ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: ANDREA PIOTROWSKI 539567
SEMESTER ONE, 2013
TUTOR: GWYLL JAHN
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION _____________________________ 4
PART A: EOI I: CASE FOR INNOVATION
A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE ______ 7
A.2. COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE ______ 12
A.3. PARAMETRIC MODELLING _____________16
A.4. ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS _________22
A.5. CONCLUSION ________________________24
A.6. LEARNING OUTCOMES _______________ 25
A.7. REFERENCES _________________________ 26
PART B: EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH
B.1. DESIGN FOCUS _____________________ 30
B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0 _____________________ 34
B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0 _____________________ 40
B.4. TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT __________ 50
Andrea Piotrowski, 20
My name is Andrea Piotrowski, and I am currently in my 3rd year at Melbourne University studying Bachelor of Environments, majoring in Architecture. I am originally from Melbourne, but my family is very European, and therefore we do lots of traveling to Europe and other destinations around the world. I have an eternal passion for architecture and design, especially Bauhaus, and love to sketch. Apart from designing, I also enjoy music, skiing and the beach.
Throughout life I have always lived and breathed architecture, with my parents coming from an arty background. During travels with my parents, I have come to realise that architecture is an ever-changing language, differing from place to place, and me being able to experience architecture, especially inspirational architecture, is one of the most exhilarating things for me. Next year I would like to spend a year in Scandinavia studying architecture on exchange. In the future I hope to have my own architectural practice, and create contemporary modern buildings in coastal locations.
Digital architecture has always interested me, as it gives opportunities for new methods and processes for design to occur. During 1st year I undertook Virtual Environments, creating a BODYSPACE lantern, MELT, using Rhino and InDesign, giving me a taste for digital design. In Virtual, fabricating a model outcome was very exciting, as I find that through model making I can visualize my designs better, and I can develop my project through this media. I am inspired by how Frank Gehry uses digital tools to make his dynamic architecture come to life, as well as I am beginning to get a grounding in CAD and Revvit. I am excited to learn how to use Grasshopper in conjunction with Rhino to create interesting forms.
Proposal for a Discovery center located on Herring island, Architecture Design Studio Earth, Final model, abstrat triangle forms reflecting aboriginal primitive huts.
Studley Park Boathouse, Architecture Design Studio Water, mirroring the style/formal composition of Le Corbbusier, paying attention to volumetric form, elevation, views, etc.
MELT, Bodyspace light design, Virtual environments, fabricated 3D model depicting the melting and cooling of molten lava
Boathouse, Architecture Design Studio Water, final model.
PART A. EOI I:CASE FOR INNOVATION
‘Architecture needs to be thought of less as a set of special material products and rather more as a range of social and professional practices that sometimes, but by no means always, lead to buildings.’ Williams, Richard (2005). ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), p. 108
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE Architecture is an ever-changing movement that begins with discourse. It is a language, which anybody can participate, in order to put their own social, cultural opinions forward in order to spark discussion.
DISCOURSE AS INNOVATION. Great architects have always shared one thing in common, a passion to expose their own ideas, inspiring innovation. Expression of thought, through design proposals, words, and physical structure seek to display an objective opinion, that of the designer. Discourse has emerged through innovation, and we can see this in the works of Peter Cook in the Plug-in City (1964), Frank Lloyd Wright’s spatial concepts of interpenetrating planes and abstract masses (see Fallingwater image), and Arata Isozaki’s planning of the japanese city (see City in the Air image).
Philip Beesley’s Hylozoic series, 2012. Interactive installation investigating the physical /psychological experience. Thousands of laser-cut components constructed to create dynamic art.
These past historic precedents portray hand-drafted, tectonic work; howevet, in contemporary times, it is with the introduction of new design processes, Computational design, that we see new techniques and innovations arise.
Computational design techniques are being embraced as a new means of design process facilitating innovation. It is a new tool with which one opens up new methodologies and practice, in seeking to make a difference with new ways in which we approach tools. In the works of Philip Beesley, we can see his interesting design procedure working with digital fabrication, computation, electronics engineering, ideas of biomimicry, creating this idea of geodesic architecture. In Beesley’s installations we see digital design is utilized to create dynamic elegant reef-like structures, created through digital models, which are then fabricated in laser-cut components, interlinked into configurations, to create a hybrid geotextile form. It seeks innovation and new potential in design. Innovations are those that disrupt norms, initiating progress. Necessity drives innovation, and is a catalyst for change. In contemporary society, in the architectural discipline we see the radical movement away from tectonic ideas, towards new innovations of design process, one of which encompasses digital design. Fallingwater, 1936, Frank Lloyd Wright. Tectonic exploration, organic architecture, foreunners to modern architecture. Timeless.
‘Innovation is the era-dependent, situated act of making a difference.’ Pia Ednie-Brown, Mark Burry and Andrew Burrow, AD JAN/FEB 2013
The way in which we approach these tools, ideas that create positive change and look to ‘make a difference’ and contribute to enhancing our environment/cultural perspectives. In the gateway project I would like to express a new perspective through my ideas, one that focuses on creating an architecture that will hopefully enrich the local area, and contributing to enhancing the way people view architecture it its localized context.
‘Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for timelessness.’ Frank O. Gehry
Arata Isozaki, proposal for City in the Air, 1960-2. Interconnected urban environment hovering above chaos of the existing city below.
In shaping my own style I would like draw inspiration from precedence, adding to my knowledge of architecture and methodologies of design. I firmly believe that architecture is funtional art. It surrounds us and influences our emotions. I want my own ideas and background to shine through in my concepts, to create stimulating spaces in which people can thrive. I would like to explore spatial techniques in digital architecture, through algorithmic design and parametric modelling.
ORGONE REEF PHILIP BEESLEY
47 ilding Centre installation: view of composite membrane layer. system is derived from Penrose tessellation. Orgone Reef, Phillip Beesley, Source: philipbeesleyarchitect.com/
London Building Centre installation: view of composite membrane layer. Organising system is derived from Penrose tessellation.
‘Today, both digital and biological technologies offer breathtakingly immense potential for designers who are being directed towards many different aspects and dimensions of architectural practice.’ Pia Ednie-Brown, Mark Burry and Andrew Burrow, AD JAN/FEB 2013
In a quest for investigating physical and psychological aspects of human experience, and a constant obsession to redevelop and understand his environment, Philip Beesley seeks to encourage interaction between built form and human senses through his architectural installations, ORGONE REEF and ORPHEUS FILTER. This HYBRID ECOLOGY contemplates what the skin of a building could be like in the future (Philip Beesley, 2003). Advance in digital methods and fabrication processes open up a new scope for design, that of single components when combined together, create lightweight structure, which would potentially line the exterior/interior of a building. The interesting use of computation to create the complex mesh framework geometry, and then unfolding the mesh, as components for fabrication draws parallels with the Gateway project we are undertaking this semester.
