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SHIFTING ARCTIC BOUNDARIES RETHINKING TERRITORY

N A T A LY N E M K O V A PA N A G I OTA F Y TA

Architectural Association School of Architecture of London


SHIFTING ARCTIC BOUNDARIES RETHINKING TERRITORY

N A T A LY N E M K O V A PA N A G I OTA F Y TA


: Figure # (External Source Images with detailed list of references provided at the end) : Drawings by the Team Name Surname : Text Authorship


Rethinking Territory : The New Understanding of Arctic Region

| ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION | MSC Landscape Urbanism 2015/2016 Directors : Jose Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Design Tutor : Clara Oloriz Sanjuan Seminar Tutors : Douglas Spencer Tom Smith Technical Tutors : Vincenzo Reale Gustavo Romanillos Aroyo Giancarlo Torpiano

Submitted by : Nataly Nemkova Panagiota Fyta

Acknowledgements : Many thanks to tutors and fellow students within the landscape urbanism programme.

Architectural Association School of Architecture of London


INTRODUCTION “Tell them we don’t just wander,” is a quote from a Sami herder to ethnographer Robert Paine, and beautifully captures the frustration of the Sami with the myths of their nomadic lifestyle held by outsiders. “We are symbiotic: the town is here because of the mine. Otherwise no devil would have built a city here.” deputy mayor of Kiruna Nikolas Siren

This project looks critically to one of the latest colonization project on the planet - the appropriation of local resources and development of the arctic zone. For the outsider and newcomer this land may look empty. Which is not actually the truth - there are people that lived on this land for more then 5000 years. This touch upon a very challenging theme of indigenous cultures and the confrontation between contrasting notions of territory by the so called «western» thinking and indigenous thinking. Our project intends to produce a designed mechanism, based on a variety of existing and designed physical boundaries, by which land management, the introduction of new land usages and their seasonal changing boundaries , can be accessed, built and negotiated  by relevant local actors/people.  We chose Tommerneset peninsula in Northern Norway as our study area, where four new big ports developments are now planned and where anticipate disruptions in the historically Skolt Sami territory will need to be addressed for the foreseeable future.


| CONTENTS |

CULTURAL DIVERSITY

_12 - 15_

5 ACTORS

_62 - 69_

CARTOGENESIS

_128 -133_

RETHINKING ARCTIC

_16 - 31_

SIMULATING REINDEER

_70 - 79_

UNIT ANALYSIS

_134 -141_

4 COUNTRIES ONE PEOPLES

_32 - 37_

THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION PART1 _80 - 83_

PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING

_142 -147_

RETHINKING ARCTIC

_148 -153_

THIS IS NOT A GETWAY

_38 -39_

TECHNICAL REPORT 1 : P.FYTA

_84 - 91_

SAPMI LAND

_40 - 43_

THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION PART2 _92 - 95_

SHIFTING FROM INTENSIVE TO EXTENSIVE HERDING

_44 - 47_

TECHNICAL REPORT 2 : N.NEMKOVA

REINDEER TERRITORIALITY

_48 - 51_

THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION PART2 _102 - 105_

CLASHING INTERESTS

_52 - 57_

TECHNICAL REPORT 3 : N.NEMKOVA _106 - 113_

HUGE PLANS FOR TOMMERNESET PENINSULA

_58 - 61_

DESIGN TOOL

_96 - 101_

_114 - 127_

WORK CITED

_ 154 - 159_


SEASONALITY

TERRITORIALITY

CULTURAL DIVERSITY 12-15 RETHINKING ARCTIC

THE NEW UNDERSTANDING WINTER AND SUMMER PERIOD

16-31

4 COUNTRIES 1 PEOPLE ACRTIC COUNCIL

32-57

HUGE PLANS FOR TOMMERNESET PENINSULA ONGOING PORT PROJECTS

58-79

We defined important “red lines“ of the project, which are weawing though the development of it. These key themes, which are seasonality, territoriality, development and shifting, threading the chapters of our book.


DEVELOPMENT

SHIFTING

THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION TECHNICAL REPORTS

80-113

DESIGN TOOL

SHIFTING BOUNDARIES

114-127

CARTOGENESIS

SHIFTING BOUNDARIES + PORTS PROJECTS

128-147

CONCLUSION RETHINKING ARCTIC

148-153


CULTURAL DIVERSITY GLOBAL URBANIZATION PRESSURE

Less than two centuries ago, life was not only lived in entirely distinctive ways in the four corners of the world: it was often lived quite differently just over the hill or on the other side of the river. Aside from some in marginal lands, culture was unique to place and people. Interaction and collaboration were based on one’s dissimilarities, and not on the “sameness” that’s desired and required by western-led globalization today. The distinctive beauty of the world, even 100 years ago, is troublingly almost beyond our memory and imagination now. The Urban Industry, which has engineered urbanization and promoted the idea of a city lifestyle, has played a profound role in the hollowing out of our distinctiveness. Deepa Naik and Trenton Oldfield

T

hrough our project we were looking upon such a complex themes as cultural diversity on the planet and its controversy to globalization processes and spreading of ‘western‘ culture all over the planet. Speaking of cultural diversity can be done analogically to more or less discovered and unarguable importance of biodiversity. In the case of any unsuspected accident biodiversity helps ecosystem to survive. There are rarely discovered accidents or viruses that can kill many different species at the same time instantly. The more diverse is the ecosystem the more chances it has to survive in the case of cataclysm. Ecosystem has self regulating mechanisms which help to adapt to changes and survive. Using different genes combinations, ecosystem can develop new types of species which are resistant to harsh environments. For example the emergence of cow parsnip in places with high pollution is a protective mechanism of ecosystem against people’s influence. Cow parsnip is resistant to high chemical soil and air pollution and is spreading and reproducing very fast. Cultural diversity can be considered as a way for humanity to survive in case of unsuspected accidents or cataclysms. In that view globalization and market economy are the best way to kill everyone with one shot. On the one hand globalization is a normal process which is happening with the high reproduction of humans and population growth. Any system is tending to stabilize and occupy all available space. Appearance of the independent agent which is moving by its own trajectory in it is treated as destabilization, so system will make everything to remove this element from itself. That is applicable to human society. This process is more obvious in the villages, where any outstanding ‘element’ of society is being criticized. Dominating culture on the planet i.e western culture is a good example of a system trying to spread over all available space and to remove any suspicious and destabilizing elements from it. So any other cultures, other religions are treated as poisonous, underdeveloped, weak or dangerous. From scientific point of view this is a normal process.

maintain diversity on the planet. But western dominating culture learns quickly how to resist this accidents, so we still didn’t see catastrophe which was strong enough to destroy this system. Therefore it is our responsibility to understand importance of preservation of MANY different cultures on the planet. Cultural diversity leads to many different languages, many different types of dwellings (which are dictated by local climate and landscape features), different types of settlements and ways of living. This dictates totally different architecture in each place of the planet, architecture that is connected to local environment. Which is not dictated by the desire of repeating remarkable buildings or constructions, that usually lead to building of huge glass -covered buildings in the desert, that are marketed as very sustainable, because they have green roof on top. Just imagine if we can have different types of settlements, that city itself is not the only option how people can live together. That is extremely important for nomadic people to help them to maintain their way of living in motion. Economical crisis of 2008 and its consequences shows very well weakness of globalization and connected markets in resistance to any accidents. We are still dealing with its consequences. Imagine if exactly at this moment all electricity on the planet will be switched off. What will happen to us? That would be the end of everything! But not for Sami or Nenets people. They will live as they were living. They are just different and have their own way which is not depending on western processes and electricity in particular. But unfortunately not any more. The last piece of land which was almost free from globalization is now on agenda. Arctic is the last colony which is still remote. Which was still remote. With new sea routes opening because of ice melting and rich resources found, arctic is getting attractive for Kapital.

On the other hand this tendency is quite dangerous for continuous living of the planet. That’s why ecosystem has cataclysms, accidents and other unsuspected phenomena, which are destroying dominating systems, stops its spreading and help to

| CULTURAL DIVERSITY |

Figure 1 - Winter settlement

Field Trip Photo by N.Nemkova

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Figure 2


Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta


RETHINKING ARCTIC

In the Arctic, impacts of climate change can be obvious everywhere . Indeed, the Arctic is getting warmer twice faster than the rest of the planet. Nowadays more and more people are talking for this new factor in our “earth life”. The effects on animals and on communities highly increase during the last decade. Along the way of the big animals, big migration big land, big nature, big ocean exist the big business, the big industry, the big economy. Because at the end, it is all about business and no one can resist, no one local, no one indigenous. But what about those peoples that might own this claiming land? What about their habits? Why do we need all to be the same? Why do we need all to adapt to the “western mentality”? Ice melts and opens a new sea route from China and Japan to Europe, which can be 15 days faster then by Suez canal. New oil and gas discoveries are bringing investments in the region, which leads to popping up of new ports and infrastructure. All these many times collide with the movements of local people of the arctic, that still maintain nomadic way of life.

Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta


The taiga is our life. We don’t know how to do anything other than live with it. We have always taken care of nature – this is what our ancestors taught us. Our role is to testify to our love and respect for the taiga. We’ve taken care of our reindeer since before Mongolia existed, they are our pride.” (Guardian)


RETHINKING ARCTIC THE NEW UNDERSTANDING - WINTER PERIOD

“When we think of wars in our times, our minds turn to Iraq and Afghanistan. But the bigger war is the war against the planet. This war has its roots in an economy that fails to respect ecological and ethical limits - limits to inequality, limits to injustice, limits to greed and economic concentration.” --Vandana Shiva, “Time to End War Against Earth” (Sydney Peace Price Acceptance Speech, Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia, November 30, 2010)

H

ow do we - as people - relate to the Arctic? Why we talk more about it now? Arctic climate change is the new big phenomenon and can change the world chain. Big migrations in late frozen tundras cause many deaths, while, for example, caribou and reindeer migrate from their winter areas to summer for food. Animal’s deaths change the life chain and influence on people and especially on local or indigenous people who are leaving with these animals. In the Arctic, nature and people are more connected than anywhere else. However, there is a so called “Arctic paradox” - rich resources of oil, coal, nickel, gas. The natural resources are plenty and countries have conflicts between them in order to secure their sovereignty, to secure a piece of the arctic land. The new exploration licenses per year increase fast. For instance, in 2012 there were seventy new permissions of mine explorations and extraction projects in Finland. The exploration of the Arctic is increasing rapidly - terrestrial and offshore. The great irony is that oil, coal, iron are sitting underneath the caribou calving grounds, bird nesting and molting grounds or migration route of bowhead whales.

These changes are not bothering only peoples inside We focused on Arctic a “closed”Arctic Circle but as these changes are not bothering only peoples the entity of people around a inside a “closed” Arctic changing world with political, Circle but the entity of economical, cultural and terri- people around a changing world with political, torial consequences.” economical, cultural and

territorial consequences. From our research, we decided to create two Arctic Atlases, one for summer and one for winter. In the Arctic, seasons and seasonality play crucial role for land changes and people’s and animal’s movements. It is important to notice that winter period in the Arctic differs than this of what we all know. It starts from late September and it can last till late June. However, locals and scientists are now state that climate changed rapidly in the last decade. Winter ice lasts less and summer ice decrease rapidly. As a result of those changes, each year has unexpected environmental and territorial consequences.

which starts from Japan and China and ends to Europe. As ice melting increases as more ships -and not only icebreakers- will pass through the Arctic region -even in winter period. NSR transportation time can be sixteen to seventeen days faster than by Suez Canal. That may mean in a broader view a safer and more ecological solution for the shipping travel as the emissions are less.

On the other hand Terrestrial and offshore of this mentality of activity collide with these an empty space, in people’s territory and migrathis land there are peoples who are leaving tion routes and push them in thousand years before a way that they can’t maintain “western mentality’ their nomadism.” started pushing them (map:different colors around the Arctic Circle). For instance, Sami peoples dated back nine thousand years in the land that nowadays is divided to four countries, Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway. As these peoples are nomads and reindeer - caribou herders, they are moving seasonally (map: black arrow-lines). They are migrating from valleys to mountains -vertical movement- and from coastal areas to inland -horizontal movement- , from winter to summer herding pastures respectively, without any concern of borders. The only limitations in the past was nature and how they could pass rivers and lakes with their reindeer without any accident. But after wars and after globalization imposed to the borders they needed to be divided, they had to decide in which country they belong. However, not only country borders and devisions threatened their nomadic and traditional way of living, but also the increasing activity. Nowadays, this terrestrial and offshore activity collide with these people’s territory and migration routes and push them in a way that they can’t maintain their nomadism.

There are people who believe that this land is an empty space.”

This Atlas is trying to imprint the current situation in Arctic region showing two different mentalities. On the one hand, there are people who believe that this land is an empty space, and that causes the increasing terrestrial and offshore activity, the popping up of new infrastructure and new shipping routes (map:red lines). Nowadays more and more ships are passing through the NSR (Northern Sea Route),

| RETHINKING ARCTIC |

ARCTIC ATLAS MAP WINTER PERIOD : P. Fyta

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RETHINKING ARCTIC THE NEW UNDERSTANDING - SUMMER PERIOD

“Wilderness embodies a dualistic vision in which the human is entirely outside the natural....The place where we are is the place where nature is not. If this is so—if by definition wilderness leaves no place for human beings, save perhaps as contemplative so journers enjoying their leisurely reverie in God’s natural cathedral...To the extent that we celebrate wilderness as the measure with which we judge civilization, we reproduce the dualism that sets humanity and nature at opposite poles. We thereby leave ourselves little hope of discovering what an ethical, sustainable, honorable human place in nature might actually look like.” -- William Cronon,”The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature”

A

s a result of the increased activity in Arctic region is the fortification of the sovereignty of the Arctic countries, making Russia the mayor and leader of the East passage and NSR. Eight countries are claiming the borders of Arctic Region. These countries are part of the Arctic Council. Arctic was not a blank canvas. As we have already mentioned, it was inhabited by indigenous peoples for more than thousand years. They are listed as permanent participants in the arctic council, but this presence is only formal, they are not making decisions about arctic future, their future. However, this participants do not have equal rights in the Arctic Council. For instance, Nunavut in Canada they have their own state, when on the contrary, in Russia indigenous peoples don’t even have their own parliament.

Caribou are our life. Without caribou we wouldn’t exist.”

As their nomadism and their culture is totally connected with the seasonal migration of reindeer - caribou, Sarah James, cultural activist and Arctic Voices contributor describes this connection between animals and people “We are the caribou people. Caribou are not just what we eat; they are who we are. They are in our stories and songs and the whole way we see the world. Caribou are our life. Without caribou we wouldn’t exist.” In Summer Atlas we focused on the expansion of terrestrial and offshore activity as all the shipping routes are open and mostly clear without ice. As we studied and analyzed indigenous peoples movements and their formations for winter and summer, we ended up that during summer also indigenous settlements are expanding. Nomads are moving mainly from inland to coastal pastures and from valleys to mountains and taking into account that as climate changes and ice melts more and more the near shore pastures are being under an increasing pressure.

In this fragile environment It is important to that in this coexist two different mental- understand fragile environment ities.” coexist two different

mentalities, these of people trying to extract more from the land (mines, oil and gas extraction projects) and these that live in a harmony with nature and animals. The Arctic is the final colonization and unfortunately their full adaptation to western life is not so far from now.

