Page 1

l(qA

Is8

[cc,rE[0BAlllln t|0 ilcT0P]lt| BHnvcK tl

nEPmb

-

rg72

yPAIIA


:!: .: i : ":\!i; .::.. -j: ::

:-l .i

.

-

I

.t MHHHCTEPCTBO BHCIIIE|O.ffiCPEAHETO

cnErIHAJrbHOrO OE,pA3OBAlIIlfl PcocP NEPMCK'{N OPAEHA TPYAOBOTO T(FSHOTO 3HAMEHI4 TOCYAAPCTiIEHHUN, YHHBEPCIITET TIT6SHN A. M, fOPbKOf O

t

i':

.: YqEHblE 3AnnCI(I4

Ne 298

I4CCTEAOBAHIAfl NO I4CTOPIAIA YPAJIA BbIilYCK II

II !

i

1..


_ Hacrosqurl c6opnur npeAcraBJrfler co6orl rpyarr HayqHbrx pa6orHr.rKoB xaQeapn acropran CCCP AocoBercKofo nepHoAa llep_McKofo focyaapcrBeHHofo yHnBepcvrera r.rM. A. M. foprxoro. fly6ltrxyerratre pa6oru fl ocBfl r[eHbr pas,'r]rqHbrM BonpocaM HcropHH Vpana n gooxrr6ptcxlril nepuo4. -flpo6aerulr uecrsofi ucropux

paccMarpuBarorcr aBTopaMH KaK qacrb o6ulepyccxux npoqeccoB c yqeroM cne{uQuqecKnx oco6ennocreft yparbcKoro perI,toHa.

Hontte

nrarepuaJrbr

o

_xapaKTepe 3aKperrJreHuff ropHo3aBoA-

cKHx KaApoB_-ua Vpane.. r I no,ronune XVIII seKa coAepxr.rr pa6ora A. C. 9epxacoeoii.. Cneuu$rar<a npoMF,rrraeuHoro nepeBopora B soJroroAo6rrnarcrqefi npoMbuxJreHHocrn Vpa,ra pacrpunaercs B crarbe B. B. _MyxuHa. ,{. A. TpeQr.rnona paccMarpr-rnaer .[r.rcKyccuoHHyrc npo6.ilenay no3eMeJrbHoro ycrpofi crna ropno3aBoacKoro Hace"'reHuq noceccuoHHbtx 3aBoAor flepucxofi ry6epHur_r. ^n 3sorrouus KpecrbffHcKoro__xoaqftcrsa Vpa,rra nope$opueitryro -

enoxy [ccrreAyercr M. I,I.

9epuunolr.

Peso,'rrcUroHHoe ABr-i)KeHue HaIxJro orpax{eHue B .u.Bvx crarb-

ax Ha ocHose aHaJrfl3a 9n{cro,!rrpHoro naore4na M. [.,c6opHuxa. MypaBcKofo, BbrAarrourerocs Aefirerr.rr peno"rrcquouno-4e-

A. Opnooa soccraHas,,usaer Henpo{ecca KoHcor'rllAauxH peBoJrrortrroHHblx cr.rJr

MoxparrqecKoro ABI,rlKeHr-rq, C. KOTOpbIe cTopoHbl

B nepuoA co3AaHlrfl

<<3en.nn H Bor'rr>

soir reue nocBrrqeHa cratq

1860-x'ro.qos. Malousyuen-

f. B. Pa6zHoeuqa

<pesorroquor{-

Hafl nponaraH,[a cpe.[H pa6or{Hx Vpa,ra n 70-80 rollr XIX seKa>. fr oBble AaHH bte o p a3Br.rrr.ur_ rearp a.nuoft Ky,'rbryp br rlpv xanrrn

colepxarcs B crarbe

lI. A. Oru6euuHa 06 H,llr.rHcrol,r

rearpe.

Pe,u,axuHoHHaq Ko.n'rlefr{fl

_ l._-M.

Aanaroaa, @.