ORGONE REEF - ARCHITECTURE AS A RESPONSIVE ORGANISM.
The installation itself is a technical exercise in new processes of construction and fabrication.1 It is a methodology, tested through small architectural installation that contributes to the way in which architecture in the future may be constructed, a potential innovation. The studio’s methods incorporate computation, exploring biomimicry, structure, geodesic form (command in Grasshopper!), use of robotics.
Photographs of Orgone Reef installation, Source: Philip Beesley architects website,
Installations have been exhibited world-wide, revealing this interesting form to a wider audience, inspiring a positive change by exposing innovation in materials and design approaches.
Beesley, Philip (2005) ‘Orgone Reef’, in AD: Design throught Making, JUL/AUG 2005, pp. 46-53 1
g system is derived from Penrose tessellation. uilding Centre installation: view of composite membrane layer.
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BLOBWALL PAVILION GREG LYNN
PRECEDENT Greg Lynn’s work, Blobwall Pavilion, portrays his style of practicing futuristically, as he strives for timeless, new innovation, through his concept of ‘blob’ architecture. Lynn is one of the leading ﬁgures in innovative practice, his major contributions has been crossfertilisation of technologies, introducing the likes of animation and robotics.1 Innovation is seen in his approach to computational design techniques, through his concept of the ‘blob’, a form created by computer programming and scripting (parameters, alogorithms, geometries), techniques which we will learn about in case studies and the Gateway project. Computational process will result in highly complex geometries (such as Lynns) which can be readily organised and understood via scripting algorithms (Grasshopper). Lynn proposes in his article ‘Blob tectonics, or why tectonics is square and topology is groovy’2, that a liquid malleable shape such as the blob can challenge the discourse of tectonics. A blob suggests alternative strategies of structural organization and construction, complex new ways of thinking about form. The blob in this case could be interpreted as a polysurface, a digital idea, which is able to adapt and change, moving away from symmetry and standardization. He reaches new heights of innovation in using ‘software which explore and challenge architectural form’.3
Ednie-Brown, Pia (2013) ‘On a fine line: Greg Lynn and the voice of Innovation’, in AD: The Innovation Imperative - Architectures of Vitality, JAN/FEB 2013 , pp. 45-49 2 Lynn, Greg (1998) “Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy”, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), pp. 169-182 3 Rocker, Ingeborg M (2006) ‘An Interview with Greg Lynn’, in AD: Programming Cultures, JUL/AUG 2006 , pp. 88-95 1
Blobwall Pavilion construction process, the brick blobs creating brick wall structure, Greg Lynn Source: blobwallpavillion.wordpress.com/
Blobwall Pavilion final model in space, Greg Lynn Source: blobwallpavillion.wordpress.com/
The Blobwall pavilion is made up of single polymer modular elements, or blobs, created computationally as amorphous adaptable forms, each form adapting to adjacent forms to create a single structure. The sepeate blob elements puzzled together seem to mimic the idea of a brick wall, turning an old construction technique into something new and extraordinary. The pavilion features as part of an exhibition in Los Angeles, 2005. I believe Lynn is creating his own new style, an argument which fights against tectonic architecture, and embraces a new process for design, that is computational design. Because his work focuses on single modular elements, joining with many other elements to create a whole this could influence the architecture of today in construction processes and building techniques, as well as in digital design methods. He has inspired the elegant and powerful acrhitecture of Shoei Yoh &many others.
Blobwall Pavilion sectional drawing, Greg Lynn Source: blobwallpavillion.wordpress.com/
MATSYS, Honeycomb Morphologies, London, 2004, Fabricated design Source: matsysdesign.com
Computational design is making architects rethink digital design practice. It is a driver of new innovation, seeking new tools/technologies which guide the design process, hence influenceing architectural discourse. In analysing this new discourse of the use of computers in architecture I would like to focus on the benefits and disadvantages of computation, and how this affects the design process. The full extent of computers capabilities in design can be recognized through Computational design â€“ a technique driven process, using tools such as Rhino/Grasshopper among other digital design programs, to parametrically and algorithmically to create, warp and change a form, effectively designing through the computer. Greg Lynn and the concept of the â€˜blobâ€™ enforce this notion of digital design (see pages 10-11), the blob being a form created and altered by the computer, in relationship to grid points/parametric algorithms. These digital design methods are also employed and practiced in structures by Matsys and Fuksas (see images).
Computation has a multitude of advantages, some of the key benefits include: 1) being able to deal with highly complex situations, 2) use of algorithms to explore more design possibilities, hence solving design problems, 3) a more complex structure can be obtained through a non-linear design process2, hinting at integrated design methods.
MATSYS, Honeycomb Morphologies, London, 2004, Digital parametric design process Source: matsysdesign.com
Hickling, A. (1982). Beyond a linear iterative process? In B. evans & J. A. powell & r. talbot (eds.), changing design. chichester: John Wiley & Sons 2
Examples of Computerization,
according to Brady Peter’s definition, or using computers later in the design process, i.e. after the geometry/form has been designed
If we imagine a spectrum - on one end is computation and a few layers across is computerization. But are they really that different? In investigating the use of computers in the architectural discipline over the years, Brady Peter argues in his article that there is a clear distinction between computation and ‘computerization’. He delineates the two by explaining that computerization is the ‘use of a computer to simply digitize existing procedures with entities or processes that are preconceived in the mind of the designer, or a computer as a drafting tool, making it easier to edit, change, etc’.1 Computation therefore implies that a form is generated on the computer, allowing for shifting and changing, rather than having a preconcieved idea of the geometry. Perhaps then we could say that Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao is not truly using computation but rather computerization as in his own design process he uses computers to digitize the conceptual sketch models he physically creates, hence implying that he already has a preconcieved idea of the form. But I believe that this is not the case, as further research of Gehry’s design methods and process found me realizing that Gehry uses CATIA a computational program designed for digital modelling, and uses this to develop his original geometry into a more refined, complete design, taking in factors of structure, materiality, budget, etc.
Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, digitising of sketch model onto CATIA, Source: archdaily.com
Brady Peters (2013) Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, in Architectural Design, pp. 8–15 1
Chapel in Valleaceron, S.M.A.O, use the computer after a set form is established using sketch models/ paper folding techniques Source: sancho-madridejos.com
Examples of Computation,
the use of computational programs to generate ideal complex forms, from a larger goal study space
FUKSAS, Fiera di Milano, Italy, 2005, Rhino model of digital design, Source: arthitectural.com
FUKSAS, Fiera di Milano, Italy, 2005, Final project, Source: arthitectural.com
Computation can help in defining the role of the architect. I think that the role of the architect is to solve problems, and through computational design can address “ill defined” problems. This is a recurring theme in this weeks reading, Yehuda Kalay’s article on the principles of design as a foundation for digital processes. Through discourse, a “dialogue” (see 2 diagrams, right), and through seeking to solve a problem we can use tools, such as using a computer, which will equip us and help to find a solution. In my own interpretation of Kalay’s diagram I see a cycle of how the dialogue is fundamentally the dscourse that facilitates and simultaneously is the result of design process.
In my opinion puzzle-making can be a metaphor for computation, which in contrast to problem solving, infers that we should perhaps use the uncertainty in puzzle-making to our advantage, to come up with as many different design outcomes as possible within certain parameters. Ultimately I think this could be a good metaphor for digital design, in that many designs outcomes are created and only the ones that fit the design goal are selected as possible final outcomes.
Source: Kalay, Yehuda E. , Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Source: Kalay, Yehuda E., (2004) Architecture’s New Theories, Methods of ComputerAided Design, of ComputerMediaand : Principles, Theories, and Methods
Goal Problem solving
Aided Design, pp.13
Solutions Source: Kalay, Yehuda E. , Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design,
Conceptual diagram re-imagined,filling in the gaps, Source: Andrea Piotrowski, diagram redrawn from Kalay, Yehuda E., (2004) article.
Source: Kala Theories, an
With the ongoing development of computational design methods and the evolving popularity of digital design we now see a change in design and construction industries. This is evident in new capabilities in computation, materials and construction methods. An example project reflecting this change is Herzog de Meuron’s - Messe Basel – New Hall (see images below), showing how generation of geometry and material configurations are AND ORNAMENT performance driven,3 hence displaying new methodologies PERFORMANCE in design can lead to new construction process, i.e. using multiple components, connected/interwoven to create one façade. GeometriesHERZOG are therefore more complex than previous tectonic & DE MEURON, MESSE BASEL NEW ever HALL, allow, BASLE, hinting SWITZERLAND, DUE process could to parametrically interrelated geometries.FOR COMPLETION APRIL 2013 top: Visualisation of the project. The design concept comes from a simple idea – two boxes, one on top of the other, slightly twisted to produce a hyperbolic surface. The facade architects are able to perceive new notions thus faces towards the street, or towards the sky.
If we of design: tectonics as robotics, craft as CAD/CAM, hand tools as software, 2-D CNC-milled are assembled into façade as right: interface, wecomponents can realize innovative potential in design a complex 3-D structure. This facade strategy has both techniques.double In understanding thatopenings. computational design seeks to curvature and variably sized contribute to evidence- and performance-oriented designing, we 60 as architects need to utilize this for easy alteration of geometries/ form in relation to contextual/social/cultural concerns, to create structures that satisfy all components.
Strehlke is adamant that, in the office’s use of computational tools, ‘performance is the only consideration’. He explains: ‘Ornament as decoration is not what we try to achieve.’ While he admits that there is often an ornamental aspect, the designs are not primarily visually driven. The generation of geometry and material configurations are performance driven.
Herzog de Meuron, Messe Basel – New Hall, Switzerland, 2013, new capabilities in material performance, Source: Brady Peters (2013), in Architectural Design, pp. 60
Digital design provides new methods for achieving unique innovations in architecture, it provides a new discourse. Through experimenting with these new computational programs, Rhino and Grasshopper I would like to create a new discourse, exploring how architecture can parametrically be adapted to enforce the dynamic architectural theory it encapsulates.
Brady Peters (2013) Realising the Architectural Idea: Computational Design at
Herzog & De Meuron (pages 56–61)
Herzog de Meuron, Messe Basel – New Hall, 2013, 2 volumes, one on the other, twisted surface texture, Source: Brady Peters (2013) Realising the Architectural Idea: Computational Design at Herzog & De Meuron, in Architectural Design, pp. 60
HERZOG & DE MEURON, MESSE BASEL NEW HALL, BASLE, SWITZERLAND, DUE FOR COMPLETION APRIL 2013
top: Visualisation of the project. The design concept comes from a simple idea – two boxes, one on top of the other, slightly twisted to produce a hyperbolic surface. The facade thus faces towards the street, or towards the sky. right: 2-D CNC-milled components are assembled into a complex 3-D structure. This facade strategy has both double curvature and variably sized openings.
Messe Basel – New Hall, Herzog de Meuron Image source: herzogdemeuron.com/
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PARAMETRIC MODELLING Much debate has been generated about the definition of parametric modelling; it’s discourse and how it shifted over time. When I think ‘parametric’ I think of maths, of NURBS curves, relationships between grid points and values, algorithms. However, does using parametric design/modelling in an architectural context denote a different meaning to the word? And how could this impact, or create a discourse in the architectural profession? In my own search for the definition of ‘parametric’ I would like to analyse two different perspectives, that of Patrik Schumacher (partner in Zaha Hadid Architects) and Daniel Davis (PHD student at SIAL, specializing in improving flexibility of parametric design).
Daniel Davis states that parametric modelling has it’s origins in mathematics, in that it is derived from parameters, explicit functions and independent variables. In architecture then we use: parameters (locations of points on model), equations (laws of physics, i.e. gravity), and quantities (model), to influence the forms generated. I agree that parametric is design, as it implies parameters of architecture – client need based on budget/time/landscape, etc – and the idea of the relationships between parameters and explicit values and a piece of complex geometry. In using computation and scripting we can also use these tools to create shapes/geometries through parametric modelling, such as using Rhino (model space) and Grasshopper as a scripting/computation input. According to Davis designing parametrically is therefore beneficial to architects as it allows greater degrees of ‘control’ and ‘efficiency’, allowing multitudinous amount of output geometries to be generated, trialling out as many forms as possible within the set parameters. Davis’ final definition of ‘parametric’ in regard to the digital design context is: ‘a type of geometric model whose geometry is a function of a finite set of parameters’.1
In a recent piece of literature published in Architects Journal, Parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’, we see Patrik Schumacher argue that what he calls ‘parametricism’ is the new style of the 21st century. Instead of identifying parametrics as a process in which we organize relationships between values and geometries, Schumacher rather labels it parametricism, I think of parametric modeling more as a tool which an architect can employ to reach the design goal, not as a ‘the great new style after modernism’ 2 as Schumacher states blatantly in his commentary. But isn’t an architectural style something, which comes quickly in and out of fashion? I think parametric design does not deserve to be called a ‘style’; it is rather a process/ a tool in which an architect can use in their design process, and will therefore be a infinite resource contributing to architectural process. In later discussions with Daniel Davis, we see Schumacher’s credibility collapse, he is unwilling to answer questions to back up the statements made in his article regarding parametricism as ‘the unified style of architecture in the 21st century’, or simple reasons why he has tried to define parametrics as parametricism.
