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Academic Pharmacy NOW o d l f r Ca o W

The News Magazine of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy

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Volume 10 2017 Issue 1

Leaders look to education to shape the future of global pharmacy practice. 12 Also in this issue: Shedding New Light On Old Antibiotics 8 Immediate Impact with IHS 10


who we are @AACPharmacy

Academic Pharmacy The News Magazine of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy 1727 King Street, Floor 2 Alexandria, VA 22314 p: 703-739-2330 P f: 703-836-8982

www.aacp.org

Founded in 1900, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy is the national organization representing the interests of pharmacy education. AACP comprises all accredited colleges and schools of pharmacy, including more than 6,600 faculty, approximately 63,800 students enrolled in professional programs and 4,800 individuals pursuing graduate study.

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About Academic Pharmacy Now Academic Pharmacy Now highlights the work of AACP member pharmacy schools and faculty. The magazine is published as a membership service.

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NOW

CEO & Publisher

Lucinda L. Maine

Editorial Director

Lynette R. Bradley-Baker

Editor

Maureen Thielemans

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Kyle R. Bagin

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Tricia Gordon

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Freelance Writer

Athena Ponushis

Freelance Writer

Jane E. Rooney

Volume 10 2017 Issue 1


@AACPharmacy a look inside

campus connection

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Setting the Stage Together with the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, a local theater company wrote and staged a play based on patient experiences with healthcare and medication from a national survey.

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Research Sheds New Light On Old Antibiotics Two antibiotics fight bacteria differently than thought.

community impact

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Immediate Impact with the Indian Health Service More universities partner with the IHS to train student pharmacists, and the benefits go both ways.

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A World of Care Embarking on a journey to shape the future of pharmacy practice globally, leaders look to education to begin the transformation.

@AACPharmacy

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community note publisher’s impact

Dear Colleagues: I am so pleased that the feature story of this issue of Academic Pharmacy Now covers the first-ever global congress on pharmacy and pharmaceutical science education. Global pharmacy education has been a priority of the Association for decades as expressed by AACP’s role in founding the Pan American Congress on Pharmaceutical Education more than 20 years ago and the establishment of the Global Alliance for Pharmacy Education in 2009. It was a labor of love to participate as a member of the planning committee for the FIP congress held in Nanjing, China, in November 2016. The committee met several times for more than two years, struggling with many important questions (e.g., how do we ensure that attendees reflect all the regions and levels of economic development?). At one point we came close to convincing ourselves that trying to address both practice and science education in one short congress would be impossible. Fortunately, we came to the conclusion that they are inseparable and we forged on with our work. I also co-chaired the statement development group with my colleague Dean Lilian Azzopardi from Malta. The combined outputs of the congress, including the vision statement, workforce development goals and 60 statements, will help guide the continued evolution of education-related contributions of FIP and its member organizations for a very long time. Global engagement is one of the cross-cutting issues in the 2016 AACP Strategic Plan. As the largest association fully dedicated

to advancing the quality of pharmacy education, AACP looks forward to identifying the roles we might play in collaboration with FIP and FIP Education Initiatives. I also welcome your thoughts on what activities AACP should consider in supporting our members, both institutions and individuals, as your global work continues and perhaps even expands. I would be remiss if I didn’t include a reflection related to experiential education and the Indian Health Service. As I entered my final year in the pharmacy program at Auburn University, I spent the summer of 1979 as an intern in the national office of the IHS. My preceptor was none other than Allen Brands, the iconic leader of IHS and the mastermind of the clinical pharmacy role that predated virtually every other patient-centered practice in the profession. He imagined pharmacists reading and writing in the patient chart while the APhA Code of Ethics still stated that it was a violation of the code if pharmacists told patients the name of the drug or what it might be used for! His vision and enthusiasm for the profession was contagious. I’m eternally grateful to have shared his office for 12 weeks so I could catch it. Sincerely,

Lucinda L. Maine, Ph.D., R.Ph. CEO and Publisher

www.ajpe.org

Help Shape the Future of Pharmacy Become a Reviewer for AJPE

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Academic Pharmacy NOW  2017 Issue 1


campus connection

Setting the Stage

Together with the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, a local theater company wrote and staged a play based on patient experiences with healthcare and medication from a national survey. By Olivia Johnson In late 2016, healthcare professionals and students from the University of Minnesota saw the day-to-day intricacies of their industry performed in front of them.

“We do a lot of this, especially in healthcare,” he said. “We take certain issues that are consistent with our mission and try to translate that into the language and conventions of theater.”

A troupe of actors staged the play— ‘Go Ask Alice’—at Coffman Memorial Union to give healthcare professionals, pharmacists, faculty and students a fresh perspective on medications, patient concerns and policy. Jack Reuler, Mixed Blood’s artistic director for ‘Go Ask Alice,’ said communicating healthcare issues through theater allows those in the field to see the nuance and complexity of the medical world.

Reuler said he has directed similar productions in the past, and the theater company itself has done over 100 simi- “The discussion was really robust,” he lar productions in the last 27 years. said. “I think that the healthcare providers and pharmacists that were in the “We felt we had adequate information audience really saw a perspective that on both the professional level, the they either see on a daily basis or see systemic level and the personal level to on a daily basis and were unaware of tackle this,” he said. “This was really the implications of their behavior.” a series of vignettes that were glued together in interesting ways through Storytelling as a Powerful music and theater.” Teaching Tool

Reuler said the show had characters that took on the perspectives of pharmacists, providers and patients. In total, Mixed Blood Theater’s six-person cast portrayed about 25 different characters during the hour-long production, which ended with a discussion between the 100 attendees.

Dr. Paul Ranelli, a professor in the College of Pharmacy and the play’s the main organizer, came up with the idea two years ago. He said he reached out to Mixed Blood Theatre after seeing the group perform a few years prior. “I liked what they did,” he said. “When I got this idea for a community partner… I wrote an e-mail to the artistic director outlining what I was interested in.”