C. lopoaod, H. C. Kanrqgeoauu,

JL E. Keprnan, K. C. Maxanerc, B.'A. O6opun, B. T. Cui'orearco. OrrercreeriHbrii peaaxrop BbrnycKa K. C. Maxane'rc.

-

:


vAK

e47.05

A. C. Yeprcacoaa

O XAPAKTEPE 3AKPETIJIEHI,Iq TOPHO3ABOACKI'IX KAtrPOB HA YPAJIE B TIEPBOH NOJIOBhHE XVIII BEKA B

xolt n,rexce r[p

POCCnu

XVIII

o 6,'I e M'coqn a JI b'Ho - 3Ko Ho M

IrqeoKoro

p a 3B

I'I

rl4

t

CrOJIeTI,Iif lIeMaJIOBaxHOe MeCTo OTBOAI'ITCq UCC,'Ie-

AOBaHr.rrc 'Bonpo,ca

o KaApax '|pyc'crKoil MaHysaKrypbl.

Cyurecreyer MHeHI4e, qro .3aKpend'IeHl4e fop'Ho3aBoAc5:{}- lKaA-

poB, rocyuIecTBJIfl'BrIIIeeCfl lrlpalB'l'lTeJ'IbcTBoM iB

I

rnoJIIolBl4He

XVIII

e.,

nprnrBeroK3a,KpenouleHi'lrcocHoB'Hol'lqalcrH'f0pHo3aBoA'cKo[oHa'ceneHIl,q. tr4croparo rlpLIKpenJI€Hua pa6ounx K'3aBoAarM H. tr4. llae-

CpaBHI{BaeT IIIO IAJII'lTe,'IbHOCTI'I lI ICJIO)KHOICTI{ rC [IpOqeccoM IIDI.IIKPSII,'IEHI4fl KPCCTb'IH K 3CMJIC, fl'POIBOA'I AHAJIOTI,Irc ME)KAY J'Ie'HIKO

Vn'oxeuraeu l649rr. lI ,yKa3aMH l72l u 1736'rrr. A. M. flanrparona [oJIafaJIa, 'qro y]Ke B HaqaJIe 1.

XVIII s. Ha Vpa.re rpeo6taAar rrpHHyAxrerbrHblii 'rpyA 2. ,ll'o MHeHI{io fl. U. flannenxo, rnpIIHyAI'Ire"IsHufi rpyA craJl'focfloAcrBylollru rI

'Ha rKa3eH'Hbrx uanyQa'rrypax Ko rBpe}leHH rnpoBeAeTliltl II peeustaIz. CoultaJbHo-sKorHoMurlgcrKan npHpoAa qarcrHblx mauySarryp ,6rt.na c,r'oxnee, rB HI,Ix <<coqeraJll'Icb gd'IeMeHTbI 'Qeo4a.nlnnx I{ KanHTarI4cTI,IqecKI4X Orgouregnfi... B qe;Ioru, oAHaKo, u Ha qacrHblx 3. .np eAnp r4fl rltRx np eo'6.n aA a JI,rlp HHyAIa re,r sn lt tl rp yA>>

' Otroc""".irsub xaparrepa rpyAa xaa',ruSnqu'poBa'Hnblx

pa6o-

qt4'x MHeHI.Ie I{CTlOplIlKoB eAI'l'HO. cUnraelcl, qro Ka3eH'HbIe MaCTepoBbre, In,pLIcraHHbIe lrpaBI'ITeJIb'crBoM <<no yKa3y>> ua Vpanlcxue

a.

Oqsaxo 3aBo,u,bl, c caMoro naqa,na pa6orarru rrlpllHlAlareJllso I{acTb JlklIJJb cocTaBIIfl,Jll4 yKa3y>> MacTepoBr,le <<'no llputcJla.HHbre

'xeantaQtlullpoBa'HHbIX rKa"{poB. O6yuenue saBo'AcKoMy MacrepcrEy ilt,poxoAI.rJIo HerlocpeAcrBeHHo Ha ypa,'Iboxux uauyQa'Krypax' u- cpblu o6yueuultx 6u,ru .ltoAu, Ao6rpoB'orbHo rI'prIxeAIIIfie 'Ha

I H.

