3-4 feet wide.” [141].

“Vertical Farming is the practice of growing crops in vertically stacked layers.” [143].

Image 53: Green House [144]

Image 54: Green Roof [146]

“Green House is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.“[145]

“Green Roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.“[147]


Poultry Shelter There are two main components in chicken coops, en enclosed space for laying eggs and for sleeping and open air space chicken to roam around during the day. For collecting droppings of chickens, distance between enclosed space and run space should be at least 60 centimetres [149] Food: Pasture, grains and seeds, bugs and insects, sunshine, gravel is some of the necessary nutrition for chickens. Favourite treats are Lettuce, carrots, mint parsley. On the other hand onion, garlic, avocado, and salty foods are nutritions that chicken should avoid to feed [150] Advantages • Chickens create excellent fertilizer. • Chickens help clean your yard. • Chickens are like a natural garbage disposal. • Chickens help control bugs and weeds naturally. • Fresh, home-grown meat. • Chickens lay eggs. Disadvantage • Poultry disease can cause lose batch of chickens. • There is a risk of a scope. • Vian flu can transmissive from bird to human. • Some birds can with every environmental conditions. • Zoning issues that you may need to follow before starting farm. • Night time predators start to scope out your chicken. [151]

Figure 73: Goat and Environment [154]

Goat The fence should be tall enough to block goats to climb over and runaway it’s also for keeping wild animals and predators far from goats. Goats need Shelter for keeping themselves safe from rain and cold. They can live any type of shed or house. There are several goat shelter types such as over pole, overground and made by concrete but concrete is an expensive option. It’s important to provide well ventilation inside the shed and must have to be free from drafts [155]. “A house of 1.8 meters *1.8 meters* 2.5 meters (5.5 ft * 5.5 ft * 8.5 ft) is suitable enough for housing 10 small goats” [156]. Food Hay, concentrates like oats, bran, and barley are the necessary nutrition for chickens. Ornamental plants from the farm area (especially the plants in the Rhododendron family) are harmful foods for goats. Also feeding goats from the ground can cause various types of goat diseases. Hay and concentrates are part of beneficial nutrients of goats such as oats, bran, and barley. Never feed them on the ground. As a result of feeding goats from ground can cause goat diseases. Ornamental plants from your farm area (especially the plants in the Rhododendron family) are harmful foods for goats [155]. Advantages • Goats clear land. • Goats produce milk and cheese. • Goats produce fiber. • Goats are a meat source. • Goats make manure. Disadvantages • Risk of crop loss. • Goat can spread viral diseases. [157]

Figure 72: Minimum Space Requirements for Chicken [148] Figure 74: Minimum Space Requirements for Goats [154]

Image 55: Casa Wabi Chicken Coop [152]

Image 56: The Wooden Cube Goat Shed [158]

In Casa Wabi Coop there is an investigation of local material by the Japanese architect Kengo Kuma.” With material such as adobe, the poultry will be provided with shade and the cyclonic mesh will protect them from predators.” The coop has 400m2 of area [153].

The Wooden Cube located on a flank in the southern Oberpfalz, a part of Bavaria, Germany. An agricultural building that has archaic appearance also it’s integrating the free landscape around it [159].



Figure 71:Chicken Coop Types [148]


Mutuality Aquaponic System

Image 57: Pigeon Cage [160]

Pigeon Shelter Purchasing or building a cage is an option. Cages should be located in a higher place that pigeons can be free from dog cat, mouse, and some other harmful predators. As a material thin wood, tin, bamboo with packing houses. Every pigeon needs about 30 cm long, 30 cm high and 30 cm wide space and door openings should be 10x10 cm. The house will be adjoining to each other and polyhedral. Preventing rainwater directly and ensuring the flow of air and light inside the house is vital. With leaving some straw around the house the pigeons can make a bed for them. For providing area for pigeon to clean up, inserting water and sand is important. Food Wheat, maize, paddy, rice, enamel, legume, triticum aestivus mustard, gram are some of the necessary nutrition for chickens. Pigeons consume 35-50 grams of grainy feed daily [161]. Advantages • Meat of pigeon is nutritious and It have demand in the market. • Pigeon excreta is good manure for crop cultivation. • Pigeon eat different type of insects, they help to clean environment. Disadvantages • Pigeon droppings can carry a number of serious diseases. [162]

Figure 75: DIY Aquaponic System [166]

• • • • • • • • • •

Advantages Waist high aquaponic systems provide protection from small animals, growing weds and back strain in the garden. Aquaponics depends on the reusing of nutrient-rich water ceaselessly. There is no need to petrochemicals, pesticides or herbicides. It saves time. Grower can focus other task such as feeding to fish or harvesting the crops. There are suitable aquaponic system in every size and budgets. Aquaponic systems can be located anywhere both indoor and outdoor. Disadvantages Depending on selected energy source the user prefer, electricity usage may be high. A budget is required to set up the system. Not every crops types suitable for aquaponics. Root crops not suitable for aquaponics. [167]

Figure 74: Langstroth Beehive [163]

Bees Shelter There are for common beehive types, these are langstroth, top bar, skep and warre. Langstroth consists supers made by wooden boxes stacked on top of each other. “They are sitting on a base called the foundation board and topped with a lid or cover. Inside, the bees create their comb and fill the cells with honey on waxed frames that hang vertically inside the super. It is a modular, expandable beehive, with reasonably convenient easy access for the beekeeper.” Top Bar also known as Kenyan Top Bar Hive. In this beehive, type mimics nature while bees make their comb by drawing it down. It looks like trough used for animal feeding and it’s easy to carry and harvest honey [164]. Advantages • Honey made locally from your own bees. • Wax, a product of bees such as candles, cosmetics, creams, lipstick etc. • Bees can help make plants healthy as they pollinate. • Low maintenance. Bees work hard without much effort. Disadvantages • Bee strung. • Neighbour problems. [165]


Image 58: Aquaponic System [168]

Process The transformation that turns agricultural products into a food and turning one form of food into another form called food processing. [169].

Image 60: A Wood Burning Stove [171]

Figure 77: The Bio Lite [173]

“A Wood Burning Stove is an efficient and hot burning stove using small-diameter wood fuel. Fuel is burned in a simple combustion chamber containing an insulated vertical chimney, which ensures almost complete combustion prior to the flames reaching the cooking surface.” [172]

“The BioLite is a top loading wood stove suspended on a fold-out stand. It comes with an orange battery pack and power converter which 1) converts the heat from a fire into electric power and 2) powers an integrated fan that is used to intensify the heat produced bythe wood stove.” [174]

Image 1: Lorem ipsum

Figure 78: Solar Cooker [175]

“A solar cooker is a device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat, cook or pasteurize drink and other food materials. Many solar cookers currently in use are relatively inexpensive, low-tech devices, although some are as powerful or as expensive as traditional stoves.” [176]

Figure 79: Rocket Stove [177]

“A rocket stove is an efficient and hot burning stove using small-diameter wood fuel. Fuel is burned in a simple combustion chamber containing an insulated vertical chimney, which ensures almost complete combustion prior to the flames reaching the cooking surface.” [178]

Figure 76: Thermal Efficiencies and Effectiveness of Cooking Appliances [170]

Image 63: Gas Stove [179]

“A gas stove is a stove that is fuelled by combustible gas such as syngas, natural gas, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas or other flammable gas.” [180]

Image 64: Flower-pot Barbecue [181]

“Barbecue stove is slow-cooked and smoked over indirect heat, often in a barbecue pit, with the flavour of wood smoke an essential component.” [182]

Image 59: Early twentieth century advertisement for fireless cooking [170]

“In the beginning of the twentieth century, time savings were the main sales argument for fireless cookers. This seems odd, because the average cooking time doubles compared to the traditional cooking process. Fireless cookers do afford the cook more time, however, by reducing the amount he or she spends in front of the stove or fire. A fireless cooker also increases the capacity of a cooking stove, whether it runs on electricity, gas, coal, wood or solar energy.” [170]

Image 65: Tealight Oven [183]

Tealight Oven “uses harness the thermal energy from tea light candles.” [184]

Image 66: Propane Stove [185]

Propane Stove is a type of gas stove that is fuelled by Propane. There is both indoor and outdoor propane stoves. [186]



Cooking Methods



Alcohol Stove Gel fuel stoves less efficient than liquid fuel. Alcohol cook stoves are pressurized or non-pressurized and can burn ethanol in liquid or gelled or waxy forms.

Electric Stove Efficiency dependent on electricity source. Limited areas that have access to electricity, usually cities in the developed world.

Briquette Stove Up to 37% efficiency

Rocket Stove Insulated L shaped combustion of gases and smoke inside the stove. The flow of hot gases are channelled closer to the pot or griddle. Some rocket stoves reduce emissions by 40-70 percent or more for carbon monoxide, and over 50 percent for particulates in a laboratory setting.

Biomass Gasifier Stove %37-%63 efficiency Gasifier stoves force the gases and smoke from incomplete combustion back into the flame, for the second round of combustion, resulting in very few if any emissions.

Bioltie stove %37-%63 efficiency

“... the exile of the flame that happened in the West in the 19th century must be completed around the world in order to eradicate disease and poverty...� [136]



The fireplace/stove is a prime target in the UN’s fight against global poverty, of which “energy poverty” plays a decisive role. UN secretary-general Ban Ki-Moon hopes to achieve universal energy access by 2030, meaning that the 1.4 billion people without electricity and the 3 billion cooking with solid fuel will have access to electric alternatives. Unventilated stoves based on solid fuel and open fires will be eradicated. The exile of the flame that happened in the West in the 19th century must be for Clean Cook stoves, there is a new wave of stove design, reminiscent of the explosion in the U.S. in the 19th century, but now in portable, low-cost forms [136]... Figure 80: 21st Century Clean Cook stoves [136]

Biogas Stove

Solar Box Stove

%50-%65 efficiency In a merger of toilet and fireplace, this biogas stove can convert manure and human waste into combustible methane. Reduces respiratory diseases eye infection, asthma and lung problems.

%100 (fuel is available at no cost) Solar box cookers reach temperatures between 177-204C and present no fire danger.

Paraboli Solar Stove %100 (fuel is available at no cost) Resembling satellite dishes, parabolic solar stoves cook as fast as an open fire by concentrating sunlight on the bottom of a cooking pot, generating temperatures above 232C even in sub-zero weather.

Image 67: Fireplace vs .Phone [136]

“Fireplace’s last stand miniaturized used solely for powering a charging devices for smart phones...” [136]



Storage In case of the bacteria growth on food, It should be kept in the cold for example food with expire date, cooked food and ready to eat foods [187].


Image 68: Skylab 2 Astronauts Eat Space Food in Wardroom [189]

According to their consumption order of astronauts, meals were stored in lockers and they are covered with net in case of floating. They eat their meals in the gallery area located in the middle part of the shuttle. They consume freeze-dried foods by adding them to water and “dehydrated drinks from a rehydration station that dispenses both hot and cold water.� With forced-air convection oven, they heat their food for eating. [190].

Place Root Cellar Root cellars can placed any location that provides natural cooling, insulating, and humidifying variation of foods. This types of cellars mostly used by farmers and gardeners in case of food spoilage such as raw and pickled vegetables. It can be built from cement or cinder block. For keeping it in a cooler temperature three side of it can be covered with soil. Air vent is important for circulation and humidity control [191]. Hole-in-the-Ground Cellar For outdoor usage of the cellar, digging down into the ground or horizontally into a hillside is an option When it goes more profound within the soil layers it begins to work. This option requires good drainage; sandier soil works better [192]. The Garbage Can or Wooden Barrel Cellar This technique helps keep water out so vegetables will store well, even in the coldest weather. [191]. Figure 81: Storage Requirements for Common Vegetables [188]

Figure 82: Ventilation Types of Root Cellar [188]


Straw Leaves

Boards to keep produce from spilling out


1. Dig a space for the barrel in a well drained area. Put a bedding of a straw or leaves under the barrel and fill it with produce. Soil is 18” thick here

Soil is 3” thick here

3. Cover the sides and upper end of the barrel with 18 inches of soil. Cover the lower end with 3 inches of soil.

2.Slant open end down so any moisture will run out, then place a board over the opening.

In case of protecting food from spoilage after harvest or slaughter there are many methods and these practices date to prehistoric times. Oldest techniques are fermentation, drying and refrigeration. Modern ones are canning, pasteurization, freezing, irradiation, and the addition of chemicals. For modern food preservation, packaging materials have played important role [194].


4. Cover everything with straw. Place boards on top to keep the straw from blowing away.

Figure 82: The Garbage Can or Wooden Barrel Cellar [193]


Image 69: Vacuum Packing [195]

Image 70: Sugaring [197]

“Vacuum packaging is a way to increase the shelf life of food products. The product is placed in an air-tight pack, the air sucked out and the package sealed. By removing air from around the product, the levels of oxygen in the packaging are reduced, impeding the ability of oxygen-breathing micro-organisms to grow and spoil the product.” [196]

“Salting is a method of preserving food, that was more common before modern refrigeration. Salting preserves food by drawing water out of the food, preventing bacteria growing and spoiling the food. The food is surrounded in salt and left in a cool dry place.” [198]

Image 71: Sugaring [199]

Image 72: Canning [201]

“Sugaring is a food preservation method similar to pickling. Sugaring is the process of desiccating a food by first dehydrating it, then packing it with pure sugar. This sugar can be crystalline in the form of table or raw sugar, or it can be a high sugar density liquid such as honey, syrup or molasses.” [200]

“Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a shelf life typically ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances it can be much longer.” [202]

Figure 83: Environmental Control and Life Support System [108]

“This diagram shows the evolution of the Station’s life support system in pursuit of this objective. It has a carbon dioxide reduction sub-sytem. This generates water from carbon dioxide removed from the cabin air by combining it with hydrogen taken from the oxygen generator. The methane produced is vented over board. In this diagram, trace contaminant control and fire detection and suppression functions are omitted for clarity.” [108].

Image 73: Pickling [203]

Image 74: Food Drying [205]

“Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.” [204]

“Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or desiccated). Drying inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and mold through the removal of water.” [206]



Soil to hold board in place

Preserving Methods


ARTWORKS FROM SUMMER STUDIES IN NASA “A series of Summer Studies were conducted at the NASA Ames Research Centre in 1970s, testing the feasibility of designing systems that would allow large populations of people to live and work in space. A number of artistic renderings were made of the resulting habitat concepts. These paintings were produced between 1975 and 1978, but in many cases, their exact dates remain uncertain.” [77].

Image 75: Exterior View by Rick Guidice NASA ID Number: AC76-0965 [77]

Image 76: Interior View by Don Davis NASA ID Number: AC75-2621 [77]

Image 77: Interior Include Human Powered Flight by Rick Guidice NASA ID Number: AC76-0628 [77]



Image 78: Agricultural Modules in Cutaway View by Rick Guidice NASA ID Number: AC78-0330-4 [77]

Image 80: CutawayView Exposing the Interior by Rick Guidice NASA ID Number: AC75-1086-1 [77]

Image 79: Construction Crew at Work on the Colony by Don Davis NASA ID Number: AC76-1288 [77]




Image 81: Greenhouse as a Home by BIAS Architecture [207]

“Greenhouse as a Home” was developed to promote “culture of sustainability” by Taipei-based design practice BIAS Architects. It’s an experimental installation and also It reinterprets living areas of a traditional house as five climatic zones inside of the five independent yet interconnected steel grid structures. These are vertical hydroponic farm that located in Photosynthesis Kitchen, The Demonstration Kitchen that place where fresh vegetables pick and cooked, the Sun Garden that hottest and driest zone room off all, It’s for desiccating vegetables and fifth zone called Theatre of Mushroom, It’s a dark and highly humid place with the coolest temperature in the whole installation. These installation created for the 2018 Taoyuan Green Expo “project invited the public to experience the buildings with all five senses, from feeling the climatic differences to eating fresh vegetables hydroponically grown in the installation.” “Here, the human living space is intertwined with that of the plants and organized according to climatic zones, rather than traditional architectural areas,” the architects explained. [208]

Figure 84: Climate Transition in Space [207]

Figure 85: Axonometric [207]



Image 82: Interior View [207]

Image 83: Interior View [207]

Figure 86: Different Types of Areas [207]

Figure 87: Features of Different Areas [207]


ECOLOGY WASTE MANAGEMENT Organic Waste Organic waste also called green waste is material that contains organic matters such as food, garden and lawn dipping. Animal and plant based material and degradable carbon such as paper, cardboard and timber is also count as organic waste [212]. Composting Practice that recycling decomposting matter like kitchen and food scraps into gardening soil called composting .It provides soil amendment for garden and also replace the nutrients that is loses during growing season [213].

Figure 88: Hot and Cold Composting Process [214]

5 mm

Image 84: Drowning in Plastic [209]

“As is seen in the whole world, rapid urbanization and population growth in parallel with technological developments and industrialization are increasing the pressure of human activities on the environment. While the growth in production and marketing during this process makes excessive use of natural resources inevitable, wastes produced due to increasing trend of consumption have reached to threatening levels due to their quantity and hazardous content.” [210] All around the world, environment consciousness rise. Countries developed polices in case of protection of environment such as waste management policies. For sustainable use of natural resources and protection of natural areas and human health waste management is essential to provide a better quality of life for future generations. In Turkey, waste management has been the subject of a number of legal arrangements starting from the 1930s. In Turkey, the amount of waste produced per person is 1.2 kg per day and the daily figure will be about 90 000 tons. 34% of the wastes coming to the landfill are kitchen wastes, 16% paper and cardboard, 19% other combustible wastes and 22% non-combustible wastes [211].

Hot Composting “The term “hot composting” refers to a method in which microbial activity within the compost pile is at its optimum level, which results in finished compost in a much shorter period of time.” For heating up the pile taking time is vital. For providing to needed heat for pile right amount of organic matter with the right carbon to nitrogen ratio is crucial. And It’s 25 parts carbon to 1 part nitrogen. [215] Space: Outdoor Food type you can compost Carbon-Rich Ingredients like straw, dry corn stalks, shredded paper small twigs, dry fall leaves. Nitrogenrich ingredients are grass clippings, fruit and vegetable scraps, weeds that haven’t gone to seed, deadheads/trimmings from garden plants, coffee grounds, and tea bags, farm animal manure, rabbit manure [216]. Continuing the adding layer to the top of the compost pile without stirring is called cold composting method.[217] Space: Outdoor Food type you can compost: To cold compost, pile organic materials (leaves, grass clippings, soil, manures—but avoid dog, cat, and human waste) Food type you can’t compost meat, dairy, fat, and weeds.

Figure 89: How to Layer Hot Composting Pile? [218]


Vermicomposting (Maggot) Composting) Vermicompost also called vermiculture or maggot composting is a composting type that “using various species of a worm to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast.” [220].


Figure 92: Vermicomposting [221]

Figure 90: Differences Between Hot and Cold Composting [219]


Space: Outdoor, indoor Food type you can compost: Newspaper, paper, tissues, toilet rolls, vegetable scraps, a small amount of bread and pasta, tea bags, egg shells, coffee. Food type you can’t compost Onion, spring onion, leeks, citrus, cat or dog faeces.

Bokashi Method (Anerobic digestion) Bokashi is a word that means fermented organic matter used in the Japanese language. This composting style uses anaerobic digestion to process waste. The Bokashi bucket contains two part such as air tight lid and outlet at the bottom for harvesting extract that produced inside the bucket [222].

Figure 91: Typical Daily Metabolic Input and Output Demands of One Person [181]

The fundamental requirement for enabling human life to exist in space is to provide for the metabolic needs of the human body through the entire mission from land to launching. Every crewed spacecraft, capsule or module must incorporate the on board life support systems necessary to meet these needs. The diagram summarises the typical daily metabolic input and output demands of one person. The metabolism demands become a considerable design and engineering challenge as crew sizes increase and mission lengthen [181].

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Figure 93: How to Make Compost with Bokashi Bucket? [223]

Space: Outdoor, indoor Food type you can compost: kitchen scraps of all kinds including meat and dairy products are mixed with some of the inoculated bran.



Inorganic Waste

Chemical substances of mineral origin called inorganic waste. Inorganic waste also called non-biodegradable waste. “Sand, salt, iron, calcium, and other mineral materials that are only slightly affected by the action of organisms are categorize as inorganic waste” [224]. Process of converting waste into reusable materials called recycle. As another option for reusing waste is upcycling and downcycling. Upcycling means the process of transforming by-products,waste materials or unwanted products into new materials or products that have better quality and environmental value. On the other hand, Taking product and turning it into something lesser value called downcycling, in some cases material can’t be turned back into the original product because of the compromising the integrity [225]. Figure 94: Recycling [227]


All types of Paper are suitable for recycling such as books, flyers, magazines, junk mail, and colored paper. Avoid waxy papers. Also, cardboard can be recycled It is not saturated with food and grease like pizza boxes. For recycling, other food boxes lines should be removed. Suitable plastics for recycling are numbered according to their type, one through seven. Many disposable plastic types of equipment cannot be recycled because of the containing low quality-blend of plastics used. Most glass containers can be recycled. Most glass types can be recycled but rinsing them and placing without breaking them is a priority because If glass shatters, it can’t be recycled since the mixing of different colours can contaminate individual batches. Metallic items are also can be recycled such as empty spray cans and tin foil, all empty soda, fruit, vegetable, and other food cans. Recycling electronics more complicated than other recycling processes because discarded electronics devices are sophisticated devices manufactured from varying proportions of glass, metals, and plastics. There is vary of recycling processes according to materials being recycled and technologies employed. [228].


Image 85: System 001/B in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch [229]

Image 1: Diagram of Building’s Life Cycle [226]

Systems of buildings are built to be permanent, and not disassembled. However, with buildings only lasting 50 years on average in the United States, systems need to be disentangled and able to be easily replaced, updated, and disassembled [226].


The Ocean Clean-Up, a non-profit organization that develops advanced technologies to rid the world’s oceans of plastic. This organization is founded by Dutch inventor Boyan Slat in 2013. The Ocean CleanUp is designing and developing clean-up systems to clean up what is already polluting our oceans and to intercept plastic on its way to the ocean via rivers. Ocean Clean-Up’s goal is to reach a 90% reduction of floating ocean plastic by the year 2040 [229].


Figure 95: Life Support Mass Balance Diagram [77]

“These time-intensive handling techniques on Earth are less necessary in the energy-rich environment in orbit. Since 2009 astronauts on the International Space Station have been drinking their own recycled urine, which they sometimes refer to as “yesterday’s coffee.” Their process uses intensive heating and treating and also spins the water in a high speed centrifuge to pull contaminants downward and outward, replicating the spin of the Stanford Torus in miniature. On Earth the Farallones Institute suggests collecting urine in watering cans and tea kettles, carefully diluting it at a five-to-one ratio with water, distributing it evenly and regularly in the garden, and making sure that it is sourced from “family members, and only when those contributing are in good health. In both Faralllones book and in the Summer Study report, the arrays of network diagrams include food webs [77].

Figure 96: How to Dispose of Cooking Oil? [230]

Cooking oils can be filtered and reused into items such as bio-fuel, beauty care products, and stock feed. In case of not conceivable to reuse cooking oil, arranging it accurately is crucial. Disposing cooked oil into drains and sinks can cause plumbing and environmental problems. Household cooking oil should be stored in a sealable jar or wiped up with absorbent paper then it can be placed in the waste bin [231]. Step 1: Cool oil and grease Step 2: Cleaning oil and grease from contaminated equipment: For disposing small amounts of oil and grease, paper tissues and paper-like materials can be used as a wiper then It can be placed in the compost. For disposing large amounts of oil, using a container with a closed lid to inserting oil in it is a suitable solution to placing near the recycling container. Large amounts of grease can be scraped into a container, covered with a lid, and placed in the garbage [232]




Image 86: Ecological House by Graham Caine [233]

Image 87: Photographs from Ecological House [233]

Graham Caine was one of the members of the anarchist group called Street Farmers. In 1972 Caine built an Ecological House, house was both a living experiment and also laboratory empowered by his excrement. He used himself and his family as a guinea pig in a house that has a fully functioning integrated system that successfully converted human waste to methane for cooking. In this living experiments his waste, his cooking habits, his use of water and also activities that covers daily life until the house demolishment until 1974. The biological part of the house was human, without the existence of human bio-technical systems of the house would die. Graham Caine’s himself “as a combustion engine for generating electricity, connected to the house in a diagram where excretion becomes a vital constituent of the system’s sustenance.” [233]

Ecological House was a political statement against consumerism and capitalism. -Gragam Caine [233]

Figure 97: A Revolutionary Structure [234]



Image 1: Diagram of Ecological House’ s System [233]

Robin Middleton who technical editor of Architectural Design magazine at the time and a colleague of Caine at the AA, humorously spoke of a Gordian knot between Caine and the house. As Middleton recalls, Caine “never left in order to assure that all systems were working. At some point, he had to leave for a while for some reason, someone got ill, and he had his favorite AA student to look after the house and make sure that all systems keep going.” [233]

Figure 98: From Here We Grow [234]



“What’s the use of a house if you haven’t got a tolerable planet to put it on.” [235]





ERGONOMICS Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

ERGONOMICS The word ergonomics means “the scientific study of people and their working conditions, especially done in order to improve effectiveness� according to the Cambridge dictionary. Ergonomics is a concept that focuses on the comfort area of human body. Architects such as Neufert and Le Corbusier formulated a basic dimension with systematization of human dimensions. Especially Neufert systematized architectural spaces and architectural elements according to this dimensions. As AAP, we made a research on the ergonomics of the space through human movement. The research process proceeded from two branches as human actions and elements of the shelter. In order to investigate the ergonomics of the small-scale space, we examined vehicles such as aircraft, submarine, spacecraft as well as cabinets. By doing so, we had the opportunity to observe the effect of human on the transformation of space.