Photo credit: Dr. Paul Ranelli

Though Ranelli doesn’t have theater background, he said he enjoys watching performances and realized their teaching potential.

Six actors in an ensemble perform the opening song of the play, “Go Ask Alice.”

“It was looking at theater as a way for people to really respond and to see how these stories would have an impact on them,” he said.

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campus connection

Photo credit: Dr. Paul Ranelli

Above, left to Right: Dr. Jon Schommer, co-project researcher, Jack Reuler, artistic director of the Mixed Blood Theatre, and Dr. Paul Ranelli, theater project lead. Top right:: An actor playing “Ann,” a pharmacist from a scene in “Prior Auth.” Bottom right: In a scene from “Interference,” two actors play a husband and wife.

The stories covered medicine, rules and regulations patients encounter in the healthcare system and humorous moments related to drug advertising, Ranelli said.

In the 2015 survey, she said respondents were asked to give general feelings about medicine and healthcare. Bortz then went through the responses and identified themes and sample patient stories to give to Mixed Blood for the production.

In one recurring story, titled “Prior Auth,” the audience follows a medication user’s escalating attempts to get his “For me, it’s really about the audience medicine. In “Down the Rabbit Hole,” taking away more empathy for people the play revisits a patient’s entry into that they’re taking care of,” Bortz said. an emergency department and deals “They’re people and they have lives and with medication issues. The goal of the their illness and their medications can show was to entertain but also help the really affect their own lives and the audience think deeply about situations lives of their loved ones.” involving medications. “The play was effective as an educational tool for both Keeping the Momentum Going professionals and the lay audience,” In light of the play’s positive reception, Ranelli said. Ranelli is seeking funding for additionAlyssa Bortz, a graduate student in al performances. “Making the producthe social administrative pharmacy tion a regular component of a curricuprogram, got involved in the project last lum would require support for about fall as a research assistant.

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Photo credit: Dr. Paul Ranelli

“There are monologues that are given by people playing different characters in the medication environment,” he said, adding that the production is fictional but was based on true stories.

“Dr. Ranelli needed a graduate student to help him find background on using theatre as an educational tool,” Bortz said. “My role…has been to go through comments from a national survey.”

20 professional creatives or a different model than a full theater performance,” he said. While he’s not ruled out re-configuring the performance to shoot a video version, he feels it wouldn’t have the same effect as live theater. “Nothing is out of the question, though, which is an exciting part of such a project.” P Article originally appeared in the Minnesota Daily. Olivia Johnson is a writer with the publication. Additional reporting by AACP staff.


campus connection

Proud sponsor of the 2017 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Interim Meeting As partners in advancing the future of pharmacy practice, we support academic initiatives: For Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy • NACDS Foundation Scholarship Program

For Faculty Members • Faculty Scholars Program • Research Grants

For Students • Executive Fellowship Program

The National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation is a 501(c)3 organization. Please visit www.nacdsfoundation.org to learn more. Academic Pharmacy NOW  2017 Issue 1

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campus connection

Research Sheds New Light On Old Antibiotics Two antibiotics fight bacteria differently than thought. By Sam Hostettler of indiscriminately stopping protein synthesis, the drugs put the brakes on the protein synthesis machinery only at specific locations in the gene. Ribosomes are among the most com-

Photo credit: Barry Donald

Two widely prescribed antibiotics— chloramphenicol and linezolid—may fight bacteria in a different way from what scientists and doctors thought for years, University of Illinois at Chicago researchers have found. Instead

Dr. Nora Vazquez-Laslop and Dr. Alexander Mankin have conducted groundbreaking research on two widely prescribed antibiotics— chloramphenicol and linezolid—that indicates they may fight bacteria in a different way from what scientists and doctors thought for years.

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plex components in the cell, responsible for churning out all the proteins a cell needs for survival. In bacteria, ribosomes are the target of many important antibiotics.


campus connection

“If you know how these inhibitors work, you can make better drugs and make them better tools for research. You can also use them more efficiently to treat human and animal diseases.” ­— Dr. Alexander Mankin

The team of Dr. Alexander Mankin and Dr. Nora Vazquez-Laslop has conducted groundbreaking research on the ribosome and antibiotics. In their latest study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they found that while chloramphenicol and linezolid attack the catalytic center of the ribosome, they stop protein synthesis only at specific checkpoints. “Many antibiotics interfere with the growth of pathogenic bacteria by inhibiting protein synthesis,” said Mankin, director of the UIC Center for Biomolecular Sciences and professor of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy. “This is done by targeting the catalytic center of the bacterial ribosome, where proteins are being made. It is commonly assumed that these drugs are universal inhibitors of protein synthesis and should readily block the formation of every peptide bond.” “But—we have shown that this is not necessarily the case,” said Vazquez-Laslop, research associate professor of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy.

The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that while chloramphenicol and linezolid attack the catalytic center of the ribosome, they stop protein synthesis only at specific checkpoints.

A Scalpel-like Approach A natural product, chloramphenicol is one of the oldest antibiotics on the market. For decades it has been useful for many bacterial infections, including meningitis, plague, cholera and typhoid fever. Linezolid, a synthetic drug, is a newer antibiotic used to treat serious infections—streptococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), among others—caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. Mankin’s previous research established the site of action and mechanism of resistance to linezolid.

Mankin said, had been what scientists had believed was also true for antibiotics that target the ribosome. “Contrary to this view, the activity of chloramphenicol and linezolid critically depends on the nature of specific amino acids of the nascent chain carried by the ribosome and by the identity of the next amino acid to be connected to a growing protein,” Vazquez-Laslop said. “These findings indicate that the nascent protein modulates the properties of the ribosomal catalytic center and affects binding of its ligands, including antibiotics.” Combining genomics and biochemistry has allowed the UIC researchers to better understand how the antibiotics work.