14.

fl

as

r e H r o. PagsLIrLIe Mera,'IJlyprzuecxofi XVIII sera. M., 1953, crp. 351.

Poccnz n nepuofi norIoBI4He

npoMbIIrL'IeHHocrl'I

A. M. fIasxparoBa. (Doprvrupolaure npo,lerapuara B Poccl'tll. F1., ' crp. 288. 3 g. U. flae,'reHx6. Vxae. coq., crp. 227,354,362,400-402. a Tau >xe, c"rp.227; A. M. naHKpatosa. Vras. coq., crp. 285,288'291. li 3

1963,


3aBoAbr Ir3 pa3HbIX pafioHoB crpaHbl. Xe.rraq 3aKpe[I'rrbsrnKaAbr 3 a 3 aBoAa MI,I,,np aBI-ITeJI bCTBO I'I 3AaeT COOTBeTCTByIOIIH9 yKa3blOco6yro 'poJrb rB 3aKpenoqeHl'Irl ocHoBHoro qApa rnanuQnqupoBaHHbIX'KaApoB'6o,rurullHctso ttcropl4KoB flpI'IrII]cbIBaIor yKa3]r 1736 r., rxoropufi HaBerIFo nplrKpetlilJt o6yveuultx Ma'crepoBblx ;rroAeit K'3aBoAaM, TeM caMbtM flrKo'6bl rtrpsBrparnB l{x ts Kpenocr-

p

rHbIX.

Bonpoc o IopHAI.IqecKOM craryce ocraJIbHbIX <<flprfilll/Iblx>> peulaercrr n{ccreAoBare,'IsrMLI no-pagHoMy. flocrollxy <<[IpIIIIIJIbIe>>' cocraBJrflJrl{ 3Haqnre,rbHylo Ao,'rm B cocraBe KaApoB Ka3eHHbIX H rIIoAaBJrfrorqee 1610,'rblIfi'HcTBo lB corcTaBe rKaApoB qacrTIbIx MaHy5, oueHl ,Ba)K,Hlo o,[peAe,'I].rrb I{x trpaBoiBoe iro,'Io}KeHI,Ie. Qaxryp il(arxae M.HeHI4q cyqecrBylor lB rnarlxeil .tnreparype? A. M. flaurparona u H. 14. flasnen'xo QaxrnvecKlr orolKAeCTBJIflIOT <<IIpUIIIJ'IbIX>> C 6er.nltUl.t, V Ha SToM ocHoBaHI,IH yKa3bl, Kalcarcqfiecfl t6errbrx,'p a,cflrpocrp

a'Hfl

Bop,KaMH rHa <(rlpu'IrrJrux>> .nrcAeft 6.

lor,og

LI

MLI

ic He{Korop bIMI{ ono-

H. I4. flasnenxo rIIoJIarraer, tITo

JII0AH, 4o6'p'ono'.nuHo rt,pnlxeAlulle Ha 3a,BoAF,I, <<HaxoEI,Ir'II{cb 'Ha rlo-

BPCM'I, T. C. AO NPOBE.{,enurr,lo unn,r{harr,rBe 3aBoAoBJraAeJrbIIa tlJna ropHoti a,4laan'ucrp arlrrn o'uepe4Hofi flepenucu pa6ovux>>, a 6yayur,r,fl pI4nlicaHHbIMH JTOX(CHI'IH BOJIbHOHAEMHbIX OIPAHI4qCHHOC

K 3a'BOAaM,

TpyAa, B

OHLI TOOCTaIBJI{flJII{ OfpOMHyIO apMI4IO rIIpnH}AI{TeJIb'HOrO

co3Aa,Hr4r.r

roropoft (<IlpoMaAHaf po,'rb

npr{HaAJrexaJra

AB'op flrHcKoMy focyAapcTBy>>'.