Astronaut Edward T. Lu plays a musical keyboard during off-shift time in International Space Station(ISS) [1]

HUMAN ACTIONS Sleeping Eating Working Socializing Cleaning Cooking Resting

ELEMENTS OF SHELTER Door Window Stair Terrace Storage




Figure 1: Ergonomics according to Neufert [2]

“Dance and architecture have much in common. Both are concerned with practices of space. For a dancer, the act of choreography as a writing of place occurs through the unfolding of spatial dimensions through gesture and embodied body movement. For the architect, space is the medium through which form emerges and habitation is constructed. For both, the first experienced space is the space of the body“[3] says choreographer Carol Brown. In recent years, we see that the human dimension in architecture and its relation to space are being standardized. Architects such as Neufert and Corbusier worked on standardization. Although the human based measure is important in architectural designs, human movement and its interaction with space should also be taken into consideration. “The experience of architecture is related to our bodily existence and to the movement of the body in space“[3] says Rudolf Arnheim. Considering these issues, analysing human activities could create a new relationship between space and human. During the design stage of a Project, architects usually focus on 236

creating minimal spaces that will meet needs. However, human usage transforms the space into a living organism that grows,expands and bends. This is the main reason this part of research focused on human actions. Human actions are classified as actions that can be performed in a house. The actions were examined under seven different headings: sleeping, eating, working, socializing, cleaning, cooking and resting. Thus, instead of space-oriented ergonomics such as bedrooms, living rooms and kitchens, human movementoriented ergonomics were read. In this way, the potential of spaces and actions to be transformed into each other and clusters of intersections between actions have been determined. Considering that a small scale housing will be designed during the study, ergonomics in narrow spaces and extreme conditions were sought. By examining the life cycle in spaces such as aircraft, submarine and spacecraft, narrow space solutions were sought and it was aimed to provide a different perspective to ergonomics.


‘‘Designing the more than human is a little bit like playing pool. The balls on the table are a topology, a network of sequenced relationships. There is no single target at which to aim but rather a stretchy network of and absorptive surfaces.’’ Keller Easterling[6]

Image 1: Sailors in their bunks on the submarine [4]

Image 2: BA Club World Cabin [7]

Figure 2: Bunks on submarine

“The claustrophobic nature of the submarine can be seen in the main sleeping area for Junior Rates which consists of bunks stacked three high, each just 50 cm high and with just a curtain for privacy. There were not enough bunks for all men, resulting in a hot bunking system, with two or even three men using the same bunk. When working six hours on, six hours off, those sleeping were woken by the person who was to replace them in the bunk.”[5]

Although airplanes that are used as temporary spaces are designed for for transportation, people can spend long periods of time on the plane and therefore need other needs. A passenger traveling from London to Perth(Australia), spends 17 hours on a single flight. Most of the activities are carried out during the flight, while at the same time the majority of people spend the journey sleeping. For this reason, seats on First Class flights can be turned into a bed to increase comfort of the passenger.



“To ensure comfort while sleeping, the bed length should be 250 mm longer than the individual’s height. Based on average heights, beds are produced in a range of standard sizes: 900 x 1900 mm, 1000 x 2000 mm and 2000 x 2000 mm. The bedroom layout should give at least 600 mm, preferably 750 mm around the bed.”[2] In this quote Neufert standardized the action of sleeping. We are exploring the ergonomics of sleeping in different conditions. For example in traditional Japan architecture they use “TATAMI” as soft floor material to also sleep on it. By this way, the concept of the bedroom and bed furniture have disappeared and the floor has become a sleeping unit. Within the scope of the research, it was aimed to think about the ergonomics of sleep action by reminding the reader how he slept in short-term places such as airplanes and trains. In addition, of a submarine that in a narrow and long-term space with limited communication with the surface the sleep action was investigated.


Image 3: Design for Soyuz Spacecraft’s sleeping cabin [8]

In contrast to the mechanized spaces we are used to seeing in the space shuttle drawings, Galina Balashova produced drawings that evoke a feeling of home. The sleeping capsule above is actually produced without considering the lack of gravity and is actually designed as a reflection of a classic sleeping unit on a space shuttle.

Image 4: Hotel Shizuo Kambayashi, AP [9]

78 cm

200 cm

Image 5: hotel Shizuo Kambayashi, AP [9]

Figure 3: Sleeping Capsule Detail [9]


Japan is mostly known for their micro-compact living style. Capsule hotels are the best example for that living style. Capsule hotels is mostly located in large cities and transportation spots. They provide contemporary accomodation for low budget. In capsle hotels they minimize the luxury of the hotel room to a basic sleeping unit.

Ivan Chtcheglov [12] Image 6: Sleeping in train [10]

Figure 3: Train carriage diagram

We may have to spend long hours in the car while traveling on the train. Some trips can even take days. Therefore, in order to make the journeys more comfortable, bed compartments are designed for the passengers. Bunk beds are hung on the compartment walls and opened to serve passengers when necessary. The bed dimensions of the trains are generally 67x193 cm and mounted on the wall from one side and supported by tensioners.

Image 7: ISS Austrounot sleeping in his pod [13]

Figure 4: The Cube [11]

“The Cube is a compact shelter including two levels, each of which contains four beds, arranged according to a pin wheel pattern. It both maximizes the efficiency of space and make space transferable between private and social uses. The structure is consistent with the logic of spatial elements. The detail, which is design to adapt to installation procedure, is carefully treated, so that all components could be prefabricated in a factory, transported to the site, and easily assembled there.”[11]

Image 8: Sleeping area of astronaut Scott Kelly [13]

“Each astronaut has their own tiny room that includes a work space and a sleeping bag strapped to the wall. You can see on the screens that it appears astronaut Scott Kelly is chatting on Facebook” [14]



‘‘That’s all over. You’ll never see the hacienda it doesn’t exist. The hacienda must be built.’’


Eating In fact, eating has spread to almost every moment of our lives with the capitalist order. When we are outside, we eat in different ways; as well as standing, sitting and even walking. In the installation of Jeremy Till we can see the change of place that cause by eating action. From the first image to the last, the drawings represent the progression of a meal. It starts with a perfectly laid table for a dinner party, afterwards shows the change on the table layout through the guests‘ arrival and departure. ⁣During the design stage of a project, architects usually focus on creating minimal spaces that will meet the needs. However, human usage transforms the space into a living organism that grows, expands and bends. ⁣ When we examine the food act, we may notice that we eat in more different conditions rather than a crowded table, which is used in diagram, for example on airplanes, trains or even spaceships. Where is the place to eat food in gravity-free environment? In fact, when we think of the distant ship as in Kubrik’s film, we see that even though sterile and minimal spaces come to our minds, different solutions are produced at the points where human factor is involved.

Figure 5: Airplane seating diagram

Although airplanes that are used as temporary spaces are designed for sitting, people can spend long periods of time on the plane and therefore need other needs. When they lower the 40 x 25 cm covers designed to be mounted behind the seats in order to meet their nutritional needs, a table is formed in front of them and they can eat comfortable. Figure 6: Increasing Disorder in a Dining Table [15]

Image 9: It was in the ‘40s when everything fell apart for airline meals [16]



Image 10: Ottoman Palace Dining Miniature [17]

Eating patterns differ between cultures. In Eastern, we find that eating on the ground is a culture. In the Ottoman miniature drawing above, we see a ground table feast. The act of eating is established in such a way as to create a temporary space. Thus, instead of producing a space such as a dining room, design is made through multi-purpose spaces.

Image 12: Cut­lery for meal trays in 2001: A Space Odyssey [19]

Image 13: Astronauts share a meal in the ISS’ Unity Node [13]

Image 11:Promotional image for Matti Suuronen’s Futuro House, 1960’s [18]

Futuro house, which is one of the pioneers of future-oriented designs, contains alternative details in many ways. The fireplace in the centre of the house creates a space that defines the dining area. You can warm up and have an active meal while eating. Thanks to the open plan of the place, you can eat in a comfortable area without limitation. The planning of the place has made it transformable and when you don’t eat, it turns into an area where you can perform your social activities.

“Astronauts eat three meals a day (plus periodic snacks), just as they do on Earth. Meals are organized by the order in which astronauts are going to eat them, and stored in locker trays held by a net so they won’t float away. When mealtime rolls around, astronauts go into the galley area in the shuttle’s mid deck.”[20] In the Image 12 we see a scene from Kubrick’s movie that two astronauts eating in a futuristic designed sterile environment. But when we examine the image 13 we can say that with the transformative effect of the human, space craft is no longer a sterile area in space.



Working When we look at to work as action within the framework of ergonomics, we first come across as factors that increase productivity in office spaces. But when we downsize the traditional way of life, it can actually move to a different place than plazas of working action. With the downsizing lives and changing job opportunities, working at home has started to form. For this reason, examples of working actions in spaces with limited dimensions were examined. In fact, up to this point, a spatial fiction that operates on a computer as a working action works. For example, astronauts work in spaceships, in a non-gravity environment. Sometimes they carry out this action within the spaceship, as well as carrying out studies on the field, such as collecting samples. Image

14 is a visual illustration of Galina Balashova’s drawings for the Soviet spaceship. In fact, with these drawings, it has brought a different perspective to the spaceships and their working areas, which are machines and working in that way. In this way, it was shown to the reader that the working areas are not far from the human focus as in the offices. Balashova addressed the difference of his design by saying, “I was the only one out, but that was great. One of the main reasons for this may be that he embraces what he is familiar with. An analysis was made through a en home office in a residential fiction, which can take place in many different places and conditions.”[8]

Image 14: Design for Soyuz Spacecraft’s command center [8]



Image 15: Nagakin Capsule Japan [21]

“For those units that maintain the original design, ergonomics is total: 35 cm in depth, a cabinet covers one of the walls and provides storage for the entire capsule. It’s a bookshelf, a dining table, a closet for clothes, a set of trap doors to other objects and space for hanging jackets. The table rebates off when not required, and it is relatively low, like the sink. The capsule is filled with small details that, in a very simple and almost unnoticeable way, enhance the capacity to live in the capsule. The TV occupies its own detached shelf. In a few capsules, the original radio still works. The fridge is small and tight, like a mini bar (unsealed), and the freezer doubles as a cooling unit.”[21]

Image 16: Working in airplane [22]

Most passengers when they fly for business trips, they prefer to work in planes. When they lower the 40 cm X 25 cm covers behind the aircraft seats, a table is formed in front of them so that they can eat comfortably and at the same time most of them use these covers as work tables. Image 18: Hans Hollein Mobiles Büro Vienna [24]

Image 19: Hans Hollein Mobiles Büro Vienna [24]

Image 17: Working in Micro Compact House [23]

In the micro living unit, living spaces are intertwined and a compact design is made. Therefore, the dining area, working area and resting area are interconnected. The table is embedded in the floor to save space.

“In 1969, years before mobile-communication had developed is possibilities, Hollein proposed the inflatable mobile office, that provided take-along-workspace to blow up. In the picture you see Hans Hollein with drawing board and phone at a stop-over on the airport.”[24] In this design, Hans Hollein provided an experience to the user by creating a free space in a temporary plastic unit. In fact, it allows the user to create their own volume in every environment. Thanks to the movable office, the user gives the freedom of self-abstraction within the space, while at the same time, thanks to its transparent structure, ensuring the integrity of the space.



MULTI-USE CUBES The following drawings show the activity cube designs in Nomadic Furnitures. In the book we see that there are many alternative furniture for nomadic life as well as space design that can be installed prefabricated. Although all four units have the same external dimensions, they have design approaches that differ according to actions. “This whole series of cubes is constructed 2” x 2“ Douglas or pine and 3/4” plywood panels, plus rope, fabrics, dowels, etc. All the cubes are 8x8x8 feet.”[25] The designs show that both spaces of similar dimensions can be transformed to each other and that different actions have different ergonomic approaches.


Figure 7: Entertaining Cube, Nomadic Furniture [25]

Figure 9: Relaxation Cube, Nomadic Furniture [25]

Figure 8: Chilederen’s Cube, Nomadic Furniture [25]

Figure 10: Work Cube, Nomadic Furniture [25]


Figure 11: Resource Tower, Nomadic Furniture [25]



Socializing According to the Cambridge dictionary, the definition of socialization is made as “the action or practice of participating in social activities or mixing socially with others”. At this point, they define that the act of socialization can take place with more than one individual. In fact, the socialization activity differs from other actions in the “Human Actions”section. The place of socialization consists directly the human, without the need for certain architectural tool. While other actions, such as sleeping and working, require architectural tools to provide human comfort. Comfort is directly proportional to the quality of time spent during socializing. In fact, Vincent Descombes argues in the chapter The Socialization of Human Action of The Public Realm that human movement is the result of socialization. For example, the most intense socialization in a home party environment is the kitchen door sill. In party drunk people lie on the couches in the living room, while people who are socializing located to the kitchen which is close to drinks. It is an area where it is more possible to hear conversations through loud music. Even though the kitchen sill is not designed as a place of socialization, one creates a space of socialization by creating its own comfort area. When we examine socialization through house life, we can say that open-plan designs provide more opportunities for social home life. Since the inhabitants have to act together in sleeping, resting and eating activities in undivided space constructions, they provide a more social life structure where individuality is lower.

Image 21: Promotional image for Matti Suuronen’s Futuro House, 1960’s [18]

Figure 13: Promotional image for Matti Suuronen’s Futuro House, 1960’s [18]

The Futuro house has an impact that enhances socialization through its open plan design. The fireplace in the middle of the house creates a space that defines the gathering. Due to the plan of the Futuro House is flexible, the area where you eat can transformed into an area where you can perform your social activities. Contrary to the concept of individualization in modern architectural thinking, Futuro house encourages its users to live in communes as in the Mongolian Tent. Figure 12: Diagram of the Mongolian “GER”

Image 20: The Interior of the Mongolian “GER” [26]

Nomadic tents generally have not much private space but have an open plan. Individuals who use the tent as a partner generally have a common way of life. Food is eaten in the same place as it is cooked in the same place, and social life proceeds also in the same place. The stove used to heat the tent is used for both food making and is actually the center of socialization.


“The experience of architecture is related to our bodily existence and to the movement of the body in space” Rudolf Arnheim [3]


Image 22: KOHLER OF KOHLER Advertisement [27]

The Kohler brand is renowned for its toilet and plumbing products. In the advertisement of 1961, which we have seen above, we see a campaign over the places constructed with products. They emphasize that the bathroom has become a social area that the family can spend time together. In fact, if we assume that socialization itself is a human-oriented action at this point, we see that the place has lost its importance. We see that the bathtub transforms to a playground for children where they can float their toys. The ergonomics of socialization develop with the ability to transform the space which is provided by individuals and their imagination.



Image 23: Design for Soyuz Spacecraft [8]

“As a human,” Meuser explains, “you are always looking for orientation in space. You need a top, bottom and wall.” Balashova’s solution? “She colour-coded; green floor, blue-grey ceiling, walls in a light yellow” essentially, using colour to replace the earth’s gravity. (Even today in the International Space Station, one module still features this colour coding though it is hard to see because the surfaces are now covered in cables and tubes.) “She solved the problem of space without gravity,” says Meuser. “This is simple, but very important for life in these space ships to create the illusion of gravity.” [8] The design of more domestic space craft could increase the socializing. Because creating place felt as home can make astronauts relax. So their psychology effect in a good way.

Image 24: Chit Chat by Door [28] Figure 14: Twin House [11]

“Twin house is a shelter composed of two modular units. Each module works by itself with the minimum required space and foldable furniture for a group of four people standing, sitting, eating, socializing and sleeping. Each module unit can be placed in three different positions, creating nine configurations in total for the module assembly, which allows the shelter to adopt to various locations”[11]


“It is not unusual to come across two or more neighbours having a casual conversation by the doorway. These daily chit-chat may appear as trivial activities but the fact that doorways are often employed as the site for conversing reveals a strategic consideration; the home maker is able to socialise while remaining aware to the matters inside the house. With this, we can confidently say that home makers are incredibly accomplished in maintaining a work-life balance.”[28]


Image 25: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “firesie chats.” [30]


From the time it was found, fire had an important place for human beings. It has evolved from a survival tool to a living centre for the home. “Fireplaces are omnipresent and honoured everywhere, in extremely hot as well as extremely cold climates, indicating that the utilitarian need for heating was never their primary function.” [29] For the a living space, fireplace provided both the need for heating and the centre of socialization. With the development of technology, it was replaced by radio and then to television.

Image 26: Elements of Architecture [31]

Image 27: Papilion’s Facebook data centre [32]

With the increase in social media platforms, the concept of socialization has been moved to a digital background. Considering the concept of socialization, Facebook, which is one of the first elements that comes to mind, constitutes a network of people that you can reach even ilk primary school friend years later. We can define the data centre as the place where socialization takes place.



NAGAKIN CAPSULE TOWER “Architect Kisho Kurokawa was very innovative in his creation of the Nakagin Capsule Tower in 1972, which was the first capsule architecture design. Built in the Ginza area of Tokyo, a total of 140 capsules are stacked and rotated at varying angles around a central core, standing 14-stories high. The technology developed by Kurokawa allowed each unit to be installed to the concrete core with only 4 high-tension bolts, which keeps the units replaceable. Each capsule measures 4 x 2.5 meters, permitting enough room for one person to live comfortably. The interior space of each module can be manipulated by connecting the capsule to other capsules. All pieces of the pods were manufactured in a factory in Shiga Prefecture then transported to the site by truck. The pre-assembled interior features a circular window, built-in bed and bathroom, and is furnished with a TV, radio and alarm clock. Hoisted by a crane, the capsules were inserted in the shipping containers by use of a crane, and then fastened to the concrete core shaft.� [21]

Image 28: Nagakin Capsule Tower, Living Area 1972 [21]

Image 29: Nagakin Capsule Tower, Living Area [21]


Image 30: Nagakin Capsule Tower, Living Area [33]


Image 31: Nagakin Capsule Tower, Living Area [21]

“To wake up in a capsule (Capsule B807) is to wake up in a place unlike anywhere else. There is a bed, a window, clothes everywhere and the sound of morning traffic. However, there is also something less tangible, something that makes every waking moment special. Maybe it’s the brilliance of the great round window or the quiet charm of the table, sometimes open and covered with junk, other times closed and silent. Maybe it ’s the door of the bathroom, appearing as if an entrance to a submarine. Or maybe it’s the scale of the room, a scale that seems just about right. Every morning brings a happy sense of the sublime.”[21]

Image 32: Nagakin Capsule Tower, Living Area [21]

Figure 15: Nagakin Capsule Tower, Living Area [34]

Image 33: Nagakin Capsule Tower, Living Area [21]



Cleaning Cleaning is one of the basic needs of people in order to protect their health and quality of life. Use of toilet is found in periods before Christ. Toilet and cleaning act creates a more private perception of space. However, the toilet was handled differently during the ancient Greek period. There are u-shaped public toilets that can be used by a large number of individuals and can create a conversation environment at the same time. In fact, it is said that there are discussions of philosophy in these places. The act of cleaning was taking place in public spaces, the toilet was moved to the house after the necessary infrastructure was established. Addition to cleaning in the Roman Empire and in our geography public baths were the place of socialization. Accordingly, we can say that with the technological developments, the act of cleaning has shifted from public to private. The development of prefabrication in construction techniques was reflected in the production of compact spaces as well as in the toilet. Compacting the toilet unit, which has a mixed spatial feature as an infrastructure, contributes to the construction process. Buckminster Fuller, who has worked on prefabricated housing, has also taken over the prefabricated toilet and has worked with various designers to make it a more compact unit in the process. Nevertheless, we find the most compact toilet solutions in transport vehicles such as airplanes, trains and boats. Examining situations in confined spaces for the act of cleaning provides a different view of the toilet space in the usual sense.

Image 35: Richard Buckminister Fuller Prefabricated Bathroom [36]

Figure 16: Richard Buckminister Fuller Prefabricated Bathroom [37]

“Attempts have been made heretofore to provide prefabricated bathrooms with the object of lowering the cost of building a bathroom into a dwelling. Such bathrooms, however, by reason of their great weight and more or less conventional construction, have involved relatively high costs by the time they have been shipped and installed for use. It is an object of my invention to provide a compact, light prefabricated bathroom which may be readily installed either in a dwelling under construction or in a dwelling that is already built.” [38]

Image 34: Shower in Van [35]

The cleaning unit used in the vehicle has a 80 cm diameter portable bathtub ceiling curtain rail. The water is supplied by the pipe coming over the ladder at the top of the caravan. Gray water is discharged from the door of the vehicle through the pipe that attached to under the tub. In this way, it is aimed to perform the cleaning action without being connected to the infrastructure system. [35]


‘‘Without a living subject, there can be neither space nor time” Jakob von Uexküll [39]


Before the invention of flush toilets, chamber pots were used for toilet needs. These toilet units, which we also see in ancient Rome, are used by the higher classes especially in the 18th century. The stool was emptied into a chair with a hopper and then manually disinfected by the elites’ servants. In the diagram of Rem Kolhaas’ toilet book from Elements of Architecture series below, we can see Chamber Pots of different periods. In the “Porcelain God” Horan mentions about Figure 37 Royal Close Stool at Hampton Court that ““ These special individuals, having paid up to fifteen thousand louis d’ or for the honor, watched as the king began the next ritual, the petit coucher. His Royal Highness bared his royal arse and sat upon the chaise percee, closestool, for the final royal movement of the day.”[40]

Image 36: Chariot Latrine at Baths of Caracalla, Rome [40]

Image 41: 1790 Mahogany night table [40]

Image 37: 1700s Louis XIV Chamber Pot [40] Image 39: 1600 Royal Close Stool [40]

Image 38: 18th century England: George III’s Chair [40]

Image 40: Bidet Toilet, Simon Oeben [40] Image 42: 17th century Chaise bath Bain de Salon [40]



Image 44: Deck Boat Toilet [43]

The use of toilets in deck boats is similar to the toilets in aircraft. Ergonomic solutions are needed in narrow spaces. As seen in the example, there is a toilet pod and hand washing unit in the unit. Due to the high concentration of water in deck boats, it is seen that activities such as washing are solved outdoors. Therefore, it provides a more compact dissolution of the toilet unit. Even on a more luxurious boat, the toilet unit appears to be designed in a minimum space.

Image 43 : Extraordinary Rv Camper Van [41]

In the example above, the rear part of a 140 cm wide vehicle is converted into a toilet and a bathroom. Some methods have been applied to this space which is 50 cm wide, in order to make the ergonomic use. Although a approximately normal size toilet pod was used, the sink was folded through wall and it can open in the use. The shower head is connected to the system where the sink takes water and the bathroom also works as a shower cabin. Also the bathroom has a 40 cm wide storage area.

Figure 17: David H. Fergusson Prefabricated Bathroom [42]

“Perhaps the most extreme example of trying to squeeze too much into too little space is David Fergusson’s 1946. He squeezes an entire bathroom into the area of a shower stall; the sink folds up to reveal the toilet, which somehow is also hinged so that it folds back into the wall when one wants to shower. Fergusson tried to make the prefabricated bathroom that Fuller design even more compact.” [38]


Image 45: 737 Advanced Lavatory [44]

Although airplanes that are used as temporary transportation spaces, people can spend long periods of time on the plane and therefore they need other needs. Therefore, in addition to having toilets in the aircraft, there is no space to take a bath. The toilet is designed to occupy a minimum of space in relation to the aircraft structure and dimensions. These spaces aim at maximum efficiency in minimum space and form their own ergonomics.