While the antibiotics are very different, they each bind to the ribosome’s catalytic center, where they were expected “If you know how these inhibitors work, to inhibit formation of any peptide you can make better drugs and make bond that links the components of the them better tools for research,” said protein chain into a long biopolymer. Mankin. “You can also use them more In simple enzymes, an inhibitor that in- efficiently to treat human and animal vades the catalytic center simply stops diseases.” the enzyme from doing its job. This, James Marks, Krishna Kannan, Emily Roncase, Dorota Klepacki, Amira Kefi and Cedric Orelle, all of UIC, are co-authors on the publication. The research was funded by National Institutes of Health grant AI 125518. P

Sam Hostettler is associate director of the news bureau at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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community impact

Immediate Impact with the Indian Health Service More universities partner with the IHS to train student pharmacists, and the benefits go both ways. Earlier this year, the Indian Health Service (IHS) announced new Collaborative Agreements between the agency and three American universities: Howard University, Purdue University and the University of Southern California, to participate in the IHS Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) Program. This program provides opportunities for student pharmacists to gain clinical experience at IHS facilities and it also serves to recruit future healthcare professionals to work in rural areas, specifically in Indian Country. Under these agreements, Doctor of Pharmacy candidates at partner universities will join students from more than 80 universities in 39 states to complete experiential training at IHS direct service facilities. “Through the IHS Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Program, we develop meaningful partnerships with top universities that train the next generation of healthcare professionals, while providing opportunities for students to gain practical hands-on experience,” said Mary L. Smith, IHS principal deputy director. “Upon completion, many return to start their career in providing quality healthcare to the American Indian and Alaska Native community.”

“How Can I Help?” Students from Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions are often part of that returning workforce who develop a passion for

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serving the Native American community. The school offers APPE Ambulatory Care Rotations and a Learning Through Reflective Service: The Native American Experience elective course—where students learn more about healthcare challenges and opportunities within this unique population—in addition to the JRCOSTEP and SRCOSTEP programs offered through the USPHS.

sor and program manager for health disparities initiatives and community outreach at The University of Arizona (UA) College of Pharmacy. “It’s a great location in which to see the impact of social determinants of health on healthcare delivery and outcomes,” she said. The college offers students the opportunity to complete introductory and advanced placement rotations within the IHS, in addition to the SRCOSTEP and JRCOSTEP programs.

Dr. Maryann Skrabal, director of the Office of Experiential Education at Creighton, sees students’ interest pique “A lot of our Native American populain the IHS right away. “When students tion faces a significant workforce shortlearn about the needs of the Native age, and the best way to get students American population, it’s a natural and graduates to those areas is to give place for them to migrate and ask ‘how them some familiarity with them,” said can I help?’ They see the immediate im- Hall-Lipsy. “By giving students the pact that pharmacists can have and so opportunity to explore these areas in they will often look for job opportunia short-term, low-risk setting—where ties and residencies within the system.” they see the value, and learning and practice opportunities—it can work to Diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, prime the pump to get that workforce and substance abuse disorders are just out into the areas that could really use some of the healthcare needs that exist their expertise.” within the Native American population. A student may need to spend extra time Hall-Lipsy, who also manages UA’s with a patient to provide additional Rural Health Professions Program for counseling and education and this type the College of Pharmacy, believes that of clinical setting allows them to do so, the state’s growing success in rural Skrabal said. pharmacy practice can be attributed to students’ experiences with the IHS and Strengthening the Rural similar sites. As of October 2015, 33% of Workforce Pipeline RHPP pharmacy graduates practice in Another unique aspect to working a rural setting, and 44% practice in an within the IHS is that it’s one of the underserved community. settings that offers the most interproOne UA graduate working in an IHS setfessional aspects of a rotation, noted ting was recently appointed a preceptor Elizabeth Hall-Lipsy, assistant profes-


community impact

In addition to the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Program, IHS offers internships, externships, rotations and residencies to pharmacy, behavioral health, dentistry, optometry, nursing and medical students. In January, IHS announced an estimated $13.7 million will be available for scholarships and $30 million will be available for loan repayments this year.

Kelli Boushee, a fourth-year student pharmacist at Creighton University, is currently completing an Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience at IHS Red Lake in Red Lake, Minn.

for incoming students, which Hall-Lipsy says is ideal. “This enriches the pipeline, and continues the thinking that this is where a student can go and be of the most good and the most service.”

Small Changes Yield Big Outcomes In addition to the immediate impact students have by providing muchneeded patient care, they also have the opportunity to implement new systems or solutions that effect real change in

the long run. Skrabal recalls a project in which a Creighton student developed a sticker program for schools to use to help improve children’s eating habits over time. “Our students see that these areas may not have adequate resources, so they get excited about the impact they can make,” she said. “And they want to stay with it because they feel like they can go back there and make a difference right away.”

Working with this unique population creates a more well-rounded individual and practitioner, Skrabal added. “It’s beneficial for students to see these patient care opportunities that are available, but it also helps them learn more about the Native American culture and meet different people within our country, which ultimately creates better citizens and professionals for the future.” P Additional reporting by Maureen Thielemans, associate director of communications and Kyle R. Bagin, digital media manager.

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community impact


community impact

Embarking on a journey to shape the future of pharmacy practice globally, leaders look to education to begin the transformation. By Athena Ponushis and Jane Rooney More than 600 professionals from 46 countries attended the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Global Conference on Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences Education last November, sharing their experiences to shape the future of their profession. It was the first global conference dedicated to international pharmaceutical education and it concluded with a sweeping consensus. “The whole concept behind the conference was to see if we could get a global consensus on what pharmaceutical education should include going forward,” said Dr. Ralph Altiere, FIP Academic Pharmacy Section president. “This sort of sets the expectations, if you will, of what pharmaceutical education should look like around the world and what we should all be striving for, which has never occurred before.” The world agreed that yes, pharmaceutical sciences education is critical, in each country, in each region, for its specific purpose, and that on the practice side, schools should move toward more direct patient care education of pharmacy students. The conference, held in Nanjing, China, also set workforce development goals to cultivate a competent, capable workforce around the world to meet expected pharmacy needs. Pharmacy leaders looked at the present state of pharmacy and set it next to a projected, future state, striving to see how education could carry the profession to that envisioned future.