B. fl. KpneoHoroB, yKasbrBafl Ha rxnpoKoe rrpnMeHeur.re

BoJrb-

HoHaeMHoro rpyAa rB fopuol3aooAoxoft InpoMbrruJreH'Horc'Tlr Vp a.ira, TeM rHe MeHee cq'ilTaeT, qTo r[pLIrKpeIIiJIeHHe <<[,p,a1ud'Io'to JI]oAa>> K SaBoAaiM <<HaBeqHO>> O3HaqaJIO AJrfl 'Hrr,X nepeX,OA <<Lr3 trr'OJTyOBO6OAHO rO COCTOfl HLtfl H a ITOJIO;KeHLIe lKp ellOiCTHbr.X 3 a BOAOTBJT aAenlqeS>> 8. BHcxagneailucb u Apyrue MHeHnff irto,groMy nonpocy. Tax, C. f. CrpyMr{r'ru'H, orMeqafl 'HeonpqAer'reHHorcTb coqfi aJrb,Horfo craT)xca <<II,puLuJIbIx>>, He ,oTo)KrAecTBJIfleT ux 'c l6er"nu'Ml,I il ,He crILITaeT, qTo ,[lpHlLIcKa {LIX ,K 3aBOAaM O3Haqa.na IK)JI'HOe 3a'KpeIIOqeHlte

9.

A. f.

Koeno'o, H3yITLIB noJroxenrre lr ,coicraB ,par6orrr4x KaApoB ,ragennoir ropHoSaBoAcKofi rrrpoMbrr[r,re]rHocTr,I vpa,.ra, rIIptlI€Jr K

:BbIrBOAy, qTO <<3aKpgrrJIeHHe tOCyAapCTrBeHHbrx r(pecTbrr,H tB rKaqe,.

5 A. C. 9epxacoea. PesugcKue cKa3Kr.r KaK ilcrorrnr4x no r.rcropr-rr.r QopM[poBaHuq ropHo3aRolcroFo Hace.neHrrn. Vpanrcxafi apxeorpa$r.ruecxuir exeroAHr.rr sa 1970 ro4, fleprrt, 1971, crp. 80, 85. 6 A. M. flaurparoBa. VKag. coq., crp. 446; H. Ll. llaB.rreHKo. Vras. cov., crp.377. 7 H. Vl. fl a s,'r e H K o. Vras. cou., crp. 380, 400. 8 B. fl. Kpr.rnoHoroB. Haelruuft rpya s ropHo3aBoAcKofi npounuueuHocrn Vpa,ra n-XVIII n. Cneprroncx, 1959, irp. 39.' e C. l. Crpyr*lu.nuu.'l4cropua uepnoft'uerarrr'ryprr-ru s CCCP, r. I. M., 1954, crp. 302-3d3. 4


cTBe 'pa,6'oqnx ,npl-{ {Ka3eHHbIX 33tng12x rHe O3Haqa,lo Iax 3aKpe[oIqeHHfl , xorq n o6HapyxnBaJro'npnsHaKrr cxoAcTBa rrx'rroJroxeHrrrr

,c lrr,oJlo)KeHrr{eM Kpe,[0crHblx JIIOAeft>. os cqHTaer, qro <(focyAapclBeHHbre KpecrbqiHe --; IorpHr!,uuocKfi JIIoAIi JII',IqHO CBO6OAHbIe, 06-

r-ISAdIOUIileO[peAeJIeHHbIMII'ByCJIOBHflxTB'peMeHI'I'rpaxlAaHlcK]rMUt llrpaBaM,i{... K saBoAox[NI pa6oTaM... npI'IB,'IeKa,rucb,nyTeM p erJr a

MeIrTnp

o{B a

H,Horo rrocyAa'p'cTBeHHor'o

3a

Kp en

JI

eH H fl

lrl p

H

Hy)K -

' Aerrng, Hocl],Bllrero onpeAe,'IeH'HbIe seoAaJIbHble qeprbl>>'u. K'coxaJleHr{r,o, aBTop . He ocTaHaB/'II'IBaerCfl 60lee noApo6Ho Ha STOM ,BOrfipo,ce.