Image 46: Eden Project (cleaning) [45]

Image 47: Eden Project (cleaning) [46]

“Despite these advantages of ETFE films there are some problems appearing according to the low thickness of the material. Usually cushions are stabilized by inflating with dry air. Especially on rooftops birds love to land there and peck at their food to break it up before swallowing. The bigger the bird the more powerful their pecking action will be. It is widely known that ETFE roofs and Canopies installed nearby or close to stages (e.g. Allianz Arena Munich) or the sea suffer most of this problem. This is because Ravens, Crows or Seagulls use the ETFE roof membranes as an ideal platform to stop and peck at food rubbish or shellfish, crabs and the occasional stolen chip. This often vigorous and powerful pecking action causes punctures and tearing to the ETFE Membrane, opening holes where the inflating air can leak. This causes higher operation cost or the possibility of fatal destruction of a complete cushion.” [47]

Image 49: Peescapes, Female Spreader Alex Schwerder [49]

Image 48: Itabu Toilet, Sou Fujimoto [48]

Designed as a transparent box designed by Sou Fujimoto, the toilet unit is located in the middle of a 200 sqm garden. It surrounded the garden with two-meter-high wooden laths and provided a special space. In this way, the design provides a toilet experience that we are not used to. In fact, it can be said that it has conformated the act of toileting in nature in a different context. [48]

“Made during a residency at the Kohler plumbing fixture company, Peescapes view the removal of our bodily waste as a poetic opportunity. Each pair of urinals consists of one male and one female urinal. These diptychs use terms commonly associated with the choreography of water such as fountain, dam, and aqueduct to sensualize urine as it flows to the drain. These terms are used to inform alterations to the interior landscapes of urinals to aestheticize rather than economize the removal of pee.” [49]



Cooking The action of cooking has a history based on the discovery of fire. The discovery of efficient fire burning techniques in B.C. 7000 can be regarded as the beginning of a civilization based on modern cities. It is the basis for the taming of the need for food and the return from need to an object of desire. With the introduction of settled life and the control of the fire, cooking has become an indoor activity. Today, however, in non-settled nomadic tribes, we come across an outdoor cooking action. The action of cooking outdoors lays the groundwork for a public event. Outdoor firing and cooking around it is an action specific to communes. While the residential system with builtin life is being produced, large volumes have been assigned in the house despite the need of area for chopping and heat source for cooking. But when we went to down-size the life, designs were made to make the kitchen space compact. In fact, when we look at the historical process, it has been tried to make the space of the simple action complex and large and then to make it more compact and small.

Image 51: Japanese kitchen Kamado Oven [50]

Kamodo is a type of oven that Japanese people uses for almost 3000 years. Some of the oldest container for cooking were found in Asia, namely in China, India and Japan, and they were a kind of underground vase. They were the origin of the current Kamados. These circular clay vases evolved through the years, and the clay was substituted by ceramics and the ignition originally made with wood is now made with coal. In the kitchen of traditional Japan house floor doesn’t covered with wood or Tatami to prevent fire. [50]

Image 52: Cabinet Kitchen [51]

Image 50: Promotional image for Matti Suuronen’s Futuro House, 1960’s [18]

Futuro house, which is one of the pioneers of future-oriented designs, contains alternative details in many ways. Cooking in the small kitchen will force the user to keep consumption habits constant and play with the dimensions of the space. But when you adapt your lifestyle, the process will work differently. This is one of the main reasons why Futuro does not keep the house. The living conditions and expectations of that period were not met by the house. There is plenty of storage space outside the double electric stove and 35x50 cm washbasin but there is no cold storage area. There is also a much smaller bench than the bench area used today. [18]


Image 53: Cabinet Kitchen [51]

Cabinet Kitchen is a compact unit that seems like a cupboard at the first sight. It is made of plywood. [51] The rails under the separated units allow the plywoods slide and open. With this speciality kitchen unit can fold when it is not used. It provides the ergonomics of the space by narrowing the space of the kitchen with an easy solution. It is also important because it is a compact unit has a complete infrastructure system with oven, stove and washing area. Even when the cupboard unit, where the plates are placed, is folded, a single bed emerges from the concealed compartment in the arc.


Image 54: Japan communal cook, Utagawa Hiroshige [52]

The above picture depicts a example of the public cooking act by Japanese artist Utagawa Hiroshige. This section from Japanese society is actually part of a quartet with the theme of sowing, gathering, hunting and cooking that place in Utagawa Hiroshige I-II, a set of 25 crepe print 1877. [52] In this section we see the scene of cooking as a commune. Although eating as a commune is actually an example associated with nomadic societies, it also appears in groups that prefer low-income or minimal living.

Image 56: Interior of Mongolian GER [54] Image 55: The Oma’s Rache – Flat Pack Compact Kitchen [53]

The Flat Pack Compact kitchen unit designed by Melanie Olle and Ilja Oelschlägel. Oma Rache’s compact unit is composed of a kitchen and dining area. Inside the compact unit, cupboard, two chairs, a dinning table and lamp is folded. [53] When it is not in the use kitchen becomes a flat board. Even it seems like a wall when it’s closed, it defines a space at the opened condition.

Nomadic tents generally have not much private space but have an open plan. Individuals who use the tent as a partner generally have a common way of life. There are furniture including beds, cabinets and shelves for cooking supplies around the perimeter of the Ger, and a stove in the centre. Food is eaten in the same place as it is cooked in the same place, and social life proceeds in the same place. The stove used to heat the tent is used for both food making and is actually the centre of socialization.




Image 58: Total Furniture Unit [56]

Figure 18: Frankfurt Kitchen axonometric drawing [55]

Image 59: Total Furniture Unit [57]

With the two images above it is a demonstration of the difference between the traditional and the modern kitchen,1928.

Image 57: Frankfurt Kitchen [55]

“The Frankfurt Kitchen was designed like a laboratory or factory and based on contemporary theories about efficiency, hygiene, and workflow. In planning the design, Schütte-Lihotzky conducted detailed time-motion studies and interviews with housewives and women’s groups. Each kitchen came complete with a swivel stool, a gas stove, built-in storage, a fold-down ironing board, an adjustable ceiling light, and a removable garbage drawer. Labeled aluminum storage bins provided tidy organization for staples like sugar and rice as well as easy pouring. Careful thought was given to materials for specific functions, such as oak flour containers (to repel mealworms) and beech cutting surfaces (to resist staining and knife marks).” [55]


Image 60: RISD Universal Kitcehen [58]

The design of the international kitchen unit was studied by the interior design and industrial product design department of the RhodeIsland School of Design (RISD) in 1993. The kitchen is considered as an industrial product rather than a space. The design phase of the kitchen unit, which was designed as prefabricated, lasted for several years. The main purpose of the design is to have a flexible and mass production logic. [58]


Image 61: Total Furniture Unit [59]

Figure 19: Total Furniture Unit alternative plan diagram [59]

Image 62: Total Furniture Unit [59]

Figure 20: Total Furniture Unit axonometric drawing [59]

“The Total Furnishing Unit designed by Joe Colombo⁣⁣. The Total Furnishing Unit was a homogeneous living system that contained all the personal necessities of daily life by creating a seamless environment. A bedroom, a bathroom, a kitchen and a private space were integrated functions in the unit. A cupboard and a dining table were “hidden” in the structure for both reasons to keep it private and to save some space. Old lights collected from abolished cars were planted on top of the unit for lighting, which contributed to a sustainable environment. Colours in the unit such as yellow, white and silver, convey a combination of contemporary era and future techniques.⁣ Furnished unit could be described as a logical and scientific design through smooth lines and the layout. The unit has presented a concept of the modern loft by every space area that could be modified and moved based on user’s own necessity, showing a great flexibility. In Joe Colombo’s idea, the romanticism of the self-contained pods can be accurately expressed by shifts in human lifestyle. Therefore, he preferred calling his work as equipments instead of furnishings. He highlights that traditional families were tending to require a living and working space for meditation and experimentation, to intimacy and to interpersonal exchanges.” [60]



Resting According to the Cambridge dictionary, the definition of resting is “cease work or movement in order to relax, sleep, or recover strength”. Resting is the action that establishes the strongest connection with psychology in this study, in which we examine human actions. How do we rest? Napping, Reading, Surfing in Internet, Meditation, Lounging. Many actions that may vary from person to person can provide while resting. The act of rest varies from person to person as well as according to the circumstances of your environment. When THE necessary psychological and physical conditions are provided, the human body can relax and rest. For example, in a park, we can lie down on the ground and close our eyes, as well as relax in front of the television in our house. As in Figure 53 below, thousands of miles from the world, even in a gravity-free environment, one finds a place to relax. This action, which is considered a little less important than vital activities, actually makes people more productive. In this context, we discussed resting actioning small scale spaces which could have a positive effect on human being physically and psychologically.

Image 65: Roll it Experimental Housing / University of Karlsruhe [63]

Image 63: Final Wooden House / Sou Fujimoto Architects [61]

Image 64: Final Wooden House / Sou Fujimoto Architects [61]

In the design, the experience of the human body, together with the wooden blocks, constructs the space. Fujimoto explained his design like “There are no separations of floor, wall, and ceiling here. A place that one thought was a floor becomes a chair, a ceiling, a wall from various positions. The floor levels are relative and spatiality is perceived differently according to one’s position. Here, people are distributed three-dimensionally in the space. This is a place like an amorphous landscape with a new experience of various senses of distances. Inhabitants discover, rather than being prescribed, various functionalities in these convolutions.” [62] Fujimoto’s design is a structure that allows users to choose their own resting activities such as reaching out and reading books.


Image 66: Roll it Experimental Housing / University of Karlsruhe [63]

A design built studio in Karlsruhe University built the Roll it Experimental Housing. This structure is designed as a multi-purpose. This place, which we can call as pod, has a circular cross-section of 120 cm radius. In this way, as the section rotates, the amorphous design allows for different purposes. It transforms into a resting area in one section and takes on a place or bed format suitable for computer work in another section. [63]


Image 67: Resting in Space Craft [13]

Space engineer Richard Lamoure writes in an article that US astronauts insist on the use of windows in space capsules. He states that nowadays placement and manoeuvring, space walk support, scientific monitoring and crew morale are considered essential. The glass in the spacecraft also provides a resting and thinking space for astronauts. “People just like to look outside, even if what is outside is certain death,” says Lamoure. Although a crack on the glass could have cost the life of the entire crew, the astronauts still demanded it. Is it possible that one could try to make a visual connection to the world, even though they are thousands of kilometres away? [13]

Image 68: Waste steel structural design [25]

In the image above Metal frame structure is designed as a multi-purpose area. With a waste of steel resins to make a rich man’s jungle-gym, but some good structural design. With the help of metal grid structure it leads to function of storage.

‘‘Architecture is the business of manufacturing adequate shelter for human activities. My favourite form is sphere.’’ F. Scott Fitzgerald [64] 261


ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT HUMANS We believe we are living in a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, where humans are the dominant force shaping the planet, where our own acts of design have forever changed the composition of the atmosphere, the oceans and the Earth. Architecture is a geological force and we have machined the Earth, from the scale of the electron to the tectonic plate. We are constructing an architecture without people. The sites that constitute the Post-Anthropocene have nothing to do with our bodies; they are more accurately extra-human in that they are outside us, totally indifferent to us, where we are no longer part of equation at all. They are just set-dressing the waiting rooms, distracting us with expressive displays while the machines program our planet, hidden behind windowless walls and anonymous forms. While machines burn down the house we are still worried about the shape of its roof. To navigate and recognise objects, Spot Mini relies on computer vision. More than merely illustrating a prospective client environment, the house functions as a test subject to verify Spot Mini’s computer vision. Like how a colour test card in photography is used to calibrate and verify ‘true’ representation of pigments, the Boston Dynamics ‘test house’ evaluates object recognition and spatial orientation. [65]

Image 68: The way of SpotMini reads furniture [66]

Image 69: The way of SpotMini reads furni

“Once Amazon acquired Kiva, evidence of its activities became difficult to find. Amazon Robotics absorbed Kiva Systems and ended the sales of its products to other companies.” Since making Kiva part of its operations, Amazon has incorporated its technologies in a new generation of fulfilment centres that combine human picking, packing and shipping with automated inventory delivery. Much of the inventory is managed and processed in a multi- level area of each fulfilment centre known as the ‘human exclusion zone’.12 As goods arrive from suppliers they are ‘stowed’ in the inventory pods, which are then moved into the storage area. Since the RDUS get their directions from a grid of 2D barcodes on the ground, and since the local wireless network governs their location, the bots only need a small light to scan the codes on the floor. As a result, the human exclusion zone is dark. Dark and quiet. It is large enough that the rows of racks receding in the distance, when viewed from the outside, disappear into the blackness beyond. Periodically, an inventory pod on its way to a new location silently interrupts the long cross-aisles.”[67] Image 70: A Kiva robotic drive unit in use at an Amazon fulfilment centre [68]


We are constructing an architecture without people.

iture in “test house” [66]


Architecture has always been a mechanic landscape. Our challenge now is to offer suitably seductive responses, to proliferate typological inventions and to generate dispositional modes of practice that see the political problems of logistics as fundamentally architectural. [78]

Image 71: Boston Dynamics SpotMini [69]

Figure 21: Diagrams for Modular data centre [70]

Figure 23: Diagrams for Floating data centre [70]

Figure 22: Diagrams for Modular data centre [70]

Figure 24: Diagrams for Floating data centre [70]

With the development of technology, especially in the last years, the importance of data centres such as the area occupied has increased. Many alternatives have been established, such as floating data centres or modular data centres. Along with the increasing number of data centres, architectural discussions have focused on “architecture without humans”. Throughout history, architecture has emerged as a tool for human comfort. Even if it has not always addressed the human movement as a design input, architecture should serve for a purpose to resist to the question of human being of “Is this end of architecture?”. But time is changing, architecture explores alternative tools to create and new areas to spread. [70]



Figure 25: Ergonomics according to Neufert [2]

Research elements of the shelter; doors, windows, stairs, terrace and storage area. In daily life, these elements emerge to our mixture in certain standard sizes. As stated in Neufert’s book, the average door width should be 80cm, glass 120x50cm. Is it always used in these standard sizes? Can’t we use different measures than these? It is seen that the alternative design proposals that occur under difficult conditions are out of these dimensions. In this study, we will examine examples that differ from the standards set by Neufert. For example, doors are standardized to a minimum extent, but we can also pass through a 50cm door. Although this measure will push the limits of ergonomics and take people out of their habits, this door continues to function. In this section, we examine the elements of the shelter which goes beyond the dimensions determined within the framework of certain standards and we see how the design proposals are applied under which conditions. 264


‘‘Our interaction with the door is not only defined by direct physical contact; the lower limbsspecially the feet- play an essential role in directing our movement through the door.’’ Atelier HOKO [50]

Figure 26: Polar Lab Drawings [71]

Image 73:Polar Lab [71]

Image 72:Polar Lab [71]

The fact that the structure is portable is one of the elements that shape the design. This design, which will be located in different geographies, is made with indented protrusions. The design of the structure works like a spacecraft. In the design of the door, instead of a flat door, a recessed door is designed. This is because part of the door is designed to enter the structure to reduce the severity of extreme weather conditions and to protect it from the cold. The operating system of the door is designed differently from other doors. Simply put, it is a door that is connected to the bottom by a hinge and therefore opens downwards. One of the main reasons for this design is to close the level difference between the door and the floor. When the door is opened, it turns into a ramp and resolves this level difference. The door sits on one of the supporting legs of the structure and can thus carry the weight of the person passing through the ramp.



‘‘A traditional element once invested with physical heft and graphic iconography has turned into a de-materialized zone, a gradual transition between conditions registered by ephemeral technologies (metal defector, card readers, body scanners) rather than physical objects. The transformation took place concurrently with a transformation in society: whereas isolation was once the desired condition, our aspirations now are for movement, flow, transparency, accessibility-which the door, by definition, stands in the way of.’’ [72] Rem Kolhaas defines the door in the Elements of Architecture book like this. In this study, as the AAP team, we consider the door as a sill. The door is the element with the strongest relationship with the outside in small-scale structures. In this study alternative doors of small scale shelters in different conditions investigated. Also indoor alternatives of doors as a separation element examined.


[5]Futuro House

Image 75:Klemens Torggler Steel Door [74]

Image 76:Klemens Torggler Evolution Door [74]

Image 74:Blob V3, la Casa-Huevo/ / Interior Design [73]

In this design, the door does not function as standard hinged doors. The structure, which has a round geometry, is similar to the system designed for aircraft doors. This door, which works like a car trunk, is opened by pulling the handle at the bottom and closing it by pushing. When closed, it fits on the surface and the geometry does not deteriorate.


Designed by Klemens Torggler, these two door designs do not work as we know of hinged doors. The Steel Door consists of two steel plates interconnected by a magnetic system guided by interconnected rods. These plates rotate depending on the steel bars so that the door is opened and closed. In Evolution Door, the door is opened by turning two main parts over a connected point. These two parts are folded while rotating. The common feature of both designs is that you can easily open and close the door with a very light touch. Klemens Torggler said �The special construction makes it possible to move the door sideways without the use of tracks,�.


Image 77: Museo della Permanente [76]

In interior designs, we always put the doors in the middle of the walls or at the beginning of the walls. In this design we see that this is not limited to beginnings. The door is positioned in the corner. Designed to fit into the corner, the door supports the integrity of the interior.

Image 79:Nikolaus Bienefeld door [77]

The doors do not always stand closed and they occupy a lot of space when they are open. In this design, the space occupied by the door is solved by an alternative design other than standard solutions such as sliding doors. Open and closed state are interrelated.

Image 78:Designed by Moloney Architects [75]

The door, which is generally used as a threshold, is used in this project to divide the integrity of two spaces with each other. The door works with the sliding system and allows different places to be used together when necessary and separately. When you close the door, it feels as if the study room has been lifted into the storage cabinet.

‘‘Every time we pass through a door, we are greeting the space anew.’’ Atelier HOKO

Image 80: Compact Plywood And Pine Cabin With Attached Sauna [78]

In this design, where the door is designed only as a space, it works with the whole wall sliding system. If you want to close the door, it is necessary to pull the wall and the wall in front of the door.






Figure 27: Elements of Architecture, Door [72]



Window ‘‘The window used to make space, it asserted place-ness. Window seats, sills, bay windows, verandas, shutters, blinds, curtains, all marked the position of the window on the façade and in the room. Since the twentieth century, technological advances in window profiles and glass production have allowed many of these nuanced local components to be internalized in the window’s structures, magically invisible. Glass, which initially seemed the perfect partner for the window, took over entirely, culminating in the invention of the curtain wall-a Western invention, which allowed other regions to stake a claim in architecture, liberated from its historic discourses…’’ [81] Rem Kolhaas defines the door in the Elements of Architecture book like this. The window establishes a strong relationship between building and outdoor space. The window allows the structure to be ventilated, illuminated, filtrated and framed. Alternative window designs in small scale structures examined.

Image 82: Aldana Ferrer Garcia / More Sky [79]

Image 83: Aldana Ferrer Garcia / More Sky [79]

Image 81: Aldana Ferrer Garcia / More Sky [79]

In this project designed to improve the quality of life, 3 different frame styles “Hopper Niche”, “Casement Niche” and “Awning Niche” were used. It is a system similar to the accordion in Image 82 and allows you to reach out and watch the sky. In Image 81, which is designed as rotatable, you can sit cross-legged in the environment. Image 83 creates a volume where you can sit back and watch the outside.

Image 84: Sun Tiny A-Frame Cabin / Cedar Bloom [80]

In the design of the cabin, a part of the wall turns into a window. When you remove this transparent surface, it integrates the indoor and outdoor spaces, thus expanding the space. At the same time, the transparent surface on the outside forms a semi-open space. It protects the surface from weather conditions such as rain.



Image 85: Salt Lake Temple [81]

Image 87: Shekih Salim Cishb,India [81]

Image 86: Churches of Laibets [81]

Image 88: 1955 in Adolf Hitier’s Berghof estate in Bavaria [81]


VENTILATION: Early windows are part of intricate but highly tolerant and passive climate control systems the casement window hinges open to allow in the maximum amount of air. This window is left open during a building renovation, a rare sight at the Salt Lake Temple, 1893, in Salt Lake City, Utah FILTRATION: The window risks the permission of the unwanted, so it often needs to operate as a filter. Its irritants range from dust, sand, people, fire,light, bugs, animals. A screened window in the tomb of Shekih Salim Chishti built 1850-1851 in Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India, permits air to enter the mausoleum. ILLUMINATION: The primary function of the window often, but not always to allow light into architecture. Sunlight traces the hours of the day across on of the churches of Lalibels, Ethiopia ca. 11th century. FRAMING: Picture window installed in 1935 in Adolf Hitler’s Berghof estate in Bavaria, frames Mount Untersberg in warm weather, the entire window can be retracted, allowing an unobstructed view “I basically built the house around the window.” Hitler stated, and of the estate “Those were the best times of my life, my great plans were longed there” [81]

Image 89: Velux Cabrio / video courtesy of Alexis Brisacier [82]

Designed with a special system, the window of the roof can quickly and easily turn into a balcony. The balcony provides fresh air and daylight directly into the house. After the balcony is closed, the roof and the window are completely aligned.



Image 90: Subway’s Window [83]

Small and sliding system is used in train windows. Trains are one of the fastest means of transportation. They are exposed to very strong winds, so in design, outward opening windows are not preferred on trains. Small windows are also preferred to avoid the danger of falling.

TYPES OF THE WINDOW The diagram below belongs to 18 different window model diagrams from Yuanda’s company. From Window of Rem Kolhaas’ Elements of Architecture series. The different opening possibilities of the window become more important as the scale of the space becomes smaller.

Image 91: Storefront for Art and Architecture [84]

There is no door or window in this exhibition place. Panels, which one is on the wall, working like a door/window and exhibition is integrated with street. At the same time, the surfaces created in the interior divide the space so that the usage areas are defined and the horizontal surfaces are formed.


Figure 28: Types of Windows [81]


In the early 1920s, two of France’s leading architect fight a public battle over the best way to frame a view: Le Corbusier, advocate of the brave new panorama, or ribbon window, framing a cinematic sweep of landscape, and Auguste Perret, champion of the traditional portrait format, capable of properly framing a man, and taking in everything necessary at each level – some sky, some garden, some pavement- and no more than that. At stake is more than just personal preferences for a view; Perret believes Le Corbusier’s hungry eye “is destroying the fine French tradition”.[23]

Image 93: Window of the small house in Corseaux on Lake Geneva, Le Corbusier [81]

Image 92: Maison Gaut, Aguste Perret, 1923 Paris [81]

“I can state that glass will be a characteristic feature of building in the new machine age because it is the most direct means by which we can find one of the essential conditions for life: sun and light. The second machine age will be responsible for restoring mankind to a harmonious relationship with nature, and with the human and the cosmic. The first machine age (1830-1930) had torn this apart. Glass is the most miraculous means of restoring the law of the sun.”

“There is a noticeable tendency on the part of Le Corbusier to group his windows together in order to create the effect of volume, leaving large intermediate wall surfaces entirely dead; or, upon some creative fancy, he produced strained window forms by distorting their length or their breadth. That looks original enough from outside, but I fear that the impression inside is less original for as a result at least half the rooms must make do without any light at all, and that is taking originality a bit too far.” “Henceforth the idea of the window will be modified.. Plate glass replaces window panes. The sashes run horizontally, unhampered by the clumsy accessories of the sash window. They make possible the lengthwise window, the source of an architectural motive of great significance....History teaches us that technical achievements have always overthrown the most ancient traditions. It is destiny. There is no escape” “And now Perret’s last insulting censure: my windows admit no light. That makes me furious, for the injustice of such an accusation is more than evident. What on earth is he talking about? I endeavor to create bright room interiors ... that is my main aim, and that is why the appearance of my façades may seem somewhat odd to those who follow the beaten track, An intentional oddness, says Perret. Exactly, intentional: not simply for love of oddness, but in order to introduce into my houses the greatest possible quantity of light and air. The alleged fancy was directed solely by the desire to supply the inhabitants with the basic necessities of life.” “The vertical window better distributes light, it illuminate the floor, it illuminates the ceiling. You can see yourself reflected in the beautiful polished floors! It highlights the floors, the mosaics, the rugs. The ceiling, which can be beautiful, is well illuminates, it reflects light, and diffuses it. Sitting, your view is not limited by these windows, the garden, the street, the sky: the landscape is fragmented, and is that such a bad thing? A slight shift in your position lets you choose, for everything is not perfect in what we see of the city or even in the country.” “A window eleven meters long brings the immensity of the outer world into the room, the unadulterated totality of a lake scene with its tempestuous moods or its gleaming calm. .”The landscape is so close it’s as if you were in your garden. “The horizontal window is not a window at all. (Categorically): A window, that is man himself!” Marcel Zahar, Auguste Perret, Paris 1959



Stair ‘’The diktat of the fifteenth-century architectural theorist Leon Battista Alberti-‘’The fewer staircases that are in a house, and the less room they take up, the more convenient they are esteemed’-has proved to be a prophesy for he contemporary condition. The staircase is considered dangerous- safety requirements limit architects’ ambitions- and is possibly endangered, only still in existence in order to fulfill the requirement of having an exit strategy, though the stair may be making something of a comeback as an aid to fitness.’’ [85] Says Rem Koolhaas in Elements of Architecture.