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community impact

An FIP vision was articulated, “to support and develop high standards of education and training, and to promote and protect the health and wellbeing of civil society through leadership and development of our professional workforce, and to ensure our contribution to the health and wellbeing of patients.” Professor Bill Charman, chairman of the FIP Education Executive Committee, says now it’s time for action: “There is no healthcare workforce without education, and this, of course, is especially the case in pharmacy and the pharmaceutical sciences. It is key to work forward collaboratively through major partnerships to make sure the agenda encompassed through the workforce development goals is addressed and further developed. This is the beginning of the next steps in this important journey.”

“The consensus is we have to move toward more direct patient care education of pharmacy students.” ­— Dr. Ralph Altiere

Global Vision for Education and Workforce Presented at the global conference on pharmacy and Pharmaceutical sciences education 2016

Copyright © 2016 International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)

The FIP Centennial Declaration in 2012 on Improving Global Health by Closing Gaps in the Development, Distribution and Responsible Use of Medicines stated that: Pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists accept responsibility and accountability for improving global health and patient health outcomes by closing gaps in the development, distribution and responsible use of medicines. In support of this centennial declaration is the acknowledgement that worldwide variability exists in how pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacists and pharmacy support staff are educated, trained and utilised. The challenges of development, distribution and responsible use of medicines can only be met with an adaptable pharmaceutical workforce1 that deploys its knowledge, skills and abilities to the fullest degree in a wide array of environments and in collaboration with other stakeholders in health care. FIP believes it is important that we articulate our vision for education, training and workforce development and for the progressive transformation of the overall workforce. This Vision links to current global health and health education policy for all our member organisations and partners and the anticipated health challenges of the future.

Pharmaceutical workforce – in this document, refers to the whole of the pharmacy related workforce (e.g. registered pharmacist practitioners, pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres, pre-service students/trainees) working in a diversity of settings (e.g. community, hospital, research and development, industry, military, regulatory, academia and other sectors) with a diversity of scope of practice.

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Nanjing Declaration Global Vision for a Global Pharmaceutical Workforce by Advancing Practice and Science through Transformative Education for Better Health care: “The FIP Vision for Education and Workforce” Pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists accept responsibility for the development and sustainability of an adaptable and capable global workforce working in partnership for better health care through transformative and continuous education. Our professional workforce will continuously strive to develop new medicines and to improve the use of existing medicines for better health care. Professional leadership organisations and government agencies can contribute to this vision by supporting progressive policies for professional development and practitioner recognition processes.

Pharmaceutical Workforce Development Goals

A presentation by the World Health Organization on the severe shortage of healthcare workers, including pharmacists, that’s anticipated over the next 10 to 20 years, set the stage for what the delegates would do next—vote on international expectations for an effective pharmaceutical education. Delegates approved 64 of 70 statements. (Currently, FIP is engaging delegates to find out why the other statements were not approved and see how they might be modified to fit in the global context).

Presented at the global conference on pharmacy and Pharmaceutical sciences education Supporting and developing high standards of education and training Through this Vision for Education and Workforce, FIP seeks to promote and enhance the health and well being of civil society through professional leadership and development of our professional workforce. FIP will also Copyright © 2016 International Pharmaceutical Federation seek to ensure our profession’s contribution to the health and well being(FIP) of patients and the advancement of pharmaceutical sciences. In the delivery of these broad aims FIP believes that professional education, training and development should be primarily directed to: The objective of the Global Conference on Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Educationfor (taking in patient Nanjing,care, Producing high quality professionals high place quality China, on 7 and scientific 8 November 2016) is to establish theensuring milestones public health advancement objectives, allfor impactful global development pharmacy and pharmaceutical education and training deliveredfor to our professional workforce is of the sciences education. highest quality and prepares them well for current and future roles. FIP aims have a platform from whichthe to build near FIP believes it is to our responsibility to engage wholesustainable pharmaceutical andwith longer term plans action on behalf member organisations workforce this vision, to of lead on, and define,ofthe skills, knowledge, and partners by reaching agreement on the range and scope of attitudes and behaviours of pharmacists, pharmaceutical scientists, pharmaceutical workforce development goalsworkforce (WDGs) arising from the pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support cadres in all broad international consultation leading to and including the Nanjing settings. conference. WDGs will be a significant directive force for actions, fund-raising and near and long term deliverables for FIP. FIP will adhere 1 to a set of principles for WDGs that will guide the subsequent plan of action.

Developing our vision for the whole pharmaceutical workforce

Therethat is noa attempt to prioritise or attach levels of importance to FIP believes needs-based, outcomes-focused approach to education, individual WDGs; the feature is theand whole scope/range workforce development andimportant continuing education training should of potential can be influential achievable a global be adopted. This goals meansthat promoting models ofand education andfrom training that perspective. each WDG, a summative sethighest of drivers, ensure leadership that all members of ourFor workforce have access to the quality imperatives and experiences indicators is possible. provided. education and training Currently there are 13 profession WDGs that and havealso been grouped Pharmacy is a science-based a patient-facing into it three clusters:toacademy on the schools, universities profession; is essential build in (focus learners, from initial education and and education providers), professional development (focus on the training onwards, the capacity to 2demonstrate empathy for others, pharmaceutical workforce ); and systems (focus on policy development, strong interpersonal communication skills and the understanding of the governmental strategy and planning, and monitoring systems). importance of teamwork and collaboration. The challenges of development, distribution, and responsible and safe use of medicines require a diverse workforce that is prepared to provide leadership for change in practice and to commit to lifelong learning to keep pace and lead the process with continuous changes in science and patient care.