Field Trip Photos all taken by P. Fyta | RETHINKING ARCTIC |

ARCTIC ATLAS MAP SUMMER PERIOD : P. Fyta

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Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta


ICE MELTING (WINTER)

Winter ice 1980

Winter ice 1990

Winter ice 2010

Climate change is wreaking havoc up in Arctic zone . Year after year ice concentration is reducing more and more rapidly in a way that everyone now is wandering for the uncertain future of this area. However, the directly concerned people are these around the Arctic circle and nomads. By statistics animal’s deaths increased because of the climate change. Animals are migrating for their food but they are finding late frozen tundras so they are ending in starving and finally in death.

ICE MELTING (SUMMER)

Summer ice 1980

Summer ice 1990

Summer ice 2010

ARCTIC ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES MAPS (WINTER+SUMMER) : P. Fyta

| RETHINKING ARCTIC |

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March 29, 2016

DRAMATIC WARM WINTER LEAVES RECORD LOW SEA ICE EXTENT “If surface melting starts earlier than average, the snow darkens and exposes the ice below earlier, which in turn increases the solar hear input, allowing more ice to melt. The question is: Has the Arctic melt passed the point of no return?” figure 3 : THOMAS NILSEN

October 20 2009

Seprember 1,2016

CLIMATE CHANGE IN RUSSIA'S ARCTIC TUNDRA: 'OUR REINDEER GO HUNGRY. THERE ISN'T ENOUGH PASTURE' “For 1,000 years the indigenous Nenets people have herded their reindeer along the Yamal peninsula. But their survival in this remote region of north-west Siberia is under serious threat from climate change as Russia's ancient permafrost melts.” figure 4 : STEVE MORGAN/GREENPEACE

April 10, 2014

December 19, 2011

ARCTIC INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION Vulnerable Communities and Impacts on Livelihoods

ON THE FRONTLINES OF CLIMATE CHANGE: SAMI REINDEER HERDERS

“Traditional livelihoods, such as reindeer herding – an iconic Arctic livelihood across Eurasia – face challenges as the availability of food for the reindeer is affected. In some locations, winter transport depends on snow conditions and ice on lakes and rivers.” figure 6 : ADAM STEPIEN

“The mild period arrived suddenly, and in one week the temperature was +10°C. Most of the snow melted and then froze again, and the ground was covered in ice. Only two weeks before we thought the guohtun (lichen) would be good, and now it was completely inaccessible, locked away under the ice.” figure 7 : MARIE ROUÉ

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NASA VIDEO SHOWS THE SEVERITY OF THE ARCTIC SEA ICE MELT Scientists Warn That This Is The “New Normal”. “If we want to estimate mass changes of sea ice, or increased melting, we need the sea ice thickness,” Markus said. “It’s critically important to understanding the changes in the Arctic.” figure 5 : NASAKATE RAMSAYER

October 31, 2015

HOW CLIMATE CHANGE IS DESTROYING THE SAMI WAY OF LIFE IN SCANDINAVIA “Travelling on the frozen lakes is an important way for the Sami to move around...With these ice paths becoming more dangerous, Sami are having to change the journeys they traditionally took when herding.” figure 8 : REUTERS

| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


NEW ROUTES REVEALED - NEW PORTS EVOLVED (WINTER) Density of shipping routes Environmental changes and ice melting are opening the route to new trade routes and shipping routes. During winter period, only some parts of NSR (Northern Sea Route) are open because of the ice and only icebreakers can pass through the Arctic region. However, ice melts faster and lasts for shorter period than previous decades and that causes the expansion of routes and more tankers and vessels are passing through the Arctic sea. NSR expansion is in schedule and Barents region are playing a dominant role to this route with at least three ports (Murmunsk, Kirkenes, Hammerfest) have an intended shipping movement.

NEW ROUTES REVEALED - NEW PORTS EVOLVED (SUMMER) Density of shipping routes It is expected shipping trade routes to expand next years, especially during summer period. As a result of this expansion is a totally different arctic scene full of movements terrestrial and offshore. Decrease of ice concentration, makes easier the plans of those people who want to play dominant role in the Arctic and to claim a piece of land there.

TRANSPORTATION MAPS (WINTER+SUMMER) : P. Fyta

| RETHINKING ARCTIC |

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figure 9 :GLEB RAYGORODETSKY/ @ARCHIPELAGOOFHOPE

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| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


MINE / OIL / GAS EXPLORATION 100% potential oil/gas 50 - 100% potential oil/gas 35 - 50% potential oil/gas active mine projects Largest Oil/ Gas /Gas Condesate Equivalents In The Barents Region Norway by the statistics has 3.4 millions tons of oil and the exploration licenses are increased the last years, as well as new ones are waiting to be approved and start in couple of years. The leader of the Arctic zone, Russia, has 52.5 million tons of oil. Mining exploration at the same time is increasing rapidly and huge companies are arriving to the Arctic more often.

NATURAL RESOURCES ACTIVITY : P. Fyta

BORDER SOVEREIGNTY There are resource wars for oil, gas, coal, and minerals everywhere in the Arctic from Alaska to Siberia. Barents region is getting stronger and stronger with global political and economic actors - countries conflict each other to secure a piece of this precious land. In particular, the exploitation of natural resources can lead to conflicts between border countries in order to secure the sovereignty of Arctic Sea. “The Arctic Council is the leading intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic states, Arctic Indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues, in particular on issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic. Currently 8 countries are Members of the Arctic Council: Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Russian Federation, Sweden and the United States. In addition, six organizations representing Arctic Indigenous peoples have status as Permanent Participants.�(http://www. arctic-council.org) Newly aggreed Norway Russian Boundary Norway - Russia special area

BORDER SOVEREIGNTY COLLAGE MAP (figure 10) : P. Fyta

| RETHINKING ARCTIC |

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Sven Skaltje

October 19, 2011

October 20 2009

Seprember 1,2016

REINDEER HUSBANDRY AND BARENTS 2030

SAMI REINDEER HERDERS STRUGGLE AGAINST ARCTIC OIL AND GAS EXPANSION “The rapid retreat of sea ice is not only a strong indicator of change occurring in the North, it is also part of a global race to ‘carve up’ the rich deposits of Arctic resources such as oil and gas. With the Arctic’s shallow waters thought to contain some the largest remaining untapped oil and gas reserves, countries such as Russia, Norway and the US are all pushing to stake a claim.” figure 11 : JOEL TOZER

August 25, 2011

NORWAY CONSIDERS PIPELINE FOR BARENTS GAS TO EUROPE “Significant discoveries of Arctic gas between Finnmark and Svalbard can trigger Norway to extend its current pipeline system in the North Sea all the way to the Barents Sea.” figure 14 : THOMAS NILSEN

REINDEER HUSBANDRY IMPACTS OF FUTURE PETROLEUM DEVELAND BARENTS 2030 OPMENT ON REINDEER HUSBANDRY IN THE IMPACTS OF FUTURE PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT BARENTS REGION HUSBANDRY IN THE BARENTS REGION ON REINDEER “The future for reindeer husbandry in the barents region is highly dependent on the availability of grazing land. Extensive oil and gas development will likely lead to loss of vital ranges, in particular coastal summer pastures and calving grounds.”

CLIMATE CHANGE IS CREATING A NEW BATTLEGROUND AS RUSSIA, US INCREASE ARCTIC MILITARY PRESENCE

A REPORT PREPARED FOR STATOILHYDRO BY THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR REINDEER HUSBANDRY

figure 12 : SVEN SKALTJE

REINDEER HUSBANDRY AND BARENTS 2030

1

“The Arctic is going to be a place of growing strategic importance.”

figure 13 : US.NAVY, CHIEF YEOMAN ALPHONSO BRAGGS

May 10, 2016

October 2, 2013

«ARCTIC DRILLING IS AGAINST THE LAW»

DRILLING IN THE ARCTIC - WHAT IS THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?

“According to the professors, Arctic drilling is in conflict with the Norwegian Constitution, which in an amendment from 2014 states that «everyone has the right to live in an environment which provides good conditions for health and in nature which preserves productivity and diversity.”

“Climate change, contributed to by fossil fuel emissions, opens up new regions for the extraction of more fossil fuels.”

figure 15 : THOMAS NILSEN

figure 16 : AP/GREENPEACE/STEVE MORGAN


Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta


4 COUNTRIES ONE PEOPLES

Working with European atlas as a part of AALU programme we decided to concentrate on Sami people in Northern Europe. Their territory is situated in four countries now: Norway, Finland, Sweden and Russia. They call their land Sapmi (the land of Sami). Sami people are semi-nomadic, moving from their winter settlements to summer cabins. Nowadays nomadic culture mainly survived in the reindeer herding, which is one of the most acknowledged Sami occupation. Their lifestyle changed a lot after introduction of market economy into the region - most of them settled down in the cities and do not even associate themselves with Sami. They use GPS and snowmobiles for reindeer herding, and generally willingly accept new technologies to use them in their daily life. As Sami are nomadic people they have quite unique perception of territory. Their own social organization is called Siida. Siida formation existed in Sami culture from the time immemorial, each Siida has its territory, which consisted of several families territories and common lands. Siida boundaries were flexible: they changed seasonally, some lands between different Siidas were shared. Reindeer herding is a special Sami occupation, generally reindeer plays a key role in Sami life and culture.

Field Trip Photo by N. Nemkova


“...all of European Scandinavia, Norway included, was once inhabited by Finns. As Germanic or German peoples (Goths or Jother) moved into Sweden and Norway, these, the most ancient inhabitants known to us, were forced further and further northwards, where some of them still roam in the mountains, maintaining their age-old customs and practices. “ Christian Magnus Falsen(Hunters in transition)


SAMI RESISTANCE LAND CONFLICTS

Figure 17

“The Sami have lived in relative co-existence with their neighbors for centuries, but for the last two hundred years, especially during the second half of the 20th century, there have been many dramatic changes in Sami culture, politics, economics and their relations with their neighboring societies. During the late 20th century, modern conflicts broke out over the construction of a hydroelectric dam, the reaction of which created a reawakening and defense of Sami culture in recent years.”(wikipedia)

Historically, Sami culture was Historically, Sami culture not accepted by the countries was not accepted by the countries governments governments during the 20th during the 20th century. The first shift was made century.’ after Alta-Kautokeino conflict, when the entire Sami village could disappear because of a huge construction of Alta Dam. “The Committee for the Rights of the Sami People produced a constitutional amendment on this subject and established a Sami parliament (inaugurated in 1989). In 2005, the Finnmark Act was passed, which transferred |4 COUNTRIES ONE PEOPLES|

The Sami have for centuries the majority of state been the subject of discrimi- powers to the local government.”(“22._ nation and abuse by the domi- The_Fight_against_the_ nant cultures claiming posses- Alta_Dam_Norway.pdf,” sion of their lands right unto n.d.) the present day.’

“The Sami have for centuries been the subject of discrimination and abuse by the dominant cultures claiming possession of their lands right unto the present day.”(wikipedia) Sami children were taken from their parents to study in boarding schools, away from their culture and traditional lifestyle. Sami people were a subject of anthropological researches, which were taken mostly by Swedish and Norwegian scientists, with the aim to prove Sami to be considered as “lower race“. Some 20 years ago it was “shameless“ to associate oneself with Sami, and only minority was struggling for the rights of Sami as a nation.

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However, Sami people still want to save their roots and traditional way of living, although it is difficult in highly developed Norway and Sweden. They want to claim ownership of their land Sapmi, and establish their rights to make decisions on what would happen with their land.

figure 18


September 2014

November 2015

MINING THREATENS TO EAT UP NORTHERN EUROPE’S LAST WILDERNESS “Vast network of rivers, lakes and mountains in Finland, Sweden and Norway at risk from being exploited for rare earth and other minerals.” figure 19: PIERRE-HENRY DESHAYES/AFP/GETTY IMAGES (The Syd Varanger iron ore mine near the Arctic city of Kirkenes, northern Norway)

1980-1987

SAMI YOUTHS RALLY AT A DEMONSTRATION TO SUPPORT THE INCLUSION OF INDIGENOUS RIGHTS IN THE PARIS CLIMATE AGREEMENT

ALTA DEVELOPMENT “No other power development project in Norway has sparked so much controversy and emotion or created so much political drama as the Alta development.”

“It was difficult. But we are happy with what we’ve achieved, says Max, center. We’re really quite numerous and well represented here.” figure 22 : CAMILLA ANDERSEN SAMI ACTIVISTS

figure 20: LEIF GABRIELSEN/SAMFOTO/NTB SCANPIX

October 21, 2014

September 1,2015

Sweden’s Indigenous Sami People Held Their First-Ever Pride Event

“Swedish helmer Amanda Kernell makes a stirring debut with a coming-of-age tale that pointedly addresses a bygone era of Scandi colonialism.”

Last Thursday the world’s first Sápmi Pride kicked off in the northern Swedish town of Kiruna. It was the first-ever event of its kind organized by and for the indigenous Sami people

figure 21: COURTESY OF VENICE FILM FESTIVAL

figure 23 : SAMI ACTIVISTS

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| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


SAMI TODAY LAND CONFLICTS We can not say that Sami culture remains the same as it was many years ago. Their style of living change because f the industrialization and urbanization processes occurring in the arctic. They mostly settled down, and live in well equipped winter and summer houses, use GPS tracking and snowmobiles for reindeer herding. Many of them now live in the cities and even do not want to associate themselves Their style of living change with Sami. They adapted well for because f the industrialisation the “western type and urbanisation processes of living“ and may seem to feel occuring in the arctic.’ comfortable with it.

Our intention is not to conserve Sami culture and preserve it as in a “glass bottle“. However, we suggest that “western“ culture and urbanization is not the only way of future that is inevitable for humankind. With our project we intend to look at other cultures as alternative ways of human future, which has a right to survive and moreover is important for people all Our intention is not to cos- over the world, as it erve Sami culture and pre- supposes different ways of thinking.

serve it as in a “glass bottle“‘

From our point of view the way Sami live may look ‘unproductive‘ or ‘inefficient‘. The land may look also ‘empty‘ and unoccupied. However, for Sami landscape is in a way a ‘map‘. They read from the land, they see and know which community (they call this social formation Siida) this land occupies. Their perception of borders is quite different - borders are not stable and defined, the land is not something that is fixed, it is not a commodity. Sami follow the landscape, but do not change landscape to follow them.

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Image altered by N.Nemkova (figure 24 : Klemet gundersen in glass bottle) figure 25 |4 COUNTRIES ONE PEOPLES|

Figure #

36


figure 26:Snowmobiles are used by reindeer herders

Field Trip hoto by P.Fyta (Sea sami boy learns to use snowmobile) figure 27 : Reindeer herders, Norway

37

figure 28 :Windpower, Kola.Photo S.Usenjuk figure 29 : Sami with tablet, Norway

| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


THIS IS NOT A GATEWAY GLOBAL URBANISATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

Just consider some of the words often used to describe the indigenous nations of the world: backwards, unproductive, primitive, uncivilised, cute. Deepa Naik and Trenton Oldfield

Field Trip Photo by N.Nemkova

D

uring working on the project, we met many remarkable people. However, the organization “This is not a gateway“ was so influential on our perception of the theme and future development of the whole work, that we decided to put quotes from their articles here. This will certainly help to understand the complexity of the topics we were dealing with during this project.