2h+b=62 Image 95: Writers’ Cottage Stair [87] Figure 29: Elements of Architecture Stair [85]

Image 94: Charred Cabin Stair [86]

The main purpose of the Charred Cabin staircase design is to provide access to the upper elevation area with minimum space to be covered. The ladder made of steel pipes with a 2-dimensional approach is fixed to the floor, ceiling and upper level floor.


In order to establish a relationship between the elevations in the cabin and to provide transportation, a wooden hanging ladder was designed. It is aimed to design a ladder that serves many different purposes in a narrow space with its simple material and production style. The 5 mm plywoods are assembled and hung on the ceiling with rope for fixing.

Image 96: Climbing wall [88]

The design is based on the principle of the climbing wall to reach the upper level from the lower level. The wooden blocks mounted on the wall in a certain order form the ladder. It is aimed to add less space and entertainment to the design without promising to be safe and ergonomic.


Image 97: Submarine Stair [89]

The space at the submarine is very limited, so the volume reserved for the staircase is also very small. Designed with overlapping steel pipes, the stair is mounted directly on the shell of the submarine.

Image 98: DragonfIy Tiny House [90]

The stair in a cabin based on micro living principles is hidden inside the storage unit. The ladder that mounted on the top floor with the steel pipe to the floor can be shifted if necessary. In this way, the area to be covered by a fixed ladder was evaluated.

Image 99: Residential Building Stair [91]

The staircase, which is made of thin metal, is designed at a narrow angle, not perpendicular to the stair angles of standard stairs. Its narrow angle makes it work as a beam. At the same time, this design unravels the stairs at a shorter distance.



Terrace ‘‘Intruder, civilizer, ‘’fake appetizer,’’ (Quatremère de Quincy), but also modern architectural element par- excellence- the balcony has always held a special position within architectural discourse and practice. It has not only been a prime site of architectural innovation and expression, but also a heavily charged element that mediates between public and private realms. In the installation, the visitor experiences the transparency of a modernist balcony and the screened character of a vernacular balcony.’’ [93] Says Rem Kolhaas in Elements of Architecture, Balcony. The terrace is an important element for transporting the indoor space to the outdoor space or to the outdoor space under suitable seasonal conditions and gaining space. The alternative relationships between the interior and exterior of the terraces are examined through examples.

PUBLIC TERRACE Level paved area next to a building; a patio (a paved outdoor area adjoining a house). Origin: early 16th century (denoting an open gallery, later a platform or balcony in a theatre).From Old French, literally “rubble,platform,” based on Latin terra “earth.” [93]

Image 101: Terrace of the Capuchin Garden [93]

Image 102: Metropolitan Museum New York [93]

Image 100: Bloomframe Balcony [92]

The multi-purpose window designed by Hofman Dujardin turns into a terrace. The system consists of 3 pieces of pine, one fixed and two movable. The system, which is hidden from the moving glass parts, turns into a floor when it is opened. In this way, the two dimensional window unit acquires a third dimension and begins to define the space.


Image 103: Castle Miramare [93]


Image 104: Art Omi, Architecture Field, Ghent [94]

ReActor is a shelter design with Alex Schweder and Ward Shelley. Reactor is balanced on a single column. It moves and rotates in the direction in which the weight changes. The terraces at both ends of the design are the most important points that enable the structure to move. As they are at the ends, they form the center of the movement as the farthest point from the center of gravity.

Image 105: Brauer Cottaage, Mercel Brauer [95]

On the cabin above, a terrace which will work as a console was designed and the interior structure was intended to be carried out. It is aimed to increase the carrier by connecting the cantilever to the balcony structure with the tensioning system.

Image 106: ADAPTIVE REUSE / photograph: Tim van der Grinten [96]

On the cabin above, a terrace which will work as a console was designed and the interior structure was intended to be carried out. It is aimed to increase the carrier by connecting the cantilever to the balcony structure with the tensioning system.



BALCONY Diagram is from book of “Balcony” which is belong to the Rem Koolhaas’ Elements of Architecture series. In the context of the diagram, the iconic balconies are re manufactured as vectors and their images in memory are presented to the reader. [93]


1860 Hausmanian balcony, Paris

1975 Les Choux de Creteil, Paris. 2009 Aqua Tower, Chicago

1614 St. Peters, Vatican

1926 Bauhaus, Dessau

1628 Diwan-e-Aam, Agra Fort. 1451 Palazzo Venezia Rome



2005 VM Houses, Copenhagen


Image 107: Das Schubladenhaus “Living Room” in Gelnhausen [97] Image 109: Elliot Mono Cabin / Drop Structures [98]

The terrace on Eliot Mono’s cabin is designed both as a vehicle that connects with the outdoor space and as a vehicle that separates the cabin from the outdoor space due to the doors attached to the structure. It is added at both ends of the structure to protect the cabin from weather conditions. When you step out of the terrace cabin, which is designed as a semi-open space, it also designs the user’s relationship with nature as the place you step on.

Image 108: Das Schubladenhaus “Living Room” in Gelnhausen [97]

Figure 30: Das Schubladenhaus “Living Room” in Gelnhausen [97]

Das Schublandenhaus works as a unit that emerges from the terrace structure in the Room Living Room structure. Designed with drawer principle, the terrace works with the help of an electric system. Thanks to the extra floor underneath, the terrace unit defines a new area in addition to the structure in the area where it goes out.

Image 110: Markies, by Eduard Bothlingk Netherland 1985-1995 [99]

In Markies design, the terrace unit is flexible to increase the volume of the structure. The 2 façades of the design are opened to enlarge the area of the building. Thanks to the accordion system, the open spaces can also be used as open terraces.




Image 111: Your Turn, Ridgefield, CT, Photo: George Brenner [100]

Your Turn Alex Schweder + Shelley Collaboration Wood, Metal, Household Items, Two People, Ten Days, 2017. “Walls both divide and join… In this work, Schweder and Shelley live on either side of a twenty three foot by twenty three foot wall that is penetrated by architectural elements that suggest six sliding domestic activities: a kitchen, a bathroom, a bed, a dining room, an office, and a comfortable chair. There is one of everything, enough for each… just not at the same time.” [100]

Image 112: Your Turn, Photo: George Brenner [100]


Image 113: Your Turn, Photo: George Brenner [100]


Counterweight Roommate A Schweder + Shelley Collaboration Various construction materials, household appliances, 2 people of the same weight 2’-0” x 32’-0” x 6’-0”, 5 Days, 2011. “Tethered to either end of a single rope that goes over the top of this tall thin building, movement in this vertical house for two depends on using the body mass of one’s roommate as a counter weight to aid ascent or slow descent. When one occupant wishes to go up to the kitchen at the top level, the other must go down to the bathroom at the bottom. Between these two rooms are two private sleep / work rooms on levels two and four, and a common room at level three where the ends of the rope meet. Counterweight Roommate was continuously inhabited for five full days of Scope Basel in 2011 by performance-architecture artists Alex Schweder and Ward Shelley, and acquired in 2015 by New York’s Museum of Modern Art” [100]

Image 114: SCOPE, Basel, 2011, Photo Georgios Kefalas [100]

Image 116: Perogi Boiler, Brooklyn, NY, Photo: Scott Lynch [100]

Image 115:SCOPE [100]

Image 117: Perogi Boiler, Brooklyn, NY, Photo: Scott Lynch [100]

In Orbit A Schweder + Shelley Collaboration Wood, Steel, Furniture, 10 Days, 20’-0” x 8’-0” x 30’-0”, 2014. “The third in the triptych “social relationship architecture” developed with Ward Shelley, one artist lived on top of the wheel while the other lived on the inside continuously for 10 days straight. To change activity they had to coordinate by walking in opposite directions to turn the wheel and thereby pieces of furniture.” [100]



Storage In small spaces, it can be said that the storage areas are limited by looking at the function hierarchy. As the spaces become narrower, use of more than one function per unit should be made more efficient. At this point, the storage areas can be mostly multifunctional elements. Under a bed or ladder dock can also be used as a storage. However, the storage space actually depends on the rate of goods to store the user. If you try to move the familiar life to a small unit instead of reducing it, it will not be possible to have sufficient storage solutions.

Image 119: Zemberek Design / Ä°stanbul (Photography by Safak Emrence) [103]

Designed for a shoe store, this design allows for different types of usage. It consists of a collapsible system such as Cabinet Doors. A large rack system is formed when all are opened. No extra storage is required when not in use.

Image 118: Under stair storage solutions [101]

There are gaps of different heights under the stairs. After a area inefficient gaps occur at a height that we cannot walking the underneath. In this design, it was used as a storage area to convert inefficient gaps to advantage. It consists of drawers designed according to the dimensions of the staircase cavities.

Image 120: Colorado Outward Bound Micro Cabins [104]

Figure 31: B-1B-2 berth, submarine, with lockers under [102]

Space is limited in the submarine. The narrow structure of submarine leads to small storage areas. . Even the distance between bunk beds is designed to a minimum. It is desirable to make use of each space so that the spaces under the beds are considered as storage space.


The beds are of a certain standard and therefore occupy a very large volume in the horizontal. Lifting the beds and putting them back only during sleep is an important factor for the expansion of the area of use. ​​ In this design, the beds are mounted in a cabinet on the wall. It works like a collapsible cabinet door. When you want to sleep you should pull the handle so the bed emerges. If you want to remove it, just push it as the cabinet door closes. In the closed state, the large area it occupies in the horizontal turns into the area it will occupy vertically, thus creating a huge gap in the middle area.


Image 121: MoreFloor [105]

An adult sleeps for an average of 7-9 hours. For the rest of the day, the bed occupies a very unused space. When asked how to turn this volume into advantage, such a design was revealed. The design consists of opening and closing doors that cover the top of the bed and turn it into a floor. The closure of these covers allows us to have a flat floor while at the same time the volumes are used as storage space.

Image 122: Blob V3, la casa-huevo/ Construction Sketelon [73]

Image 124: Elliot Mono Cabin / Drop Structures [98] Image 123: Blob V3, la casa-huevo/ / Interior Design [73]

When designing the skeleton in this design, there are certain gaps. Instead of covering these gaps while making the structure, storage areas were obtained by making use of the gaps. These storage areas make the inefficiency of oval usage areas advantageous.

Triangular roofs are frequently encountered in cabin designs. Therefore, a triangular space is formed in the negative space in the interior. Triangular volumes may seem inconvenient, but they are efficient in this design for storage. It defines a flat ceiling in the area below, where a large storage area is obtained by attaching the rack carried by the posts to the roof from the inside.



AIRSTREAM CARAVAN Wally doesn’t like lying on the ground in a camp he goes with his wife, and he turns to such a design. It focuses on the idea of ​​being able to move the house everywhere and experience this comfort everywhere. He solved this with a small scale house attached to the car. “To place the great wide world at your doorstep for you who yearn to travel with all the comforts of home.” (Wally Creed) The Air Stream is similar in design to the car. However, it is not a vehicle but a mobile house that is fitted to the vehicle. The interior design of the air stream has been solved to a minimum, but offers a luxurious life. [106]

Usage areas are limited, so the dining area is also used as a working and socializing area.

There is a kitchen area even its minimum dimensions.

There is a sleeping area designed for those who do not want to give up the comfort of their bed while moving their house everywhere.

BAVARIA R55 The usage areas of the yachts are very limited so the interior is solved in minimum areas. The interior ergonomics of the boat are provided with oval surfaces. The oval interior gives the user a more comfortable use. Toilets are smaller in size than standard toilets. Although the boat is a luxury vehicle, luxury is provided in minimum life. [107]

There is area designed for Captains. In order to drive comfortably, the height of the window is taken into account while the seat height is adjusted.

Social spaces are also designed outdoors. A space-constrained groove has been designed to allow different uses. It turns into a dining area while using it as a seating area. The chambers have a triangular plan, so the beds are wider than the standards.

BOMBARDIER LEARJET 75 People spend most of their time traveling. They travel frequently and use airways for many reasons such as business trips, holidays and education. In order to meet the basic needs of users who spend a certain period of time in airplanes, they have limited opportunities. In jets, it offers a more luxurious life to the users. The luxury of people in their daily lives is within minimum space. [108]

The toilet of the Jet has been solved at minimum dimensions except the standard ones.

Apart from the toilets and seats in the airplanes, the jets are designed in social areas. This area has wider seats than flight seats.

The bar area is also solved within a restricted area.

GOLDEN EAGLE (SILVER) Today, the longest train ride is Trans-Siberian Express. The train that travels between Moscow and Vladivostok 5,772 miles and travels for six days. Even if the trains appear as vehicles, they become a shortterm living unit. The diagram in the diagram belongs to two people and is 5.5 square meters in size. With the opening of the bunk bed, it turns into a sleeping unit at night. [109]

At night, the sitting unit turns into a bed and the bed that hangs on the wall opens. Thus, the space transforms into a sleeping unit.

During the daytime, the wagon is the place to eat, relax and socialize.

The compact toilet due to small scale ,its design works as both a toilet unit and a shower.

SUBMARINE The submarine differs from other vehicles by being located in a different geography such as underwater. It is mostly used as a means of accommodation through military missions. While submariners can spend more than six months in the submarine, they almost do not surfaced for 70 days at once. In fact, according to the quote of a sailor, he spent 328 days at sea. The points that need to come ashore are usually proportional to the end of food stocks. Submarine days are designated as six-hour shifts. Submariners daily routines consist of three parts: six hours of sleep, exercise and work. Seafarers sleep in shifts because the spaces in the vehicle are narrow. Where there is no private area within the submarine. However, as soon as they pull their curtains while sleeping in bunks or in the toilet, they could find a private space. [4]

Due to the lack of private spaces, daily routines take place in common spaces.

Because of the shortness between the bunk beds, submariners pull themselves to get out of the bed.

Submariners, sleep in 6 hours shifts in bunk beds because of the lack of space.

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION “The International Space Station (ISS) is a multi-nation construction project that is the largest single structure humans ever put into space Astronauts spend most of their time on the ISS performing experiments and maintenance, and at least two hours of every day are allocated to exercise and personal care. They also occasionally perform space walks, conduct media/school events for outreach, and post updates to social media. Crews are not only responsible for science, but also for maintaining the station. Sometimes, this requires that they venture on space walks to perform repairs. From time to time, these repairs can be urgent — such as when a part of the ammonia system fails, which has happened a couple of times. Most consecutive days in space by an American: 340 days, which happened when Scott Kelly took part in a one-year mission to the International Space Station in 2015-16 (along with Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko).”[110] Astrounaut spacewalking as a daily routine. By this way, the astonaut can experience the space in all its dimensions.

Astronauts are working in the command centre.

Because of the lack of gravity, the astronauts are forced to sleep as binded to their beds.

DISCUSSIONS Research papers is based on the study produced during ARC531 Research Methods course in MEF University’s Alternative Architectural Practices program. It has aimed to discover the basics of architectural research starting from Jeremy Till’s proposed model to contemporary practices by examining various projects through their production processes. The main intention of the course was to expand the boundaries of architectural research by examining its connection with social issues, technological innovations and ecological problems. In this chapter, we have decided on our research question and discussed it via some case studies in our paper. Case studies have been investigated through different geographical contexts and time periods, considering their political, social, technological, environmental and economic backgrounds to create the map of architectural research practices from the last century.

Hyman/Rouse-Wates Panel Factory in Edmonston, Maryland, early 1970s. [1]




Is it possible to define a house by standardized methods?


1. UNEXPECTED USE OF GEODESIC DOME, DROP CITY The relationship between humankind and house is always analyzed throughout history and after several steps such as the human huntergatherer generation, nomadic communities, and the first settlement, we continue our lives mostly in an apartment in a crowded city. Housing is one of the most interesting parts of architecture because of its evolution


process. The evolution of “living styles” creates new notions that excite researchers. Generally, the new styles are formed by human needs but sometimes, the human needs formed by the discoveries. For instance, a new object, method or system creates need we do not before by transforming our lives. Buckminster Fuller is an important figure as an inventor of many housing projects formed by the term of “dymaxion”. He created lots of examples

Image 1: Montreal Biosphere [3]

of dymaxion by being dynamic, maximum and in tension.[1] He began his dymaxion adventure with the dymaxion car and his most successful project has been acknowledged as Geodesic Dome. The dome was designed as a system rather than a place compared to his previous projects. In Fuller’s period, the innovations mostly focused on fabrication systems rather than handmade structures with the new technological era. Geodesic dome completely belongs to that period with the shape of the calculated perfect sphere formed by equilateral triangles. I think that the most interesting adaptation of geodesic dome is Drop City as an experimental settlement built by droppers instead of fabrication. The uncommen combination of

Image 2: The Complex at Drop City, designed by Steve Baer, with First Dome (1965) on right [4]

“geodesic dome” developed by Fuller who is one of the supporters of the technocracy movement and “Drop City” is an important example of a counter-culture community. I tried to explore how this unexpected use in architecture came about, what caused it, and whether there was an unexpected use between each other through Fuller’s geodesic dome and its adaptation, Drop City. During this research, I looked at Fuller’s other projects to understand his perspective, critical thresholds in the world and other geodesic domes that have been implemented. Buckminster Fuller didn’t achived on most of his projects but, now we can see the whole dymaxion process evolved from the cars and the houses to the geodesic structures step by step. He was dealed with many of wars and crises when he was advertise his projects. Fuller’s “Dymaxion” adventure began with designing first protype of Dymaxion House in 1927 and it continued with producing first Dymaxion Car in 1933. Although, there were limited funds for Fuller’s type of creative projects because of

Image 3: Extract from an advertising leaflet for the Dymaxion Deployment Unit, 1940 [5]

economical cris in the Great Depression period, he supplied litttle bit of fund for his new style of car project. In the begining, the project was not risky because of its scale but, the funders were stopped the production after an accident during first test driving.[2] And then, Fuller started to produce Deployement Unit as an emergency shelter in 1940 during the world war II. The unit was originally designed as a small family house but, it was advertised with different concept caused by condition of that time. Between 1942-1944, when war was continued, Fuller was the head engineer on the Board of Economic Warfare. In this process, Fuller was trying to implement Dymaxion House and at finally the end of 1948, the house was built with some of the main changes. The new dymaxion house is named Wichita House caused of the location name in Kansas City.

Image 4: The Wichita House, built baden on Dymaxion prototype, 1948 [6]


But the pressure caused by the Cold War that emerged after World War II once again posed a risk to such investments, which also led to a rapid end for Wichita House.[11] After lots of disappointment, Fuller broke a leg with Geodesic Dome and many domes built by the geodesic system developed by Fuller in history and even now they continue. Actually, the project developed one year after Wichita House in the same negative Cold War time but, the dome was much more successful. The reason for that success formed by the system rather than a place and the several types of advantages such as Image 5: Buckminster Fuller with models of Standard of Living Package and Skybreak Dome, 1949 [7]

modeling with low-cost materials on a small scale, no need for funder in the pre-developing process.[12] At the same time, Fuller has the opportunity to implement the geodesic domes with students at Black Mountain College as an instructor. Skybreak Dwelling and The Woods Hole Dome are the examples of the first geodesic dome developed with his students. While the structural function of this system was not yet clear in that time, firstly it was defined as a transparent cover that protects the interior from weather conditions in Skybreak Dwelling.[13] After other experimentation, the definition was changed to building/shelter. For example, the geodesic dome was the main structure of The Woods Hole Dome Restaurant. The structure is enhanced with post-war technologies and then used for creating clean span areas. Kaiser Aluminum Dome which is engineered by Don Richer is one of the important examples of the geodesic dome by erected 50-meter span structure in 22 hours in 1957.[14] Union Tank Car Dome which is developed by Thomas C.Howard of Synergetics was the largest clear span structure in the world.[15] In that period, engineers and architectures were fascinated with new technologies and they challenged with large areas. The geodesic structure is adapted to many facilities such as a greenhouse in Climatron, a bank in Gold Dome, a university in Stephan Center, expo in Montreal Biosphere, a theme park in Spaceship

Image 6: First Kaiser Aluminum Dome in the construction process [8]

Earth, ice station in the South Pole, etc. thanks to the his “comprehensive design” he termed. Although the geodesic dome creates possibilities of a large clear span structure with high tech methods, it is a possible of dwelling on a small scale. Fuller was mostly worked on housing projects before the invention of the geodesic dome and he designed also the “type of living” with his project. The first meeting of housing and geodesic is the Skybreak Dwelling and in the project, the dwelling part which is standard of living package and the geodesic part didn’t actually combine. The other attempt was The Flying Seedpod which is a foldable geodesic structure developed

Image 7: Preserved Buckminster Fuller and Anne Hewlitt Dome Home, 1960 [9]

for minimizing the volume during transportation in 1953. In this project, the transportation process is important because of the aim to settled at the Moon and the package should fit into a rocket capsule.[16] The first example of a real combination is the Buckminster Fuller and Anne Hewlitt Dome Home which is designed for Fuller and his wife in 1960. In contrast to Fuller’s previous house projects, the Dome Home didn’t advertise a “new type of living” because it was personalized for users’ specific needs and these needs probably don’t match with another. The next important example of geodesic dome as a house is Drop City which is inhabited by counter-culture commune in 1965.

Image 8: Clark Richert and Carol DiJulio stands outside a Kitchen Geodesic Dome in Drop City, 1965 [10]


The tension caused by the Cold War creates movements such as Counterculture during the 60s and 70s. The Counter-culture movements were not only against the effects of war but also against the “way of living”. And then some of the hippies settled in the land in Colorado to establish their cities, called Drop City. After the first attempt, droppers - the residents of Drop City - heard to Fuller’s speech at the University of Colorado in 1965 and then they decided to build their homes with the geodesic dome geodesic dome homes and he communicated with the Droppers through artist John McHale. One year later, Fuller awarded the Droppers to thank the adaptation of the six existing geodesic houses by the Dymaxion Award. [17]

Fuller’s military background from the navy has been discussed in the

Image 9: Anne and Buckminster Fuller in the living room, 1960 [18]

magazines about this close contact with hippies who has opposite ideas. The contradictory situation is not only in the theory but also, it has resulted in the application method of geodesic domes in Drop City. Many of the droppers didn’t have an experience about construction, they didn’t even calculate the angles and the lengths of the material are different from each other because of the reused materials. Only three of the six domes which are awarded are true Fuller geodesics and, the other three are a mutation of geodesic caused by these handicaps, this situation gives first examples of DIY. Another mutation of the dome is Zome -that doesn’t require perfect geometry - developed by Steve Bear and he built the Cartop Dome in Drop

Image 10: Interior of Cartop Dome in Drop City, 1966 [19]

City as a zome. Meanwhile, Fuller’s and Steve Baer’s construction methods of applications on Drop City were published in the Whole Earth Catalog in 1967.[18] In the parallel period with Drop City, there were different communes such as Libre and Red Rockers, and also, they used a geodesic dome structure for creating their cities. In “The Dome Project” created by Molly Corey between 2004-2007, many domes exhibited by exposed their daily lifestyles. According to the interviews, the world’s largest handmade freestanding

Image 11: Drop City construction collage by Richard Samperi [20]

geodesic dome built by the founders of Red Rockers commune. These adaptations of the geodesic dome from engineered by companies to the handmade structure were due to the scale of the structure. The desire of creating their own houses and cities with ecological methods such as using recycled materials, creating passive energy systems with low tech structure was one of the first attempts of do-it-yourself. As if DIY structures created by specific guides, they also allow the personalization in an example of the domes in Drop City, all the domes are different from each other in terms of the doors, windows, scale, material of the structure and its cover. In conclusion, we can define all of Fuller’s projects as experimentation. Firstly, he tried to sell “dymaxion living styles” with the dymaxion car and the dymaxion house but he didn’t achieve in that. And then he pursued to create a dymaxion world with the geodesic dome, the dome structure worked in terms of dymaxion principles which are dynamic and maximum on the large scale but not on the small scale. The small scale geodesic domes are mostly kind of housing projects. The first application of geodesic as a house was in the Fuller’s Dome Home and it was purely designed for Bucky and Anne’s personal luxury. Even though it was a perfect geodesic dome designed by an architect or an engineer with the logic of technocracy and liberation, it was also opposed to the dymaxion ideas. The house was well furnished, not systematic and it never been a part of his advertisements.