With these principles in mind, models of education and training need to be flexible and adaptable to allow for innovations and developments led 1 by educational experts, practitioners andwith leaders, among others, objectives within as WDG principles and goals are aligned the Nanjing conference responsible organisations. described in the terms of reference. Pharmaceutical workforce – in this document, refers to the whole of the pharmacy related workforce (e.g. registered pharmacist practitioners, pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres, pre-service students/trainees) working in a diversity of settings (e.g. community, hospital, research and development, industry, military, regulatory, academia and other sectors) with a diversity of scope of practice.

Recognizing education as a key driver and enabler of change in practice and science, FIP had groups working on educational endeavors, but with the formalization of FIP Education, these groups were brought together to work in concert. Questioning what the strategic plan would be and what the group wanted to accomplish, FIP led development of the global conference. FIP developed working drafts of a vision statement, statements on pharmaceutical education and workforce development goals. These drafts were sent out to FIP members for consultation and feedback—which poured in from around the world—that led to refinement of the statements leading up to the global conference.

2016 Leading Change

Reaching Consensus

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WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

FIP’s Vision and Workforce Goals To view the statements on FIP’s pharmaceutical education and workforce development goals from the global conference, visit www.fip.org/nanjing2016.

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Groups spent the entire second day of the conference in workshops generating strategies for implementing workforce development goals that were gathered into three groups: Academy, focusing on schools of pharmacy; professional development, focusing on professional associations; and systems, targeting policy development and governmental strategy, addressing, ‘What do we need to do to increase the capacity of pharmacy education and the pharmacy workforce?’


community impact

“It was the first global conference in pharmaceutical educa“The relevance and tangible nature of FIP’s work will oction and we achieved an incredibly high level of consensus cur through what happens next—the education statements on what pharmaceutical education should look like, and then and workforce development goals from the conference are focused on how we are going to go about developing a coma framework—and we need to engage partners and likepetent, capable and adequate level workforce for pharmacy to minded groups to further develop this framework, chart and meet the needs around the world,” Altiere said. “That was a measure progress, and reassess and amend as necessary,” lot to accomplish and I think we made a superb first step.” Charman said. After such a successful conference, FIP is now faced with the task: How do we get the word out? How do we tell the world what took place? Altiere noted that while the pharmaceutical sciences play a major role in practice and education, especially in areas where there’s a large pharmaceutical manufacturing base, on the practice side, there’s been a shift. “The consensus is we have to move toward more direct patient care education of pharmacy students.”

Where FIP and AACP Align The AACP Global Pharmacy Education SIG’s strategic plan grants broad support for global pharmacy educators to network, collaborate, provide and evaluate global/international education and training for students and pharmacy professionals. The plan aligns with FIP’s plan to advance and unify the profession, attaining workforce development goals via education initiatives.

An Agenda to Learn From One Another With a mission of transforming pharmaceutical education, FIP does not just identify what needs to be done but develops actions plans to achieve it. Key questions asked included, ‘What are the best practices out there? What are the models for making it happen? What are the innovations people are introducing?’ “Since we are talking about a global organization, it’s important to ask, ‘how can we all learn from each other?’” Altiere said. “What works and what doesn’t work?” What works in one country may not work in another country, but sometimes, even in countries with inadequate resources, the innovations they create may not be something others have thought of. “So you can learn from each other very quickly,” Altiere said.

Above: More than 600 professionals from 46 countries gathered in Nanjing to collaborate toward a united direction in pharmacy, creating global implications for education moving forward. Below: Projecting a pharmacist shortage as population and needs grow, FIP recognized a responsibility to meet societal demands through education, and cultivate the workforce to provide healthcare the world needs.

The FIP agenda, to transform pharmaceutical education globally, will look different in various regions of the world, “but FIPEd serves as that centerpiece, where people from around the world can network, learn from and work with each other to bring about this transformation that meets the needs of your country and the citizens of your country,” he continued. The impending shortage of pharmacists added momentum to the return to education. Looking at what shortages exist and projections for how those shortages will grow as population grows and needs grow, FIP recognized a responsibility to prepare pharmacists and transform education to meet societal needs, and cultivate the workforce to provide the healthcare the world needs. Academic Pharmacy NOW  2017 Issue 1

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community impact

“We are making history in the profession!” tweeted Joana Carrasqueira, left, education initiative coordinator at FIP, with Dr. Lucinda Maine.

“The SIG recently approved a new strategic initiative to engage in impactful global health, education and practice initiatives worldwide. The intent of this new initiative is to encourage and support our members to take part in the work of other global organizations, such as FIP,” said Dr. Shaun Gleason, chair of AACP’s Global Pharmacy Education SIG. AACP members recently provided feedback to FIP workforce development initiatives. The SIG plans to continue to provide platforms for additional education and engagement with FIP and other international organizations. “We are at an important point where our voices can have a role in shaping the future of our profession,” Gleason added. “This can be achieved through involvement in AACP and global organizations, by partnering with colleagues around the world, and/or by providing global/international education to our students, including at the local level.”

What AACP Can Do For FIP Member schools looking to initiate or enhance this area of curriculum can turn to a recent Global Pharmacy Education SIG paper on how to implement global/international education through alignment with the CAPE 2013 outcomes. The paper expands on the steps to implement G/I education in pharmacy curricula, from gaining colleagues’ support to giving examples of lesson content and application techniques. The paper also lends means of assessment. The authors

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Dr. Ralph Altiere, FIP Academic Pharmacy Section president and dean of the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Colorado.

recognize that not all schools can provide G/I education in an international arena, so they give examples of how G/I education can be provided locally, such as through participation in health fairs for immigrant populations or education on global diseases. “Many members may think that being involved in global/ international education is solely about sending students to other parts of the world or accepting international students into their programs,” Gleason said, “but I would like to stress that we can all have a voice in the global future of our profession through local activities, like education and organizational involvement.” AACP members, individuals and institutions, also have connections around the world that are already moving this transformation of education forward, and Altiere believes that bringing these connections and ideas to FIP would be an invaluable asset. “The ultimate goal of this education transformation is to improve patient care and improve health outcomes, and part of that is integrating pharmacy more and more into healthcare delivery systems,” Altiere added. “We have data to show that when pharmacists are involved in direct patient care, health outcomes improve and quality of life improves. We know it works, now it’s just a matter of expanding it around the world.”