AyuaetcR, rITo A,lI's yflicHeHI'Ifl xapal{rerpa 3aKperIJIeHI'Is ropc,'IeAyer 'paccM'orperl P-ggpoa o po,ll{ ts Her{

Hoi3arB,oAOKHX 'KaApo'B

npaBHre"IbcrBeHHbIX yKa3oB I tno.[osu'Hrt XVIII e. B ,ce,qgr.r c gTrIM Baxno Bblflctlzrb cJleAyloqee

l) Ha KaKyIo rKarenopltrc

np

OrCTp a H g JII{

' 2)^Kaxoe

Jr

r{q ecTB

e

rop'uosaeo4cKoro Harce,'Ieuua

e yKa3 bI,II p arBH Te,'I t'cTB a ? yAerb,Hb]ft ,aec nogyxa3Hofi'Karefoplli{ rB

Cb Aa HHbI

f op'H'o3 a'BOACKOT|O

H a CeJI

eHI'Is

ll

pac-

o6uleu ro-

/

3) Kar rno'BJIHflJIn AaHHbIe yKa3bl rHa xapaKTep 'B3au'MoorHourenaft [oAyKa3Hoil qacTLI Hace!'IeHl'1fl c 3aBoAcKI{'MU H He3aBOA-

.CKI{M'I{ BJIACTflMI4?

4) Bgrn JIr{ roHli rK I,I3MeH€HHIO rBe,rInqH\HbI 'IIOAyIXHbIX 'il,'IaTexeft, [ooKoJIb'Ky Kpeno'crHble ililarulrrr rrIo.{,}IxH}Io [IoAarb ts MeHb-

[IeM pa3'Mepe, qeM rocyAapcTBeHHble KpecrbgHet B 'Hactosulefi icrat,e MbI InorlblTaeMcr orBeri'ITb Ha HeKoropble Ir3 STHX BOIIpOCOB, npllB,'IeKaf, KpoMe 3aKoHoAaTeJIbHbIx Mareepenl,Icen fopHo3arBr'SAcKOf'o ua'ce,'IeHl',Ifl , AOKypI.IaJIOB, Aa'HHbIe .fi Merrrbl 3aBogcKoil ailMLIHLlcrp al\r4'v, a'rarKlKe ue,ro6nlupte Mac're-

,pa6'ornltx .nrcAeft. B corBoKylTHocrl'l 'Bce 9rI{ ,Marepl'Ia,llbl Aarcr 6o.nee roqHoe rIIpeAcraB,rIeHI{e o coAep)KaHI'III v pe3yJ'Ibralax Aeft,cr"errn rlrpa'BI,I'TeJIbcrBeH,HbIx yrKa3oB I norosu'ult XVIII cro,'rerr.rq. O.Ieur qarcro Mo)KHo rBcrperl'lTb Ir'3JIoxe'HI'Ie coAep)KaHlrfl yKa3oB H 'r.r'x rort'KoBaHl,le Ha oicHoBe saeoAcxofi AoKyMeHTaIInl4, ,6es yqera'Toro, B qbtlx I,I,HTepecax AatBaJ'IOcb AaHHoe roJIKolBaHI'le' Conocra'erenl,Ie >re ps,Aa Lrcroq'HI.rKoB I'I oco6eHHo rflpoBepKa llx TAaIHHbIMI{ penzeul:l 3atBoAcKofo HaceJIeHI'Ifl ,no3BoJlfl tor B'Hecrll cvuleclBe'HHble'Kop,p eKTLI BbI'B L'I,HTep ecyrcun fi H aic,Bonp o c. Kar Hgsecrno, HeKoroipble I'Ircrop'I'lKfi (6orltuoe 3HaqeHHe Bo BHeApeHI,III nptdIryAIzreJIbuoro'rpyAa'Ha MaHy$arxr'y'pax Vpa,ra poBbrx

14

.rrpriAaror yKa3y

l8 rnnapn l72l r.,

pa3peIIraBUeMy 3aBoAqI4KaM

Ir nepeBo3l'lrb I4x Ha CBOIi '3aBor6na'ro4aps 3roMy yKa3y rrlpllu!,[,lare"rbHblii

rflOKynaTb KpgIIOCTHbIx K'peCTb's'H

1u. llo fix MHeHLtto, r0 A. f. K o s n o e. KageHHaq npoMbrrrlnegHocrr Vpa,ra XVIII Haqara XIXsg. C6. <<Bonpocn lIcropHI.I Vpana>. Bun. II, Caepanoncx, 1971,- c"rp. 22' 11 3Aecr t,t sesre noA grlrM TepMItHoM rrru 6y.qelt I'lMerb B nuAy ,'loAefi, npo)KuBaroullrx HenocpeAcrseHuo s6nfi3rl 3aBoAa (a ne npunucuux rpecrlru).