Image 12: Clark Richert in theater dome with “Ultimate Painting” Drop City, 1966 [21]



principles. Also Fuller was excited to this settlement existed by several

In this context, although I consider Drop City as an unexpected use of Geodesic Dome, it should be acknowledged that the main contradictory situation was between the Dome Home and Geodesic Dome which is a product of the dymaxion world. I think the critical point of this situation is the adaptation of the dymaxion to the “living styles”. Although a system, method or unit was designed by an engineer or an architect, we mostly change them according to our comfort zones. And is it possible to define “the home” as a “standard” or “mass production”? Besides, is it correct to describe “the improvement” of a system according to the user’s needs as an “unexpected”? In this case, it can be concluded that the houses mostly is affected by the type of living, we are not affected by the advertisement of “living styles houses”. Image 13: Interior model of Wichita House [21]


Nur Gülgör



Is it possible that a mobile, temporary object makes its existence permanent by crossing the boundaries of time and spreading to many parts of the world?



Imagine a state that built after the heavy destruction of the war,

systematically developed, cities clad in gray buildings. And then place red shiny boxes in this city’s streets... These red, shiny boxes that I am talking about is a kiosk called Kiosk K67. In this paper, I will mention that kiosk as a street equipment which had a great impact in the 60’s and 70’s. Not only


did it make a big impact in these years, but it also goes beyond its time and still inspiring for the field of architecture, industrial design and urban planning. Research on the kiosk is still ongoing, and many exhibitions are organizing. In this context, what made it timeless? How did it cross the boundaries of time and spread to many parts of the world? What makes it different from the others? With this paper, I will be discussing these questions. And in order to understand the origin and development

Image 1:Today’s Slovenska Street, 1960. Photo: Milan Pogacar, holds the Museum of Contemporary History of Slovenia [4]

of Kiosk K67 and Mächtig’s practice, firstly, I will mention social, politic circumstances in Yugoslavia, the development in the field of technology, architecture, industrial design and some of the actors influencing on Mächtig’s practice with some highlights. And then I will deepen on three different street equipment designed by Mächtig. These are Café Evropa Summer Pavilion, Kiosk K67, and Kiosk K21. At first glance, they look quite different from each other in terms of scale, function, and form but actually have something in common.

The state I describe in the introduction part is Yugoslavia, which

was established after the Second World War and developed systematically. The political system based on socialism and efforts to develop social changes triggered the modernization process and supported the processes of mass production, industrialization, and urbanization. Socialist Yugoslavia was a utopian project and endeavored to create a new and better world for all. “More than a state, Yugoslavia is a project.” said political scientist Dejan Jovic.[1] In this sense, the state-supported visionary architectural and urban design projects for the reconstruction of the postwar collapsed country. “It was an idea to come up with a different, better version of society and the world in general.” notes Martino Stierli.[2] I think in

Image 2: Tasks in the field of spatial plastics in design the B Course, 1961. Photo: Vladimir B. Mušic, from the legacy of architect Edvard Ravnikar, MAO. [5]

this utopian idea, the Kiosk K67 has a critical position. Because it was one of those which realized and relatively implemented its purpose. Beginning of the ’60s, Yugoslavia was still developing and Saša Mächtig enrolled at the Faculty of Architecture, Civil Engineering, and Geodesy in the newly established B course introduced by Edvard Ravnikar. It was an alternative to the conventional education system modeled on the principles of the Bauhaus school and based on an interdisciplinary approach, integration of theory and practice, and analysis-research-experiment processes. “Ravnikar was well aware of the significance and role of design in a wider Social context and saw the education of designers as imperative. Critical of the post-war education system for architects he formulated the need to reform the study of architecture already in the 1950s, stressing the importance of extending the spectrum of an architect’s activity, which according to him should span from planning “the smallest consumables to regional spatial solutions”. ” [3] In this context, when we examine Mächtig’s works and practice deeply, we can say that, the impact of Ravnikar is very important. In an interview for the

Image 3: The waste container EKOS, designed by Machtig, is located in the Revolution Square, designed by Ravnikar, 2016. Photo: Personal archive of Sasha J. Maechtig. [6]


journal Oris, Mächtig said, he sees his own position “as a conceptual and practical legacy of the B Course’’[1]. Also, he was very closely following all developments in technology, mass production, flexible and mobile systems. In the ’60s, the big steps taken with the technology. “Space capsules, the first space travel in 1961 and the production of supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 and Concorde passenger aircraft… All these were developments that made a great impact on Mächtig’s practice’’[3], and they prepared the ground for the introduction of different perspectives in architecture. There were also utopian projects that began to cross their borders and spread. Some inspirational projects such as Richard Buckminster Fuller’s geodesic domes Image 4: Café Evropa Summer Pavilion, Ljubljana Photo: Personal Archive of Sasha J. Mächtig [3]

and prefabricated housing units, Archigram’s Walking City and Plug in City, Projects of Japanese Metabolists encouraged the creation of alternatives to the lifestyle in Yugoslavia and made a great impact on Machtig.[3]

In such a productive architectural environment of the ‘60s, the

discussion and production of concepts such as mobility, temporariness, and prefabrication have increased. In this scenario, the position of Kiosk K67 was between radical and rational. And his productions were in between architecture and industrial design. As opposed to common, the scale of Mäcthig’s production was gradually shrunk. He developed the ideas of the K67 to design for future small scale projects such as trash cans, telephone booths, bus stops, and recyclable waste containers. In order to better understand this relationship, I would like to deepen 3 different street equipment chronologically, each of which has an impact on the existence of the next: Café Evropa Summer Pavilion (1966), Kiosk K67 Image 5: Tobacco kiosk in Hrvatski Trg, design by Jože Plecnik, in 1932. Photo: Philip Arnold, 2018

(1967) and Kiosk K21 (2000’s).

Mächtig’s first independent project was Café Evropa Summer

Pavilion (1966). (Img.4) It looks a little different in his designs but it has something in common: Materials and the way it was designed and produced. After many provisional solutions, he designed a canopy that was based on a study of geometric, mathematical analysis of structural possibilities and research into rhythm, proportions, structures, and modularity of individual elements. (Shows clear references to the experimental research methods practiced by Ravnikar) He followed an experimental method and looked into variants of the canopy: from with folded metal faces, to a light construction under a stretched textile membrane and final object with a three-dimensional plastic shell. In Image 6: Kiosk K67, plastic pipe model, 1966. Photo: Personal Archive of Sasha J. Mächtig [3]

1966, when he was working on the realization of his pavillion for the café Evropa, he would have meeting at the Urban Planning Institute. After these meetings, some actors in institute would have discussions about urban issues. Mäcthig was still a student. He was intrigued and involved in discussions. This was an important moment, because he first learned about the need for new kiosks in this discussions.[7] The government would make a call for technically and aesthetically well-designed facilities to encourage the development of street services. He criticized existing kiosks (Img. 5) and said: ‘‘I find the kiosk’s weakness lies in the fact that it is under too much pressure to be seen as a small house.’’[3] Then he worked on some experimental models like the way he studies within B course. ‘‘He set off for the hardware store and bought two plastic pipes, bore crosswise through one pipe with another, cut them and assembled them in sculptor

Figure 1: Decomposed axonometry of system kiosk K67, first generation, primary elements. Image: Personal Archive of Sasha J. Mächtig [3]


Zdenko Kalin’s workshop.’’[3] (Img.6) And then he presented the models to Marko Šlajmer through architect Savin Sever. (He met Savin Sezer through

Ravnikar) Marko Slajmer was connected to the mayor and the city officials. He was very impressed and suggested to find someone to buy the idea and realize it. Then, Mächtig signed a contract with Imgrad company. K67’s design allowed the possibility of growth and change with its modular structure, method of production and flexibility. (Fig.1) It was based on five modular spatial elements made of reinforces polyester that allows the possibilities of many configurations and reinvent itself. (Fig.2) These world, such as fast-food stand, tobacco, flower shop, petrol stations, ski lift ticket booths, and many others. He was not alone during the design and building process, already collaborating closely with his colleagues

Figure 2: System Kiosk K67, expansion options and combinations. Image: Personal Archive of Sasha J. Mächtig [3]

Spela Kalin and Peter Skalar. Mächtig added that Spela Kalin and Peter Skalar oversaw the works as well, occasionally also with Spela Kalin’s father Zdenko Kalin.[1] After patented in 1967, the first public presentation took place in the provincial town of Ljutomer in 1969. (Img.7) City planners and architects from Slovenia were also invited. K67 attracted the attention of experts from other fields. And then Mächtig and Imgrad began preparations for mass production and mass markets. Two or three months after the first presentation, he joined the world congress of industrial designers. He brought color slides there. It was a whole page article with color photographs and a very interesting and positive commentary. Here, he got into a conversation with the editors of Design magazine, the most important magazine in the field of industrial design in the world. He managed to get their attention. K67 was published in Design magazine.[7] Then in 1970, The Museum of Modern Art in New York included it in its 20th-century design collection. Kiosk’s popularity was increasing, and it crossed the border, began to spread. Despite its great success, Mächtig still continued to develop the K67’s system. In 1971, he introduced second-generation kiosks optimized with technological advances. The key innovation was the construction of the slightly convex load-bearing shell that could be decomposed, unlike the original, flat monolithic structure. With all these improvements, kiosks were successful, and its production increased. It was sold to countries of the former Yugoslavia, COMECON countries and other continents (Japan and New Zealand). (Fig.3) In the early nineties, Imgrad Ljutomer (The manufacturer) stopped production of the K67 due to radical changes in the Slovenian economic system. Since 2003, he has been developing a new generation of kiosks called Kiosk K21; The Kiosk for the 21st century. The new kiosk is designed as basic modular units inspired by nature’s structures and patterns. It is very interesting to see all

Image 7: The first public presentation, Ljutomer,1969 Photo: Personal Archive of Sasa J. Mächtig [3]

studies, developments, experiments about these kiosks from the 1960’s to the 2000’s. But in kiosks K21, there is a significant difference. We never mention about the Kiosk K67 as a space for living. This time kiosk not only designed for street equipment. This kiosk K21 can be used from mobile homes and information centers to cafes. And it is in the testing stage with a 1:1 scale model. (Img. 8)

The common point of the examples I mentioned above is that

they are adaptable to many place and they are not objects belonging to a particular time. Among all the Mächtig’s designs, the Kiosk K67 has a critical importance. It was a street equipment that gave identity to the city with its small scale and big impact. And the effects of K67 can be seen in the background of all his designs. Before the research, I thought that the most important factor in spreading the K67 to many parts of the world was

Image 8: Prototype Kiosk K21, 2016 Photo: Personal Archive of Sasha J. Mächtig [3]



elements could be freely assembled. It can be used in many parts of the

its modular, adaptable and flexible design. But then I realized, in addition to all, Mächtig was also very good at communication and played a very active role in introducing these kiosks to the market. In an interview, he mentioned the deterioration of relations with the manufacturer Imgrad, he said: ‘‘I was the one to establish this market in the first place, I was the one to knock on the doors of every mayor, every urban planning institute or public utility services office in all the major Yugoslavian cities. And it was my knowledge as an expert that convinced them, my concept and after all, the product that followed these guidelines, which is why they Figure 2: Distribution of K67

opened their doors to the kiosk. The sales department then followed my footsteps and concluded the sale.’’ [7]

Figure 3: Distribution of Kiosk K67

Mächtig was very influential in the marketing of kiosks. This was one of the most important reasons for the spreading of kiosks to the world. After that, when I look at Mächtig’s other productions, I see that they have the same potential, but they are not as effective as the Kiosk K67 and cannot spread to the world. I think the main reason is, K67 allows many uses and does not belong to a particular location. When I looked at the kiosks before the K67, I realized that they designed for a specific one-off location and far from mass production logic compared to the K67. Mächtig criticized that and challenged existing kiosks with the kiosk k67. And it has crossed the boundaries of time, spread to the world. Thus, a mobile, temporary object, made its existence permanent. Maybe one day, you will come across with Kiosk K67, hiding somewhere in the world as a beehive, tobacco, bus stop, even construction element... in a city, in a street of Germany, Poland, Japan, Iraq... Keep your eyes open for these colorful kiosks! They are still

Image 5: Kiosk K67 at Three Bridges, Ljubljana, 1970s Photo: Personal Archive of Sasa J. Mächtig [3]

around us! Aysima Akın

Image 1: Part of a garage, surrounded by second hand cars, Germany, 2003. Photo: Helge Kuhnel [8]




How does an architectural product become an exhibition object regardless of its initial context?

Image 1 : Jean Prouve in front of one of the blue windowed panels from the Maison Tropicale, 1950’s. Nancy, France. [1]


3. TROPICAL EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE | JEAN PROUVE In this article, French constructor Jean Prouve (1901-1984) examined in detail. In order to find a research-question, his educational life, career, and his sample projects were researched. The actors and ideas that he was influenced in history were detected with the influences of them. While studying in chronological order, the turning points in the history of the World


and France became prominent to establish cause and effect relationships. At this point, it was striking to see that architecture has caused more global influences with the developments in the world. It was important that to investigate connection between post-war modernism, globalization, standardization and Jean Prouve due to the years of he lived. As a result of a network of relationships based on timeline and sample projects, the question of why Jean Prouve’s Tropical House work might have failed to stand out. For this reason, the prefabricated architecture of Prouve will be examined in the context of colonization with three main examples which are Tropical House at Niamey, Tropical Housesat Brazzaville, Maison du Sahara. Besides, some re-build examples of Prouve’s Tropical Houses at 2000s, supported to explored how they affect the prefabricated architecture. These comparative examples have helped to examine the historical effects of Prouve’s Tropical House studies because it is interesting to note that Jean Prouve, known for his industrialized furniture, designed house packages light enough to move from France to Africa by airplanes for housing shortages in French colonies. In order to understand this innovative approach, the relationship of examples supported with examination of the characteristics of the atelier and historical conditions that pushed him to innovate. “Although born in Paris in 1901, Jean Prouvé lived with his family in Nancy during his youth. His father was a painter, and a co-founder of

Image 2 : Prefabricated Panels, Designed by Jean Prouve [1]

the Ecole de Nancy, which promoted the unity of fine and decorative arts. Prouvé grew up in an industrious environment as the eldest son of seven. Fascinated by cars, airplanes and even bicycles, he wanted to become an engineer from an early age and yet was forced, due to WWI and the lack of his family‘s financial means, to leave home at sixteen and move to Paris where he began an apprenticeship with Emile Robert, a well respected ironworker and friend of this father. In this position, he learned the skills he needed to become a true artisan in the minor arts. Robert was an older man whose crafts background

Image 3 : Standart Chair, Designed by Jean Prouve [1]

proved a solid base for Jean Prouvé, but soon the young man started searching for more modern techniques and methods (Moulin, 2001) .” [2]

In this way, he saw many different properties of metal so this perspective pushed him to innovative designs. For instance, he took out many patents in 1929 such as reclining armchairs, pedestal table with rubbertop, folding reclining chairs, metal doors, sash windows (Wilk, 2008). [3] It can be said that Jean Prouve’s style has been created at the beginning of his training life. Then his adventure with iron has moved from furniture to housing. During this transition, he maintained and advanced his basic ideas. These dreams of industrialized mass produced furniture continued their effects in house production in later years. The blacksmith’s identity and the new perspective he brought to the design made him different.


As a result, Jean Prouve was defined as a builder working in a factory with his colleagues rather than identifying himself as an architect. This led to a practical approach in overcoming technical constraints in his atelier. While all of this was happening, after the Second World War, housing shortages emerged in African colonies. “In 1947, Prouve was approached by French colonial authorities to design affordable, prefabricated housing for colonial officials in West Africa (Huppatz, 2010) .” [4] Image 4 : Niamey House in Niger, 1949 [9]

This could be an opportunity to try out the dream of a prefabricated, light, industrialized and mass produced home for Prouve. In 1949, the first prototype of prefabricated house was completed: Maison Tropicale. The house was exhibited by the Seine for a while before flying to Nigeria. In 1951 the Atelier completed two more prototypes and was taken to the city of Brazzaville, Congo (Prouve, 2017). [5] Only three units were produced while much more production was planned. After many years, with the developing and changing world conditions, colonialism has been replaced Image 5 : Tropical House in Paris, 1949 [9]

by other capitalist orders. In 1958, the Congo declared its independence. During the 15 years of Cold War, Maison Tropicale Houses continued to stand in Africa and physically carried the historical process. Although Jean Prouve died in 1984, works he left behind still remains. It is clear that the Galerie Patrick Seguin, founded in 1989, have a high impact to be discovered for Maison Tropicale Houses in 2000. After they found, they were requested to brought back. Logistic, restoration and installation took a long time. After being brought back, it has been exhibited in different place in the world: 2006 Paris, 2007 New York, 2008 London (Arcspace, 2012). [6]

These buildings, which include many innovative features such as design,

technical features, combination details and relationship with the tropical climate, are well ahead of the era. It can be said by some groups that it has created cultural pressure as an icon of industrialized modernism for example designed by Angela Ferreira at the Venice Biennale in 2007, the pavilion draws attention to this issue (2007, Ferreria). [7] In order to explain the claims mentioned above, the fundamental examples which are Tropical House at Niamey, Tropical Houses at Brazzaville and Maison du Sahara will be expanded on: Tropical House, Niamey It was designed by Jean Prouve in 1949 as a cheap and easy-to-install dwelling that could be moved to the African colonies of France. After being exhibited near the Seine for a while, it was flown to Nigeria in Niger by Bristol cargo plane. It has a ventilated 26 x 10 m roof. The main structural components are welded sheet steel, all other components are aluminum. Air circulation and passive cooling were effective in the structure which was Image 6 : The Concrete Slab of Niamey House. [9]

designed considering the weather conditions. Because Niamey is a very arid climate zone, temperatures rarely fall below 33-35º C. For example, the house was built on a concrete slab covered with tiles to help cooling. The facade consists of solid panels, window panels, dimpled panels and door panels. Lightly wrinkled aluminum sheet shutters can be adjusted at an angle. (Rausch, 2018) [8]

Figure 1 : Drawings of Niamey House [9]


Tropical Houses, Brazzaville The Brazzaville houses were designed by Jean Prouve in 1950-1951 as the home of the Aluminum Français Information Bureau and its manager. The office building (small Brazzaville), 10x12 meters, consists of a waiting room, office, secretarial office and toilet. The 10x18-meter house (large Brazzaville), separated from the office by a walkway, consists of a living room, two bathrooms, a kitchen and three bedrooms (Kathleen, 2009). They are also prefabricated houses and their components of the

constructıon were shipped by airplane like Niamey House. Taking into account the climate requirements of the place, Prouvé surrounded the

Image 7 : Jean Prouve‘s two Brazzaville houses, Congo, 1952 [11]

house with an adjustable porch made of aluminum reflecting the sun and created a second skin to withstand extreme heat. The double roof structure is also designed for natural ventilation. It can be said that Prouvé was inspired by native traditions in Brazzaville Houses due to the fact that high-rise houses were preferred by local builders to provide ventilation. Despite this traditions, the field at Niamey was flatter than the Brazzaville’s one, so the concrete slab could be cheaper and more adequate as a floor. Maison du Sahara Maison du Sahara was designed in 1958 for the oil industry workers

Figure 2 : Plans Brazzaville large and small. [12]

in North Africa. It had 16 square meters and 28 square meters of divided sleeping and living areas. The house could be transported either by truck or by dragging it on metal such as sledges (Kathleen, 2009). [10] The desert’s climate meant that materials and design should minimize the climatic impact of both hot and cold weather; consequently, Prouvé linked a Bedouin-like living space with modern facilities by synthesized local building traditions with modernist materials. For example, It has a large aluminum tent that provides protection from external influences, similar to Bedouin’s nomadic lifestyle. According to Prouve’s human and solution oriented design approach, it can be claimed that instead of creating a traditional Bedouin tent made of real aluminum, it was applied to protect the sun and increase the outdoor living space for comfort of users. Besides, the idea of creating a second France in abroad, which could have been an argument for other examples, can be ignored with Maison du Sahara

Image 7 : Maison du Sahara, 1958. View of two components from beneath parasol [13]

because it has more local construction and design methods. Re-build Examples With the discovery of Tropical Houses, they were re-exhibited in Europe and America to understand Prouve’s design approachs. A team of ten people worked on a full-time basis for nearly a year to completely restore these housee. These exhibitions of Maison Tropicale show metals central role, in the mass production of buildings and furniture for Prouve in the 20th century. If we compare the Brazzaville House built in 1951 and the one that found

Image 8 :Maison du Sahara, SETAP and Co. Perriand architect, Jean Prouve, 1958 [14]

in 2000 after the Cold War periods, it can be said that it has changed over the years. The lower part of the structure was closed, the original railings have been replaced. Besides, balconies are covered with metal panels. The most striking one is seeing traces of bullets on the front panels.

Image 9: Encampment in the sahara and the atlas mountains [15]




In addition, when Tropical Houses were built, the people in Africa must have thought that the houses landed from space, not from Paris, because they look futuristic even today with their sharp lines, bright colors, curved aluminum blinds and small windows of dark blue glasses. Although the architectural structures are lowered from the sky (like a prefabricated), they Image 10 : Jean Prouve‘s Brazzaville houses, Brazzaville, Congo, 2000 [16]

live and change with the society there when they hold onto the ground. They are shaped according to the new needs of the users and hosts the history. Therefore, Is it possible to show once again the view of Europe to Africa with removing Maison Tropical and exhibiting in a sterile way and ignoring physical and mental void that was affected by the local? On the other hand, Tropical House, which produces innovative solutions for air conditioning, presents it with a new material and different exterior

Image 9 : Jean Prouve‘s Brazzaville houses, Brazzaville, Congo, 2000 [17]

appearance for local. Can it be said that prefabricated Tropical Houses are between a rock and a hard place? As a result, the fact that being mobile is central to our view of it as a colonial tool for Maison Tropicale. However,

Image 11 : Jean Prouve‘s Brazzaville houses, Brazzaville, Congo, 2000 [16]

Jean Prouve did not comment badly about the colonies in this context. Especially in the case of Maison du Sahara, which we have examined before, he has made more efforts to understand the place such as using eaves. I think that an open-minded designer who tries to take advantage of a wide range of information will not avoid using local material. Given his early education, the characteristics of his Atelier and the way he worked, he may have chosen to use knowledge techniques for human benefit as a priority. When looking for solutions for the needs of the region, could he be influenced by furniture designs and think as a an object independent of the place? Portuguese Pavilion at the Venice Biennale - Angela Ferreira “Ângela Ferreira recreates the places where Prouvés houses were originally installed, highlighting their absence and the traces

Image 12 : Jean Prouve‘s Brazzaville houses, Brazzaville, Paris 2006 [16]

left behind, evoking the structures themselves through the sculptural objects produced by the artists modular form of architecture resulting from the accumulation of objects in a claustrophobic space and remaining permanently adrify (Ferreria, 2007).”


According to documantary Maison Tropicale in 2008 ,which is about the impacts of removing Maison Tropicale from Afrika on human memories, the local people were afraid of houses and they were seen it as foreign objects. The modernist character did not fit African origin because local people have also built structures in the tropical climate using natural materials in their own way. Aluminum is a very innovative and different material compared to Image 13 : Jean Prouve‘s Brazzaville houses, Brazzaville, NewYork, 2007 [16]

the local architecture in the region. Can inspiration from nature in African culture find itself in a material like aluminum? Finally, when the historical process and these examples are examined, it is clear that the periods of Jean Prouve designed Tropical Houses was complicated as people believed that to provide solutions for social problems through standardization and rational thinking in design and urban planning. With this method, the idea of overcoming cultural differences could be dominant. This idea, combined with universalism, has given rise to the idea that architects can create equal spaces in everywhere so designing a house in Africa by using diffrent techniques may be the result.

Image 14 : Jean Prouve‘s Brazzaville houses, Brazzaville, Londra, 2008 [16]


For example, materials such as aluminum, bricks and cement were

preferred instead of using local materials. It can be claim that people who lived in this period, assumed that these materials were superior to local building styles. The return of the aluminum extracted in Africa to Africa in this way can be considered as an exhibition of technical superiority. The cultural dominance of this situation resulted in negativity. In addition, material and transportation costs could be another negatory feature. Different perspectives were developed by reading about Jean Prouve while understood that a successful design that incorporates modernist examples can actually have different effects in different societies in different periods in the historical process.

Image 15 : Ă‚ngela Ferreira, Maison Tropicale, Niamey, 2007 [17]

Eda Yavas



investigating the relationship between Tropical Houses and colonization. It is

How can technology offer a global solution to housing crisis?