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Schools’ International Partnerships Enhance Patient Care Abroad, Bring Tremendous Value to Faculty and Students Colleges of pharmacy are increasingly reaching out to institutions and organizations around the world to form international partnerships. The pharmacy schools at Purdue University, The Ohio State University and Creighton University have global programs that allow students to directly interact with pharmacy faculty and students and/or provide care for patients in other countries. All three are finalists for AACP’s Lawrence C. Weaver Transformative Community Service Award, which is presented annually to one college or school of pharmacy demonstrating a major institutional commitment to addressing unmet community needs through education, practice and research.

In Kenya, Patient Care Often Includes More Similarities than Differences In 2003, the Purdue University College of Pharmacy joined the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Consortium and established the Purdue Kenya Partnership. PKP partners with Kenyan counterparts to create sustainable clinical pharmacy infrastructure and provide patient care programs in combination with research programs that investigate understudied characteristics of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Students can complete an eight-week elective APPE in Eldoret, Kenya, where they assist with pharmaceutical care during rounds at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. Additional programs and services include diabetes care, HIV education and youth outreach, focusing on health education. The program averages 24 student participants per year. In 2008, PKP began hosting eight University of Nairobi student interns each year for six-month internships. The Global Health Residency was developed in 2011, which has 4–5 participants annually from North America and Kenya. Dr. Ellen Schellhase, associate professor of pharmacy practice and Purdue Kenya Partnership coordinator, explained that it started as a training program but is highly focused on patient care. “From a training standpoint, it’s an opportunity to work on healthcare issues that we might not see here in the United States,” Schellhase said. “But the focus is truly on providing patient care, in an environment that lacks resources and healthcare personnel.” Student pharmacists who participate in the eight-week program go through an interview and selection process. They also take a two-credit elective course before they go that prepares them for the on-the-ground work they’ll be doing

Purdue and Kenyan students work together as part of the Purdue Kenya Partnership. “Initially, students may think they have different training than their Kenyan counterparts,” Dr. Ellen Schellhase noted. “And while they do have some different focuses in their schooling, they complement each other well. Students are often surprised at the collaboration they put together.”

Foreign Policy Through Pharmacy Dr. Sonak Pastakia, associate professor of pharmacy practice and lead faculty member for the Purdue Kenya Partnership in Eldoret, Kenya, was recently named to the 2017–18 class of Jefferson Science Fellows. An initiative of the Office of Science and Technology Adviser to the U.S. Secretary of State, the program is administered by the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine with the goal of engaging the academic community in providing science and technology advice in the formulation of U.S. foreign policy. Pastakia’s work in Kenya has included the implementation of a rural diabetes care program for more than 8,000 patients, a microfinance-linked portable care system to provide chronic diseases management services, a pharmacy distribution system which provides medication to over 150,000 HIV-infected patients, and more. Read more about the fellowship by visiting http://ow.ly/Qfbb308R21x.

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Purdue student pharmacists can complete an eight-week elective APPE in Eldoret, Kenya, where they assist with pharmaceutical care during rounds at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. Additional programs and services include diabetes care, HIV education and youth outreach, focusing on health education.

and the cultural differences they will encounter. Once there, participants are partnered with students in Kenya. “Initially, students may think they have different training than their Kenyan counterparts,” Schellhase noted. “And while they do have some different focuses in their schooling, they complement each other well. Students are often surprised at the collaboration they put together.” Students have significant patient care responsibilities throughout the program, she continued. “It’s a cultural opportunity that challenges their clinical skills tremendously.

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One of the most transferable things is the soft skillset— communications, teamwork—that transfer to any practice in pharmacy. Students don’t have to go into global health after this; they still gain critical skills for the workforce regardless of the area of practice.” Schellhase emphasized that the program benefits the entire Purdue community. “We’re seeing more collaboration in patient care initiatives and research with other colleges throughout the university,” she said, noting that the engineering and agricultural schools are getting involved with the


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Below: The Pharmacy Ambassadors program at The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy allows students to help immigrant and refugee populations acclimate to the U.S. healthcare and pharmacy systems. Student pharmacists lead educational sessions and interact with individuals who are new to the community.

“A big part of the exchange is opening their eyes to the cultural differences, which really helps them in their practice, and allows them to tailor the pharmacy experience for each patient.” ­— Dr. Chelsea Pekny

Opening the Doors, and Airwaves, to an Exchange of Ideas and Experiences At The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, global outreach occurs through several platforms. One of the primary ways the college helps students develop cultural awareness and improve patient health overseas is through its Global Pharmacy Practice Advancement. While the program offers opportunities for students and residents around the globe in countries such as England, South Africa, and Honduras, the most sustained work has been with colleges of pharmacy in Taiwan.

Above: Students from Taiwan come to Ohio State for a six-week rotation, similar to an APPE, through the Global Pharmacy Practice Advancement program. Practicing pharmacists come for rotations that can last from eight weeks up to many months to learn more about a specific practice area. A videoconferencing elective allows students to interact with their counterparts in Taiwan in real time.

partnership. “It’s strengthened our ability to work with other disciplines within the university that we hadn’t had before.” A significant number of students who participate in the PKP go on to complete residencies in global programs or work with underserved populations in the United States. “The world is becoming smaller and smaller,” Schellhase said. “The patient care issues that we tackle on the ground in Kenya are many of the same issues that we’d see in any setting. The bottom line is that the skills we’re utilizing really translate globally to a variety of different practice settings. There might be some unique challenges or different clinical scenarios, but the important clinical skills relate to any setting.”