5


rpyA y)Ke K KoHIry I uerreeprn XVIII !8. ,cra"I't4rparb 3Haql.rre'rlbHyIo pO,[b B cl'lCre\{e Opfa'HLI3a'UI,Il.I TpyrAa \f0pHO3aBOACKOn firpo-

'Mburr'reH,Hocrrz Vpa,ra. Eonrue rojfo, A. M. llau,xparorea v H. Vl. llaeneHxo yrBep)Kralor, r{To rloKynKa Kpe[ocrHblx I{ .i]e-

nx Ha ypaJIbcKIte 3aBoAbI TIIpaKTI{KoBad'II'Icb 3aBoAr{n,KaMH rB Ixt4poKr.rx Malc[r'ra6ax u Ao 3rorro yKa3a. I4'vr npteoAr.rrcr $axr rroxynxn ll. Aer,rrzAoeHM s 1720 r. y rparpa H. O. fo.roerana ce,'ra OoKI4Ha rs H{xenopoAcr{oM ye'3Ae c 2688 ayruauri r{peilocr'Hbrx, Koropbre ,6blr'Iu flKo6bt BbIBe3eHbr Ha HeBbiq'H,oxuft sarao4 12. O4Haro $arxlnlleosa 3THX KpecrbflH Bbr3brBaer cepbegHble coMrHe-

pece,rreHl,Ie

nnn. MarepvaJrbr

I u II

penusuri csxAere,rbcrByror, qro rrporleHT

KpenocrHbrx ,Ha AeMI,IAorBOKr.{x 3aBoAax B Ter{eHHe Brceii I no,'t,osnHrr XVIII lcro,'rerr.rfl ,6tr,r ,sese,rl.rr. llo I peBr.{3r.rr4 s ,HgetqrH,cxol{ 3atBoAe Kperrocrubre cocran.ua,r'z 6,60/e (33 ,a. M. rrr.) yr{reHuofo

Ha,ce,'reHr,rfl, a 'B H.-Taru,rloxol.r ,[o II 'peBrl3r.ru - B?o 024 A. M. rr.) 13. !,axe K MoMeHry pa'3Aed'ra e,ra4euuli Axian$va [elrliAoBa Me)KLy cbrHoBbflMr.r (1757-1759 m.) na Bcex ero ypaJrbiCKHX 3AIBO,II.AX :C AEPC'BH'flMH HA]CIIHTbIIBAJ'IOCb, III'O AAHHbIM 3ABOA' oKr.rlx KoHTop, 2451 rxpenocrnorl, r.r3 rHr{x ,rrplr HeelqHcxoM BaBoAe- 1049,la.a rrp,I,r Hux<uera,riaJrbcKoM u Buft,crou 3aBoAax Bcefo 162 ayurn Bce ocraJlbHble )KLrreJ'n4 rrocer'IKorB orHe,ceHbr K pa3-

pflAy ,rpunacHux (coorBercrBeHHo 2413 1.,M.

rrr.

H

lgl3). Kro xe

3TI,I IIIP],IrIII{CHUC? B AAHHOM C,'IYqAC 9TO HC II{PECTbflHC ,IILPUIIIHCAH{Hbrx K 3aBoAaM AepeBeHb, a /.iloAI,I, XA,ByUI?re B 3atsOACKHX IIOCe,Ixax. llyreu..rrrpHrrnoK?r r,ocyAapcrlBo Baripenvrrfl,rro ,Kaflpbr n,p]r ropHo3aBoAcKori uany$arrype, oAHaxo rcraBr,r,rb 3HaK paiBeHcrBa

x{e)KAy g a,KperrJreHr.reM {.r 3 a KperrouleHrleM'Her ooHots a'unft 5. flepnar_ npilrncKa, KaK H3BecrHo, rnp6saonrJra exle B rrrepnoA 1

nepeAarrn Heersucxoro 3aBoAa Hu,xure AeNrnAosy.