4. BEYOND HIGH-TECH MOVEMENT Many of them, including a group of me, know as Richard Rogers is a star architect of Centre Pompidou and one of the most influential British HighTech architect yet his early works on his career are important keystones for today. His tendency towards social, economic and ecological problems, putting them on the agenda of his personal architectural practice and production of architecture is a higher practice than being an expensive object may be listed as important factors that distinguish it from his colleagues. Particularly his interest in technology and adaptation its to

Image 1: Team 4 (Richard Rogers, Norman Foster, Su Rogers and Wendy Cheeseman) [7]

architectural practices would be basic principles of Rogers’ production. When Rogers has started his career –after WWII- there was a serious housing shortage problem in the world. As a result, many of the leading architects of the time were developing new proposals against housing shortages. Rogers, as an architect at the center of contemporary architectural debates, could not remain indifferent to this problem and developed a number of proposals. I would like to try to understand how Rogers, one of the pioneers of contemporary architecture, deals with the housing shortages, the points of concern and the possibility that these can be treated as a reference for a solution today and in the future. How can technology offer a global solution to housing shortages? Is technology enough to solve the whole problem? In this context, I would like to consider Rogers’ approach to the housing shortage through three projects -ZipUp House, A new adaptation of Jean Prouve’s Demountable House and Y:Cube- and talk about its evolution over time and common concerns.

Image 2: Creek Vean House [8]

Rogers had moved to America after the undergraduate education in England to take his master degree in Yale where he met Norman Foster. During the postwar period the housing shortage problems had been increased, accordingly the leading architects such as Buckminster Fuller, Jean Prouve, Charles and Ray Eames were trying to find solutions to that problem by using mass-production techniques. These names have been an important source of inspiration for both of them, and have attracted their attention to the fact that mass-production technology offers a fast, economical and irreproachable solution [1]. After completing his master’s degree, he returned from America in 1962 and established a partnership called “Team 4” with Norman Foster, Su Rogers and Wendy Cheeseman

Image 3: The Reliance Control Factory [9]

(img. 1). Their first major project for Su’s parents as a weekend house which the name was Creek Vean House. Years after, in 1966, they designed the Reliance Controls factory which was known for its flexibility, open plan scheme, and prefabricated components and elegance of structure (img. 3). Throughout the partnership, they used to massproduced components to build cheap, fast and flexible in their architectural practices. During Rogers’ time with Team 4, he was very fascinated of what was going on in Los Angeles with Case Study houses. Some of the them were Rudolf Schindler’s, Rafael Soriano and Craig Ellwood’s and Eames’ house which were constructed as a prefabricated kit of parts (img. 4). That’s why Rogers was intrigued [2]. After the dissolution of “Team 4”, Rogers would found another practices with Su Rogers. In order to find a solution to world housing shortage, he began to think about massproduced prototype, self-sufficient and energy-efficient houses. In 1967 a competition organized by Dupont –a chemical company- that the name

Image 4: Eames House Photo: Stephen Canon [10]



producing radical and innovative solutions to all these, arguing that the

was “House of Today”, Rogers offered a mass-produced prototype which was called “Zip-Up House” (img. 5). That prototype was a radical concept which was energy-efficient modular structure, extended, altered and dismantable. Even though that design has never produced, it was Image 5: Zip-Up House [11]

an important milestone for Rogers’ career and along his career, he has adapted the same principles of the “Zip-Up House” on his practices. “Zip-Up House is cost-effective, low maintenance cost, each consisted of prefabricated highly insulated walls, ceilings and floor panels.” Highly insulated aluminium sandwich panels joined by neoprene gaskets created a structural rectangular modules with rounded corners. The modules, which Rogers referred to as linear containers which also allowed for flexible use indoors, could be expanded as much as desired by combining Dupont’s low-permeable neoprene gaskets (img. 6) [2]. It has a flexible plan which shapes according to user experience, because of there is no structural elements and fixed wall (img. 7). The window openings used in the wall panels were provided by the joinery used in the automobile industry and could be varied in various ways according to the user’s wishes (img. 8). The wall panels were designed based on the panels of the refrigeration

Image 6: Elements of Zip-Up House [2]

trucks so that they could provide much more efficient thermal insulation than a traditional house and had a little energy to heat whole area. The roof panels of Zip-Up House are similar to the wall panels in construction and have various locations available for the glazing. The floor panels were produced on the same principle, but they were openable panels for mechanical and plumbing access. Furthermore, the feet on which the modules were placed were adjustable according to the terrain. This principles allowed for the house to be easily adaptable to where ever it gets moved to another location [2]. Thus this design went far beyond just being a local solution. Rogers has used some of the main principles of Zip-Up house during his career.

Image 7: Flexible plan of Zip-Up House [11]

Although “Zip-Up House” couldn’t produced, Rogers designed and built, in the same year, a less technically advanced version for his family in Wimbledon while saved almost the same principles. The main difference that distinguishes this prototype from the other is that it consists of steel frames and sits on a flat surface [3] (img. 9). Joinery used in the automobile industry, high heat insulated wall panels and neoprene gaskets that connect each module to another one, are applied in this project with the same principle. Also open plan scheme was allowed a flexible use indoors according to user’s needs. The linear container, which can be expanded as much as required, has been put forward as the basic principles of this project with the flexibility and user-oriented optimization it offers in the interior space. In 1971, Rogers formed a partnership with Renzo Piano and proposed a project which contained mass-produced elements to the Center Pompidou competition in Paris (img. 10). “It emphasised the concept of flexibility, materiality and standardized parts for assembly. All of the main circulation, structure and mechanical system were integrated to the exterior facade. “Elements and ideas of the Zip-Up House are seen throughout the project, such as the open flexible spaces freed by having elements on the exterior and the standard structural components used to because it was readily

Image 8: Wall panels [2]


available at the time.”[2] The competition committee, including Jean Prouve

as a jury, awarded the project; without a doubt, flexibility, prefabricated elements and materiality were the some of the main factors that made the project successful. After the WWII, Jean Prouve began to design temporary houses which was an economic and adaptable solution that was made from wood, aluminium and prefabricated steel for homeless people in Lorraine and easy to transport, assemble and dismantle. Rogers was asked to adapt

Image 9: Rogers House [3]

Jean Prouve’s design for use as a holiday home with modern additions for Design Miami/Basel in 2005. The new design is based on Prouve’s original plans but has cylindirical ‘pods’ containing a modern kitchen, bathroom, a hot water system also solar panels to provide its own electiricity (img. 11). Rogers wanted to keep the single living space as original, however he aimed to improve it by adding new service modules in various arrangements. Rogers explained: “He and I share the same strong feelings about architectural language. By language I mean the manufactured compenents, which behave like a words. We both like to call that project process, or even the building process. We don’t believe in ‘fake’ architecture, in some readymade image that springs to mind while you’re taking a bath. Architecture’s much more complex than that. Jean Prouve has a masterly grasp of technological processes. We use technology to give shape to our ideas, the way words do in poetry.”[4] his ideas which

Image 10: Centre Pompidou Photo: Conservapedia [12]

was very close to Jean Prouve’s. After years Rogers still continued to work on self-sufficient, affordable, energy efficient and economic housing projects with the initial principle and responsibility to find an answer to housing shortages. In London, Rogers have developed an economic and innovative solution which the name was “Y:Cube” for young people who couldn’t pay the high costs of private rent. The Y:Cube was self-contained, energy-efficient as well as prefabricated which carried the same principles with the “Zip-Up house”. That project has formed from single units stacked to another unit which was self-contained 26 m². Each unit is constructructed from high quality, energy-efficient components (primarily renewable timber). The high-quality production method provided by the factory ensured that each module was error-free. Therefore, a very small amount of energy was required to heat each module. Water, heating and electircity can be easily connected to

Image 11: New Adaptation of Demountable House [4]

existing facilities or to other Y:Cube already on site. Rogers described that approach as ‘plug and play’ which provides demountable and additionable system [5] (img. 12). Additional units could be added in case necessity and whole developments could be taken apart and rebuilt in another locations (img. 13). This modern method of construction makes for a neighbourly, clean and quite site [6]. This design offers no promise of permanent accommodation. It offers the cost of rent below 35% of the London market, especially for young people on narrow incomes, for 3-5 years. This social enterprise helps the low income earners to develop economically and as a result provides suitable ground for them to leave housing to another needy. The fact that these modules are manufactured in the factory, easily stackable and growable allows them to expand according to the needs. It also offers an alternative proposal for narrow urban areas and semi-permanent communities [5].

Image 12: Y:Cube [5]



Franche-Comte. It only included a single room which was created to be

World population are increasing especially in urban areas so that the housing shortages are still one of the biggest problem in our days. Rogers has been working on housing shortages for almost five decades and reminds us architecture could offer a solution with the help of technological inventions. Rogers has put his personal ego aside while looking for solutions to housing shortages with his architectural practice and the result is focused on the process rather than the product. Responsibility to society, economic and ecological issues have been prominent factors in his design concern. Rogers is obsessed with the possibilities of mass Image 13: Transport of Y:Cube [5]

production. Because mass production offers an economical and fast solution, it produces a product without errors. When we look at Rogers ‘ proposals, each proposal is a self-contained high-heat insulated model. It can adapt anywhere, but also has flexibility and the ability to expand. At the same time, Rogers’ proposals has not been just for local conditions, so Rogers wants to show us that architectural production is not just a unique, land-specific object, but it should be global solution and adaptable to everywhere. Of course, solving of the housing shortage does not depend on the development of manufacturing methodologies alone. Economic and political policies are essentially the main factors in the emergence of housing shortages. After neoliberalism, the capital began to invest in cities. This led to the capitalization of the city and the conversion of the use value of the dwelling into a exchange value. Therefore, the value of the areas within the city has increased considerably, making fair access to housing for the low-income

Image 14: Y:Cube Housing [5]

people quite difficult. Increasing land prices have made it impossible for low-income people to live in cities individually. Perhaps the reason Zip-Up House and Demountable house remained just prototypes was because they promised an individual life. Y-Cube is distinguished from other examples in that it offers a common life. Low-income people exists through social and economic solidarity in city. Therefore, the communal living offered by Y: Cube has been an important factor in the success and implementation of this project. Only economic and rapid production of housing is not enough to solve this problem. The way of life revealed by the project is more valuable. In this context, we can say that there are important milestones for Rogers’ proposals for the elimination of housing shortages even though two of them hasn’t been succesfull. When we looked around Rogers’ works we could find a clue to deal with that problems. Ahmet Yaymanoglu




Was It inevitable that movements would emerge as a result of changes in society or was It the architects that define the new way of living for them?

Image 1: Facade of Nakagin Capsule Tower [11]


5. METABOLISM Introduction The Japanese architects that joined under the name of Metabolist promoted a flexible architecture and dynamic cities that could develop and grow through the elimination of their exhausted parts and the regeneration of new components in accordance with the necessity of the socio-


economical environment [1]. I was intrigued by the adaptation of biological word such as metabolism became a name for an architectural movement. In a further step, I thought Metabolism can be a tool for defining absolute architecture while creating spaces that work like “living organisms such as growing, reproducing transforming according to their environments” [2] according to their Metabolist Manifest in 1960.

Image 1: Hiroshima amd Nagasaki atom bomb attacks [12]

The movement scope urban scale to furniture scale. As an interior architect, I wonder connections and transitions between them.Why avant-garde movement such as Metabolism did not last much or why we can’t see many built examples of it? Was it inevitable that this movement would emerge as a result of changes in society post-war Japan or was it the Metabolist architects that define the new way of living for them? Or both of these argument serves each other? I try to answer these questions through the main dwelling examples of Metabolism. These are Nakagin Capsule Tower by Kisho Kurokawa, Sky House by Kiyanuri Kikutake, Pumpkin and Furniture House by Kenji Ekuan. All these examples designed by a different architect but yet they have a common feature that all of them offer/ promote the same kind of living styles such as mobility, changeability, and prefabrication.

Image 2: Nankaido earthquake [13]

Historical Background of Japan Japan faces disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis today and also past such as the Nankaido earthquake 1946 [6]. These earthquakes destroyed the houses of many and housing deficit occurred. During the Pacific war (1941-1945) the atom bomb attacks caused house shortages in japan. Furthermore, the country faces the corruption of industrial infrastructure and basic transportation problems [3]. After the Second World War most of the main japan cities demolished and they need to reconstruct such as industrial areas and residential buildings. On the other hand, Japon wanted to compete with developed countries so try to westernize their developments [4]. In 1950 as a result of the War of Korea and the cold war between North and South Korea, japan becomes the main material supplier of the United States. So Japon becomes a

Image 3: Tange Lab [14]

control center of the united states for blocking communist sprawl in the far east As a result of US support, industry and economy developed in Japan from 1950 to 1953 [2]. To sum up, Japan was at a critical point after World War II, atomic bombing and natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. At that point, japan needs to improve economic, social, political and infrastructural. There was high population growth, house shortage, land scarcity, unplanned sprawl. So Metobolist architects offered a solution to these problems in their way [5]. Historical Background of Metabolism There are several breakpoints in the history of Metabolism. Kenzo Tange was a Japanese architect who always supports Metabolism and never becomes a formal member of the group [5]. In 1955, Wachman Seminar was another important event in the history Image 4: Osaka Expo ‘70 [15]


of metabolism. Wachman Seminar held at Tokyo university by Konrad Waschman who design with Packaged house with Walter Gropius. In this seminar prefabricated Technologies, new techniques frame systems, renewable and temporary architecture were taught and talked. Kawazoe and Kenji Ekuan met over this seminar with their future Metabolist fellows [6]. In 1959, Kenzo Tange invited Otterlo, Netherlands to CIAM and Team 10 (Team X) members were there and they introduced the notions of “human association”, “cluster” and “mobility”. Also, Tange introduced Kikutake’s sky house and Tower-shaped City there [4]. In the World Design Conference, they wanted to introduce young architects Image 5: Nakagin Capsule Tower by Kisho Kurokowa [16]

to the public. It was the time Metabolism 1960: The Proposal for New Urbanism introduced to the world of architecture, Kurokawa and Arazu sell their manifesto on the door and main architects of the time invited this conference such as Jean Prouve, Paul Rudolph, Alison, and Peter Smithson, Louis Kahn, etc. In this conference Kurokawa, Kikutake, Ekuan, Otake, and Tange’s himself made presentations about their new architectural issues [5]. Japan wanted to held expo in 40’ but issues that related the wars made it impossible, it postponed and launched in 1970. This postponing Expo ’70 also represented both the economical and moral rehabilitation of Japan. This expo also symbolizes the rising of the Metabolism. Metabolist architects had the opportunity that made real their ideas and their projects in expo 70’. [6].

Figure 1: Drawings of Nakagin Capsule Tower [17]

Agricultural city from Kisho Kurokawa and Marine city by Kikutake was selected for the “Visionary architecture” exhibition held at MoMA in New York in 1961 [1]. Dwelling Examples Nakagin Capsule Tower by Kisho Kurokowa Torizo Watanabe, then president of the real estate firm Nakagin Co impressed by Takara Beautillion structure that exhibited in Osaka Expo ’70 and he hired Kisko Kurokawa to built another capsule containing building for permanent use. It’s for business owners or people who need occasional space for night stay in the center of Tokyo who already homeowners outside Tokyo. Nakagin Capsule tower represents the main notions of Metabolist movement such as permanence and moveability. The tower contains off-site and on-site construction. The building has 3 parts: two

Image 6: Interior of Nakagin Capsule Tower , Today [18]

ferroconcrete shafts, 144 capsules, and utilities. Kurokawa pointed that ferroconcrete shafts last at least sixty years and capsules were designed for replacement twenty-five to thirty-five year and he added It’s not about the resistance of the capsule unit It’s about the changing human habits and social life. In the interior of capsules are prefabricated and the units are extremely compact. It’s 2.5 x 2.5 x 4 meters.And the interior module is 35 cm depth and it contains tv, appliances, sink, wardrobe bookshelf dining table- table can close when it’s not needed- in it. There is a large and circular window but it’s fixed It can not be open for preventing accidents. The bathroom unit made by washable plastic even the walls. soap dispenser, lamp, towel holder and small shelves are designed. Toilet and tub converted.Today building faces demolition risk because of the maintenance issues. Asbestos usage of the capsules and the risk of an earthquake is the several reasons why residents

Image 7: Construction of Nakagin Capsule Tower [19]

want to do demolish and built new fourteen-floor building [7]. Sky house by Kiyonari Kikutake Sky house designed by Kiyonari Kikutake for himself and his family. The building consists of a single 10x10 concrete slab raised 4.5 m high and


the piers located in the middle of the slab’s middle. The key point of Sky House was the changeability of existing design such as moveable kitchen and bathroom unit and addible-removable child room unit -Kikutake’ himself called it move-net- It’s suspended from the concrete slab. When It’s not needed it can be removable. This project shows Kikutake’s Metabolist ideas and his vision of dwelling


Ekuan Furniture house design is a series of experiments for developing domestic space contains moveable furniture that works as skeleton organs and skins.

Image 1: Sky House by Kiyonari Kikutake [20]

Pumpkin house designed for a couple and the house design can expandable with a mini capsule for the future child [8]. Comparison For these main dwelling examples of the Metabolist movement, they have common features even Metabolist Architects were not a homogeneous group at all. For example, movability flexibility and individual-centered designs serve the same kind of living style. Nakagin Capsule Tower distinguished from other examples because It’s actually built and also experienced by the residents while Kikutake built Sky House for himself and his family yet examples from Ekuan’s never built. According to the idea that Metabolist architects promote architecture that creating spaces that growing, reproducing transforming; Sky House has been revised over the years while the Nakagin Capsule Tower has not been renovated as intended since it’s built. On the contrary current residents demand the demolishment of the building while Kisho Kurokawa Architects & Associates has been working on the renovation of the building [7]. If we compare Sky House and Nakagin Capsule Tower according to their plan layout and furniture configuration we can say that Nakagin Capsule Tower designed as a whole capsule unit and maybe unit’s itself suitable the context of mobility in Metabolist movement but in the interior space there are fixated furniture that not allow any mobility or personalization of design. On the other hand in the Sky House, there is an open plan and we see different organization options that providing with furniture configuration and also house contains Removeable move-net child unit. Besides the designer of Nakagin Capsule Tower and Sky House; Kikutake and Kurokawa were an architect yet Kenji Ekuan was Industrial Designer. The furniture House of Ekuan shows the transition from furniture to dwelling unit so we witness Ekuan’s small scale experience and adaptation of this experience to the dwelling system. Speculation

Figure 2: Transition of Sky House [21]

The position of dwelling is changed time after time for example In pre-war Japan, extended family states in the center and the most important space in the home were the place where the guests received. In the time of war, the married couple was the most important part of the household so the main part of the dwelling become bedroom and living room. For post-war Japan, Kisho Kurokawa pointed out that the most important part will become individuals and these individuals will spend most of their time outside their home. Even Kurkowa named these people as a homo movens: people on the move [9]. As a result of increasing time outside of the home; cars become room and train becomes home so dwelling can become a tool or tool can become a dwelling Kurokawa said. Keeping up with the changing habits and social life, the necessity of mobility in dwelling units were highlighted.

Image 8: Pumpkin House by Kenji Ekuan [22]



Pumpkin House and Furniture House by Kenji Ekuan.

Also, metabolism gives importance to flexibility, growth, and change in their designs like in their Metabolist Manifest in 1960. Conclusion As a conclusion, Metabolist movement had strong ideational ideas In addition to architectural stance. As a result of ideational ideas, they organize the whole life cycle and routine for people and this approach restricts users’ space experience. The society’s condition, people who just out of war mostly prefer permanent dwellings rather than mobile ones. Also even in 2019 Architects still talk about the key ideas from the Metabolist movement but It’s a still alternative practice to traditional mainstream ones. Figure 3: Furniture House by Furniture House [23]

On the other hand the notion of individualism more postmodern according to post-war Japan’s condition. Individualism more the idea of the 21st century. People live, think as an individual and they give importance to their freedom. They live in a smaller apartment, in a more compact way because both economic issues and mobility that comes with globalization. They are more close to homo movens that Kurokoawa’s named in 1969 I guess. “Will the Metabolist future finally arrive?”[10] we can ask. Sare Sena Hut




What is the relationship between the mega structures of the 1960s and today’s big buildings?

Figure 1: Spatial City, Yona Friedman, 1960 [1]


6. FROM SELF-ORGANIZATION TO CONDITIONED SPACE Introduction It is a difficult task to determine the boundaries of architecture within infinity and variable of knowledge. With the changing technologies, transforming forms, increasing number of materials and differentiating methods of representation, the concrete ground that will help to understand


architecture has become quite uncertain. In this sense, it is quite misleading to try to read architectural action only on the result product. In the design process, where only the effective presence of the designer cannot be mentioned, it is a more appropriate approach to make ‘accident’ estimates rather than producing problems and finding solutions. In this context, a linear-linear design, a hierarchical network of relations, the previous condition is passed to the other after the completion of the specified design tasks designed to work for the proposed product, it seems unlikely when considering the current forms. As a result, it is difficult to understand architecture through a ‘finished’ architectural product. So, in order to examine architectural action, there is a need to re-think the ideas, approaches to be questioned on different views, to analyze the complex network of relations and to understand the ‘process’. (Tanyeli, 2016, s. 312) [2] Within this complex network of relations, the transformation of the architectural product at different scales exists. Because every period the object of architecture has responded to the needs within its own context. In this respect, the aim of this study is to discuss the ‘big’ buildings of the architecture and the mega-structures. How have mega-structures changed in the historical process? With this question, the mega-structure designs and the functioning of the mega-structures of the 1960s and today’s architecture will be tried to compare. The designs of Yona Fridman and Archigram will be analyzed and the notion of ‘junkspace’, which Rem Koolhaas says, which is criticized for many ‘big’ structures will be

’’In reality, architecture has become too important to be left to architects. A real metamorphosis is necessary to develop new characteristics in the practice of architecture and new behavior patterns in its authors: therefore all barriers between builders and users must be abolished, so that building and using become two different parts of the same planning process.’’ (Giancarlo de Carlo, 1971, p. 9) [5]

examined. Mega-structure of the 1960s: Architecture cannot be considered independent of the conditions of the period. Therefore, everything that affects the society and human has also affected architecture. The 1960s were a period of many wars and urban revolutions. So, many cities needed economic and rapid reconstruction. This context has questioned not only the concrete architectural object but also the theoretical basis of architecture. In addition to being a technical and concrete structure, architecture also designs the way of living. (Kumar, 2006) [3] The utopias of the 1960s are the designs that shape the life style of the society at the urban scale. Thinking at the urban scale, designing not only of a single structure but of the whole has been the working area of many architects. (UnStudio, Archizoom, Metabolists etc.) Mega-structures are the structural equivalents of these utopias. In this context, the architects of the period to be examined Yona Friedman and Archigram’s megastructures will be made through the architectural analysis. Firstly, Hungarian architect Yona Friedman, born in 1923, living in France, defines architecture as ‘process’. According to Yona Friedman, there is no finished architectural product. Because a designed and physically realized space is forever re-shaped by the influence of numerous human relationships and individual daily life practices. (Friedman, 2006) [4] Pelin Tan supports this iddea and she says that: ‘’Although we know that cities are

Figure 2: Spatial City, Yona Friedman, 1960 [4]

created by planners and architects; in fact, the dynamics that shape the


city in a forward-looking way: the effects of living behaviors, experiences and relationships with each other.’’ (Tan, 2003, p. 49) [8] The role of the designer is not the legislator that sets the strict rules in this case. The designer is a trigger that starts the process. Therefore, the designer should establish a system in which people determine the technical possibilities, infrastructures, productions and communication models for how to use a set of tools to trigger their own way of doing things. With all these ideas, Yona Friedman developed the idea of a Spatial City in 1960. In the idea of the Spatial City is preserved the whole existing city. So Yona Friedman makes collages on your present (Figure 1). However, Friedman worked on not only the applicability of the Spatial City model to the existing city, but also on the scale of industry, trade and houses. (Sadler, 1998: s.134) [9] The structure is a system that has the infrastructure. And it makes the new city mobile. Contact with the ground is minimum. Selfbuild methods that use decision-making mechanisms are replaced by communication models. Yona Friedman says that: “People can improvise the city; people can improvise architecture. That means the city shouldn’t resist [its] inhabitants, but obey [its] inhabitants... We need to get back to elasticity.” (Yona Friedman, 1958) [10] Secondly, In the same period, Archigram designed proposal Plug-in City. The designed mega-structure is a ‘building-in-becoming’. It is an unregulated system that is open to transformation and has no strict limits. It has the flexibility to keep up with changing city tempo. It is a project based on the idea that people, technology and creative choices come together and that events and users can always change. Therefore, this study should be designed in 3D rather than 2D. (Archigram, 1970, p.11-6) [11] In these two urban proposal projects, discourses have similar ideas. Within the suggestion systems, the space user is given the freedom to create his / her own space. The construction process never ends. It is not the flexibility of the building, but the flexibility of the user to use the buildings. By adopting the unpredictability of human behavior, these projects are always given people the opportunity to determine the environment in which they live and ensure their independence. Movement and circulation is very Figure 3: Plug-in City, Archigram, 1964 [6]

important in these places. Despite all these analogies, Archigram and Yona Friedman’s the ‘designing the space for the user in the process of being lived’ approaches are not exactly the same. Archigram predicts the user’s change and growth options in many designs (eg figure 3). And the method