You would be hard pressed to find anyone, certainly in the English-speaking world, who doesn’t subscribe to the idea of progress. It’s the simple, promising notion that people and societies advance, go forward, and progress through stages in a linear motion – that they move inexorably closer to a better life, even toward utopia or perfection. The thesis of progress is that, by picking up new tools and displaying different symbols in the practice and organization of everyday life, and by eliminating “defects” and “drags”, humanity can be and has been improved. This view sees an arc of history, administered with a detached fairness via “the laws of nature”. Perhaps the most important element in this theory is that nothing should stand in the way – nothing should prevent or slow down “the march of history”. | THIS IS NOT A GETWAY |

Perhaps the most important element in this theory is that nothing should stand in the way – nothing should prevent or slow down “the march of history”’

According to Marx and Engels societies everywhere must pass through a series economic stages – primitive communism, barbarism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism and then socialism. Only after that, can communism can be finally resurrected. (Libertarians have a similar theory, only their end goal is the wet dream of a robot automated paradise.) In this theory, industrialized cities are not only understood as prerequisites for human progress. They are also considered as irrefutable material evidence of human progress, even human evolution. Human development, it is suggested, will occur through the industrialization of the economy; through a centralized, urbanized workforce; and by ensuring the unchallenged access to raw materials, wherever they may be and by any means necessary. Those in the way, those unwilling to be urbanised, are thus considered a drag and hindrance on human progress and 38

those unwilling to be urbanised, are thus considered a drag and hindrance on human progress and evolution.’

evolution. The last few decades have been a blood-soaked testament to this logic. Intervention is considered both an urgent and noble contribution. Those unwilling were, and continue to be, eliminated as they are considered to be holding the rest certainly the elite back from reaching their and humanity’s full potential. Unconvinced? Just consider some of the words often used to describe the indigenous nations of the world: backwards, unproductive, primitive, uncivilised, cute.” (Deepa Naik, Trenton Oldfield)

figure 33


Globalisation amounts to tsunami after cultural tsunami, flattening out our differences. Aside from the “Middle East”, where men wear the thawb, and across the Indian subcontinent, where women wear sari and salwar kameez, the rest of us, when not at work, wear variations on a uniform of blue jeans, T-shirt and trainers. Trendsetters from Jakarta to Delhi, Cape Town to London to Toronto, are a carbon copy of tech start-ups tattoos, beards, rolled-up trousers, and bicylces.

Graveyards of distinctiveness: how cities are making us all the same figure 30 : GETTY (Passengers on the Seoul metro, wearing a uniform familiar from cities around the world.)

The figures are truly breathtaking. China alone plans to consolidate more than 900m people into cities by 2025. Already, there are an estimated 750m urban Chinese. In one generation, between 1980 and 2010, the share of the country’s population living in urban areas increased from 19 per cent to 49 per cent. .. ...But the most remarkable increases are yet to come, particularly in Africa and Asia. Urbanization is big business – and there are plenty of people and corporations cashing in. An entire industry has appeared to assist, profit, influence and further boost and encourage the processes. We call it The Urban Industry.

Against the tyranny of progress: How did we come to see urbanisation as a part of human evolution? figure 31 : GETTY (Blame these two: the statues of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in Berlin)

Those working in The Urban Industry are, knowingly or unknowingly, marshaling the world off open, verdant and resource rich lands and in to barren, highly controlled, unequal and densely populated urban areas. It is important to be clear the herding and centralisation of the world’s population in to urban areas is by no means natural or inevitable, and it most certainly isn’t an “evolutionary step”. Are those in the Urban Industry on the wrong side of history?

Urbanisation is not natural or inevitable. It’s being inflicted upon us by the forces of capitalism

figure 32 : GETTY (They paved paradise, and put up a parking lot)

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| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


SAPMI LAND - MAPPING NOMADIC PEOPLE SAMI TERRITORY - 4 COUNTRIES 1 PEOPLES

“The Sami people (also Sámi or Saami, traditionally known in English as Lapps or Laplanders) are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting the Arctic area of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of far northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Kola Peninsula of Russia, and the border area between south and middle Sweden and Norway.” (wikipedia)

Rotes density(high to low) Reindeer movement Sami Settlements Sami parliaments locations

S

tarting to work on the Sami territory map we faced a complex question - how to show nomadic peoples lands? This prompted us to look critically at mapping as a whole. Why is mapping so important for European people or it is better to say ‘western’ people (‘western’ mentality is inherent not only to those who live in Europe). If we see a piece of land as a ‘commodity’ it is clear that in order to dispose it efficiently there is a need to have a document where this property will be listed. Maps solve this task perfectly. Surveyors and architects have always been a ‘forwarding party’ of every colonial expedition. It is less known but George Washington was a surveyor before his political career.

there are If we see a piece of land as a Nevertheless still a lot of people on the ‘commodity’ it is clear that in planet who do not know, order to dispose it efficiently use or understand maps there is a need to have a docu- in a way that we (western people) represent ment where this property will information. As the be listed. ‘ example it is good to

mention the famous map of Tupaia, Polynesian navigator that worked on the capitain’s Cook ship on it’s travel to Australia. The map was definitely developed in a ‘western’ style as Tupaia was doing it for euporeans, but the distances between islands and their locations were not precise in dimensions. They were arranged according to their importance for sailing and navigation. Size of the islands shown there depended on the importance of the island for the sailor but not real. Good examples of indigenous mapping are maps by Hans Ragnar Mathisen, Sami artist. «One of the most immediately striking and common features of all of Mathisen’s maps is that the countries are not delineated by regions of color, line, or grid: there are no borders. This conspicuous and deliberate absence reveals the importance of the concept of nomad to the Sami. Traditionally, the Sami are a nomadic people, who don’t believe in land ownership, and have no need for borders. Borders are a construct of people and cultures who believe that land can be divided and owned. The Sami believe that living with the land and from it, using it wisely and letting the earth cycle (one reason they are constantly moving reindeer is to prevent overgrazing, etc.) is the best use of land, not putting up fences and pretending that something wild and pre-existing can be owned.»(“Mapping Sami Culture.”) The map of the arctic, done by this artist shows features of the landscape, animals, inhabiting arctic which are important for indigenous peoples and the light in the north pole - sacred place for arctic people. The map shows with amazing precision all indigenous peoples, living in the

| SAPMI LAND |

arctic, while states names are assigned to more southern territories. For many indigenous people maps are not important as a way of spacial orientation. The live through landscape and read it as a map. Mapping is getting important and in some cases are inevitable for them only in the need to prove their existence and to claim their land rights. On the other hand showing their land in detail to everyone brings more attention to the region. The best way to make territory urbanized and as consequence polluted and deployed is to make the map of it, so that everyone can make their plans on it. And arctic lands are of a special interest. Nowadays there are so few empty spaces on earth left, so it is possible to say that arctic expeditions are the last colonial expeditions on earth. And mapping the arctic we are helping and stimulating the process of it’s developments and industrialization.

showing arctic peoples on In this case showing arcthe map is a delicate issue. tic peoples on the map is a delicate issue. HowevHowever, their land is already er, their land is already mapped elaborately. But unfor- mapped elaborately. But tunately without any presence unfortunately without any presence of them on of them on this maps.’ this maps. What is quite

figure 34 : Hans Ragnar Mathisen’s map

delicate in this is how to make a map of these people. Most of them are nomadic and located in wild areas, so that it’s quite difficult to show them. For government and corporations is extremely important to make geological and geographical survey of the future pieces of land which they want to develop. So it is very important to make a mechanism how these surveys will reflect presence of indigenous people, and then to implement it into the global world map so that everyone would be aware of this information. One of the examples of the mapping of indigenous people is a map by Global Platform of Indigenous And Community map Landmark.org. The map is mostly created for the purposes of showing the land recognition. It is the online platform which is being updated constantly, while the new data on indigenous or community lands arrives. Our map of Sapmi does not show the borders of Sami lands - traditionally, Sami do not have fixed borders - their lands are shared and borders are flexible. Map shows the ‘zone of activity’ of Sami on the territory. As they are constantly migrating we can follow their migration routes. Then the analysis of the distance - offset from the migration routes shows the density of activity on the territory. From red to white - from very oftenly used to rarely occupied. State borders are shown on the map to illustrate how the movements of these people are interrupted.

figure 35 : Lndmark.org

figure 36 : Tupaia map

SAPMI MAP : N. Nemkova

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HISTORICAL EVOLUTION - ONLINE MAP

A

nalysing historical maps of Finmark region we can see how state borders were changing through time. This was the historical area of Skolt Sami, that most of all suffered from the countries borders establishment. Skolt Sami were torn apart into three countries: Norway, Finland and Russia, and their migration routes were closed by the borders. They needed to choose which country they want to live in. At the moment reindeer herders at borders have special documents that permit them to cross the border to pick up their reindeer. Although the border between Norway and Russia was established in 1825, maps of the beginning of the 20th century still show Sor-varanger as a common territory.

This was the historical area of Skolt Sami, that most of all suffered from the countries borders establishment.’

From the maps we can see that development of the region slowly changes Sami locations and move their seasonal settlements, they are getting replaced by the Norwegian, Finnish and Russian ones. Borders between countries divided Skolt Sami Siida into parts. Skolt Sami most of all felt influence of politics in the region as their Siida was located on the territory of today’s Finland, Norway and Russia.

Sami Norwegian, Finnish, Russian Roads State borders

Image altered by N.Nemkova (figure 37 : Sor-Varanger territory in1880)

| SAPMI LAND |

Settlements

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1700

1830

1880

1900

1920

1960

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION MAPS by N.Nemkova and P.Fyta

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| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


SIIDA FORMATION

T

o explain better the functionality of Siida we want to show an example of Skolt Sami Siidas in 1830. They were located in Sor-varanger district in Norway, northern Finland and east of Cola peninsula. Siida borders were shrinking in winter and expanding in summer, different Siidas could have shared territories in case of existing important resources on the site. Inside Siidas there were territories of families which were included in it. In Skolt Sami there are presented Njauddamjokk, Paaccjokk, Peaccamjokk and Suonnjel Siidas. Borders between them in most cases are flexible and some important territories are shared. Winter villages are located in the central parts of Siidas and concentrate families from adjacent territories. Spring villages are located mostly near the coastline but autumn are inland. At these times there were no difference in living style between Sea Sami and Mountain Sami - everyone was keeping nomadic way of living. “Reindeer husbandry may be classified as either “intensive” or “extensive.” The main characteristic of intensive herding practices is that for the majority of the year herders are in close prox imity to their animals and keep them together, especially during the spring and summer. Also, in comparison to extensive herding practices, intensively herded groups of reindeer are relatively small numbering in the hundreds (Collinder 1949:4) By contrast, extensive herding gives reindeer relative freedom to range, particularly during the spring and fall.” (S. M. Williams, p.5 )

SKOLT SAMI AROUND 1830 image by N.Nemkova

- spring villages - summer villages - autumn villages - winter villages routes of seasonal migration - families boundaries - siida boundaries - state borders SKOLT SIIDAS IN 1900 :by N.Nemkova | SHIFTING FROM INTENSIVE TO EXTENSIVE HERDING |

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SHIFTING FROM INTENSIVE TO EXTENSIVE HERDING During the XX century Sami reindeer herding performed a shift from intensive herding to extensive one. I ntensive herding mostly can be described by less land plots needed for herding, while all family members were involved in reindeer herding. This type of herding is also characterized by more connection between men and animals. Extensive herding is getting more spread nowadays, as Sami are urged to have bigger herds and therefore bigger land plots under one Siida, as they have more power and voice arguing with development corporations and the Norwegian state. On the maps on this pages is getting obvious that family lands which were characteristic for Siidas in 1900, got replaced with bigger Siida lands in 2015. All movements from pasture to pasture are organized in a way that different Siidas will not interrupt each other and mix reindeer and pastures. More problems have Siidas which are adjasent to state boundaries, especially between Norway and Russia. These herders have special documents, declared by common Russian-Norwegian Komissariat, which allow them to cross the border to take their reindeer back in case when needed. However, it is quite unsafe and can lead to some problems, especially after tensions between Russia and Europe in recent years. That’s why herders built fences across the border, trying to prevent reindeer from moving into Russia and Finland. This has implication on landscape - on the Russian side all ground is white because of lichen - small moss, that reindeer love to eat mostly. Norwegian side is losing lichen population quickly, and market demand on reindeer meat leads to overgrazing, that is also not helpful at all.

routes of seasonal migration - families areas -estimated siida boundaries

SOR-VARANGER SIIDAS 2015 :by N.Nemkova

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| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta

Photo by P.Fyta


Field Trip hoto by P.Fyta


Sor Varanger

SAPMI LANDSCAPE REINDEER TERRITORIALITY

This fragile land is “home” not only for Sami peoples but also for these special animals, reindeer. They cannot understand borders and human’s obstacles. They are moving constantly from place to place to feed themselves (maps: red lines). They are free and happy wild animals. Sapmi Land is an important landscape for reindeer as for their herders. Reindeer are moving from lichen to lichen area (map + photos : light green grass) throughout the year as it is their feeding method. Sami people are totally connected with this migration as they live from reindeer breeding. Sami herders settle down (map: crosses) mainly in the coniferous forests (map: dark green) while they are following their reindeer.

R

eindeer implication on the landscape depends on the duration of grazing time. Some research show that in the cases of short term grazing period(1-2 seasons) reindeer are fertilizing the soil and make it warmer, therefore making the land more productive and helping it to regenerate itself faster. However, in the long-term usage of land they cause overgrazing. These researches show that they can cause conversion from the lichen to other forms of vegetation. “Generally speaking, high grazing pressure is assumed to be the principal or only cause of the transition from lichen to other forms of vegetation observed on the tundra in the 1980s and 1990s. Reindeer pastoralism is seen to cause widespread vegetation changes on the tundra, including the encroachment of birch. For example, Tømmervik et al. (2009) found a doubling of birch on the tundra between 1957 and 2006, but report climate change with wetter summers as only one possible additional driver for these changes, while overgrazing is seen as the main cause.” (“Misreading the Arctic Landscape A Political Ecology of Reindeer Carrying Capacities and Overstocking in Finnmark Norway.pdf,” n.d.) Arctic environment is reproduced very slowly, especially such kind of vegetation as lichen - favorite food of reindeer. High pressure on soil and overgrazing causes transition of vegetation from lichen to other types which urges reindeer to migrate to other pastures in search for food.

Field Trip Photos all taken by P. Fyta

|REINDEER TERRITORIALITY |

SAPMI AND REINDEER LANDSCAPE CONNECTION : P. Fyta

figure 38

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Sor Varanger


REINDEER TERRITORIALITY IN SAPMI LAND The adjacent maps document reindeer compound movement in two seasons - winter and summer- in Sampi land without taking into account the border devisions. Next page drawing describes reindeer movement seasonally in each country with the different reindeer legislation. Nowadays Siidas are attached to reindeer herding and have different adaptations in each country. Norway - Siida, Sweden - Sameby, Finland - Paliskunta, Russia - Reindeer herding Cooperative. 1 Blue dot = 100 reindeer in winter pasture areas

figure 39

REINDEER TERRITORIALITY WINTER MAP by P.Fyta

1 red dot = 100 reindeer in summer pasture areas

figure 40

REINDEER TERRITORIALITY SUMMER MAP by P.Fyta

| REINDEER TERRITORIALITY |

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Reindeer Territoriality Norway - Winter pastures starting from October to February - dark to light blue -. Summer pastures August, September -dark red-

Reindeer Territoriality Finland, Sweden, Kola Peninsula (Russia) - Winter pastures starting from October to February - dark to light blue -. Summer pastures August, September -dark redREINDEER TERRITORIALITY MAPS IN FOUR COUNTRIS by P.Fyta 51

| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


CLASHING INTERESTS LOSS OF GRAZING PASTURES

Reindeer herding represents a highly extensive form of land use. Herders in Sapmi land generally need to secure pastures in which to graze their reindeer. Indeed, the progressive and effectively irreversible loss of the uncultivated lands which reindeer use as pasture is probably the single greatest threat to reindeer husbandry. The increased activity in Fennoscandian land and Arctic Sea threatens reindeer husbandry and as result the preservation of Sami nomadism.