Dr. Chelsea Pekny, global pharmacy initiatives coordinator, explained that students from Taiwan come to Ohio State for a six-week rotation, similar to an APPE. Practicing pharmacists come for rotations that can last from eight weeks up to many months to learn more about a specific practice area. A videoconferencing elective allows students to interact with their counterparts in Taiwan in real time. “Each year focuses on a new topic and how it’s addressed in the United States,” Pekny said. “This year the focus was on the geriatric medication process. After learning about the topic, our students create a presentation and deliver it during a video conference with our partners in Taiwan, and then we hear the same from the students there. It’s a discussion and an exchange of ideas between both universities.” Additionally, about three Ohio State students per year go to Taiwan on APPE elective rotations to work with the school’s partners. Pekny noted that the college’s curriculum is undergoing changes and that global and cultural exchanges are becoming a higher priority. “Throughout the curriculum we have opportunities where students have the ability to engage with

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“A lot of the issues they’re working with abroad are the same chronic disease states that they’ll work with in this country. They all say that after ILAC, they feel ready for anything.” ­— Dr. Kalin Johnson

different populations. That brings the global aspect to a local level,” she said. Pekny added that she thinks this heightened focus on cultural awareness helps prepare students for today’s workforce. “With global exchanges, you are taking the best practices from both countries and asking, ‘What do we do really well? What do our partners do well?’ That gives students a much broader perspective of pharmacy,” she said. “They learn more about pharmacy practice. A big part of the exchange is opening their eyes to the cultural differences, which really helps them in their practice, and allows them to tailor the pharmacy experience for each patient.”

viduals who are new to the community. This makes students more thoughtful and aware of different backgrounds when they go on to work in a pharmacy practice and equips our new community members with the skills needed to engage in the healthcare system and improve their health. Pekny said that any international experience “pushes the boundaries of students’ comfort level. It helps shape what you want to be as a pharmacist and opens students’ minds about what’s out there. A lot of those principles they learn in a global setting can be applied no matter where they are.” And that strengthens the pharmacy community as a whole, she continued. “Any kind of exchange of thoughts and ideas when you’re talking about working with international partners can help grow the pharmacy practice in both areas.”

Students Must Think on Their Feet, and Utilize Uncommon Resources The Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions has been operating its Institute for Latin American Concern (ILAC) for 40 years. This international, collaborative healthcare and educational organization provides an immersion experience in the Dominican Republic for students and professionals. ILAC incorporates pharmacy, dental, nursing and medical students, as well as professionals in those areas. The program’s goal, according to Dr. Kalin Johnson, assistant professor of pharmacy practice, is to give them an opportunity to become part of a family and community in campos [villages] in rural areas.

The Global Pharmacy Practice Advancement, in addition to other programs and partnerships the school fosters, “helps faculty think about and develop practice areas that provide “Our focus is to build relationships and provide care in a specialized opportunities for our students,” Pekny explained. clinic during a four-week period in the summer,” Johnson “It creates a different type of cohesive celebration as a colexplained. “The clinic is equipped with standard medications, lege.” The college’s Pharmacy Ambassadors program allows and our student pharmacists dispense and counsel on those students to help immigrant and refugee populations acclimedications, as well as help acquire medication history and mate to the U.S. healthcare and pharmacy systems. Student answer questions from patients, students or professionals.” pharmacists lead educational sessions and interact with indi- Among other responsibilities, participating students identify, assess and solve medication-related problems; develop individualized therapeutic plans; collaborate with other professionals to optimize therapeutic drug regimens; and recomImplementing Global Education at mend ways to improve quality of life through preventive care. Your School Check out the Global Pharmacy Education SIG paper on how to implement global/international education through alignment with the CAPE 2013 outcomes by visiting http://www.aacp.org/resources/education/cape.

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Johnson travels to the Dominican Republic for the first week of the program to organize all of the medications, help the students get adjusted and help the professionals (who sometimes are faculty members and other times are outside the university community). The goal is to have one professional


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Creighton University pharmacy and other healthcare professional students make it a priority to not only provide healthcare to the communities in which they serve, but also to spend time being in solidarity with the people.

and two pharmacy students per campo, of which there are five. “The pharmacy professional is with them the first week to two weeks,” Johnson noted. “We always have a physician there during the entire program so students can ask questions.” She said that this interprofessional interaction is one of the biggest benefits for ILAC program participants. “One of the books we have the students take with them discusses working in areas where there isn’t medicine. One student gave an inhaler to a child but there was no spacer. The child was having a hard time figuring it out so the student made one out of a plastic bottle. It’s an exercise in learning to think on their feet and use their resources.” Johnson said another benefit is that the immersion experience strengthens students’ communication skills. “Even if they don’t speak perfect Spanish, they are still learning new ways to communicate,” she pointed out. “A lot of students come away with those personal relationships and the ability to see the world through a different lens. The students see how important the relationships are to the Dominicans. They appreciate your time; it’s a people to people experience.” Broadening students’ horizons highlights one of the key reasons why sustaining global partnerships is so valuable, according to Johnson. It’s also one of the most hands-on experiences you can get in pharmacy education. “Not all students have the chance to manage their own mini pharmacy,” she said. “It’s still very much a controlled environment, but it gives them this freedom and the opportunity to develop confidence.” That value extends to the broader pharmacy community because the interprofessional interaction often results in a newfound respect for the pharmacy profession from other disciplines. “It forces others to utilize us and learn what we can do,” Johnson noted. “Some medical students who complete the program haven’t had a chance to work with student pharmacists yet. This is their chance to really understand what pharmacy professionals bring to patient care. It helps

the medical students develop and nurture those relationships when they return to the United States.” Many students who participate in the ILAC program continue to do international work. Even those who work in a traditional pharmacy setting, however, find the skills they learn to be extremely applicable. “A lot of the issues they’re working with abroad are the same chronic disease states that they’ll work with in this country,” Johnson said. “They all say that after ILAC, they feel ready for anything.” P Athena Ponushis is a freelance writer based in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., and Jane Rooney is a freelance writer based in Oakton, Va.