Parametric modeling in the design process opens up many design opportunities in the design process. By using parametric modeling at the beginning of the design process, such as in the works of Gaudi, in Sagraga Familia, or VOUSSOIR CLOUD (see image on left) we can see that the form can be changed flexibly, and experimentally through the digital model. Some critique the use of parametric modeling, stating that a drawback of programming and scripting is that we need a good understanding of the program before we begin designing parametrically, as errors in the design model could appear later in the design process, i.e. such as in the Smart Geometry- acoustic panels project 2011, where fabrication of the model saw there was a slight discrepancy in the model and the pieces were out by 5mm or less, creating gaps in the joints, which ultimately result in structural failure of the structure. Learning and exploring parametric programs, through training/trial and error can easily fix this problem.
Daniel Davis, Patrik Schumacher – Parametricism, nz Architecture Blog, http://www.nzarchitecture.com/blog/index. php/2010/09/25/patrik-schumacher-parametricism/, viewed 27/03/13 1
Patrik Schumacher, Parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’, in Architects Journal, (2010), http://www.architectsjournal. co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article, viewed 27/03/13 2
Voussoir Cloud, Iwamotoscott, Image source: djcadteam6.wordpress.com
VOUSSOIR CLOUD IWAMOTOSCOTT
Iwamotoscottâ€™s installation Voussoir Cloud demonstrates the use of parametric modelling in the design process, leading to new innovation and more complex geometry being produced. Through these arched elements Voussoir Cloud explores structural qualities of old construction techniques (i.e. stone masonry and the Gothic vault/arch, generally compressive construction) to produce a new innovation of the arch made of lightweight wood laminate system, surprising viewers of the installation, and abstracting norms of architecture. The designing process somewhat takes inspiration from masters such as Frei Otto and Antonio Gaudi, who used hanging chain models to find efficient form.1 Parametrically a computational hanging chain model is created, an initial form finding process, which is then developed and refined to produce pure compressive vault shapes. The material strategy leads towards its performance as a structure, in that the used of light wooden petal elements are organized and arranged to create the tensile vault structure. Because of the vault form of the work, there are 4 different petal shaped components,2 which interlink and construct the vaults, each petal shape is dependent on the adjacent void. A Rhino script was used3 to offset the density and triangulation flatness of the components (i.e. triangles with flatter edges are found towards the base, and extend out to vaulted structure where triangles share more curved edges. The use of parametric modelling to innovate form (hanging chain model), assembly (petal shape and arrangement) and influence fabrication (prototypes, final installation), is something I would like to explore in the Wyndham project, stressing form finding process and through prototypes and unfolding of the model through digital means test the durability and success of computational design. 1
Iwamotoscott, Voussoir Cloud, http://www.iwamotoscott.com/ viewed 28/03/13
Iwamotoscott, http://www.iwamotoscott.com/ viewed 28/03/13
Iwamotoscott, http://www.iwamotoscott.com/ viewed 28/03/13
Image: Hanging chain digital model, integration of panels, Source: iwamotoscott.com
4 differing petal shapes, more triangulated/flat edges towards base of vault, more curved edges towards top of vault, Image source: ADS: AIR Lecture 4 slides, David Lister, lecture date: 28/03/13
Unrolled panels of digital model, labelled and numbered for oragnisation purposes and ease of assembly, Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stephalin/3140282210/
Section through model, displaying relationship to surrounding space and configuration of vaults, Image source: livepavillion.blogspot.com
QATAR CONVENTION CENTER YAMASAKI ARCHITECTS
Section through model, displaying relationship to surrounding space and configuration of vaults, Image source: www.architecturelist.com
The Qatar Convention Center is situated in Abu Dhabi, displaying its contextual significance in a hub for culture and business in the Middle East. The center is based on a design concieved by famous metabolist architect Arata Isozaki, conceptual design then undertaken by Yamasaki Architects, and the structural engineering strategy was completed by Thornton Tomasetti. The center features 10 main conference and performance venues for international conferences as well as music performances. This large-scale structure is primarily reinforced concrete with a steel structure, whilst interior finishes are: marble, glass, and leather furnishings. Form follows structural load paths, and the building form reflects the natural precedent of the tree (members branching from 2 central trunk components). The process of optimization is seen in the diagram (see image below) displaying a process of reduction (subtracting of cells from matrix, due to parameters, i.e. the forces/loads imposed on the structure). A form is created from this parameter of loads, the geometry is produced due to the structure only being able to transfer the loads into the foundations at certain points. This performative process generated the final outcome.
It would be interesting in my own approach to the Wyndham to explore parametrics as a process of optimization, perhaps looking at how this will control and influence the geometries produced. Alternatively I could investigate how plug-ins for Rhino/grasshopper can inform the form process according to shadows in relation to material density, or structural components/ materiality in regards to form, i.e. using GECO, KARAMBA, KANGAROO PHYSICS, HELIOTROPE. I would like to incorporate these generative processes, which might inform the geometry, and reasons why I chose certain paths in the design process.
Process of optimization, deducing the form through subtraction and use of loads/forces as parameters for form, Image source: ADS: AIR Lecture 4 slides, David Lister, lecture date: 28/03/13
Construction process, creation of tree strcture, parametric design of concept of loads and impact on form, Image source: thorntontomasetti.com
Wide open exhibition hall, space for moving/viewing/relaxing, Image source: cubeme.com
Considerable loads from deck pressing down on structure, need for inflexibility, or glass facade will break with movement, Image source: cubeme.com
Large theatre hall, for use of lecture/performances, Image source: cubeme.com
Built structure, Qatar Convention Center Image source: thorntontomasetti.com
A.4. ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS
WEEK 2 DESIGN TASK 足 POINTS, CURVES, SURFACES CONSTRUCTING AND DECONSTRUCTING ANDREA PIOTROWSKI 539567 1. Surface contouring to create flat plane projections. 2. Surface contours, dividing of grid points, creation of planes, addition of geometries to contour of surface. I think it would really interesting to explore how projections to the shape of a surface could create interesting effects with light/shadow and complexity of geometry. It is also efficient for fabrication/laser-cutting process as you can easily flatten all pieces and lay them out ready for fabrication. Perhaps geometries could be cut out and offset to create more intricate patterning techniques? This would also be good to investigate my chosen topic: structure.