NSR PORTS IN FENNOSCANDIA by P.Fyta

figure 41

Reindeer during their seasonal migration meet many manmade obstacles.”

S

ome populations of reindeer travel furthest of any terrestrial animal. They are migrating to coastal and mountainous graze-lands during summer seasons for fresh grazing and they are returning in the winter pastures to relatively warmer more southerly climates for shelter. Reindeer during their seasonal migration meet many man made obstacles. Buildings (map: black dots), hydro-electricity facilities, pipelines, roads (map: red lines) and rails (map: orange lines), mines and land exploitation (map: triangles), block reindeer’s movement and many times herders loose their pasture land. Sami are trying to maintain their traditional habits, their history, their connection with reindeer and nature, their connection with their ancestor’s land.

It is noticed a huge wilderness reduction and the future is more uncertain now than ever.”

|CLASHING INTERESTS |

However, globalization and the need of new big industries, of development, of

economical evolution collapses with local’s interests and blocks reindeer freedom. The result of all these are obvious to the land, as it is noticed a huge wilderness reduction and the future is more uncertain now than ever as new exploration and mining licenses are given more and more often.

Research on impacts Females with calves of of human activity semi-domesticated reindeer, and infrastructure reduced the use of areas within development on reindeer 5 km from infrastructure and has shown an avoidance behavior of reindeer. In human activity.” particular, females with

calves of semi-domesticated reindeer, reduced the use of areas within 5 km from infrastructure and human activity.

This means the immediate need of mitigation measures and regulation of human activity and development, as well as ensuring the protection of pasture lands, in order to secure the coexistence of people and reindeer. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MAP by P.Fyta

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COLLISION POINTS

To open the mine again, they need at least a war to have so much iron consumption. As for the oil and gas exploration in Barents sea, it’s inevitable, sooner or later they will come. We need to accept it. We see Nickel example and we know very well the consequences of human behavior on our nature. But we need to learn on our own mistakes of the past while development process continues in the Arctic future. Sea Sami Representative - field trip local connection

I

n April 2016 we visited Northern most county of Norway, Finnmark, and Inari in Finland. These areas are Skolt Sami territory and grazing areas divided in two countries. During the field trip we had connection with local authorities, communities, organizations, we talked to Sami and non-Sami. Some of them local non-Sami people stated that in Norway Sami rights are one of the most protected Only Sami people have the in the world. In Sami reindeer herding permision in opinion, their right are protected somehow, Norway’ but this is definitely not enough. Approximately 2900 Sami have reindeer husbandry as their primary or part time occupation. Only Sami people have the reindeer herding permission in Norway, with the exception of a few concession areas in southern Norway, and only for those who have been traditionally reindeer herder. “According to the New Norwegian Reindeer Herding Act from 2007 only those who have the right to a reindeer earmark can conduct reindeer husbandry in the Sámi reindeer herding area. The right to a reindeer earmark requires that the person is a Sámi and themselves, their parents or their grandparents have or had reindeer herding as their primary occupation. A reindeer earmark is a combination of one to many cuts in a reindeer’s ears which all together tells who the reindeer owner is.”(“Reindeer Herding.”) A Skot Sami of Inari, Finland, tried to give us a hint of what reindeer are for them and she mentioned that reindeer are free happy animals and Sami do not limit their movements during grazing. They gather and earmark them only before seasonal migration to a new pasture. In the Clashing interest colision between the two we mentioned different mentalities, devel- map the collision points opment and terrestrial activ- between the two different ity clashing with Sami move- mentalities, development and terrestrial activity ments.’ (map: black lines) which are clashing with Sami movements. In Sor Varanger map we are showing the flow of shipping routes in Kirkenes port and main roads locations, as well as locations of future ports. These two flows, reindeer migration and goods, through northern sea routes are symbolically opposed to each other. while reindeer migrate to coast in summer, increasing activity in the sea in summer puts more pressure on the coast. These maps show Norwegian coastal area and Sor-Varanger territory in particular. The orientation of the maps are from the sea, as for Sami orientation to the north doesn’t make sense(they are in the north), and they usually orient from sea to inland.

figures 42, 43, 44

|CLASHING INTERESTS |

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CLASHING INTERESTS MAP : P. Fyta + TOMMERNESET : N.Nemkova


SCALE DIAGRAM (FROM FENNOSCANDIA TO TOMMERNESET PENINSULA : P. Fyta , N.Nemkova


Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta


HUGE PLANS FOR TOMMERNESET PENINSULA Barents sea oil development leads to the need of new infrastructure on the coast. Today there are 4 main ports projects near Kirkenes city in Northern Norway. Three of them are located in Tommerneset peninsula: Pulknes, Gamnes and Leirpollen. Additionally to the ports there are 4 other actors claiming the land there. These are Sami reindeer herders, military defense forces, tourist agencies and airport. The activity of the actors change seasonally, for example tourist activity is only winter right now, while military forces shooting exercises expand in summer. Reindeer herders change seasonally - two different Siidas are coming in winter and in summer, while ports operate all year round with a small decrease of activity during spring and autumn.

Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta

| HUGE PLANS FOR TOMMERNESET PENINSULA |

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We have great faith in the Barents Sea», companies ASCO and Norterminal say as they announce plans for new oil base on the Barents Sea coast.”(Barents Observer)


HUGE PLANS FOR TOMMERNESET PENINSULA PORT PROJECTS, MINE, INFRASTRUCTURE

Kirkenes area is part of the northernmost county of Norway with a lot of clashing interests. Borders with Russia, Finland and Sweden, big companies are interested in this land as a promising in oil and gas land, mine in Bjornevatn area, port -part of Northern Sea Route and a base for Barents oil explorations -, three main villages and in the wider area Sami settlements.

Field Trip Photos all taken by P. Fyta

K

irkenes area was shrinking since the mine nearby was bankrupt and a lot of people lost their jobs. However, with the NSR opening, state authorities are hoping to attract more population and investments in the region. For the moment there are four ongoing projects of huge port terminals in Kirkenes: KILA, and three parts of Norterminal:Pulknes, Gamnes, Leirpollen. Projects will be supported by a lot of infrastructure - roads and railway from Finland to Kirkenes, connecting Scandinavia with these ports. These will have many consequences in natural landscape, marine species, biodiversity and local people. Sami people are against of all these projects as their herding pastures are being reduced. They are lining scattered around the area and the only thing that they are against is for the distortion of their ancestor’s land. Currently the capacity of the port is big enough for the traffic. However, with new shipping routes and oil and gas explorations

| HUGE PLANS FOR TOMMERNESET PENINSULA |

in Barents sea Norwegian government is pushing forward the new terminals projects. Ports will be supported by the roads, rail and necessary infrastructure. There are 4 main port projects in Kirkenes: KILA, Gamnes, Pulknes and Lierpollen. Gamnes, Pulknes and Lierpollen are big projects of national interest. Gamnes is the oil transshipment terminal. It is mostly going to be realized when new oil and gas explorations in Barents sea start operation. Pulknes is the oil related base. It is also oriented onto Barents sea explorations, they have investors and resolutions from the local authorities. However this project is the most criticized by Sami and it is also clashing with the military exercise zone. The project has been recently permitted and included into master plan of the area.

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Leirpollen is the future big port for all kind of things. It is a huge long term project, which is supported by federal government. KILA is the logistics area, with good location near the city. This project is not that big as previous ones, however they slow down it’s realization because they didn’t get permission to ship big oil tankers in the small fjord, where this projects located. Gamnes, Pulknes and Liarpollen are located on Tommerneset peninsula, a reindeer herding pasture and military exersise zone. These three ports are going to be implemented in 4 stages. - Stage 1: Pulknes stage 1(2018) - Stage 2: Pulknes stage 2(2020), Gamnes stage 1(2025) - Stage 3 : Pulknes stage 3(2026), Gamnes stage 2(2031), Leirpollen stage 1(2035) - Stage 4: Gamnes stage 3(2046), Leirpollen stage 2(2050)


Figure 45 : PULKNES (2016 - 2026)

Figure 46 : GAMNES (2025 - 2046)

4 3

KIRKENES

2 Figure 47 :LEIRPOLLEN (2035 - 2050)

tailings dumping point 1 Figure 48 : KILA (2030 - 2060)

HESSENG

Figur 12: KILA - Perspektivtegning av tenkt utbygging

TOMMERNESET PENINSULA MAP : P. Fyta

Nær- og fjernvirkning Utbyggingen vil bli lite synlig fra Toppenfjell på grunn av terrenget, og heller ikke fra Kirkenes sentrum kan man se tiltaksområdet. Hyttene som ligger rett overfor utbyggingsområdet på andre siden av fjorden vil bli sterkest påvirket. En tenkt utbygging er illustrert under. Standpunktene 1 og 2 er vist i kart over influensområdet.


SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS WINTER Sami core areas + Reindeer activity

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (WINTER) by P.Fyta

Reindeer herders territory is shown on these maps for two different seasons in red. The more intensive the activity the more intensive is the color. There are two main Siidas coming to the peninsula , Pasvik in summer and Vestre Sor-Varanger in winter. The area on the bottom left of the map is the calving area. Reindeer migration routes are crossing the main road, which goes from western Norway to Russia, however they prefer to cross the road on the left from the Airport, because the traffic there is lower, for the reason that mainly the road is used to ride from Kirkenes to the airport. Therefore their movement will be interrupted by the Pulknes port and the road, constructed for the port. In August reindeer are usually roaming in the northern part of Tommerneset, where Leirpollen terminal is planned. During winter season coastal territories are of special importance for reindeer, as they provide snow-free food, especially in harsh winters.

Field Trip Photos all taken by P. Fyta REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (WINTER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta | DEVELOPING KIRKENES |

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SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS SUMMER Sami core areas + Reindeer activity

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (SUMMER) by P.Fyta

REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (SUMMER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta


SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS WINTER Port Projects + Infrastructure

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (WINTER) by P.Fyta

Three ports, that are planned in Tommerneset, will be supported by roads and necessary infrastructure. To show their activity we also show their noise buffers, as this is extremely important to consider when dealing with reindeer herding. In winter port activity is slightly bigger then in summer. Tommerneset peninsula has ice-free waters in winter, that’s why it is used during winter as a short-term stopping point for ships, and also to deliver goods, while terrestrial connection is interrupted in some places. Noise buffers are also slightly bigger in winter, cause the sound spreads further because of the snow-coverage.

Field Trip Photos all taken by P. Fyta REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (WINTER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta | DEVELOPING KIRKENES |

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SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS SUMMER Port Projects + Infrastructure

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (SUMMER) by P.Fyta

During summer season port activity is also high enough, especially noting the increased activity of reindeer actors.

REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (SUMMER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta


SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS WINTER Tourist activity

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (WINTER) by P.Fyta

Tourism on the peninsula is currently presented by winter husky trips. All tourist activities are managed by Kirkenes Snowhotel AS. They have an agreement with military forces, to come on their territory. However, the trips are going only until the airport area and forward.

REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (WINTER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta | DEVELOPING KIRKENES |

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SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS SUMMER Sami core areas + Reindeer activity

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (SUMMER) by P.Fyta

Airport and roads activity do not change significantly through seasons. However in winter activity decreases slightly, especially because tourist activity in Finnmark area decreases during cold times.

REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (SUMMER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta


SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS WINTER Military activity

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (WINTER) by P.Fyta

Military forces have ownership in a big amount of land, that occupies almost all territory of the peninsula. However, they allow reindeer herders to bring their reindeer to graze on their territories. Mainly their shooting ranges are located in mountain areas, with all infrastructure as an extension of airport zone. In summer military exercises are increasing in number.

REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (WINTER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta | DEVELOPING KIRKENES |

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SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTORS SUMMER Military activity

SEASONAL OWNERSHIP ACTIVITY CALENDAR (SUMMER) by P.Fyta

On the maps in the middle we are showing the wilderness area(in grey) and how all the activities on the peninsula are reducing it and putting pressure on grazing land.

REINDEER + SAMI ACTIVITY MAP (SUMMER) by N.Nemkova ,P.Fyta


SIMULATING REINDEER Reindeer are very important part of Sami culture and life. As we mentioned before Sami do not see themselves without reindeer. To understand Sami activity on seasonal maps and to manage the land generally between the actors we need to look closer into reindeer behavior and the ways they move. This we did in three main scales: regional - migration or movement corridors used between seasonal ranges and feeding areas. Intermediate - feeding areas used during days, weeks or month and local - patch or feeding site used during hours or minutes.

Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta

| SIMULATING REINDEER |

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T

he title of the book emerged from a conversation with Andrei Gavrilov, a retired reindeer herder. As we began mapping the various birds, medicinal plants, trees, sacred sites, and traditional villages of the Kola Peninsula we noted that from some hundred possible icons, our Sami partners chose to begin with the reindeer... ...we asked Andrei why he chose to place the reindeer icons on the map first. He answered: “Because they are Sami potatoes!“(Sami Potatoes)

.

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CORE AREAS + CIRCUITSCAPE SIMULATION REINDEER CONNECTIVITY CORRIDORS

RESISTANCE AND CONNECTIVITY MAP by P.Fyta

Circuitscape creates a graph (network) by converting resistance cells to nodes and connecting them to their immediate neighbors We used Circuitscape to model and analyze the movement of reindeer in our search area during the year. Circuitscape treats landscapes as conductive surfaces, and uses resistance, voltage, and current to predict important aspects of movement and connectivity. More pathways mean more options and more robust connections. HOW WE WORKED 1.Resistance Maps Used Gnarly, a tool that produced the resistance map of our area. We created an excel spreadsheet specifying the level of resistance for each layer of our map (roads, power lines, vegetation, etc.) and used that as an input. High resistance areas will prevent the current to run on them, which means that in our model we wont have reindeer movement in these areas. Gnarly made the calculations and produced the resistance maps. | SIMULATING REINDEER |

A raster resistance map specifies the resistance to movement at each cell in a landscape. 2. Habitat Maps (focal node map) As a second step of the process we needed to produce the habitat areas. These areas are likely to used from the reindeer. As in step 1 we created an excel with the habitat value of each layer of our map. Used this document as an input to Gnarly which made the calculation and produced a focal node map or habitat map. A raster focal node map specifies points or polygons (e.g., core habitat areas) between which connectivity is to be modeled 3. Core area By using Core Mapper an ArcGIS script, we managed to identify core habitat areas from a habitat value raster by analyzing a landscape resistance raster (1) and several user-specified parameters (excel spreadsheet). 4. Linkage mapper (Microsimulation uses GIS maps of core areas 72

(3) and resistances (1) to identify and map linkages between core areas. Each cell in a resistance map is attributed with a value reflecting the energetic cost, difficulty, or mortality risk of moving across that cell. Resistance values are typically determined by cell characteristics, such as land cover or housing density, combined with species-specific landscape resistance models. As animals move away from specific core areas, cost-weighted distance analyses produce maps of total movement resistance accumulated. Circuitscape identifies neighboring core areas and creates maps of least-cost corridors between them. It then mosaics the individual corridors to create a single composite corridor map. The result shows the relative value of each grid cell in providing connectivity between core areas, allowing users to identify which routes encounter more or fewer features that facilitate or impede movement between core areas.