Student (Pharmacist) of the World At the recent FIP Global Conference in Nanjing, Whitley Yi, fourth-year student pharmacist at the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, spoke with Jim Campbell, director of the Health Workforce Department at the World Health Organization, on the importance of gathering evidence on the impact of workforce development and intelligence. To see the interview, visit FIP YouTube channel at http://ow.ly/i4IQ308R1VY.

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Share Your News with the Academy:

Academic Pharmacy Now is seeking content for its Campus Connection and Community Impact sections. •

Articles in Campus Connection highlight professional best practices, innovative research teaching techniques and curriculum tools, or news that’s happening on campus.

Articles in Community Impact illustrate how the work of faculty or researchers is affecting the larger community. These stories may have a human interest element and showcase what pharmacy faculty are doing outside the classroom.

For submissions, questions or to learn more about broader themes for upcoming issues, contact Maureen Thielemans, associate director of communications, at mthielemans@aacp.org.

Click and Recruit:

AACP’s Upgraded Online Career Center Take advantage of the best recruitment tool in the academic pharmacy community: the AACP Online Career Center. AACP’s upgraded platform features a dedicated customer service line and user-friendly interface, in addition to affordable access to a large pool of Academy-focused candidates. Just go to http://pharm.aacp. associationcareernetwork.com/Common/HomePage.aspx and click “Post a Job” to get started.

Position Yourself for Success: Join AACP’s Academic Leadership Fellows Program

For more than a decade, this prestigious leadership development program has helped to create top leaders in academic pharmacy and higher education by providing the knowledge, skills and network to foster personal and professional growth. As a Fellow, you will: • Explore historical perspectives of leadership; • Learn about conflict and the road to resolution; • Practice self-reflection; and • Examine current issues in higher education utilizing a formal debate setting. Visit http://www.aacp.org/career/leadership to learn more and submit an application by March 20.

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@AACPharmacy

What’s IN a Name? This year marks an exciting change to AACP’s INterim Meeting as we harness the dynamic leadership development that’s at the core of this meeting and shift the direction to focus on strategies for a wider audience.

The AACP INterim Meeting February 25–28 • Wyndham Grand Rio Mar Beach Resort & Spa • Rio Grande, Puerto Rico

At the AACP INterim Meeting, attendees will learn from experts in leadership development who are ready to share their insights and strategies for success. While programming each year is modified to reflect timely and important topics in healthcare, academic pharmacy and higher education, one thing remains constant: the INterim Meeting represents the best of leadership development. Attendees at this year’s meeting will leave with new tools and skills to implement at their home institutions, from sessions addressing how to: •

Create more innovative work cultures that promote constructive conversations about differing perspectives and new ideas;

Implement smart and strategic tactics to help employees of different generations function together in the workplace;

Advance the conversation surrounding diversity in pharmacy programs; and

Apply the practice of Appreciative Inquiry to strategic plan priorities.

There’s no doubt that these next few years will continue to bring dynamic and challenging times of change in healthcare and higher education. Effective leadership at all levels is essential. We hope you join us at INfluence 2017, and future INterim Meetings, where we aim to Inspire, Innovate and Invigorate. P

www.aacp.org/interimmeeting17 AACP Annual Meeting The premier professional development meeting for pharmacy educators heads to Music City, July 15–19. Registration for Pharmacy Education 2017 in Nashville opens in April.

AACP greatly appreciates the support from our meeting sponsors, whose contributions made this event possible. Educational Day Sponsor

The NACDS Foundation utilizes education, research and philanthropy to help improve patient outcomes and advance public health. Through its collaboration with academic institutions and public health entities, the Foundation seeks to uncover innovative care delivery models that can be replicated and scaled into real-world solutions. Bronze Sponsors

Kaplan is the world leader in test preparation and is excited to showcase their newly updated NAPLEX preparation options, including question practice, and on-demand videos.

ProgressIQ works with existing systems to integrate student performance data through a secure web interface. Empower Deans and Advisors to catch students before they fail.

Shadow Health® is an educational software developer of web-based Digital Clinical Experiences™ designed to augment courses for allied health education programs.

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Coming Soon Leading Forward: Practicing Adaptive Leadership Take advantage of this regional leadership development opportunity that focuses on adaptive leadership. Help mobilize individuals to tackle tough problems and thrive in a challenging environment. Leaders at all levels will have an opportunity to hear from expert speakers and work in groups to apply the principles they have learned to specific examples and cases they might face in their roles at home institutions. DoubleTree by Hilton

www.aacp.org/meetingsandevents/leading-forward/spring-2017

Philadelphia Center City

April 20–21, 2017

2017 Spring Institute: Developing a Culture of Sustainable Assessment At the 2017 Spring Institute, attendees will learn how to work toward a sustainable culture of assessment that will also support the school’s future selfstudy process for ACPE and other entities. Teams will have extensive breakout time where they can work on internal plans, share ideas with other teams, and consult with the presenters and other experts on-hand. ACPE representatives will offer their guidance based on their review of institutions that have recently gone through a self-study using the 2016 ACPE Standards. Hilton Washington Dulles Airport Hotel

May 22–24, 2017

Team Composition: Faculty Members; Strategic Planning Officers;

Admissions Personnel; Student Services Personnel; Department Chairs

www.aacp.org/meetingsandevents/2017SpringInstitute


Academic Pharmacy Now: 2017 Issue 1