1. Contour offset, lofting and ribboning. 2. Surface contouring, placement of planes, and placement of geometry/ attractor points I learnt about how to use attractor points, changing x-y sizes of geometries on the surface. Although these functions are quite simple, i think further exploration and introducting these definitions to more complex geometries could eventuate into new innovative forms.
Surfaces and gridshells I started looking at how structure such as ribs defined by surface parameters might enforce notions of building skins. Overlapping/ crossing of line might be something I could explore in my case study analysis. I was a bit puzzled in trying to understand how gridshells worked, but now I can see how structure could be represented in these rib/ shell structures if fabricated into a physical model.
Using graphs to create patterns
I used crcular geometries, the circle, the ellipse to investigate how graphs could alter patterning within the set geometry. It might be an interesting idea to try and use graph patterning in regards to wraping around as a skin on a 3D object, a more complex geometry.
Using fields to generate patterns.
This use of fields to create patterns is a very aesthetically pleasing geometry. I tried looking at how the curves interrelate and how introducing three dimensions to the curves would affect the form. Perhaps I could use this method to define these pattern curves, and then define a grid onto the pattern, overlaying other curves/geometries into the equation?
CONCLUSION The principle objective of the Wyndham Gateway project is to create an ‘exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndham’s Western Gateway’. 1
‘The Western Gateway should propose new, inspiring and brave ideas, to generate a new discourse.’ Wyndham City Council, Project Brief
Through exploring architecture as a discourse, primarily the impact of computation on design techniques and the design process, I have begun to understand how innovation and methods of design are closely intertwined with the practice of architecture. In my approach to the Gateway project I would like to use computation as the means for the generation and development for my design. It is significant to realize that contemporary computational design techniques are being embraced as a new means of design process facilitating innovation, in contrast to former conventional methodologies of designing. Computation is a tool with which allows for reconsideration of traditional process, resulting in the creation of new opportunities in the design process. Computation other key benefits include: 1) being able to deal with highly complex situations, 2) use of algorithms to explore more design possibilities, hence solving design problems, 3) a more complex structure can be obtained through a non-linear design process, hinting at integrated design methods. Through gaining inspiration from precedents, and using design tools such Rhino and Grasshopper I think it would be interesting to experiment with parametric modelling, algorithmic exploration optimization of geometry and performance to create a new discourse, exploring how architecture can parametrically be adapted to enforce the dynamic architectural theory it encapsulates. I would like to explore this notion further through using plug-ins such as: GECO, KARAMBA, KANGAROO PHYSICS, HELIOTROPE, to reinforce my design process and reasons for design approach.
‘In using computational design in the Gateway Project, I would like to innovate and inspire change in the architectural industry, advocating computation as a possible tool, producing unique innovation in architectural form.’ Andrea Piotrowski, 2013
Wyndham City Council, (2011), ‘Western Gateway Design Project - Contract no. C1449/12’, Project Brief, wyndham. vic.gov.au 1
Perhaps the most interesting aspect of architecture is the experimentation of design process, and methodologies. The introduction to Computational design has given me an insight as to the new discourse applied in contemporary projects, seeking out innovation and providing change in the architectural industry, a positive outcome, moving it forward.
Over these first few weeks I have developed my own understanding of computation, how programs present the opportunity to generate a multiplicity of design possibilities through the use of parametric modelling, scripting, algorithmic explorations, etc. Through application of digital technologies I have started thinking about how this could relate to the Gateway project brief, using computation as a tool for innovation, whilst remaining sensitive to the brief requirements, parameters of the project. Lecture and reading material have been catalysts for me for the beginnings of theoretical concepts of digital design; this was then explored further through precedent analysis and my own algorithmic explorations. The next phase for me, from inspiration of projects such as VOUSSOIR CLOUD, BLOBWALL PAVILION, QATAR CONVENTION CENTER and others, will be to initiate my own direction in computation stemming from chosen topics of MATERIAL and STRUCTURE, which will guide my process of computation, and develop my response to the Gateway project.
REFERENCES Beesley, Philip (2005) ‘Orgone Reef’, in AD: Design throught Making, JUL/AUG 2005, pp. 46-53 Brady Peters (2013) Realising the Architectural Idea: Computational Design at Herzog & De Meuron (pages 56–61) Daniel Davis, Patrik Schumacher – Parametricism, nz Architecture Blog, http://www.nzarchitecture. com/blog/index.php/2010/09/25/patrik-schumacher-parametricism/, viewed 27/03/13 Ednie-Brown, Pia (2013) ‘On a fine line: Greg Lynn and the voice of Innovation’, in AD: The Innovation Imperative - Architectures of Vitality, JAN/FEB 2013 , pp. 45-49 Hickling, A. (1982). Beyond a linear iterative process? In B. evans & J. A. powell & r. talbot (eds.), changing design. chichester: John Wiley & Sons Iwamotoscott, Voussoir Cloud, (2008) http://www.iwamotoscott.com/ viewed 28/03/13 Kalay, Yehuda E., (2004) Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design, pp.13 Lynn, Greg (1998) “Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy”, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), pp. 169-182 Patrik Schumacher, Parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’, in Architects Journal, (2010), http:// www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-warsbegin/5217211.article, viewed 27/03/13 Rocker, Ingeborg M (2006) ‘An Interview with Greg Lynn’, in AD: Programming Cultures, JUL/AUG 2006 , pp. 88-95 Williams, Richard (2005). ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), p. 102-116 Wyndham City Council, (2011), ‘Western Gateway Design Project - Contract no. C1449/12’, Project Brief, wyndham.vic.gov.au
PART B. EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS An initial exploration of different topics took place in order to select the right direction for our project. Firstly
STRUCTURE STRUCTURE was the starting point for our idea development. Our design intent will focus on 4 main areas: an ICON for Wyndham, EXPERIENCE of installation, PLACEMARKER for Wyndham (effectively placemaking), and contributing to a wider DISCOURSE. structure is the basis of all form. It refers to how buildings stand up, their contruction, how structural components rellate to the formal composition, materiality, patterning, etc. The topic of structure can therefore be broken up into 2 main elements: the tectonics (forces on the structure) and the materiality (performance of materials that constribute to structure). Due to the topic of Structure being so vast, my team and I have decided to gain inspiration from two main precedents, the British Library Roof and Birds Nest stadium, which through analysis will provide support as to the process of design, as well as how computational techniques are employed to produce these architectures.