’’The ground suddenly becomes a ramp and this ramp suddenly becomes horizontal, intersects, folds, leads to an unknown target in today’s big building’’ (...) Bigness is ‘junkspace’. It is a kind of ‘conditioned space’ to produce.

of representation is technical. Yona Friedman emphasizes unfinishedness

(Koolhaas, 2000, p. 135) [7]

it, Bigness enlists the generosity of urbanism against the meanness of

in his drawings and does not interfere with the imagination of ‘others’. So perhaps it is thought that Yona Friedman is more flexible than Archigram. Today’s Big Buildings: Today, with the developing technology and needs, many buildings are designed as mega-structures in the city whose borders are quite enlarged. These buildings, in which there are many functions, have established their autonomy in the city and are ‘city parts’. Rem Koolhaas discusses this in S M L XL book. Kollhaas says that: ‘’Bigness no longer needs the city: it competes with the city; it represents the city; it pre-empts the city; or, better still, it is the city. If urbanism generates potential and architecture exploits architecture. Bigness = urbanism vs architecture.’’ (Koolhaas, 1997, p. 515) [12]

According to Koolhaas, bigness is the problem of large. (Negri, 2009,

p. 48) [13] They are mixed uses that contain many functions in addition to


being physically large (width, length, etc.). It has its own time-independent lighting and air conditioning. Circulation (elevators, gloves, etc.) is part of the mechanical system. (Koolhaas, 1997, p. 499) [12] Nowadays, many buildings or groups of buildings are gathered in these large volumes. Shopping centers, airports, cultural centers ... There is a shell/facade that breaks these large buildings from the current situation around them. Indoor and outdoor spaces are usually separated from each other. A new life


cycle is constructed within the interior isolated from the exterior. The sun is artificial, the temperature is constant. Human movements are controlled by designed circulation networks. Rem Koolhaas explains the intervention in human movements in the ‘big’ buildings as follows: ’’The ground suddenly becomes a ramp and this ramp suddenly becomes horizontal, intersects, folds, leads to an unknown target.’’ (Koolhaas, 2000, p. 135) [7] In these controlled circulation areas Koolhaas mentions, the axis is not a path that connects two points and leads to the destination. It is the state of being in orbit. In these spaces, the perspective has disappeared and all movements are similar. As a result of all this, what emerges is ‘junkspace’. It is a kind of ‘conditioned space’ to produce. Fredric Jameson explains this situation through shopping centers. There are trajectories in which movements are governed, in spaces that are called by Jameson ‘control space’ , that is, the circulation areas. It is not intended to reach from one point to another along a corridor with a starting and ending point. Circulation has changed from space to spaces that separate or connect spaces to each other. (Jameson, 2003, p. 234) [14] There is an effort to control user mobility in this space. Just like Koolhaas’ ‘junkplace’. Conclusion/Discussion: Rem Koolhaas says in the Bigness text that bigness is the ‘gift’ of the mega-structure. (Koolhaas, 1997, p. 504) [12] Adds with Junkspace essay, architects first considered the junkspace and called it the mega-

‘‘Bigness is the ‘gift’ of the mega-structure. (...) Yona Friedman’s Spatial City project as a mechanical flying cloud cover.’’ (Koolhaas, 1997, p. 504-5) [12]

‘‘Architects first considered the junkspace and called it the mega-structure.’’ (Koolhaas, 2000, p. 242) [7]

structure. (Koolhaas, 2000, p. 242) [7] Moreover, Koolhaas describes Yona Friedman’s Spatial City project as a mechanical flying cloud cover. (Koolhaas, 1997, p. 505) [12] With all these definitions Koolhaas associates magnitude and mega-structure with each other. According to him, the great structure is not something that exists in context. It stands alone, does not relate to its surroundings. Therefore, in Yona Friedman’s megastructure designs, the available areas is the images, while the designs are the drawings. Bourdon, on the other hand, criticizes Friedman’s megastructure that does not touch the ground, emphasizing that the idea of “the greatest good for the greatest number” (Bentham J., 1876) [15] will turn into a tragedy for today’s big buildings. [16] (Bourdon, V., 2018, p. 115) But there is an important point to remember. The period in which big buildings were built and the reasons for their emergence. So context. The great structures of the 1960s were utopias beyond the technologies of the time. After the wars and great devastations, they were added to the city with a narrative that accepted the city as it was. It was aware of the current state of the city. It was the result of a flexible, dynamic and mobile design (especially Yona Friedman). However, the situation in today’s city and big buildings is very different. With the increasing population today, the borders of cities have expanded considerably. Therefore, it is not possible to design the city completely. Today, big buildings are spaces that have

“People can improvise the city; people can improvise architecture. That means the city shouldn’t resist [its] inhabitants, but obey [its] inhabitants... We need to get back to elasticity.” (Yona Friedman, 1958) [10]

broken out of the city and established their own ‘city’. It is different from the mega-structures of the 1960s. Because today’s big structures have a shell/ facade that prevents them from making contact with the environment. 327

This limiting shell/facade not only separates the interior from the outside, but also prevents being flexible and changeable and extensible. In addition, the desire to control the user in the interior of the 1960s megastructure is very contrasting. Because self-organization is very significant at the 1960s mega-structures. The situation in which Yona Frieadman and Archigram adopted about user freedom should be questioned again in the big buildings of today. Because often users are controlled and conditioned in today’s big buildings. And the architectural object means a mass, Figure 4: Spatial City, Yona Friedman, 1960 [17]

delimited by a shell/facade, designed by the deductive method.


Ebru Sahinkaya



How can the principles of “machine for living� be represented in the small scale living unit design?

Image 1: Cabanon de Le Corbusier, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin [1]


7. LE CABANON Le Corbusier, one of the founders of modern architecture, was an architect in the period of the housing crisis that emerged after World War II. Mostly he became a part of discussion with his works on behalf of city planning and mass housing. In addition, he has done many works on behalf of modern housing. He defined the house as “machine for living” and drew


a scheme for modern housing with the theory of “Five Points of a New Architecture”. In addition to this modern architect identity of Le Corbusier, in 1951 he designed a weekend house for himself and his wife Yvonne in the south of France. This structure, which he calls Le Cabanon, differs greatly from its previous projects with its wooden structure and facade. How did an architect who advocated life and production like machinery throughout his life treat small-scale building production? What situations in his life led him to design Cabanon? Is Cabanon Corbusier’s small-scale machine for living? In this article, what I would like to investigate is how much Cabanon contains impacts of Le Corbusier’s earlier works and what developments in Corbusier’s life led him to design this structure. Within the Cabanon, Modular as Corbusier’s form of measurement and the Unites des Camping that built on the same site will be examined. The reason for this examination is that in the design of Cabanon and Unites des Camping, in addition to the Modular measurement unit, similar construction techniques and a similar design concept have been constructed. It is surprising that Corbusier built a cabin away from the city towards the

Image 2: Le Corbusier in the Cabenon during the construction [1]

end of his life, although for years we have known the concept of housing as “machine for living.” When we examine Corbusier’s life and designs, there are some traces on the way to Cabanon. I believe that it is important to examine sections of Corbusier’s life on the road to Cabanon’s design process before moving on to his work. After school Corbusier made trips in 1911 to Italy, Vienna, Munich in Central Europe and the Mediterranean, including Istanbul. During his trips, he also keep in touch with leading architects of that period such as Aguste Perret and Peter Behrens which might affect the becoming a modern architect identity of Corbusier. In these trips he also came to Istanbul and was influenced by the architecture of the city. We can detect this from the drawings and descriptions of the city from his book Voyage D’orient Carnets. In the book that he describes his journey, we can see that he was impressed by a wooden mansion

Image 3: Drawing of a Wooden Maison in Istanbul by Le Corbusier [5]

in Istanbul as we can see in image 3. He described the building as an architectural masterpiece even Theophile Gautier compares the building with a chicken coop. However, with the start of the World War II, the need for architecture increased especially in mass housing, Corbusier joined this trend and started to make designs through the rapid production of the house and took the house as a machine for living. Concentration of technological developments on concrete and steel over the existing material at that time led to the creation of the current image of Corbusier’s designs. Concrete led him to design large number of massive blocks. In the 1920’’s Corbusier came to the location of Cabanon, RoquebruneCap-Martin – a small enclave between Monaco and Manton on the south coast for the first time while on vacation. In 1938 Corbusier and his wife spent the summer with his close friend Jean Bodovici and Eileen Gray. In the following years Corbusier continued to come to this region. During Image 4: Corbusier Arriving Cap-Martin, with Thomas Rebutato [1]


this trips Eileen Gray’s house may have influenced Corbusier’s change of perception of home. Although the Gray House is read through modern architecture, it can be said that the interior of the house is far from being a machine. In 1948 Corbusier published “Modulor” which is an anthropometric scale of proportions that he applied as a design element in Cabanon. During these visits, they became close friends with Thomas Rabutato, owner of the nearby seafood restaurant l’Etoile de Mer, and Corbusier produced drawings for this restaurant. In 1951, he designed the cabins for himself and his wife, Cabanon. His friendship with Jean Bovici and Thomas Rebutato, the owner of the local seafood restaurant, obviously encouraged Corbusier to build a house there. He mentions about Cabanon as “For my personal use I have a chateu on the Cote d’Azur that measures 3.66x3.66 meters. It was form my wife, it was splendid, inside was extravagantly comfortable and nice.”[2] After that in 1954 he designed five cabins that attached to the restaurant of his close friend Thomas Figure 1: Modulor Man, Le Corbusier [1]

Rebutato based on Modulor and Cabanon’s design approach. By this way, we can see that Cabanon’s design style is not singular, and it has a place in Corbusier’s approach to design. To understand the Cabenon ıt is necessary that first investigate of the principle behind design, Modular. Modular is an anthropometric scale of proportions. Corbusier developed the system based on human measurements and golden ratio. Corbusier defines Modulor as “A man

Figure 2: Modulor Man Sketches, Le Corbusier [1]

with his arm raised provides the decisive points of filling the space - the foot, the navel, the head, the most extreme of the fingers of the raised arm; These are the three ranges that form a golden ratio sequence called Fibonacci.” [3] in the Modulor II. First Modulor had a measurement of an average man height 175 cm. Then Corbusier change that to 183 cm which height is 6 feet long. With this method he arrange a ratio as in the Fibonacci sequence. Le Corbusier explains his aim in the Modulor as to harmonize the global production flow. The organization of production all over the world in the form of prefabrication is a big event that is still going on in human history. Standardization entails the risk of arbitrary selection, but on the other hand, it can bring about extraordinary liberation in economic production methods. (Corbusier, 1948) It is obvious that with Modular Corbusier is searching a systematization of architecture and studying the measurements for prefabrication. Even he gives us the measurement of minimum individual living cell, which is 226x226x226 cm. With the effect of

Image 5: Cabenon in workshop of Charles Barberis, in Ajaccio [1]

the systematization that he study in Modulor, he design a cabin for himself. “On 30th December, 1951 on a table corner in a little snack bar on the Cote d’Azur, I drew (as a birthday present for my wife) the plans for a small holiday house, or cabin, which I built in the following year on the end of a rock lapped by the waves. These plans (my own) were drawn up in threequarters of on hour. They are final; nothing has been changed; the little house was built from a clean copy of these drawings.” [1] As Corbusier said in his quote Cabanon was built in the cot d’Azur, that Corbusier’s one of the favorite holiday destination. The building was designed to be adjacent to the restaurant of the close friend of Thomas Rebutato. Even there is a door that connects the Cabanon and Rebutato’s restaurant. It differs from Cabanon Corbusier’s lack of the same language as the gross architectural language found in previous designs. Unlike reinforced

Figure 3: Exploded Axonometric Drawing of Le Cabanon [4]


concrete structures, a wooden structure is dominant in Cabanon. different

Corbusier, defending the ribbon window design by taking in the structural elements of the structure, presents us with an unexpected structure with woodwork detail. The main reason for the design of a wooden structure is that the house is not a living machine, but rather a prefabricated building experiment. The construction has a timber-frame structure. The building was originally produced in the workshop of sculptor Charles Barberis, a friend of Corbusier, in Ajaccio. Afterwards, the parts were dismantled and of the Modulor. Single room of 366x366 cm floor area and 226 cm height, prefabricated at Ajaccio. This type of construction has proved to be most satisfactory.” Although Corbusier mentions in this excerpt that

Figure 4: Le Corbusier, Cabanon, 1952, Roquebrune Cap Martin [1]

it is produced using Modular principle measurements, when we look at the plan, when we add the toilet and corridor to the dimensions, we see a rectangular plan rather than a square form. Cabanon dimensions are approximately 366x436 cm. (Flueckiger 49) Interior is covered with plywood sheets that painted with bright colors as; yellow, green, red, black and white. As a small structure Cabanon contains a bed, toilet, table for working and a shelf column with water basin. Furnitures in Cabanon most likely seems that they come out from structure, not that randomly chosen. They are designed only for Cabanon with the principles of Modulor. It is important to see that a pattern forms in Corbusier’s design approach

Image 6: Interior of Le Cabanon, Photograph by :Olivier Martin Gambier 2006 [1]

with the similarity Between Cabanon and Unites des Camping. Corbusier’s design for Rebutato is constructed on reinforced concrete stilts. The structure with a prefabricated wooden structure has a similar understanding of Cabanon. As in Cabanon, we see the effect of Modulor in Unites des Camping. There is even a Modulor drawing of Corbusier on one side of the design. Inside the cottages are also covered with plywood sheets that painted to bright colors. Unites des Camping is a unit that contains five cottages for serving two people each. Because of that they contain a toilet, two beds and a shelf column with water basin as in the Cabanon. But in

Image 7: Interior of Le Cabanon, Photograph by :Olivier Martin Gambier 2006 [1]

the design the furniture design is more separate than the cottage when we compare to the Cabanon. The reason for this is that the user of the structures is not permanent and changes with short intervals. The cottages do not have a kitchen unit as in Cabanon. Cabanon looks like a refusal of Corbusier’s way of read the housing as machine for living. It is speculative that an urban-oriented architect makes a cabin in suburban that looks like the traditional cottage as Throue’s cabin. Unites des Camping was designed with an architectural perception similar to Cabanon. Although these two structures seem to be far from the structure appearance of Corbusier, they are actually compact and solution

Image 8: Unités de camping, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, Photograph by :Manuel Bougot 2006 [1]

oriented structures like a machine due to the use of Modulor principles. When Corbusier working with Modulor, the effort to create a unit of measurement based on human dimensions is actually a universal form and to ensure that housing production is fast and global. The reason for using wood material in their structure may be that it is light material and easy to be processed and suitable for prefabrication. Although he advocates the use of ribbon windows in modern residential design, we cannot see the same transparent structure in Cabanon. In addition to two small square windows, there is a plywood sheet which can prevent the interior from appearing. In fact, window designs do not relate to the discourse of modernity, but relate to the fact that the structure was previously produced and moved into a

Image 9: Interior of Unités de camping, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, Photograph by :Manuel Bougot 2006 [1]



reached the land to be built by a ship. Corbusier says that “Application

area. Wooden panels to prevent the inside of the house may be closed when the house is not used because it is used seasonally. Although the Cabanon does not resemble Corbusier structures from the outside, the interior design is based on Modulor as well as a machine-free, sterile design. The activity of cooking seems as a symbol of traditional house structure. The fact that there is lack of kitchen elements that enhance domesticity, allows us to see the signature of Corbusier when we look at Cabanon carefully. The strong relationship between restaurant, create a space to Corbusier in Cabanon design process to outside the mundane task of daily living and keeping the Modulor life in Cabanon pure. (Flueckiger, 50) Consequently, Cabanon’s design approach is discussed in the context of Corbusier’s life and his own designs. Although Cabanon is not an Image 10: Corbusier sitting on the outside of Cabenon [4]

iconic Corbusier structure in appearance, it differs when read through Corbusier’s concept of house. When Corbusier’s life is examined and the communication networks established, traces can be seen on the way to Cabanon’s design. When Cabanon is examined carefully, it can be seen that not only the use of the Modulor unit but also with the interior design and construction principle it is parallel to Corbusier’s approach of house. The prefabrication method that used in Cabanon and Unites des Camping is a study of mass production of house and a try to globalizing the housing standards. The study of production of mass housing that Corbusier start with the housing crisis caused by World War II deviate another dimension with prefabrication. Unites des Camping is an important example to search because Corbusier create a pattern with the design principle that he create with Cabanon. This led to Cabanon being not a singular work. Beside the implementation of work in Modular Cabanon is a holiday house for Corbusier design for himself and his wife. He describes the life in his Cabanon as peaceful and comfortable. “I am so comfortable in my Cabanon that I’ll probably end my days here”(Le Corbusier) Zeynep Ulusoy




How sustainable is the ecological architecture approach?

Sustainable Cabin by Texas Tech University [1]


8. SUSTAINABLE CABIN IN DESIGN-BUILD STUDIOS I have started my journey by reading “How much House?” and aimed to introduce Sustainable Cabin by Texas Tech University and links the story to Thoreau and Le Corbusier’s cabins. While doing this comparison in the book, there is always a budget calculation with present value of Thoreau and Le Corbusier’s cabins that they would cost US$722 and


US$60,000 respectively. However, there is no mention of the actual cost of the Sustainable Cabin, which I have learned from the author that it has cost them about US$60,000 for the design and construction, excluding the labour fee as it was a project built by university students. When I dive into the subject more detailed, I realised that building a sustainable cabin in most cases has been very expensive as it usually incorporates modern technology with the latest improvements and implications of contemporary materials with the design to achieve a significant energy savings from the unit. However, there is a key aspect that most of these technologies and materials are also dependant on unsustainable materials such as plastics and silicone, which would cause another resource crisis in the state of overuse. Therefore, I have aimed to focus on the development of

Image 1: Cabin in the Woods, H. D. Thoreau [1]

sustainable cabins through design and build architecture studios within the universities as these projects are more research based than profit based commercial ones. The precedent projects are Solar Houses by MIT, Integral Urban House by UC Berkeley’s College of Environmental Design, Bryant House by Rural Studio at Auburn University, and the Sustainable Cabin by Texas Tech University. These examples will be self explanatory to the energy problem through history from the 1930s to 2010 by changing priorities in terms of design and renewable technologies. The ecological science and sustainability, which is a branch of biology until 1700s, have always developed in relation to catastrophic human actions. Wood as the key material between 1550 and 1700, was used in construction as well as domestic and industrial heating, which has resulted in people harvesting forests more than they can regenerate and caused a shortage in wood [2]. Therefore, coal mining has started to become the

Image 2: Le Corbusier’s Le Cabanon [1]

main source of heating in Great Britain, which was afterwards linked to the Industrial Revolution in 1760s [2]. In the meantime, a handbook of forestry has published in 1713 mentioning about sustainability for the first time as “sustained yield” that means never harvesting more than the forest can regenerate [3]. In the 19th century, new materials has emerged in daily life from energy production to construction industry. Oil was one of the most important resources, which has affected various sectors from energy production to construction industry. John D. Rockefeller formed Standard Oil Company in the 1860s, and has controlled approximately 95% of the oil refined in the United States. In the meantime, H. D. Thoreau has become one of the first who used the term ‘ecology’ in the USA [4].


There has also been the introduction of new materials in construction such as glass, steel, cast-iron and concrete as well as all of the plastic based materials that are all byproducts of crude oil. Therefore, crude oil, sand and metals have become the most precious resources for the industry. However, during the world wide economic crisis Long Depression between 1873 and 1896, energy consumption and related to this the cost of fossil fuels have increased, which has resulted in thermal power plants to look for alternatives to reduce heat losses through buildings and this has forced them to use thermal insulation materials [5]. In the meantime, German zoologist Ernst Haeckel has first defined the term ecology at the end of the 19th century [6]. The time period between 1914 and 1945, has included two world wars and a devastating economic crisis in between called the Great Depression, Image 4: Solar One [9]

and ended up with shortages in resources. It also increased the use of plastic production by 300% as there has been new uses and adaptation of plastics in various products in relation to the war [7]. However, the positive perception about plastics lasted until the post war years, afterwards environmental awareness has arisen by man-made disaster events such as the Great Smog in 1952 and Santa Barbara oil spill in 1969. Rachel Carson’s book in 1962 was also another important breaking point in the history of ecology as it warned people about the dangers of chemical pesticides. As a result, recycle goods were encouraged in Europe and the USA, and the use of word plastic has evolved into a negative meaning that was cheap or fake. Starting from 1938, universities such as MIT has started to focus on the construction of both active and passive solar houses, which active solar house was placed with flat-plate collectors to capture solar radiation and passive solar house was without any mechanical hardware and only has architecture, orientation and architectonic components acting as heat collector and thermal storage [8]. In 1939, Solar One has completed and become the first house in America to be heated by the energy from the sun with the help of 14 number of collectors, which are glass covered devices with copper tubes inside that were warming the continuously circulated water from approximately 67,000 litres of hot water tank in the house basement [9]. Between 1939 and 1978, there have been six houses designed and constructed by MIT with $600,000 sponsored by a wealthy industrialist, whose company was producing carbon black from natural gas and oil, and all of these houses are failed with their heating system in some way, for example Solar 1 was effective but expensive to run, therefore, it was torn down after 3 years [9]. In 1973 OPEC, which includes Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela at that time, decided to decrease oil production by 5% and double the price per barrel to the USA and some European countries that support Israel on the 4th Palestine War. As a result, the price of a barrel of oil in America has quadrupled and there has been compulsory cuts in oil consumption, which has encouraged people and governments in the introduction of alternative energy measures [8].


Its reflection in architecture has seen in many countries, including the USA where Farallones Institute has renovated a Victorian mansion in West Berkeley to create the most innovative, ecological and self-reliant urban homestead that focused on minimising energy need by passive solar heating, generating energy, providing food for inhabitants and recycling its waste by grey-water system and compost toilets [10]. However, the whole system has failed as it proposed a new lifestyle to its inhabitants


that required many hours of human effort to run, which is not realistic in an urban context [11]. Eventually, in 1987 there has been another shift in the definition of the word sustainability as a result of awareness on growing use of non-renewable resources, and the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations has defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future

Image 5: 1974 photos of the Integral Urban House courtesy of the UC Berkeley Environmental Design Archives [10]

generations to meet their own needs”[3]. In 1993, another design and build studio called “Rural Studio” has been found at Auburn University by Samuel Mockbee and D.K. Ruth in Alabama. They believed that there should be moral responsibilities in architecture, and environmental and social change should be included in design [12]. Bryant House was Rural Studio’s first completed building, and it focused on delivering the needs of the specific individuals and families with affordable materials [13]. The house had a compact shape with one main space that includes living, dining and kitchen areas and three curved niches for children bedrooms, and the building was well insulated with hay bales that are used in the construction of the walls. The most important aspect about the house beside prioritising the client needs, was to be well insulated with the minimum cost as hay bales have used for the core of the exterior wall and the total cost of the house was under $30,000 [14]. Therefore, Rural Studio is a unique example by achieving energy efficient buildings with inexpensive materials and meeting the client needs without offering them a new life style. Further on the history, Agenda 21 was adopted in 1992 by the first UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro to address problems and develop strategies on development and environment cooperation [15]. Following this, Kyoto Climate Agreement was signed in

Image 6: Rural House photograph by Timothy Hursley [12]

1997 by 38 developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from 2008 to 2012 by 5 an average of 5% compared to 1990 levels; however, they couldn’t achieve it because of the housing crisis in 2008 [16]. Lastly, Sustainable Cabin has designed and constructed as an experimental research station in 2010 by Urs Peter Flueckiger and his students at Texas Tech University, which is off grid cabin at a remote site on the American High Plains. The cabin is important with being highly energy efficient as it combines passive solar design and photovoltaic solar power system together as well as the rainwater harvesting system and waste composting [1]. Image 7: Rural House photograph by Timothy Hursley [17]


In conclusion, the progress of sustainability in architecture has always been affected from crisis in either energy or economy throughout history; therefore, it has focused on the new materials and technology that would reduce the extreme dependency on fossil fuels. However, most of these precedents except Rural Studio, was still dependant on unsustainable materials such as plastic or silicone, which would create another catastrophic resource crisis in case of fully usage of these materials. Therefore, it is important to set the characteristic parameters of the project in relation to client needs, project location and climate including future projections, energy efficiency with inexpensive and local methods considering the carbon pathway of the materials, and renewable technology with the consideration of sustainability potential of the system.