Ccunxi

sa

rOCyAapcTrBeHHbrX 3a'Ka30B lno a'3roTo'B!'reHr,ilo oDV_ N<ufl 'r4 6_oenpanacoB rro3'Bor'rr4Ja eMy 4o6arrcl ro,ro, qro,6u npn

,BbI,TIOJIHeHI.{e

3 a BqAe 6r,rnu'ocrarsJle,Hbl Ka3eHubre M acrep oBble, fi prt4cJr arHHbte I,r3 Tynuor<oft opyNeriHori c,'r'o6oAbr r.r rleurpaJrbubrx Ka3eHHbrx 3a,Bo-

Aorn. I4cro,pr.rKr{, KarK yxe orMerraJrorcb, 6esoroeopovno orHo,crrr Ka'3gHHbIX MaCTepOBbIX, fipr.I,CJIaH,HblX Ha 3arBOAbI <<nO yKa3y>>, K p a3pfl Ay TIIIOAefi , p a6oranullra,ns,IIrpraH])KAeHr4rO. Ta xOe nr,neHr.l e

I[. llanrparoBa. @optruponaHr.re npo,,rerapr.rara B poccau, crp. --^t_'_A_. 290: H. 14.[7aeJ'r,eHKo. Vxag. coq.. cio. 3g0. 13 Clr. crattrc aBTopa <Pesu3cKue cxa3Ku KaK HcroqHHK no ucrop*rr.r Qop-

Mr'rpoBaHHs ropHo3aBOACKO| O, Ha-CeJreHr.rfl>. vpa"rrcxr.rfi _ ToAHHK sa 1970 roa. flepnrs, 1970, crp. 82-83.

apxeorpaSuuecxzfi exeraTocyAapcreeHHufi apxuo lleprrlcxoft . .^o-6.ryacru _(e 4a,ronefirueu |AIIO), OoHa. llepn,rcxoro ry6epHcxoro npan.neHua (36), on. l, a. lg9, ,rn. t0Z-itg. 'I" Ioro xe MHeHr4rr nprrAepxuBaercs A. l. I(os,ron B crarbe <<K sonDocv o cocraBe r{ qucJTeHHOcrZ_pa60uHx KaApoB Ka3eHHbrX npeanpunruax vpa,ra B'cepelr.rHe XVIII s.> <Bonpocu ucropuu _Ha Vpa,ra>, ntrn. g, Crepa.rroncx, i96g,

crp. 7-14.

6


,KaxeTcq Ha:M HelpaBI4,'ibHbIM.,[lyltaerca, qro orrlpalBKa Ka3e'HHbtX ,MaCTepO:BbIx C rIeHT,par'rbrHblx 3aTBOAOB Ha ypa"'IbCKHe C IOp[Ar.rqecKoir roqKr.r SpeHlrfl He o3Haqa"Ia lrx 3aKperIIOqeHHfl, a 6bI,rra ,cBoefo poAa :c,'Iy')Ke6HbIM lrlepeBoAoM.

crepoBbre paccMarpLIBa,'IH

CBOIO

He c"ryuailuo

ca'M'H Ma-

pa6oTy KaK AeJIO ,rOCyAapCrBeH-

Hof BalKHocrn (A,ra o6opoHbl crpaHbl).