Structure in the Birds Nest. Amazing large scale engineering masterpiece. Herzog de Meuron design a stadium featuring twig-like structural elements. Structure is emphasized primarliy through this external steel mesh, and use of computational technologies, use of grids, meshwork and lattice to create interesting linework thats wraps around and encases the form.
Bird Nest, Herzog de Meuron, 2008
Structure in the British Museum Roof. A parabolic surface is wrapped over and towards the central existing building to produce a light roof structure. The space is filled with light, and people can look up to see the conventional grid used to structure the arrangement of the panels and triangular crossing of rib elements. The overall effect is a triangulated mesh that floats over a void space, eyecatchuing and simple.
British Museum Roof, Foster + Partners
Structure in the Birds Nest. Amazing large scale engineering masterpiece. Herzog de Meuron design a stadium featuring twig-like structural elements. Structure is emphasized primarliy through this external steel mesh, and use of computational technologies, use of grids, meshwork and lattice to create interesting linework thats wraps around and encases the form.
South Pond, Studio Gang, featured on opposite page
BIRDS NEST STADIUM HERZOG DE MEURON
PRECEDENT STRUCTURE is highlighted as the main concept of the Bird’s Nest Olympic Stadium through the monumental main twig like steel elements that form the exoskeleton of the stadium. The design intent for this project was to create an iconic architectural symbol of the Beijing Olympic games, but also an architecture that will still be functional once the games have finished. Together along with the adjacent Watercube swimming stadium the Bird’s nest highlights the importance of comoutational design in the process of form making,.
It is apt to say that perhaps many geodesic curves make up this form, and that this structure is expressed rather than hidden, unlike some modern projects.
Exterior view of Bird’s Nest stadium, use of structure to , Source: dezeen.com
‘What is seen from afar as a geometrically clear-cut and rational overall configuration of lines, evaporates the closer one comes, finally separating into huge separate components. The components look like a chaotic thicket of supports, beams and stairs, almost like an artificial forest.’ Herzog de Meuron In the case of the Bird’s Nest perhaps the facade is the structure?
Internal bowl of stadium, roof structure wrapping around and hanging over internal sportsground , Source: herzogdemeuron.com
Exterior facade, facade as structure, Image source: dezeen.com
BRITISH MUSEUM FOSTER + PARTNERS
STRUCTURE is highlighted as the main concept of the Birdâ€™s Nest Olympic Stadium through the monumental main twig like steel elements that form the exoskeleton of the stadium. The design intent for this project was to create an iconic architectural symbol of the Beijing Olympic games. Together along with the adjacent Watercube swimming stadium the Birdâ€™s nest highlights the importance of comoutational design in the process of form making,
The overall fabricated form result is a very concentional architecture, that is all the structure transfers loads to the outside of the curve surface and down columns/adjoining buildings. The surface/parabola streched over the surface is very basic, and emphasizes tectonics through easy to read load paths. It would have been interesting in trying to create an irregular panels on the surface, something not so plain.
Evolution of the structural grid, Image source: Williams, Chris J K (2001) The analytic and numerical definition of the geometry of the British Museum Great Court Roof, in Proceedings of Mathematics and Design, p. 434-440
Changing function to set parameters (the central building core), surface to wrap down and around core existing building, use of function to develop curvature at cornerts, Image source: Williams, Chris J K (2001) The analytic and numerical definition of the geometry of the British Museum Great Court Roof, in Proceedings of Mathematics and Design, p. 434-440
CASE STUDY 1.0 NO. OF GRID DIVISIONS
DILATION OF PARABOLIC PROFILE
50 Structure in the British Museum Figure 6. Evolution of the structural grid Roof, Foster + Partners.
The funnel form of the roof of the British library was the chosen base geometry for this first case study, due to it’s regular structural grid pattern, that could be achieved through the Lunchbox plugin.
Through Lunchbox preset structural meshes are constructed from the defined points. U and V values can be altered to produce/decrease the amount of linework/panels.
Through exploration of form and structural panels on the parabolic curve, a matrix was produced. The x-axis describes the no. of grid divisions in U/V values, and the y-axis describes the dilation of the parabolic profile, i.e. the magnitude of the funnel form.
A exploration of the Lunchbox plugin as well as application of it onto surfaces was the aim of this exercise. Regular baking of different iterations of the geometry ‘species’ were created and from this a final version was chosen. This is an effective way of generating a number of different outcomes, which makes it easier to choose the most effective form based on how well ist satisfies the concept of STRUCTURE.
B.0. CASE STUDY 2.0
NO. OF CONTROL POUNTS
Structure in the Birdâ€™s Nest Olympic Stadium, Herzog de Meuron.
With the intent to explore how STRUCTURE can be irregular and how components of the structural ribs could be altered to form, an experimentation with geodesic curves over a lofted surface and introduction of attractor points was undertaken.
I believe that STRUCTURE is made up of two main components: the tectonics (forces which provide reason for structural components) and the materiality of the structural components. In realizing that the Birdâ€™s nest stadium is made up of large steel ribbed skeleton, we tried to reverse engineer the stadium, and experiment with the way the structure could be altered in relation to division of the grid points along the base curves and attractors.
The ribbed geometry highlights how the structure is a skin, the actual structure is a surface rather than a solid form. There is space around and under the structure. Perhaps this notion could be explored further in other algorithmic explorations?
A matrix is derived to analyse how structure can be manipulted based on no of points and attractors. In the matrix the x-axis displays the no of control points along the bounding curves, and the y-axis displays how different locations of attractor points affect the model.
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS We also looked at topology
TOPOLOGY The topic of topology can be be broken up into 2 main elements: connectedness and makeup of form. Connectedness and notions of the blur between the inside/ outside of a form is explored in Marc Fornes and the very manyâ€™s FRAC CENTRE, an great precedent that would be useful in exploring.
Photographs, opposite page: 1. nonLin/Lin Pavilion, FRAC Centre (permanent collection), Orleans, France, 2011. Designer: Marc Fornes/ theverymany. Source: theverymany.com 2. Construction phase of nonLin/Lin Pavilion, Source: theverymany.com
3.Interior view of nonLin/Lin Pavilion, exploring of internal/ external connectedness, Source: theverymany.com
nonLin/Lin Pavilion MARK FORNES/THEVERYMANY
The nonLin/Lin Pavilion by Mark Fornes/THEVERYMANY focuses on the experimentation of morphologies, form finding in a computational context. Techniques used in the form finding process include: mesh relaxation, deformation/warping of shape, ideas of connectedness.