Image 9: Sustainable Cabin [1]


Damla Kaleli



How is the relationship between modern houses and the ground ?

Image 1: Lina Bo Bardi, Glass House [14]


9. MODERN STRUCTURES RELATE TO THE GROUND In my research, I will examine the question “How the modern structures relate to the ground?” based on 5 examples. I will focus on the relationship types that are shaped depending on the landscape and the building. One of these examples is that the design is kept in the foreground and the environment relation of the structure is designed as a ground only therefore


its relationship with the surroundings is not clearly seen. There are Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier, which is one of the most important examples of modern movement, Casa Das Canoas by Oscar Niemeyer, which includes a rock inside of the house. The other type is the design where the design is shaped according to the topography and the relationship with the environment is prioritized. I will focus on examples that are engaged with the environment. One of them is Glass house of Line Bo Bardi and Futuro House, which is transported to different topographies and Dymaxion House (Wichita House) by Buckminster Fuller, designed from the center point of its relationship with the ground. With the housing need that emerged after the First World War, easy, fast production and transportable designs were started to be considered. Dymaxtion House, designed by Buckminster Fuller in 1929, was one of

Image 2: Dymaxion House,Buckminster Fuller[11]

them. Fuller designed the structure like a car. The structure is prefabricated and suitable for mass production. This design was designed as a solution to the housing need, but the design could not be produced. While the work on mass production aimed at post-war need in America continued, reinforced concrete began to spread. The modern structure of Le Corbusier, working with reinforced concrete in France, was built in this period of Villa Savoye. After the Second World War, Buckminster Fuller signed a 2-year agreement with the Beech Aircraft industry, which has an abundance of aluminum. He built the Wichita House in 1946 with a few modifications to the design of Dymaxion House. With the end of World War II, the movement of modern architecture began to spread. Especially in Brazil, there are many modern buildings designed by Oscar Niemeyer. Another example of this period is the Casa de Vidro, designed by Lina Bo Bardi in Sao Paluo, Brazil. The most significant specification of Glass House, which was designed in 1950, is that it can establish a strong relationship with the environment. Located in a sloping land, the structure is integrated with the environment. A year later, Casa Das Canoas house designed by Oscar Niemeyer, one of the pioneers of modern architecture, shows a similar example of the relationship with Lina Bo Bardi’s environment in Glass House design. The architect, who takes a minimal approach in other projects, has created a product by combining

Image 3: Dymaxion House,Buckminster Fuller[11]

organic and minimalism in the design of this project. In the 1950s, the effects of the crisis were diminishing at the end of World War II, and the foundations of the third Industrial Revolution were laid during this period. With the concerns of modernism and new technologies that came with the third Industrial Revolution, alternative design examples started to emerge in different parts of the world. There were examples designed in Europe during this period using new material technologies, and Futuro House was one of them.

Image 4: Wichita House,Buckminster Fuller[11]


Futuro House, designed by Matti Suuronen in 1968, was one of the most effective singular examples designed in this period with the material being lightweight, portable and prefabricated in mass production. Due to its transportability, it could be located in different geographies and adapted to all environmental conditions. Although it can be produced quickly and easily with mass production, it could not be produced. With the oil crisis in 1973, the end of the productions designed with glass fiber reinforced plastic like Futuro House. VILLA SAVOYE Image 5: Villa Savoye, Le Corbuiser[12]

Villa Savoye was built in 1929 by Le Corbuiser in France. The famous architect, who defined this structure with the words “The house is a machine for living.,, Aimed to prioritize functionality while designing the structure. The architect using the open plan system has increased the functionality of the building. It has increased the fluidity and continuity of the structure by supporting the roof with ramps from the entrance level. The structure, which is raised from the ground with thin columns, looks like a box floating in the air. In order to increase this effect, the ground floor is painted green. Using the terrace roof system, the roof elevation has also become a living space. FUTURO HOUSE Futuro House designed by Matti Suuronen in 1968. Designed as the home of the future; It is a design that adapts to all conditions in nature with its round shape. The relationship with the environment has been established by raising from the ground. Futuro House has grown rapidly because it is a design suitable for prefabricated and mass production. It is composed of fiberglass-reinforced polyester plastic. This material; made the design cheap, lightweight and portable.

Image 6: Villa Savoye, Le Corbuiser[12]

GLASS HOUSE Glass House (Casa de Vidro) designed by Lina Bo Bardi in 1950 at Jardim Morumbi, Sao Paulo. The building has been designed with the environment in mind. It is raised on thin columns and integrated with nature. It is a hybrid structure that changes and shapes according to the environment even during the construction phase. The Italian artist used mud and straw as materials besides glass and reinforced concrete. Lina Bo Bardi, who argues that the house is for living, has designed the structure to meet the wishes of the user. CASA DAS CANOAS Image 7: Villa Savoye, Interior[12]

Casa Das Canoas was designed by Oscar Niemeyer in 1951 in Rio De Janeiro. It is regarded as one of the most distinctive reflections of modern architecture. The structure is situated on a sloping land. Half of the structure is buried under the ground. It is one of the leading examples of flexible and wide use of reinforced concrete. The architect blends the organic and minimal approach in this structure. The structure includes a rock in the middle and designed of the structure formed according to the existence of the rock. Besides the reinforced concrete roof carried with thin columns, wood and glass materials were used. The walls of the ground floor are painted green and environmental integration is envisaged.

Image 8: Casa Das Canoas,Oscar Niemeyer[13]


DYMAXION HOUSE In 1927, Dymaxion House was designed by Buckminster Fuller. An earthquake and storm-resistant structure was obtained with a carrier located in the center. The entire structure is carried by cables connected to the center, thus leaving a large gap in the ground level. Dymaxtion House has a modular interior, allowing the interior to be tailored to the user’s needs. Although the design is suitable for prefabricated and Wichita House, with changes in the design of the Dymaxtion House. The relationship of the structure with the ground and the carrier system is quite

Image 9: Casa Das Canoas,Interior[13]

different from Dymaxtion House. After the war, reinforced concrete structures became widespread and the modernist approach began to spread. During this period, many modern buildings were built in Brazil. These buildings built by architects such as Oscar Niemeyer and Le Corbusier, these buildings were criticized after the 1950s. Modernism; lead the problems like buildings are not oriented towards the need, and people want to escape from the city and be in nature. The biggest contradiction in the projects carried out away from the city and integrated with nature was how the structures designed in different geographies established a relationship with the environment. As

Image 10: Casa Das Canoas,Oscar Niemeyer[13]

a result of this, the Casa de Vidro (Glass House) project was created. During the project, he designed the house according to a tree based on the relationship with the environment and shaped the design according to the environment during the construction process. In order to strengthen the relationship of the house with the environment, it has raised the house with columns from the ground without disturbing the continuity of the environment. The house is situated on a sloping topography and is positioned without disturbing the topography. Bardi said that the house is a hybrid structure and the open plan system enabled the structure to be a variable design according to the needs of the user. The architect, mostly using glass instead of walls, had the effect of disappearing in the nature. The design of the Futuro house by Matti Suuronen has a circular shape for better integration into nature. The material used in the design is inexpensive, prefabricated and suitable for mass production. It can be

Image 11: Glass House, Lina Bo Bardi[14]

located in different geographical conditions, even in difficult conditions such as slopes with carriers that raise the design from the ground. The elevation of the house does not disrupt the continuity of nature and integrates harmoniously with the environment. The Futuro house, which is able to establish a strong relationship with the environment like Glass house, has no boundaries with nature and disappears among the greenery in time. “Architectural features of true democratic ground-freedom would rise naturally from topography, which means that buildings would all take on the nature and character of the ground on which in endless variety they would stand and be component part.” (Wright,1953) Dymaxion House is one of the examples of these dynamic effects. There is a plan system similar to Futuro’s. Dymaxion House which is one of the cheap and practical solutions for housing scarcity, is suitable for mass production and is easy to carry with the light weight of the material and it is planned to produce too much. For this reason, Fuller designed the design using a circular plan system, which also exists in nature, to accommodate any situation.

Image 12: Glass House, Lina Bo Bardi [4]



mass production, it could not be produced. It was built in 1948 as

When Buckminster designed Fuller’s Dymaxion house, he designed a carrier system that would raise the house from the ground. Entrance to the building is provided by elevator from below. The relationship with the ground is weak. At the time of production, a much smaller elevation was used in Wichita House. In the Dymaxion house, people can walk down the ground floor and enter the house with elevator, and now they can enter the house with a few steps of stairs, and the elevation of the house from the ground is too smaller than Dymaxion house. Dymaxion is different from the other examples and maintains its relationship with the Image 13: Glass House, Lina Bo Bardi [14]

environment with sustainability. “The issue of resource conservation is one of Fuller’s attention, and he has implemented it at the Dymaxion House. No resources have been wasted at Dymaxion House; the water was filtered and recycled, and rain water on the roof was collected for future use. In the showers, water was used by spraying water into very small particles with a special system such as sprinkler, thus reducing water consumption. Solid wastes are packaged to be sent to central processing units for recycling. The power is designed to be collected from the sun and wind and stored in a vertical carrier.” [10] Fuller, who strengthened her design with her environment and resource conservation, says: “There is no energy crisis, food crisis or environmental crisis. There is only a crisis of ignorance.” (R.Buckminster Fuller). Immediately after Lina Bo Bardi’s Glass House design, Oscar Niemeyer’s Casa Das Canoas design is made in nature and has a limited relationship

Image 14: Matti Suuronen,Futuro House [4]

with the environment, although it seems to be a strong example. The structure was designed with reference to a rock. A plan in which the rock was incorporated into the house was designed and the rock was protected. Designed for sloping terrain like Glass House, the structure has not been raised from the ground. Niemeyer designed the structure with an organic plan by using the cirves while planning the house and says “What attracts me are free and sensual curves. The curves we find i mountains, in the waves of the sea, in the body of the woman we love.” One floor of the house is under the ground and some of it is designed to be located on the ground floor. Therefore, it is a structure that divides the integrity of nature. Although there is an attempt to create an integrated effect with nature by incorporating the rock into the structure, there are limitations in the relationship between the structure and the environment.The ground floor is painted green to integrate with nature. Le Corbusier, who is one of the representatives of modern architecture like Oscar Niemeyer, raises his house from the ground by using pilotis which is one of the rules of a modern structure in Villa Savoye project. Although the relation of the

Image 15: Futuro House, Matti Suuronen[15]

structure, which is located on a flat land, seems to be very strong, it actually raises the structure from the ground, but its relationship with the environment is less. The ground floor of the building was painted in green to support the effect of “The house is a box in the air ...” [8]. In the roof floor, a relationship with environment has been created. The use of stones by pouring stones on the ground has limited the landscape, so even if the building is constructed in another area, it will maintain its existing state without integration with the environment. In these examples we see how the architect represents the house and the disconnection of the modern structure with the ground. Architects have designed the structures to be prominent.

Image 16: Futuro House, Matti Suuronen[15]


If we evaluate the relationship of the structures with the environment through the relationship it has with the ground, we see different types of relationships. One of these is the examples which are prioritizing the environment in the relationship with the ground. The other one is only the structurally connected with the ground and the design is in the foreground. This situation varies according to the direction in which architects want to represent their structures. We can see that design is a priority in modern


buildings. This approach changes as time changes, and the buildings can combine modernity and organic concepts and establish more integrated relations with the environment. At the same time, we can see that the design which are aviable for mass-production such as Futuro House are designed more integrated to the environment than the past. Ilayda Baydemir



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Davies C. (2005), “The Prefabricated Home”, London : Reaktion. Huynh H. (2016), “Expanding the Modular”, M.Arch Thesis, University of Southern California School of Architecture, p.9, Available at: josesanchez010/docs/huynh_hieu_793a_precedentbooklet (Accessed 24th November 2019) Richard Rogers interview by Dezeen about “Wimbledon House”(2018) [Screencast]. Available at : (Accessed at 24th November 2019) Coley C.& Harbour I.& Arai T.& Seguin L.& Seguin P.(2016), ” 6x6 Demountable House Adaptation Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners”,Paris: Galerie Patrick Seguin Rogers, Stirk, Harbour and Partners Archive (2013), “Y:Cube”, Available at: (Accessed at 24th November 2019) Designing Buildings Wiki (2018), “Y:Cube”, Available at: (Accessed at: 1st January 2020 Slessor C. (2019), “High-tech was a supreme toys-for-the-boys moment”, Available at: (Accessed at: 1st January 2020) Rogers, Stirk, Harbour and Partrners Archive, “ Creek Vean”, Available at: https:// (Accessed at 1st January 2020) Ravenscroft T. (2019), “Reliance Controls factory by Team 4 was a “democratic pavilion”, Available at: (Accessed at 1st January 2020) Perez A. (2010), “Eames House / Charles and Ray Eames”, Available at: https:// (Accessed 1st January 2020) Rogers, Stirk, Harbour and Partners Archive, “ZipUp House”, Available at: https:// (Accessed at 24th November 2020) Perez A. (2010), “Centre Georges Pompidou / Renzo Piano Building Workshop + Richard Rogers”, Available at: (Accessed at 24th November 2019) Jones P.B. & Canniffe E.(2007), “Modern Architecture Through Case Studies 1945 to 1990”, Amsterdam, Boston, London: Elsevier/Architectural Press Bergdoll B. & Christensen P.(2008), “Home Delivery : Fabricating the Modern Dwelling”, Basel ; Boston ; Berlin : Birkhäuser Hunt A. & Hunt T.(2003), “Tony Hunt’s second sketchbook”, Burlington, MA : Architectural Press Haddad E. G.& Rifkind D.(2016), “A Critical History of Contemporary Architecture 1960-2010”, Milton Taylor and Francis Jackson N.(2016), “The Modern Steel House”, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge

5. METABOLISM [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]

Metabolism Reconsidered Its Role in the Architectural Context of the World, Raffaele Pernice, 2004 html last reach: 03.01.2020 19:20 The Transformation of Tokyo During the 1950s and Early 1960s Projects Between City Planning and Urban Utopia , Raffaele Pernice, 2006 Japanese Architecture after World War II: Significant events and Ideologies from 1955-197 Saeid Kalantari, Soheil Tajik The Architecture of Metabolism, Inventing Culture of Resilience, Meike Schalk, 2014 Project Japan, Rem Koolhas, Hans Ulrich Obrist, 2011,p.57,103,120,175,338,507 Nakagin Capsule Tower and the Metabolist Movement Revisited, Zhongjie Lin, 2011 last reach: 01.01.2020 Metabolism In Architecture by Kisho Kurokawa Kisho Kurokawa, 1977 https:// last reach: 01.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020 03.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020, last reach: 01.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020 03.01.2020, last reach: 01.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020 last reach: 01.01.2020


[8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

[15] [16] [17]




[21] [22] [23]


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Foundation Le Corbusier, Available at: corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=65&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=1&sysPare ntId=65&clearQuery=1 Cohen, Jean-Louis. Ed. Le Corbusier Le Grand, p.652. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 2008. Le Corbusier. Modulor II, p239. Reimpression of the first English edition, London: Faber and Faber, 1955. Reprint, Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 2000. Urs Peter Flueckıger, How Much House? Thoreau, Le Corbusier and the Sustainable Cabin Le Corbusier, Voyage D’orient Carnets Phaidon Press; English Ed edition (June 24, 2002) Le Corbusier’s Changing Attitude toward Form Author(s): Peter Serenyi Source: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Mar., 1965), pp. 15-23 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Society of Architectural Historians Chapter Title: ‘I am attracted to the natural order of things’: Le Corbusier’s rejection of the machine Chapter Author(s): Tim Benton Book Title: Being Modern Book Subtitle: The Cultural Impact of Science in the Early Twentieth Century Book Editor(s): Robert Bud, Paul Greenhalgh, Frank James, Morag Shiach Published by: UCL Press. (2018) Chiambretto, Bruno. Le Corbusier a Cap Martin, Marsellies : Editions Parentheses, 1987. Ed. 2006.


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Friedman Y., (1960), “Spatial City”, Courtesy Yona Friedman Archives, Paris. Tanyeli U., (2017), Yıkarak Yapmak Anarsist Bir Mimarlık Kuramı için Altlık (Ed: U. Tanyeli), Metis, Istanbul. Kumar, K., (2006), ‘‘Modern Zamanlarda Ütopya ve Karsıütopya’’, Trans.: Ali Galip, Kalkedon Yayıncılık, Istanbul. Friedman, Y., (2006), ‘‘Yona Friedman: Pro Domo’’, ACTAR, Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo. Giancarlo de Carlo, (1971), ‘‘Architecture’s Public’’, Parametro 5. Cook, P. (Ed.), (1999), ‘‘Archigram’’, Princeton Architectural Press, New York. Koolhaas, R., (2000), ‘‘A(r)tıkmekan (Junkspace)’’, A+U Special Issue: OMA, p. 125-142, inside: Yeni Bir Gündem Insa Etmek-Mimarlık Kuramı 1993-2009 (Ed: A. K. Sykes), trans. Göksun Akyürek, Küre Yayınları, Istanbul, p. 125-142. Tan, P., (2003), ‘‘Kentsel Mekanda Bireysel Özgürlügün Arayısında Bir Ütopyacı: Yona Friedman’’, Yapı Magazine, Istanbul. Sadler,S., (1998), ‘‘The Situationist City’’, MIT Press, Cambridge. Friedman, Y., (1958), ‘‘Architecture Mobile’’, quoted in Ruth Eaton, (2002), Ideal Cities: Utopianism and the (Un)built Environment, London. Archigram, (1970), ‘‘Instant City’’, Design Quarterly, No. 78/79, Conceptual Architecture, pp. 11-16. Koolhaas, R., (1997), ‘‘Bigness, or the Problem of Large’’, in Rem Koolhaas/ OMA and Bruce Mau, S,M,L,XL, Taschen, Cologne. Negri, A., March/April (2009), ‘‘On Rem Koolhaas’’, Radical Philosophy 154, United Kingdom, p. 48-50. Jameson F., (2003), ‘‘Gelecegin Kenti’’, New Left Review, p. 229-249 inside: Yeni Bir Gündem Insa Etmek-Mimarlık Kuramı 1993-2009 (Ed: A. K. Sykes), trans. Göksun Akyürek, Küre Yayınları, Istanbul, p. 229-249. Parekh B., (Ed) (1993), ‘‘Jeremy Bentham: Critical Assessments’’, Taylor & Francis US Bourdon, V., (2018) ‘‘The Tragedy of the Megastructure’’, Megastructures 3, Laboratory of Construction and Conservation, LCC. Friedman Y., (1960), ‘‘Spatial City’’, available at: http://www.yonafriedman. nl/?page_id=431&wppa-album=66&wppa-occur=1&wppa-photo=574 (accessed at: 01.01.2020). Friedman, Y., (1972), ‘‘On Models of Utopias and Social Ecology’’, Leonardo, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 37-41, (Electronic Version: (accessed at: 01.01.2020). •Friedman, Y., (2007), ‘‘On Theoretical Models’’, Leonardo, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 216-217, (Electronic Version: (accessed at: 01.01.2020). •Orazi, M., Friedman, Y., (2012), ‘‘A Conversation With Yona Friedman’’, Log, No. 26, pp. 60-75, (Electronic Version: (accessed at: 01.01.2020). Lebesque, S. (ed.), (1999), ‘‘Yona Friedman: Structures Serving Unpredictable’’, NAIPublishes. •Dündaralp, B., (2012), ‘‘Questions for Yona, Yona Friedman Haliç Centre Project’’, Adhocracy, I. Istanbul Design Biennial. •DOGMA, (2007), ‘‘Stop City’’, Pier Vittorio Aureli, Martino Tattara, pp. 1-8.

Urs Peter Flueckiger (2016). How much House? Thoreau, Le Corbusier and the Sustainable Cabin. Birkhauser Verlag GmbH: Basel. Nef, J. (1977). An Early Energy Crisis and Its Consequences. Scientific American, 237(5), 140-151. Retrieved from The World Energy Foundation (2014). A Brief History of Sustainability. Available at: (Accessed: 25 November 2019). Goodland, R. (1975). ‘History of “Ecology”’, in Science, New Series, Vol. 188, No. 4186. Retrieved from Bozsaky, D. (2011). “The historical development of thermal insulation materials”, Periodica Polytechnica Architecture, 41(2), pp. 49-56. doi: https://doi. org/10.3311/ Bodini, A. & Klotz, S. (Eds.) (2009). ‘The Science of Ecology for a Sustainable World’, in Ecology Volume I. Retrieved from Nicholson, J.L. & Leighton,G.R. (1942). “Plastics Come of Age,” Harper’s Magazine, p. 306. Available at: harpersmagazine185junalde_djvu.txt Borasi, G. & Zardini, M. (2007). Sorry, Out of Gas: Architecture’s Response to the 1973 Oil Crisis, Canadian Centre for Architecture. Levy, B. (2017). “The First U.S. House to Go Solar”, MIT Technology Review. Available at:

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Richard, S. (2015). “Integral Urban House”, Critical Sustainabilities. Available at: Closed Worlds (nd). “Integral Urban House”. Available at: Freear, A., Barthel, E. & Oppenheimer, A. (2014). Rural Studio at Twenty: Designing and Building in Hale County, Alabama. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Hensel, M. (2015). ‘Incarnations of a Design-and-Build Programme: Rural Studio’, in Hensel, M. & Cordua, C. H. (eds.) Constructions: An Experimental Approach to Intensely Local Architectures. Italy: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 43. Virshup, A. (1997). “Designer Houses for the Poor”, The New York Times Archive. Available at: Agenda 21 (1992). United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, United Nations Sustainable Development. Available at: Le Page, M. (2016). “Was Kyoto climate deal a success? Figures reveal mixed results”, NewScientist. Available at: Oppenheimer, A. (2002). “Rural Studio: Samuel Mockbee and an Architecture of Decency”, Princeton Architectural Press. Available at: docs/9781568982922

9. MODERN STRUCTURES RELATE TO THE GROUND [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

[13] [14] [15]

Steffen Lehmann (2006) An environmental and social approach in the modern architecture ofBrazil The work of Lina Bo Bardi Anna-Maija Kuitunen (2010) Futuro no.001 Yale University Press, Lina Bo Bardi, Zeuler R. M. de A. Lima Gizem Ozer Zeynep Sevinc, The Analysation of Construction and Usage of Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye, Who Was Pioneer of Modernism in Architecture Y. Mim. Akın Sevinç(2005) Ikinci Dünya Savası Sonrası Mimarlık Hayalleri: Ütopya Eskizleri (Doktora Tezi) Joao Ramoa Correia(2015) Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites Mark Wigley, Buckminster Fuller Inc. Architectue in Age of Radio Le Corbusier, Précisions Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, (2007) Le Corbusier, Toward an Architecture, trans. John Goodman Müjde Altın Bir Sürdürülebilir Mimarlık Örnegi: Otonom Binalar - Dymaxion Evi (Accessed at 17th November 2019) (Accessed at 17th November 2019) (Accessed at 17th November 2019) (Accessed at 17th November 2019) (Accessed at 17th November 2019)


AAP (Alternative Architectural Practices)

Instructor Oral Göktaş Research Groups History: Ahmet Yaymanoğlu, Dilek Yürük, Pınar Ongun Structural Durability: Aysima Akın, Nur Gülgör Technology: Ebru Şahinkaya, Eda Yavaş Ecology: Damla Kaleli, Sena Hut Ergonomics: İlayda Baydemir, Zeynep Ulusoy Editors Damla Kaleli, Ebru Şahinkaya Book Design Ahmet Yaymanoğlu, Aysima Akın, Zeynep Ulusoy Graphics Nur Gülgör, Sena Hut Special Thanks Selami Gürel, Metal Yapı Muhammed Maraşlı, Fibrobeton This catalogue is part of an educational, non-profit project. The students have attempted to acknowledge all sources of images used and apologize for any errors or omissions. Please e-mail for any concerns related to copyrights. MEF University Huzur, Maslak Ayazağa Cd. No:4, 34396 Sarıyer/İstanbul 2020 MEF University



Profile for AAP_mef university

Small Scale Decent Change  

AAP Research Book No:1 MEF University Graduate Programme: Alternative Architectural Practices

Small Scale Decent Change  

AAP Research Book No:1 MEF University Graduate Programme: Alternative Architectural Practices


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