WINTER CORE AREA

SUMMER CORE AREA LANDSCAPE FEATURES AND REINDEER HABITAT VALUE AND RESISTANCE

CORE AREAS MAP by P.Fyta

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INTERMEDIATE SCALE - WINTER Reindeer movement in general depends on different factors: foraging conditions, predation, and migration harassment by biting flies, breeding strategies and human development. To simulate reindeer movements we study reindeer avoiding distances in different seasons. We found out that avoiding distances are bigger in winter, some studies showed that reindeer avoiding human development areas further in late winter then in summer or early winter. This can probably be also connected with calving period that happens in late winter - beginning of spring.

GPS-equipped Vegetation types, direction “The reindeer used different of slopes, time within the parts of the range season and the possibilities throughout the snow-free of avoiding insect harassment season. Preferred vegetation types were appear to be key factors for consistently meadows, predicting valuable reindeer grass heaths, and other habitats in novel areas in a land heaths. Avoided vege tation types were all management context.” types of forests, sparsely

vegetated areas, and bare rocks. The reindeer were seemingly indifferent to hiking trails within their home ranges, which, however, usually coincided with preferred vegetation types, but they avoided areas with houses and holiday huts during early summer. Later in the season, the reindeer preferred higher elevated areas where human constructions were sparse.“(Skarin et al,p.1) “Vegetation types, direction of slopes, time within the season and the possibilities of avoiding insect harassment appear to be key factors for predicting valuable reindeer habitats in novel areas in a land management context.”(Skarin et al,p.1)

figure 49 (Reindeer flow)

REINDEER FLOW SIMULATION (MARCH - OCTOBER) : N. Nemkova

| SIMULATING REINDEER |

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INTERMEDIATE SCALE - SUMMER “Knowledge of snow and ice conditions has been a necessity for subsistence and survival in the arctic and sub-arctic areas. The general term for “snow, snow-covered ground” is muohta. A “patch of snow in summer or late spring” is jassa, while jiehkki means “glacier”. The opposite of snow-covered ground is bievla, “bare ground”, which may also be used of a bare patch when the snow is melting in the spring.”(Magga, p.8) Snow condition and it’s depth are key factors for reindeer movement in winter. “Reindeer can crater through snow up to 65 cm deep but will usually seek lesser depths (Pruitt 1959, Kelsall 1968, Stardom 1975). More important than snow depth, however, is the degree of compaction of snow cover which greatly affects an animal’s ability to dig through it. Reindeer have a relatively high threshold of tolerance to digging through compact snow but will avoid areas with a hardness above 25-29 kgcrn2 (La Perriere and Lent 1977, Skogland 1978). Snow depth and compaction affect reindeer group size in exactly the same manner as variable plant productivity by altering the patchiness of the environment. Reindeer respond to increasing resource patchiness by aggregating in the most productive patches. This is reflected by an increase in average group size as the winter progresses, particularly during winters with a heavy snow cover (Fuller and Shoesmith and Storey 1977, Helle 1981, Stardom 1975). “(Murray, p.18)

REINDEER FLOW SIMULATION (AUGUST - SEPTEMBER) :N. Nemkova

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LOCAL SCALE

figure 50

REINDEER SIMULATION BY N.Nemkova

REINDEER SIMULATION BY N.Nemkova figure 51

Image by N.Nemkova

As a base for our code for reindeer movement simulation on local scale we used generative landscapes blog, in particular the code of generative path finder https://generativelandscapes.wordpress.com/2015/02/17/path-finder-using-a-recursive-process-example-8-5/ The code generates the movement according to the slope condition. For the regional scale we used the code of multiple agents on the topography https://generativelandscapes.wordpress. com/2015/12/21/agents-on-a-topographical-surface-example-11-5/

| SIMULATING REINDEER |

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TOPOGRAPHY

FOREST

POWER LINES

AVOIDANCE DISTANCE SIMULATION : N.Nemkova

ROADS

SETTLEMENTS

For the local scale simulations we studied range of works devoted to research of avoidance distances by reindeer from main human development features: power lines, roads, settlements, and also their movements according to topography and in forest areas. This will help in future design, so that we can understand how our interventions will influence reindeer flow and how we can manipulate it.

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Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta


THINKING THROUGH THE MATERIALIZATION Land management on the peninsula must be performed through introduction of different boundaries between the actors. To understand how we can create these boundaries we studied how different landscape features and its combinations influence in the reindeer movement along with our study of the flow simulation in the local scale. We also studied different constructions such as berms, fences, roads and Sami cabins - to see how we can build them in different landscape conditions and where they are applicable as boundary lines. Some of the techniques we use are flexible and can be moved to new locations, while others(like roads) are fixed. Many of them don not require special construction engineering and can be installed by Sami, others must be built by port authorities, using the materials from port construction such as excavated soil and wood. The techniques are described in plan also with reindeer flow simulation, and in sections to see snow catchment for winter period. In our case it was also important to study timeline of our constructions, according to the ports stages introduction.

Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta

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We still don’t have a watertight definition of what a country is.”

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THINKING THROUGH THE MATERIALIZATION WOODEN FENCE TYPE / FLEXIBILITY + TIMELINE APPLICATION ON SITE / FLOW REDIRECTION We studied different combinations of wooden fences V-shape in plan. We propose to use split-rail construction for them as it is very common for norhtern Norway and also easily can be shifted, which is important for us as we want our fences to be flexible. Split-rail fence usually requires a lot of wood, however this will not be a problem, as with the ports construction there will be a lot of extra wood, cut from the ports areas.

Image 53 - Split rail fence

figure 52 - Traditional fence

Image 54 - Snow catching fence

Wooden fence type1

FLEXIBILITY / TIMELINE

Wooden fence type 2 Allows reindeer flow pass 2031 - replacement after 15 years

2016 - current stage FLEXIBLE

2016 - current stage

2021 - 1st stage

2036

2021 - 1st stage

2026 - 2nd stage

2041

2026 - 2nd stage

FLOW REDIRECTION

| THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION |

Wooden fence type 3 Stir reindeer flow

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SECTION + SLOPE / SNOW CATCHMENT AREAS IN SEASON / LANDSCAPE FEATURE APPLICATION In winter this constructions will serve to catch the snow. Our idea is to use this kind of constructions to reserve nutrisious vegetation during winter period, as reindeer will not be able to dig through the thick layer of snow. For winter Siida this split rail fences will serve as shelves to put nutritious lichen on them.

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

Catalogue made by P. Fyta, N. Nemkova

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TECHNICAL REPORT 1 SMALL SCALE REVEGETATION PLOTS

The following report provides information on fences, traditional for Sami and northern Scandinavia inhabitants. Mostly it is concentrated around split-rail fence construction and how it can be placed on landscape, what kind of material it is build from and how it works in winter with the snow. We plan to use this construction in our proposal to reserve vegetation plots. With the ports construction on the peninsula a huge amount of nutritious soil will be lost. To perform a vise land management and to avoid overgrazing we propose to make reservation of nutritious land plots, where reindeer cannot come for few seasons, so that vegetation can grow freely and stabilize. After few years these fences can be dismantled and pushed to other places to recover vegetation there. In winter period this will work with the snow: according to the studies of snow catchment the fences will accumulate snow, which will not let reindeer to reach the vegetation. At the final page of the report we put these construction on site, to show the rules of placing them in the landscape, reindeer flow working with it and the example of multi-criteria analysis on our study area - Puknes harbor in Tommerneset peninsula.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015-16 SUBMITTED BY FYTA PANAGIOTA

| TECHNICAL REPORT 1 |

figure 55

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SPLIT - RAIL FENCE WITH SUPPORTS Location: worldwide Height: 1-1,5m Distance between zigs zags: 5 m Materials: wood(spruce or juniper) Machinery used for construction: none These log fences are known for their meandering layout constructed from timber logs, split lengthwise into rails. They are used typically for agriculture purposes. As it is required quantity of logs for the construction this type of fence is mostly common to areas with plenty wood.Construction is simple without the need of many tools.

figure 56

SPLIT RAIL FENCE - DENCE STRUCTURE “A split-rail fence or log fence (also known as a zigzag fence, worm fence or snake fence historically due to its meandering layout) is a type of fence constructed out of timber logs, usually split lengthwise into rails and typically used for agricultural or decorative fencing. Such fences require much more timber than other types of fences, and so are generally only common in areas where wood is abundant. However, they are very simple in their construction, and can be assembled with few tools even on hard or rocky ground. They also can be built without using any nails or other hardware; such hardware was often scarce in frontier areas. They are particularly popular in very rocky areas where post hole digging is almost impossible. They can even be partially or wholly disassembled if the fence needs to be moved or the wood becomes more useful for other purposes.�(wikipedia)

figure 57

| TECHNICAL REPORT 1 |

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SNOW FENCE A snow fence creates a large accumulation of snow downwind, allowing the control of the placement and size of snowdrifts. Depending on height we have bigger snowdrifts in bugger distances and as a result bigger areas covered by snow.

figure 58

COMBINATION WITH LIVING (TREE) FENCES “Split rail fences were made of easy to split, rot-resistant wood. Traditionally American chestnut was the timber of choice until chestnut blight eliminated this tree. Currently, most split rails are made from cedar. Whether of chestnut or cedar, these logs were cut to a length of 10 to 12 feet (3.0 to 3.7 m) and split down the length of the log. Each half was then split into quarters, then eighths and so on until the rails were of a usable size. A log may produce from four rails from an 8-inch (20 cm) log to over a dozen from larger logs. The rails are stacked on top of one another. Most split rail fences have the rails stacked in an interlocking zig-zag fashion that is self-supporting, easy to create, easy to repair, and easy to disassemble.�(wikipedia)

figure 59

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Depending on fence construction snow fence is different. According to our studies, the best construction for the snow catching is the vertical log fence (wyoming snow fence). We also found out that the higher the fence the bigger is the distance from the fence to the snow catchment area. All these helped us to find out that for our purposes we can use split-rail fence construction, which will catch maximum snow amount. Adjusting the height of the fence we can also control the location of the snow catchment area. For example if we see that the construction is not working during one season we can add or remove easily the layers of our split-rail fence to change the reserved plot size and location.

DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTION METHODS SECTION

figure 60

SHRP-W/FR-91-106

Snow Fence Guide

FROM SIMPLE FENCE TO A LIVING FENCE

LIVING FENCE

figure 61

Ronald D. Tabler Tabler & Associates

SNOWDRIFT ANALYSIS

Strategic Highway Research Program National Research Council

STAGES OF SNOW GROWTH Figure 9. Stages of growth for a 50% porous snow fence, as illustrated by profiles on seven dates. Š1986 Tabler & Associates

increase as the drift adds resistance to the wind. The slip-face and recirculation zone that form in this stage trap some of the snow that blows off the top of the drift.

As the downwind drift approaches its maximum depth (for 50% porous fences, 1 to 1.2 times the height of the fence), the third stage of growth begins. The recirculation zone fills in as the drift lengthens downwind (Profiles 4-6, Figure 9). This stage is characterized by a decline in trapping efficiency as the recirculation zone diminishes in size.

The fourth stage of growth begins when the drift first assumes a smooth profile without the slip-face, marking the disappearance of the recirculation zone. At this stage, the drift is about 20H in length (Profile 6, Figure 9). Subsequent growth is slow as the drift elongates to its final length of 30 to 35H (Profile 7, Figure 9).

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figure 62

| TECHNICAL REPORT 1 |

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figure 64

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SPLIT RAIL FENCE - SNOW FENCE__REVEGETATION PLOTS

REVEGETATION PLOTS PLACEMENT ON SITE by N. Nemkova

Revegetation plots will be placed mostly in nutritious vegetation locations with flat surface: such as marsh and lichen areas. Preferred slope for the construction is 0-7 degrees. The plots are planned to be located on main reindeer path, as these are the most vulnerable areas of vegetation. According to the main wind direction in Tommerneset peninsula, which is usually from inland to coast (Northward direction), the best orientation of our construction is against the wind direction. Therefore main slope aspect for placing the fences is South-East, South and South-West. According to the flow avoiding simulation we suggest to put the fences towards reindeer flow.

FLOW REDIRECTION - REVEGETATION PLOTS N.Nemkova, P.Fyta

| TECHNICAL REPORT 1 |

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Multi-criteria analysis Landfeatures: -Mountain areas Slope: 0 - 12 degrees Aspect: E, SE, S, SW, W

80% criteria overlap 60% criteria overlap

MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS:REVEGETATION PLOTS by N. Nemkova


WOODEN FENCE TYPE / FLEXIBILITY + TIMELINE APPLICATION ON SITE / FLOW REDIRECTION Roundpole fence is very popular among Sami, and in many cases is called “typical Sami fence“. This construction is also flexible and can be removed easily or shifted to other location. Building of this fence requires no construction machinery and is build by men power. It can be used to stir reindeer flow and have different configurations in plan. Mean utilization period we set up to 15 years, after which the fence may be shifted or replaced.

Field Trip Photo by N.Nemkova

figure 66

figure 67

Wooden fence type 4 Stir reindeer flow

FLEXIBILITY / TIMELINE

Wooden fence type 5

2016 - current stage

2031 - 3rd stage FLEXIBLE 2046 - replacement after 15 years

FLOW REDIRECTION

| THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION |

Wooden fence type 6 Stir reindeer flow

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2031 - replacement after 15 years

2021 - 1st stage

2036

2026 - 2nd stage

2041


SECTION + SLOPE / SNOW CATCHMENT AREAS IN SEASON / LANDSCAPE FEATURE APPLICATION

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

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CORRAL + STONE WALL / FLEXIBILITY + TIMELINE APPLICATION ON SITE / FLOW REDIRECTION Corral structure is a traditional way of gathering and controling reindeer. By studying and analyzing traditional structures we ended up in our proposal ones.

figure 69

figure 68

FLEXIBILITY / TIMELINE

figure 70

Wooden fence type 7 : CORRAL Traditional way of gathering and CONTROL reindeer FLEXIBLE reuse corral structure of previous stage for next

Stone wall type 1 Used for fixed structure to CONTROL reindeer FIXED

FLOW REDIRECTION figure 71

| THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION |

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TECHNICAL REPORT 2 SMALL SCALE FLOW REDIRECTION

This technical report focuses on the constructions which can stir reindeer flow. The constructions must be flexible and easily moved to other locations. Therefore we studied roundpole fence (wooden construction) and dry stone fence. This fences are typical for Sami and were used to control reindeer from the early reindeer herding times. The construction is easy to build and requires local for our peninsula materials. These materials will be extracted from the ports construction areas and can be used for our interventions. At the final page of the report we put these construction on site, to show the rules of placing them in the landscape, reindeer flow working with it and the example of multi-criteria analysis on our study area - Puknes harbor in Tommerneset peninsula.

Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta

| TECHNICAL REPORT 2 |

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ROUNDPOLE FENCE Location:Finland, Sweeden, Norway, Estonia Height: 1.5-2m Materials: wood(spruce or juniper) Machinery used for construction: none

figure 74

figure 72 figure 73

The roundpole fence is a wooden fence typical to the countryside in Sweden (in Swedish: gärdesgård), Norway (in Norwegian: skigard), Finland (in Finnish: riukuaita, risuaita or pistoaita) and Estonia (in Estonian: roigasaed or teivasaed). It is normally made from unbarked and unsplit youngish trees, mostly spruce or juniper. Roundpole fences have traditionally been used as a means of fencing off animals rather than marking property boundaries. The fence construction generally consists of 3 or 4 parts: uprights put together in pairs, round poles laid horizontally or diagonally between the two uprights, and binding cord usually made from young saplings - and sometimes also diagonal bracing. The fence is usually 1.5–2 meters tall. The fencing can also incorporate specially made stiles and gates. The fence requires an abundance of wood, which was never a problem in Scandinavia, as the trees generally came from the owners’ own forests in the process of thinning them out. The term “roundpole fence” is somewhat misleading, as the rails between the pairs of uprights are usually split spruce logs. However, the upright poles are always round, young spruce trees with a diameter of 5 to 7 cm. For the diagonals, larger trees with a diameter up to 20 cm were split into four or eight rails of suitable dimensions. Very young saplings were used to bind the rails to the uprights, the idea being to utilize trees of different ages. In more recent times, rough sawn boards have also been used, preferably the outer boards of a log, with one curved side. The binding of saplings have also been replaced by steel wire. The oldest known roundpole fence dates back to the Iron Age. The oldest known archeological find of a roundpole fence in Sweden was uncovered in Leksand.

| TECHNICAL REPORT 2 |

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DRY STONE Location: Norway, Ireland, Scotland (mountain areas) Height: 1-1.5m Materials: stone Machinery used for construction: none

figure 75

A dry stone wall, also known as a dry stone dyke, drystane dyke, dry stone hedge, rock fence or stone fence, is a wall constructed from stones without mortar to bind them together.[1] As with any dry stone construction, the structural integrity arises from compressional forces and the interlocking of the stones. Such walls have been traditionally used in building construction as field boundaries and garden or churchyard walls, and on steep slopes as retaining walls for terracing.

figure 77, 78

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SPLIT RAIL FENCE - SNOW FENCE__REVEGETATION PLOTS

FLOW REDIRECTION FENCES PLACEMENT ON SITE by N. Nemkova

The location for flow redirection constructions can be various, it depends on the land management and where we need to stir reindeer flow. Slope is not restricted. This constructions are flexible, as we mentioned and can be shifted and reused.

STIRING FLOW N.Nemkova, P.Fyta

| TECHNICAL REPORT 2 |

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Multi-criteria analysis Landfeatures: -Mountain areas -Valleys Slope: 0 - 24 degrees

80% criteria overlap 60% criteria overlap

MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS:FLOW REDIRECTION by N. Nemkova


SOIL - STONE + INFRASTRUCTURE / FLEXIBILITY / LANDSCAPE FEATURE APPLICATION

figure 80

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Berm / HA-HA Wall

Winter road HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Summer road HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

FIXED

FIXED

FIXED

FOREST VELLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

5m

1 = 2.5 m

AVOIDING DISTANCE

AVOIDING DISTANCE

FLEXIBILITY / TIMELINE

| THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION |

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SECTION + SLOPE In winter this constructions will serve to catch the snow. Our idea is to use this kind of constructions to reserve nutrisious vegetation during winter period, as reindeer will not be able to dig through the thick layer of snow. For winter Siida this split rail fences will serve as shelves to put nutritious lichen on them.

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CABINS / FLEXIBILITY / AVOIDING DISTANCE CABINS / FLEXIBILITY / AVOIDING DISTANCE

figure 82 figure 82

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Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta

figure 83

Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta

figure 83

Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta

figure 83

Wooden Cabin (summer) - formation in a row

FLEXIBILITY / TIMELINE

FLEXIBILITY / TIMELINE

FLEXIBILITY / TIMELINE

Wooden Cabin (summer) - formation Wooden Cabin inFLEXIBLE a row

Wooden Cabin (summer) - sparced Wooden Cabin formation FLEXIBLE

FLEXIBLE

FLEXIBLE

(summer) - formation in a row 8 - 12m

AVOIDING FLEXIBLE DISTANCE 8 - 12m FROM OBSTACLE

AVOIDING DISTANCE FROM 8 - 12m OBSTACLE FLOW REDIRECTION

FLOW REDIRECTION

Wooden Cabin (summer) - sparced formation

AVOIDING DISTANCE FROM OBSTACLE

| THINKING THROUGH MATERIALIZATION |

(summer) - sparced formation

Cabin from stone and soil (winter) - circular formation

Cabin from stone and soil (winter) - circular Cabinformation from stone and FIXED

soil (winter) - circular formation FIXED

2.5 - 5m

2.5 - 5m

FLEXIBLE AVOIDING DISTANCE 2.5 - 5mFROM OBSTACLE

FIXED AVOIDING DISTANCE 2.5 - FROM 5m OBSTACLE

AVOIDING DISTANCE FROM 2.5 - 5m OBSTACLE

AVOIDING DISTANCE FROM OBSTACLE 104

AVOIDING DISTANCE FROM 2.5 - 5m OBSTACLE

AVOIDING DISTANCE FROM OBSTACLE


SECTION + SLOPE / SNOW CATCHMENT AREAS / LANDSCAPE FEATURE APPLICATION

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

FOREST VALLEY MOUNTAIN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BOUNDARIES REVEGETATION CONTROL

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TECHNICAL REPORT 3 SMALL SCALE TOURISTIC INFRASCTRUCTURE

Our idea is to propose tourism as an additional economic activity for Sami. Therefore tourism in Tommerneset will be managed by Sami and help them to maintain their traditions instead of interrupting it. That’s why we study different examples of tourist infrastructure in the arctic. The following report describes touristic infrastructure examples in northern Norway. Two projects from Snohetta: Bjellandsbu - ükrafjorden, which was built in the remote area in the mountains, therefore was constructed mainly from local materials without any machinery engineering. Eggum tourist route - is quite big project, located on one of the most popular touristic routes in Norway. This project organized different functions, important for tourist activity in the area. The materials were also local, however frameworks are from concrete. The last example is from Reiulf Ramstad architects - which was a huge project for Trollstigen tourist route, and incorporated mountain lodge, restaurant, gallery to flood barriers, water cascades, bridges, and paths to outdoor furniture and pavilions and platforms. All these examples work with the landscape and use local materials. At the final page of the report we put these construction on site, to show the rules of placing them in the landscape, reindeer flow working with it and the example of multi-criteria analysis on our study area - Puknes harbor in Tommerneset peninsula.

AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015-16 SUBMITTED BY NATALY NEMKOVA

| TECHNICAL REPORT 3 |

Field Trip Photo by N.Nemkova

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BJELLANDSBU - ÅKRAFJORDEN Location:Etne, Hordaland, Norway Design team and client: Snohetta for Osvald M. Bjelland Type: Shelter/hunting lodge Size: 35m2 (20m2) Materials: wood, stone Project timeframe: 2012 - completed 2013 Machinery used for construction: none Cost: N/A

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“The hunting lodge is beautifully situated, alone beside a lake in the untouched mountain areas close to Åkrafjorden in the western part of Norway. It is accessible only by foot or horseback. The integration of the hut into the landscape has been an important part of the concept. The terrain is characteristic with grass, heather and rocks, and the hut’s shape, orientation, and materials are dictated by this. “(Snohetta website)

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EGGUM TOURIST ROUTE Location:Etne, Hordaland, Norway Design team and client: Snohetta for Osvald M. Bjelland Type: Shelter/hunting lodge Size: 35m2 (20m2) Materials: wood, stone Project timeframe: 2012 - completed 2013 Machinery used for construction: none Cost: N/A

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“The Eggum Tourist route is one of 18 National Norwegian Tourist Routes, commissioned and managed by the Public Roads Administration to allow travelers to enjoy the countryside’s spectacular vistas with amenities such as service buildings, hiking trails and public art. The Eggum project consists of a service building within an amphitheatre, a hiking trail, car park and stairs built in gabion walls.

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The terrain determined the location of areas for camper vans, car parking and the building, all sited in an excavated hill. The car park was designed so that every parked vehicle will have a view of the sea. Gabion walls were used to define the car park and to create a unifying effect for the designed spaces. The construction materials used in the project were largely local to the site. All gabions were filled with stone from the site excavation, and the building’s wooden walls were built from driftlogs found on the nearby beach. The emphasis has been on using rough, natural materials with consistent detailing.“(Snohetta website)

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TROLLSTIGEN TOURIST ROUTE PROJECT Location:Romsdalen - Geiranger Fjord, Norway Design team and client: Reiulf Ramstad Architects for Norwegian public roads administration Type: Flood Barrier House Size: 950 m2 Materials: Corten steel and poured-in-place concrete Project timeframe: 2005-2012 Machinery used for construction: excavator, truck, bulldozer Cost: N/A

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| TECHNICAL REPORT 3 |

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“From the architect. The project will enhance the experience of the Trollstigen plateau’s location and nature. Thoughtfulness regarding features and materials will underscore the site’s temper and character, and well-adapted, functional facilities will augment the visitor’s experience. The architecture is to be characterised by clear and precise transitions between planned zones and the natural landscape. Through the notion of water as a dynamic element – from snow, to running and then falling water- and rock as a static element, the project creates a series of prepositional relations that describe and magnify the unique spatiality of the site.”(Archdaily)


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Tourist infrastructure may require some machinery uses such as trucks, excavators and bulldozers. We used studies on main machinery routes, which can be organized in a way that they can help to prepare the land for future tourist trails. These trails can be organised with the berms or as ha-ha walls, to keep reindeer away. We think that port authorities may be in charge of this machinery works and other technology required construction as a compensation for the use of Sami herding lands.

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30-40m2

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TOURIST CABIN PLACEMENT ON SITE by N. Nemkova

We plan to locate tourist cabins in the mountain areas, as these have the best view. Preferred slope for the cabins is 0-12 degrees, as it requires less groundworks. Tourist cabins will be located away from main reindeer routes, as we know that reindeer avoiding distance of the cabins is minimum 8m. Orientation of the slope is important for the cabins, so the next requirement is slope orientation which is East, South or West. We plan to create small cabins of 20-30 m2 so that it can be used for a short period by a small group of people. This kind of hiking cabins are very popular in Norway, especially in northern part. Tourist cabins are fixed interventions, so they will stay on place for a long periods.

STIRING FLOW N.Nemkova, P.Fyta

| TECHNICAL REPORT 3 |

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Multi-criteria analysis Landfeatures: -Mountain areas Slope: 0 - 12 degrees Aspect: E, SE, S, SW, W

80% criteria overlap 60% criteria overlap

MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS - TOURISM by N. Nemkova


DESIGN TOOL

Arctic landscape is highly dependent on seasons, the landscape is constantly changing with the snow covering and melting away. Difference between summer and winter is remarkable. At the same moment cold weather and instability of nature requires people to share resources. That is how we came up we the idea of design tool, that can help to negotiate land between different actors in Tommerneset and show the consequences of their decisions in real-time application. The tool has started as a mechanism of negotiations between different actors on shared territory. As natural resources in the Arctic are rare, especially during winter period, we set up the main rules for land management - sharing the land and flexible land boundaries, which are changing through time.

Image by N.Nemkova ( five actors boundaries) | DESIGN TOOL |

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PHYSICAL MODEL PIVOT POINTS AND CONNECTONS TO THE LANDSCAPE FEATURES

To create land management between actors and find a way to find place for each interested party, we started through physical model. We located core Sami settlements and connected them with the landscape features, which are important for them through the landscape. This study helped us to define main 6 reindeer herding units and combine them with reindeer flow. All this was created with the help of reindeer simulations. We thought that we can separate the flow of reindeer into entering and exiting ones on the Peninsula. After that we experimented with the reindeer herding units areas, as we know port introduction stages. We thought that when the port is taking part from the reindeer herding unit, it must be compensated from the common area, which is left after defining of unit boundaries. So we experimented with different ways of shifting the boundaries on the landscape. It helped to establish the rules for future application code: the unit need to maintain the area and shifting must be performed according to the landscape, so that the value of the lost land plot will be equal to the acquired one.

PORTS CONSTRUCTION BY STAGES - BOUNDARY SHIFTING STAGE 1-3

STAGE 4-6

Our proposal is to use Sami core areas as starting points for reindeer herding units. As there is an obvious lack of territory on the project site we also propose to shift to intensive reindeer herding here, and set up small family herds, that can occupy these units.

“

we also propose to shift to intensive reindeer herding here, and set up small family herds, that can occupy these units.�

Physical Prototyping Large Scale (Tommerneset Peninsula) by N.Nemkova, P.Fyta

| DESIGN TOOL |

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4th stage 5th stage 6th stage

1st stage 2nd stage 3d stage

Sami settlements Norwegian settlements Linkages to landscape features (depending on the family occupation) Boundaries shrinking Boundaries growing

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5 ACTORS SHIFTING DISTANCES ACCORDING TO LANDSCAPE FEATURES

REINDEER HERDERS

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W

e created an application in processing sofware. This application shows the area claimed by different people and the boundaries of their land plots. When the application is running the boundaries of land plots are growing or shrinking, trying to reach their estimated size. Estimated sizes of land plots are defined by the actors, and can be changed in real time with the sliders.Actors can also adjust the ‘strength’ of the boundary - in the cases where boundaries are adjucent to each other. figure 100

5 MAIN ACTORS IN TOMMERNESET by N.Nemkova, P.Fyta

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or each actor we set up the rules of shifting distances according to the landscape features that are important for them. For the tool to operate first we need to set up starting areas for each actor. Then people can sit together, change sizes of areas in sliders, discuss shifting rules and see what land management results it may have. The distances are set up here in percentages - which represent not the real dimension but relative ones, so they can be adjusted to different situations.

We created an application that shows the area claimed by different people and the boundaries of their land plots. When the application is running the boundaries of land plots are changing, trying to reach their estimated size. ”

LANDSCAPE FEATURES Mountain

Common area

Vegetation

Vegetation+Mountain

Human Development River Coastal area

| DESIGN TOOL |

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DESIGN TOOL : N.Nemkova

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REINDEER HERDING - PORTS NEGOTIATIONS

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Our application in work we tested on reindeer flow-port negotiation example. We took our 6 family units boundaries, which came from core areas circuitscape simulation and Sami core areas analysis. The rules for shifting for reindeer herding boundaries are bigger for vegetated areas, rivers and coastal areas, and very low for bare mountains or human development. We don’t want also our reindeer herding units to grow a lot into common areas that are core areas for reindeer, as these will serve as a reserve for harsh winters or other difficult situations. We run the simulation and introduce ports by stages to see how the boundaries are shifted through time. As we can see from result, the boundaries are getting more elaborated, following the landscape and topography .

REINDEER FLOW - SHIFTING THROUGH TIME Image by P. Fyta

SHIFTING DISTANCES: REINDEER HERDING UNIT EXAMPLE FIRST STAGE

Image by P.Fyta, N.Nemkova

| DESIGN TOOL |

SECOND STAGE

Image by P. Fyta, N. Nemkova

THIRD STAGE

Image by P. Fyta, N.Nemkova

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COMPUTATIONAL MODEL REINDEER HERDING-PORTS Current stage

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PORT 1 STAGE 1

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All images on this pages by N.Nemkova | DESIGN TOOL |

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Current to 1st stage

The results from the tool run are the boundaries shifting according to the ports constructions. Where the boundaries between units collide and got thicker we propose to create common areas for Sami.