The pavilion challenges notions of inside/outside of form, as it seems that the form is made from all one surface, that undulates from inside to outside, seemingly one strip of material to create both sides to the structure, such as other forms like the mobius strip, or the klein bottle.
Members within the structural network are opening up and recombining themselves into larger apertures while their reverse side is creating a surface condition providing that as density increase eventually provides to the person evolving within a sensation of enclosure. The structure reminds me of a coral reef, a reflection of nature, that omits an organic, freeform vibe. The use of tesselation of a star-like pattern allows pinpricks of light into the internal space, casting intriguing shadows across the floor and pavilion surfaces.
Fabrication of the struture was done by a CNC mill, something that perhaps my team will use in fabricating our design.
Photographs, this page: 1. nonLin/Lin Pavilion exterior view, 2011, Marc Fornes/theverymany. Source: theverymany.com
Opposite page: 2. Organic influence of nature on pavilion, i.e. coral reefs, Source: theverymany.com
DESIGN APPROACH AGGREGATION AGGREGATION was the starting point for our idea development. Our design intent will focus on 4 main areas: an ICON for Wyndham, EXPERIENCE of installation, PLACEMARKER for Wyndham (effectively place making), and contributing to a wider DISCOURSE. Aggregation deals with the relationship of objects, how they can be arranges spatially to create interesting topologies, and overall form. In my opinion aggregation looks at how forms could be modular to create an overall form, i.e. Greg Lynn’s Blobwall Pavilion.
My team and I have decided to focus on the dump site near Wyndham as an initiator for design discussion. One of the greatest threats to the city of Wyndham is the negative stigma Wyndham is gaining due to the growing mountain of trash visible in the distance of our site. We believe that the dump could be an icon for Wyndham, and is an issue that already sparking discourse in the community. With an aim to integrate the Gateway, No Mans Land and Object together into an integrated whole, we believe we could use the notion of tip landscapes, Inspired by the manufactured landscapes captured by Edward Burtynsky which express the atypical beauty in the aggregation of trash, to explore this as a technique for the design of the border crossing and gateway into Wyndham. We want to see how computational techniques are employed to produce these architectures, and how the shapes/forms can be adapted to produce varying results.
A recent newspaper article reveals the fear local residents have of the area becoming the waste capital of Victoria. As the dump is expected to grow our groups intention is to develop a design which ensures the dump does not destroy the image of Wyndham and instead presents the area as progressive by re imaging the use and place of waste in the city when other cities choose to hide waste, pretending it does not exist.
‘The potential and the relevance of aggregate architectures lie in their ability to continuously adjust to system-external and system-internal parameters …Thus the investigation of potential architectural applications is both a relevant and unexplored branch of design research.’ Achim Menges.
A recent newspaper article reveals the fear Wyndham residents have of the area becoming the waste capital of Victoria.
Aggregation is a relevant as: 1) Aggregation has been inspired by local issues and is therefore contextually relevant. 2) Aggregation has potential for growth, which symbolizes the development of the city despite the presence of the dump. 3) As Aggregation is on the forefront of design research it will contribute to contemporary architectural discourse. 4) By incorporating local issues we are building on and contributing to existing discourse on the issue. We have used computation and parametric models to explore different forms of aggregation.
URBAN MINES PETER BURTYNSKY
PRECEDENT The Tire pile describes the use of aggregates in form finding. The tires are singular elements that when multiplied and combined into the overall landscape form an interesting masses of form. It is really interesting to see how the tire fall and interact with each other, creating piles, being strewn around the site, forming mass tire walls that seem to go on forever across the landscape.
This precedent links quite well to our story of the dump as the icon for Wyndham, generating a wider discourse to passersby of the freeway architecture. Perhaps our structure could shock people, displaying the waste, and discourage people from creating so much rubbish, which has a detrimental effect on the environment.
It might be effective in our own designs to look at how these single modules interact, can they be shaped into other complex forms, or does the base form, i.e., the tire, limit what overall landscapes that could be produced? Perhaps it would be interesting to take a different piece of waste, such as an empty gas bottle, or a can, and see how relationships between all singular elements adapt and change with the change of another element, is there a relative connection?
Photography of Ferrous Bushling depicts piles of fine scrap metals. Because the materials have interesting corrosive properties, concepts of aging, and transformation of form become apparent, another feature of the waste landscape.
Photographs, this page: 1. Oxford Tire Pile #8, Westley, California, USA, 1999, Source: edwardburtynsky.com 2. Ferrous Bushling #9, Hamilton, Ontario 1997, Source: edwardburtynsky.com
B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0 FRACTAL AGGREGATION
NO. ADDITIONAL AGGREGATES
NO. OF SIDES
We were interested in the way fractals have been used as aggregate at different scales to realize an overall form.
CASE STUDY 2.0 SELF ORGANIZING AGGREGATION
LINE OF POUR (SHAPE)
MODEL Our model depicting self-organizing aspect of aggregation, it deals will how the aggregates fall when dropped from a given point, and results in a final aggregate mound. The elements generated through recursive line work which would interlock with other elements. These loose aggregates would interlink and when We attempted to make definitions which were able to model the behavior of loose elements, however we were unable to do so in grasshopper, so instead we make the physical elements and used a line attractor technique to predict the density of the aggregate elements along a emission path. Through these tests we were able to make wall like structures, and arches (see matrix on opposite page).
Achim Menges, Designed Particles Aggregations 02
Karola Dierichs, Aggregate Architectures,
We looked at a number of other research projects by Achim Menges, this one in particular was interested in emission path, pouring speed and how time affected density
Similarily this project explores how aggregates can develop in their unrestrained form. The project highlights how an aggregate system is composed of a loose arrangement of elements, whereby each part finds its own stable position
TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT EXPLICIT AGGREGATION
This prototype is builds on the prototype we presented last week where we were interested in the angles of connections and the paths these create. Inspired by a Kokuggia prototypical model we created a form that was based on a rule of connection, and were able to explicitly define the aggregation, the paths in which the structure could effectively branch out (defining the overall topology). By adding more points of connection, increased the complexity of the model as more branches could be added on to. I found this to be the strongest type out of the 3 experiments we explored as I think the context of the dump growing would be reflected in the structure also, a growing structure.