1st stage to 2nd stage

2nd stage to 3d stage

3d stage to 4th stage Unit boundaries by stages Common areas

4th stage to 5th stage

5th stage to 6th stage

Image by N.Nemkova

| DESIGN TOOL |

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Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta

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CARTOGENESIS This chapter shows the application of the boundaries to our peninsula is stages. Cartogenesis shows how the boundaries work with reindeer flow, and also what kinds of constructions from our previous studies can be applied to create boundaries and inside unit organisation. To place the techniques in each unit we created the rules for unit division into techniques patches. This patches are used as auxiliary lines to know which type of intervention can be used in each place. Arctic landscape recovers slower then in southern areas, that’s why we also suggest to change port introduction timeline and to adapt it to the arctic. After the all the port stages are finished we also propose to reconsider ports infrastructure and operation, and to rearrange the functions of them. This hopefully can help to make ports areas more compact and improve port efficiency. In this case we can run again our design tool and find new ways of land management.

Field Trip Photo by P. Fyta

| CARTOGENESIS |

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CARTOGENESIS

PORT - 3rd PHASE - UNIT 2 Real time port operation : 2046 Adapted to Arctic : 2060

PORT INTRODUCTION + SHIFTING BOUNDARIES THROUGH TIME

The Ports Are Going To Be Implemented In 5 Stages.

The design mechanism tool results that we follow to create and develop our proposal of land management on the peninsula are deployed on the following maps. Boundaries changes are applied through stages as we described before, redirecting the main reindeer flow on the peninsula. The stages of cartogenesis follow port constructions stages. However the timeline of the ports construction is adapted to the arctic landscape and will take longer time to develop. In the second part of this chapter one family herding unit will be developed at a smaller scale to give light on how smaller scale interventions can be applied to boundaries creation.

FIELD TRIP PHOTOS all taken by P. Fyta | CARTOGENESIS |

CARTOGENESIS FOURTH STAGE (2060) : P. Fyta 130


PORT - 2nd PHASE UNIT 5,6 Real time port operation : 2050 Adapted to Arctic : 2060


SHIFTING BOUNDARIES - CURRENT STAGE (2016) RESERVED PLOT/ REDEFINING MAIN FLOW

PIVOT POINTS

PORT - UNIT 1 NOISE BUFFER

FIRST STAGE - (2021) NEW PIVOT POINTS

PORT - 1st PHASE - UNIT 1 Real time port operation : 2018 Adapted to Arctic : 2021

| CARTOGENESIS |

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SECOND STAGE - (2026)

PORT - 1st PHASE - UNIT 2 Real time port operation : 2025 Adapted to Arctic : 2026

PORT - 2nd PHASE UNIT 1 Real time port operation : 2020 Adapted to Arctic : 2026 THIRD STAGE - (2046)

CARTOGENESIS IN STAGES : P. Fyta

PORT - 2nd PHASE - UNIT 2 Real time port operation : 2031 Adapted to Arctic : 2051

PORT - 1st PHASE UNIT 4,5 Real time port operation : 2035 Adapted to Arctic : 2051

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DIVISION RULES DIVISION INTO LAND USAGE PATCHES

Image by N.Nemkova

CORRECTING PATCHES BOUNDARIES

Image by N.Nemkova

Image by N.Nemkova

To apply the boundary techniques to our boundaries we set up an algorithm of unit inside organisation. Firstly we propose to divide the unit area into techniques patches, according to the landscape and reindeer flow.

summer areas are located in the mountains. During summer period also counting and preparation for slaughter is happening, so summer settlements are located not far from the corrals.

From our previous studies of reindeer movement we know that reindeer are always going by the river , so where we have river - unit boundary intersection we create Corral patch. Corrals will be placed in each unit at the entrance and on the exit of the unit, and will serve to count and separate reindeer from other families herds.

After we have rough patches boundaries, we can correct them according to the landscape and topography. The last stage will be to apply different criteria we studied in our technical reports to place each technique in the best suitable location.

Flow-boundary intersection is a place for future flow redirection interventions. Nutritious vegetation areas - flow intersection are pointing to possible locations for revegetation techniques. For the Sami settlements locations we plan to create separate land plots for winter and summer, because two different Siidas are coming in each season. Winter settlements are usually located in coniferous forests near the river, while | UNIT ANALYSIS |

MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS INSIDE PATCHES TO FIND OUT TECHNIQUES LOCATION

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Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Land usage patches C orrected patches boundaries Multi-criteria analysis

Revegetation

Flow redirection Units bundaries

Image by N.Nemkova

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UNIT 1 ORGANISATION - CURRENT TO 1ST STAGE To apply our strategy on site we created a timeline scenario which is adapted to the port stages construction. This starts from the current stage. First step is to set up family units on the peninsula and to make them free from the other actors. For example in the case of the first unit we need to resettle sea Sami, that are located inside future port construction area, and to move away military zone. These planned to move into the common areas, according to the landscape features needed for each actor. Next step is to set up winter and summer settlements locations, because as we know two different Siidas are coming to Tommerneset - one in winter and one in summer. After that we create boundaries using techniques according to the patches division algorithm and redefine the main reindeer flow.

UNIT 1 ORGANISATION - 1ST TO 2ND STAGE For the next stage we plan to shift the boundary and change unit organisation by using the constructions from the previous stage. This will help to redefine main flow.

Corral - patch Flow redirection - patch Revegetation - patch Winter settlements - patch Infrastructure - patch Reindeer flow Interventions Multi-criteria hexagons Ports All images on this page by N.Nemkova

| UNIT ANALYSIS |

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Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta ( Aerial view of Pulknes) 137

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TECHNICAL REPORTS: TOURISM

REVEGETATION

FLOW REDIRECTION

For the last stage we need again to recreate the boundary and redefine main flow using constructions from previous stage. For this stage we also plan to begin touristic activity and create touristic infrastructure in the mountain area near the boundary. Three techniques: tourism, revegetation and flow redirection we described more detailed in the technical reports.

Corral - patch Flow redirection - patch Revegetation - patch Winter settlements - patch Infrastructure - patch Tourism - patch Reindeer flow Interventions Multi-criteria hexagons Ports THIRD STAGE UNIT ORGANISATION by N.Nemkova


Field Trip Photo by N.Nemkova


PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING We developed series of physical models that helped us to refine our ideas in the smaller scale, and understand the idea of shifting boundaries through time, how this can be physically built with the timeline. This we made in two scales: 1:2000 and 1:1000. In the bigger scale model we discovered how the techniques can be shifted in time and what are the rules for the techniques application. While the smaller scale model improved our research, so we could show different techniques types and the introduction of tourist cabins.

PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING MEDIUM SCALE (UNIT) by N.Nemkova, P.Fyta | PFYSICAL PROTOTYPING |

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In this model each stage is shown in different color mark on the U-shape index.. The auxiliary lines of the boundaries, that we received from the simulation are shown at the bottom.

PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING MEDIUM SCALE (UNIT) by N.Nemkova, P.Fyta

| PFYSICAL PROTOTYPING |

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CURRENT TO FIRST STAGE

FIRST TO SECOND STAGE

SECOND TO THIRD STAGE

THIRD TO FOURTH STAGE

The smaller scale model shows different techniques application through stages, shown in different colors. Split-rail and roundpole fences have different shapes in plan, the berm is shown with a different threading. In the last stage we start introducing tourist cabin and the road connection for it. We plan to use ha-ha wall construction for it to insert it into the landscape. Silver wire represents reindeer flow.

PHYSICAL PROTOTYPING SMALL SCALE (UNIT - TECHNIQUES) by N.Nemkova, P.Fyta | PFYSICAL PROTOTYPING |

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Field Trip Photo by P.Fyta

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RETHINKING ARCTIC

Starting to understand how this land management strategy can be applied in our study area, and also achieving to have some perception of how it can be performed physically we began thinking of how this can be applied generally in the arctic. Arctic peoples are different, as well as environment and development projects, however there are key things that are crucial for any intervention in the arctic landscape. We think that is dependence on seasons, as seasonality in the arctic is still very obvious and changes the environment completely. The other key factor is flexibility and sharing. Nomads of the arctic established these rules thousands years ago, as they know that following these testaments is the only way to survive in the arctic and to save local landscape.

figure 101

| RETHINKING ARCTIC |

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This strategy negotiates between different territorial perceptions and works as a compromising tool in arctic conflicts. It works with dynamic processes of land usage changing and can help to simulate different outcomes depending on the variable inputs. This tool can help to establish a set of regulations for future arctic development. What is important in our opinion is that the tool allows different actors to see in real time what kinds of results they may have on their land in case of different inputs. The shifting rules can be adjusted to different requirements and different landscape features. Physical implication of the boundaries - small scale techniques can differ depending on the local materials and technologies specific for each region. The development of the arctic zone is coming, no one can stop it. However we can do as much as we can to learn from previous mistakes and to hear the voices of those, who lived on this land for thousands of years, and know it better then anyone else. Our proposal is an intension to find a way of negotiation between different actors in the arctic, which can lead to land management in the Arctic zone , setting up the places with different limits for human development.

figure 102 | RETHINKING ARCTIC |

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APPENDIX 1 LOCAL PEOPLE CONNECTIONS We met many wonderful people during our study trip in Kirkenes. We would like to devote this page to their opinions on what is happening in Northern Norway. All these interviews were crucial for us to form a view and to push the project forward.

PORT CAPTAIN MAUG SAN LWIN

“Capacity of the port is big enough for today’s needs. However, Barents sea has oil and gas reserves, which are going to be appropriated in the near future. In 30 years future port may need to be expanded. New ports projects are of strategical and national interest that are planned to be supported by railway, connecting northern Norway with Finland.

VEGAR TRASTI. SOR-VARANGER PLANNING DEPARTMENT. SAMI REINDEER HERDER

“Reindeer herding license in Norway can be obtained only by the few families. Sea Sami cannot have reindeer. In herders Sami culture is mostly washed away. Sami don’t differ from Norwegian people. Ports projects have very bad consequences for the whole process of reindeer herding. The territory is used by two different Siidas, so in case of losing the land of Tommerneset more then 1200 reindeer will have to find other place to graze. Pulknes port is the most arguable project, because it closes entrance to the peninsula and interrupts calving area for reindeer.”

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BARENTS SPECTACLE

“Barents spectacle is a festival connecting people in the Northern Fennoscandia. It has started at the end of XX century, after Soviet Union fall. People wanted to find cross-border connections and found as the best way to start art festival.”

POROTOIA TOINI SANILA - FINNISH REINDEER FARM

“Why do you want to find reindeer? They are the happiest domesticated animals in the world. They can roam freely and even herders do not know exactly where they are. “

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EPILOGUE This research covers variety of issues, interests and proposals which we covered during the whole year. What was crucial for us during the development of the project is the theme of cultural diversity on the planet, it’s importance and spatial consequences it brings. We tried to think trough the differences of people and environments they live, and what architecture and physical implication it brings. In the arctic almost any thing it looked upon from a different perspective. As for example, issue of the climate change, is being seen as a new opportunity for businesses, that opens new sea routes and source of valuable natural resources. Countries around arctic are arguing to claim as much land in the arctic as they can. China and Singapore are listed as permanent observers in the Arctic council, even though their land a far from being inside Polar Circle. Indigenous people of the North Pole are nomads and have customs and rules of sharing lands and resources. They do not see land as something that can be possessed or owned. Their borders are not fixed and follow their movement. The differences between such a perception of land between inhabitants of the arctic zone and newcomers to the region are causing multiple conflicts, as the land seems free and uninhabited from the first sight. Even the maps are different, for people in the arctic our usual orientation of all drawings to the North looks inconsistent. Considering all these factors we decided to propose land management tool, which can help those two different groups of people to negotiate, helping them to understand better each other. What we were trying to reach while keeping arctic developed by business to find some space for those people who live from this landscape. The project was extremely interesting for us and urged us to look critically at everything that we considered as dogma. We hope it this booklet passes this impression to the reader and shows amazing world of the arctic.

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mental-impact-greenpeace-piracy.

Vandana Shiva, “Time to End War Against Earth” (Sydney Peace Price Acceptance Speech, Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia, November 30, 2010

‘Sami History - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Sami_history.

William Cronon «The Trouble with Wilderness or Getting Back to the Wrong Nature». 81 Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.uvm.edu/rsenr/rm240/cronin.pdf ‘Dramatic Warm Winter Leaves Record Low Sea Ice Extent | The Independent Barents Observer’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://thebarentsobserver.com/arctic/2016/03/dramatic-warm-winterleaves-record-low-sea-ice-extent. ‘Climate Change in Russia’s Arctic Tundra: “Our Reindeer Go Hungry. There Isn”t Enough Pasture’ | Environment | The Guardian’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/ environment/2009/oct/20/arctic-tundra.

‘Mining Threatens to Eat up Northern Europe’s Last Wilderness | Environment | The Guardian’. Accessed 6 September 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/sep/03/mining-threat-northern-europe-wilderness-finland-sweden-norway. ‘History’. Accessed 6 September 2016. http://www.statkraft.com/about-statkraft/historyweb/#19701992/1980-1987. ‘“Sami Blood” Review: A Stirring, Culturally Rich Coming-of-Age Tale | Variety’. Accessed 6 September 2016. http://variety.com/2016/film/reviews/sami-blood-review-1201849915/.

‘NASA Video Shows The Severity Of The Arctic Sea Ice Melt | Huffington Post’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/nasa-video-shows-the-severity-of-the-arctic-sea-icemelt_uk_57c7e399e4b085cf1eccfbda.

‘SAMI ACTIVISTS — Camilla Andersen’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.camilla-andersen. com/sami-activists-in-paris/zl2tnx9436xkv5whoihvvusmo4k8j3.

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FIGURE LIST Figure 1 - Tanum, Johan Grundt. Polmak og manndalen. to samebygder. Utgitt Av Norsk Folkemuseum. Oslo, 1958. Figure 2 - ‘Maps | Aboriginal Mapping Network Website’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http:// nativemaps.org/?q=taxonomy/term/90. Figure 3 - ‘Dramatic Warm Winter Leaves Record Low Sea Ice Extent | The Independent Barents Observer’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://thebarentsobserver.com/arctic/2016/03/dramaticwarm-winter-leaves-record-low-sea-ice-extent. Figure 4 - ‘Climate Change in Russia’s Arctic Tundra: “Our Reindeer Go Hungry. There Isn”t Enough Pasture’ | Environment | The Guardian’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/ environment/2009/oct/20/arctic-tundra. Figure 5 - ‘NASA Video Shows The Severity Of The Arctic Sea Ice Melt | Huffington Post’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/nasa-video-shows-the-severity-of-the-arcticsea-ice-melt_uk_57c7e399e4b085cf1eccfbda. Figure 6 - ‘Arctic Indigenous Peoples, Climate Change Impacts, and Adaptation’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.e-ir.info/2014/04/10/arctic-indigenous-peoples-climate-change-impacts-andadaptation/. Figure 7 - ‘On the Frontlines of Climate Change: Sami Reindeer Herders | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.unesco.org/ new/en/media-services/single-view/news/on_the_frontlines_of_climate_change_sami_reindeer_ herders/#.V-FiN1eoZE7. Figure 8 - ‘COP21: How Climate Change Is Destroying the Sami Way of Life in Scandinavia’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/cop21-how-climate-change-destroying-sami-way-lifescandinavia-1526549. Figure 9 - ‘Archipelago of Hope’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://archipelagohope.tumblr.com/. Figure 10 - ‘Melting Arctic Opens New Trade Routes and Energy Opportunities - Council on Foreign Relations’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.cfr.org/arctic/thawing-arctic-risksopportunities/p32082. Figure 11 - ‘Sami Reindeer Herders Struggle against Arctic Oil and Gas Expansion - Investigation - The Ecologist’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.theecologist.org/investigations/climate_ change/1097154/sami_reindeer_herders_struggle_against_arctic_oil_and_gas_expansion.html. Figure 12 - ‘REINDEER HUSBANDRY AND BARENTS 2030 IMPACTS OF FUTURE PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT ON REINDEER HUSBANDRY IN THE BARENTS REGION’ Accessed 20 September 2016.http://www.grida.no/files/publications/reindeerhusbandry-barents_lores.pdf Figure 13 - ‘Climate Change Is Creating a New Battleground as Russia, US Increase Arctic Military Presence | Huffington Post’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/ kyla-mandel/climate-change_b_6814654.html.

Figure 16 - ‘Drilling in the Arctic - What Is the Environmental Impact? | Environment | The Guardian’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/oct/02/drillingarctic-environmental-impact-greenpeace-piracy. Figure 17 - ‘Alta-Kautokeino-Striden - Video’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.nrk.no/ video/PS*60499. Figure 18 - ‘New M.A. Programme Arctic Anthropology! | Arctic Anthropology’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://arcticanthropology.org/2015/06/12/new-m-a-programme-arctic-anthropology-%d0% bc%d0%b0%d0%b3%d0%b8%d1%81%d1%82%d0%b5%d1%80%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%b0%d1%8f%d0%bf%d1%80%d0%be%d0%b3%d1%80%d0%b0%d0%bc%d0%bc%d0%b0-%d0%b0%d1%80%d0 %ba%d1%82%d0%b8/. Figure 19 - ‘Mining Threatens to Eat up Northern Europe’s Last Wilderness | Environment | The Guardian’. Accessed 6 September 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/sep/03/ mining-threat-northern-europe-wilderness-finland-sweden-norway. Figure 20 - ‘History’. Accessed 6 September 2016. http://www.statkraft.com/about-statkraft/ historyweb/#1970-1992/1980-1987. Figure 21 - ‘“Sami Blood” Review: A Stirring, Culturally Rich Coming-of-Age Tale | Variety’. Accessed 6 September 2016. http://variety.com/2016/film/reviews/sami-blood-review-1201849915/. Figure 22 - ‘SAMI ACTIVISTS — Camilla Andersen’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www. camilla-andersen.com/sami-activists-in-paris/zl2tnx9436xkv5whoihvvusmo4k8j3. Figure 23 - ‘Sweden’s Indigenous Sami People Held Their First-Ever Pride Event | VICE | United States’. Accessed 18 September 2016. http://www.vice.com/read/sapmi-has-its-first-ever-pride-festivalin-kiruna. Figure 24 - ‘Clement Gundersen – Bilde - Aud Nora Kristine Isaksen Web Site - MyHeritage’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.myheritage.no/photo-1500471_217371961_217371961/ clement-gundersen. Figure 25 - Accessed 18 September 2016. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/ Scandinavia_M2002074_lrg.jpg. Figure 26 - ‘Snowmobile - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 18 September 2016. https:// en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowmobile#/media/File%3AReindeerhurding.jpg. Figue 27 - ‘Dodging Wind Farms and Bullets in the Arctic - National Geographic’. Accessed 11 September 2016. http://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/dodging-wind-farms-and-bullets-inthe-arctic.aspx. Figure 28 - Arctic Nomads: narrative-visual miniatures / A. V. Golovnev, E. V. Perevalova, I. V. Abramov, D. A. Kukanov, A. S. Rogova, S. G. Usenyuk. — Ekaterinburg: Alfa Print Publ., 2015. — 132 p.: 104 im.:70 Figure 29 - ‘Frog Mom’. Accessed 11 September 2016. http://frogmom.com/sami-people-andreindeer-frozen-in-real-life/.

Figure 14 - ‘Norway Considers Pipeline for Barents Gas to Europe | Barentsobserver’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://barentsobserver.com/en/additional-menu/norway-considers-pipeline-barentsgas-europe.

Figure 30 - ‘Graveyards of Distinctiveness: How Cities Are Making Us All the Same | CityMetric’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.citymetric.com/horizons/graveyards-distinctiveness-howcities-are-making-us-all-same-1782.

Figure 15 - ‘«Arctic Drilling Is against the Law» | The Independent Barents Observer’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.thebarentsobserver.com/ecology/2016/05/arctic-drilling-against-law.

Figure 31 - ‘Against the Tyranny of Progress: How Did We Come to See Urbanisation as a Part of Human Evolution? | CityMetric’. Accessed 21 April 2016. http://www.citymetric.com/horizons/againsttyranny-progress-how-did-we-come-see-urbanisation-part-human-evolution-1485.

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Figure 49 - ‘Pinterest'. Accessed 15 September 2016. https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/225180050093156270/.

Figure 32 - ‘Urbanisation Is Not Natural or Inevitable. It’s Being Inflicted upon Us by the Forces of Capitalism | CityMetric’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.citymetric.com/horizons/ urbanisation-not-natural-or-inevitable-its-being-inflicted-upon-us-forces-capitalism-900.

Figures 50 -51 - ‘Generative Landscapes’. Accessed 14 September 2016. https://generativelandscapes. wordpress.com/.

Figure 33 - ‘This Is Not A Gateway (TINAG) - PEOPLE’. Accessed 11 September 2016. http:// thisisnotagateway.squarespace.com/people/.

Figure 52 53 — ‘28 Split Rail Fence Ideas for Acreages and Private Homes’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.homestratosphere.com/split-rail-fences/.

Figure 34 - Hans Ragnar Mathisen’s map. Accessed 23 April 2016. http://www.calliidlagadus.org/ govat/galleri/milmmi_davimus_eamilbmogat._hans_ragnar_mathisen.jpg. Figure 35 - ‘Map – LandMark’. Accessed 23 April 2016. http://www.landmarkmap.org/map/#x=102.46&y=13.47&l=3.

Figure 54 - ‘Wyoming Climate Atlas’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.wrds.uwyo.edu/sco/ climateatlas/evaporation.html.

Figure 36 - Accessed 23 April 2016. http://www.strangehistory.net/blog/wp-content/ uploads/2011/03/tupaia.jpg.

Figure 55 - ‘File:Split Rail Fence.jpg - Wikimedia Commons’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Split_rail_fence.jpg.

Figure 37 - “Historiske Kart | Kartverket.” Accessed April 22, 2016. http://www.kartverket.no/Kart/ Historiske-kart/.

Figure 56 - 57 — ‘Split-Rail Fence - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 19 September 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split-rail_fence.

Figure 38 - “BEFORE THEY -.” Accessed April 23, 2016. http://www.beforethey.com/tribe/nenets.

Figure 58 - ‘Laramie, Wyoming Real Estate: Fencing in the Snow’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http:// activerain.com/blogsview/2243493/laramie--wyoming-real-estate---fencing-in-the-snow.

Figure 39 - “Subhankar Banerjee Awarded 2003 Cultural Freedom Fellowship - Lannan Foundation.” Accessed April 23, 2016. http://www.lannan.org/cultural-freedom/detail/subhankar-banerjeeawarded-2003-cultural-freedom-fellowship/.

Figure 59 - ‘Skigard - Wikiwand’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.wikiwand.com/no/ Skigard. Figure 60 - ‘Dust Containment: August 2012’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://dustnomore. blogspot.co.uk/2012_08_01_archive.html.

Figure 40 - Accessed April 23, 2016. http://www.fondationbs.org/sites/default/files/ styles/1310x769/public/les-saisons-galatre-films-13.jpg?itok=eYwLPKXw.

Figure 61 - Ronald D. Tabler. ‘Snow Fence Guide’. Strategic Highway Research Program National Research Council, Washington, DC 1991.

Figure 41 - ‘Archipelago of Hope’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://archipelagohope.tumblr.com/. Figure 42 - ‘Top Activities in the Norwegian Fjords | Barrhead Travel Blog’. Accessed 11 September 2016. http://blog.barrheadtravel.co.uk/holiday-activities/top-activities-norwegian-fjords/.

Figure 62 - ‘Snow Fence Placement Question | PlowSite’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www. plowsite.com/threads/snow-fence-placement-question.163530/. Figure 63 - ‘Living Snowfence | NRCS’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/ portal/nrcs/detailfull/national/landuse/forestry/sustain/guidance/?cid=nrcsdev11_009299.

Figure 43 - ‘File:Reindeer Road Block Kuusamo.jpg - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 11 September 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Reindeer_road_block_Kuusamo.jpg. Figure 44 - ‘Oncoming Traffic, Finnmark-Style’. Accessed 11 September 2016. http://www. newsinenglish.no/2012/08/10/oncoming-traffic-finnmark-style/.

Figure 64 - ‘Oxford College of Garden Design: Microclimates: How To Change Your Garden’s Climate’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://gardendesigncourses.blogspot.co.uk/2014/04/microclimateshow-to-change-your-garden.html.

Figure 45 - ‘CCB Kirkenesbase - Nyhetsvisning’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www. kirkenesbase.no/index.php?mapping=26&nyhet=90.

Figure 65 - ‘Tiina Törmänen’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://tiinatormanenphotography.tumblr. com/page/4.

Figure 46 - Områderegulering for Norterminal Omlastningsterminal på Gamnes PLANBESKRIVELSE Dato: 27.05.2015 Vedtak i Kommunestyret: 17.06.2015:6

Figure 66 - ‘Junkpole Fence: Freaky Cheap Chicken/deer Fence Made from Wood Typically Thrown Away (fencing Forum at Permies)’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://permies.com/t/47946/ fencing/junkpole-fence-freaky-cheap-chicken. Figure 67 - ‘UK Weather Forecasts the Coldest Night of the Year so Far | Daily Mail Online’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3403381/Waking-white-Snowblanketed-country-night-5-inches-areas-temperatures-plummeted-11C-forecasters-say-way.html.

Figure 47 - “KUNNGJØRING AV OMRÅDEREGULERING FOR NORTERMINAL – OMLASTNINGSTERMINAL PÅ GAMNES - Sør-Varanger Kommune.” Accessed April 23, 2016. http://www.sor-varanger.kommune.no/kunngjoering-av-omraaderegulering-for-norterminalomlastningsterminal-paa-gamnes.5776757-43048.html.

Figure 68 - ‘Norway’s Radioactive Reindeer - The Atlantic’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www. theatlantic.com/photo/2016/03/norways-radioactive-reindeer/471705/.

Figure 48 - Norconsult. “Kirkenes Industrial Logistics Area. Konsekvensutredning - Landskap,” August 9, 2010.

Figure 69 - ‘Ireland, Landscapes, Barriers, Nature, Stone, Pebble, Fences, Rough, Natural, Usual,

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Weathered, Landscape, Outdoors, Walls, Scenery, Rural | PixCove’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.pixcove.com/ireland-landscapes-barriers-nature-stone-pebble-fences-rough-natural-usualweathered-landscape-outdoors-walls-scenery-rural/. Figure 70 - ‘Dry Stone - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_stone. Figure 71 - ‘From Architecture to Landscape’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://placesjournal.org/ article/from-architecture-to-landscape/. Figure 72 - 74 - ‘Roundpole Fence - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 15 September 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roundpole_fence.

Figures 94 - 96 - S.Save ‘AALU 2015-16 Booklet 1 Term by Nataly Nemkova - Issuu’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://issuu.com/nemkova/docs/booklet_1term_nemkova. Figure 97 - 98 - ‘13: Recreational Trail Design – Online Content | Woodland Stewardship’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://woodlandstewardship.org/?page_id=1226. Figure 99 - ‘Traditional Ha-Ha Wall | Ideas for Sloped Gardens | Pinterest’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/361413938818595008/. Figure 100 - ‘Roundtable-Discussions’ Accessed 20 September 2016. https://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Roundtable-Discussions-June-2013-02.jpg.

Figure 75 - ‘File:Sheep Creep 2.JPG - Wikimedia Commons’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sheep_creep_2.JPG.

Figure 101 - ‘File:1741 Covens and Mortier Map of the Northern Hemisphere ( North Pole, Arctic ) Geographicus - NorthPole-Covensmortier-1741.jpg - Wikimedia Commons’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1741_Covens_and_Mortier_Map_of_the_Northern_ Hemisphere_(_North_Pole,_Arctic_)_-_Geographicus_-_NorthPole-covensmortier-1741.jpg.

Figure 76 - ‘Dry Stone - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 15 September 2016. https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_stone.

Figure 102 - ‘New Observers Queuing Up: Why the Arctic Council Should Expand - and Expel | The Arctic Institute’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.thearcticinstitute.org/new-observersqueuing-up/.

Figure 77 - ‘Hunters in Transition: An Outline of Early Sámi History - Lars Ivar Hansen, Bjørnar Olsen - Google Books’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id= DhFMAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA273&lpg=PA273&dq=early+blocking+fences+nordland&source=bl &ots=0AgfcEkcrg&sig=ck_R7hNwYLuf00b2qqkgAiY9Rko&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjh7 LK-pZ7PAhXFmpQKHQupAy0Q6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=early%20blocking%20fences%20 nordland&f=false.

Figure 103 - ‘Iglu 1 1999-04-02 - Inuit Culture - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuit_culture#/media/File:Iglu_1_1999-04-02.jpg.

Figure 78 - ‘The Stone Walls of Ireland | Amusing Planet’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www. amusingplanet.com/2015/04/the-stone-walls-of-ireland.html. Figure 79 - ‘GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAY(DEFINITION-RIGHT OF WAY) | Kullabs. com’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.kullabs.com/class-engineering/civil-engineering/ transportation-engineering/geometric-design-of-highway/geometric-design-of-highway-definition. Figure 80 - ‘Traditional Ha-Ha Wall | Ideas for Sloped Gardens | Pinterest’. Accessed 20 September 2016. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/361413938818595008/. Figure 81 - ‘Style In Pleasant Pastures with English Heritage Collaboration’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://www.age-of-reason-studios.com/blog/style-in-pleasant-pastures-with-english-heritagecollaboration-82.aspx#.V-FayFeoZE5. Figure 82 - ‘Reindeer Herding’. Accessed 20 September 2016. http://reindeerherding.org/blog/ challenges-blog/reindeer-herders-child-death-investigation-in-yamal/. Figure 83 - Accessed 20 September 2016. http://reindeerherding.org/wp-content/gallery/scenesfrom-reindeer-husbandry-chukotka/copy_0_alexander_kutskiy.jpg. Figures 84- 86 - ‘Bjellandsbu - Åkrafjorden’ Accessed 20 September 2016. http://snohetta.com/ projects/180-bjellandsbu-aringkrafjorden Figures 87-90 - ‘Eggum Tourist Route’ Accessed 20 September 2016. http://snohetta.com/project/98eggum-tourist-route Figures 91-93 - ‘Eggum Tourist Route / Snohetta | ArchDaily’. Accessed 14 September 2016. http:// www.archdaily.com/372955/eggum-tourist-route-snohetta.

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APPENDIX CARTOGRAPHIES 1. Arctic atlas - winter 2. Arctic atlas - summer 3. Sapmi territory - four countries one peoples 4. Reindeer simulation - cataloque of simulations/interventions 5. Catalogue of small-scale techniques 6. Cartogenesis - shifting boundaries - fourth stage (2060) 7. Unit 1 organisation - 2026(stage2) - 2056(stage3)

ONLINE MAP AND PROJECT WEBSITE Our online maps, further videos and other information on the project can be found on the following link http://n71496.wixsite.com/arcticbounds

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| AA LANDSCAPE URBANISM 2015 - 2016 |


Nemkova-Fyta - SHIFTING ARCTIC BOUNDARIES - AALU1516  

Project dealing with he conflict between reindeer economy in the arctic region and the booming growth of infrastructures linked to north pol...

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