Our first model began with seeing how aggregates are connected. We used swivel pins to allow for the rotation of each module. This allowed me to understand that if you adapt one part of the model, it will affect another part. This is fundamental in understanding aggregates, as it is the relationship and connections between the elements that define the overall shape they make.
The second model looked at fractal aggregation and how fractal pieces interconnect. This prototype demonstrates how the hexagonal volumes are connected with smaller diamond-shaped forms which slotted into one another. This type of system is used by Aranda Lasch in small installation works.
The third prototype looked at the way volumes could be interconnected and also achieve tesselation. We were interested in connecting these skeletal-like structures potentioally as a frame. Perhaps then a textile material could be fixed to the edges of the holes? It might be even more interesting to introduce lighting into the model, creating a mood/atmosphere as part of the design intent.
Explicit aggregation was explored, taking the self-organized skeletal forms from Case Study 2.0 to look at how they might connect by their end points. each form is standardized and is the same size and shape. A recursive script was introduced to construct the model in Grasshopper with the use of clusters.
Self-organized elements looked into how the same module could be poured onto a surface/formwork in order to inform the type of overall geometry created. We began stacking and sprawling the elements, lining them up into rows to produce a range of interesting outcomes.
The snake-like form, created from seperate aggregate elements shows the relationship between parts. Taking inspiration from the first prototype, dealing with the joining and connecting of parts we began altering the overall form by changing the parameters, shape of the discs, etc.
TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL Aiming to incorporate the set of parameters introduced in the brief, we would like to use aggregation as a means to generate a discussion surrounding our structure. We would like to make our structure grow over time, reflecting how the dump is also a growing structure. We want to have the GATEWAY as an entry approach in the structure (defined), a NO MANS LAND compromising of aggregates sprawled across the landscape and the OBJECT as a tower/ built-up structure at the end. In conclusion our technique would benefit the City of Wyndham as it is inspired by and addresses local issues. The design will generate discourse and controversy bringing the city into the public eye for their ability to rise above the negative image the dump may have brought bring should our design not be realized.
In choosing AGGREGATION as our technique we have begun to develop our own agenda on how to approach the design task. This is supported by how we explored aggregates by modelling forms within Grasshopper, producing a range of outcomes as prototypes to test which models worked and which did not. The development of matricies and the reverse engineered precedents were a good start to the exploration of our topic and allowed us to trial a range of different techniques and forms, ultimately allowing us to find an ideal form to start the basis of our investigation. We used these projects to generate a sufficient breadth of form types helped us locate the direction in which we wanted to take further in the next part, Explicit Aggregation. Our chosen field EXPLICIT AGGREGATION will further develop the final form through the exploration and generation of different EXPLICIT types, from which we will choose one to focus on and refine. We would like to experiment with the idea of border crossing to a further degree, as well as looking at variations in the elements scale, their spatial organization and treatment on the landscape. Ideas of materiality and fabrication techniques have been brainstormed. We want to use the recycled parts of the dump as a catalyst for the materials used in our forms. This could have implications for the melting down of steel to cast into a form, or perhaps casting resin/plaster or plastic to see how materiality can affect the aesthetic and structural performance of the model. Maybe using sugar models, things that change when they react chemically, sugar to hot water, expandafoam?
PRECEDENT LE CORBUSIER
LE CENTRE LE CORBUSIER Architecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of volumes brought together in light. Le Corbusier, 1923 Discourse in Corbusier’s work is a quest for ideal form, the beginning of MODERNISM. In response to the development of the ‘International style’, Corbusier seeks to pronounce the beatuy of simple geometry. This is his reflected in his model: Dom-ino, an irreplaceable contribution to architecture. Le Corbusier breaks down architecture into five points: 1) pilotis (elevation off ground), 2) free plan (pilotis grid allowing free plan), 3) free facade, 4) use of ribbon windows, 5) roof garden (replacing lost green space of floor). These points are reflected in his work, such as: Le Centre Le Corbusier (1964-67), Maison La Roche (1923-24)), Villa Savoye (1929-31), through to his larger works such as La Tourette (1956-59) and inspire later architects, hence the evolution of the modern style. Le Centre Le Corbusier features a grid layout (pilotis), his Modulor system for proportions of ceiling heights/windows, the concept of architecture as a ‘machine for living’ (Curtis, 1996, p.320). It’s past use as a house, is now remodelled for gallery/art space. His priciples and ideas, provided foundations for BAUHAUS, the International style, and inspired modern movements, Brutalism. He imagined future cities of high-rise apartments in park-like surroundings, and designed to accommodate the rise of the automobile. Le Centre Le Corbusier (1964-67) Ground floor Plan and Section. Triparte elements, steel framework volume, concrete ramp, and brise soleil (floating roof), Source: Kenneth Frampton, Chapter 13: The last works 1939-65, in Le Corbusier, (London: Thames and Hudson, 2001), p. 218
Dom-ino model (1915). Five points of architecture highlighted as: concrete slab levels, pilotis set in from sides, open plan, etc. Kenneth Frampton, Le Corbusier, p. 20
PRECEDENT PRECEDENT BJARKE INGELS BJARKE INGELS
NUUK GREENLAND NATIONAL GALLERY NUUK - GREENLAND NATIONAL GALLERY Architecture is an everchanging thatthe begins witha little What architects shouldmovement do is make world discourse. It is a language, which anybody can practical participate,way. in bit more like our dreams, in a very order to put their own social, cultural opinions forward in order Bjarke Ingels, 1923 to spark discussion. Danish architect Bjarke Ingels, former student of Rem Koolhaas, uses digital design as a medium for imspiring form. NUUKFounder Greenland National of BIG, Bjarke Gallery Ingels Group. defies traditional conventions of architecture, namely tectonics, in order to create his own style, influenced by the Nordic landscape/ and the natural environment, art, urbanism. The proposal for the Greenland National Gallery displays a clifftop pragmatic utopian architecture, facing onto a surreal natural environment of ocean and sea spray. Monumental and theatrical works, sometimes described as “baroque”. Act as a cultural, social, political, urban and architectural focal point for the citizens of Greenland, and for the inhabitants of Nuuk. It’s reference and setting looking out over nature as well as surrounding urban space reminds viewers of national identity, Greenland as a place of breathtaking views. The Greenlandic national identity is achieved through art and culture. The gallery highlights one continuous exhibition space, in a circular plan, with an interior ramp winding around the perimeter. Outdoor sculpture garden is features as an externally internal gallery space, allowing people to wander and take in the environment.
All photographs of Nuuk - Greenland National Gallery from BIG, Bjarke Ingels Group website.