Hanpnn'rep, lflyttreqHblil

Ma,crep FleenqHcKo,rc 3aBoAa Hn'xnra llaure,ree'g l(aprantlu roBopr.{T ,o rce6e 18 ,cKa3Ke 1722 r., qro oH rfoicyAapcrBeHHblil rIeJIoBsK, ypo)Keneu r. Mocxeu, Macrep [yneqHofo ,'IurefrHofo ,a,Bopa, B3flr Ha 3aBOA IIO y.Ka3y I] pa6oraer 3a <<rocyAapeBo yKa3Hoe )KaJIO16. Ba,Hbe>>, KaKoe eMy IUJIo I,I 'Ha ,[yIUe'r{HoM A'Bope e Mo'cxee r{ro oH ypox(efr<opuuii Macrep ZsaH <DeAopoB cKa3aJI o ce6e, ueU-HnxHefo HoiBlfo'poAa, 'orKyAa ,6blr ,B3flr e Ca'H'xr'flerepbypr ,IIO yKa3y H 3aTeM IIpITCJIaH Ha 3aBOA <<.II,JIfl TfIKOpHOIO Ae,la>>' lAe u o-a,6oraer. [Ionvqaer lnoMecflqHo <<rocYAapeBo )KaJIorBa'Hbe>> 17. KaueHurnr l/rsal" Casuu Hapenon (Qaurlnun uepaa'6opvzna) po.u,oM .[r3 r. XrsIHosa HagBaJI ce6a rocyAapcrBeHHblM KaMeHITII'IKoM, B3,rrrbrrr <<no !Kd'3!'e Bepxorypbe K fo'poAoB'oMy AeJIy in 1700 'r., a 18. KarK fopo,A ,nocTpol4JlIi ,CO111e,'l ,Ha 3aBOA 'H 'pa6loTaer lrlo ',HailMy>>

llocnelua,a oKa3Ka lrHTepecHa reM, qro cBl{Aere,llbcTByer o cBo6o1e rnepe.lrBu)KeHLIfl .rIo4el:r, ,B3flTbIX 1rro yKa3aM AJIfl rocyAapcr'BeHHbrx pa6or. flo'c.re ux ,orKouqaHlrq pa6orHI'IK Mof yfiru. Tam, no rp afi Heil- Mepe,'6bIJIo,c rcpilAnqecKoil ror{KLI 3peHlln. Apyroe g,e.no, qTO

3 a BOAq

fiKU He

OrCTa H a B J'I

I4

B

a JIIIL'Cb'IIep eA'H a CII,'I b CTB€

H H bI

M yAep -

A,rq Hac )Ke rBalK'Ho rloAqepK'Hyrb, rlro ,pa,6orarctllHe rno !K33aM cr{l{Ta,Iu rce6fl I't l6ulE n AeficIlBI4'T€a'TbHOCTX IOpUAI,IqeOKV OBOT6OAHbIiMI4 ,JIIOAbMI'1, no,'Iyr{aB[Iu'MI'{ )KaH',LreM HylKrHblx rI4M cIIeqI4aJII4,CTO'B.

<<rocyAapeBo

x

aJIoB aHbe>>.

B no4rnepxAeHl4e Haruefi TorI'KI{ 3peH[fl rrIplIBeAeM c"'IeAyIounft rIo6onblrHr,Iri Saxr. B xoAe pacc"lleAoBaHHfl sorHeHni{ 1762-1763 rr. Ha AeMI4AoBcKI{x 3aBoAax rKHq3b ,Bqeen'Icxnft npr{3HaJr Bcex JrloAeft, 3arIItcaHHF,IX B ,rlepernlrcb 1722 r., ro'

cyAapcrBeHHblMI.I lKpecrbqHaMIl, o6sgairsltr,In orp a6arblBarb Ha 3aBOAe ,rHl[]b riIOAyrUnUfi O'K,'IaA. fIOerOnIy OH nOrpe6oBaJI or 3asoAcxori KoHTopbI crnnco,K ,rrcqeft, 3aperlrcrpnpoBanHblx npn 3aBroAe eule rB 'pgBHSuIo 1722 ,r. Xapaxrepno, r{To B 3ToM crlllcKe, cocraBJreHHoM T3aBOAOKOft aAMI4,Hl4 CT'pa'qHeti, orxasa,'lH,cb He Tor'IbKO g,o6poeo,runo rnp'HIIIeAITI'He rHa 3aBoA u rrpanI'lcaHHbIe rB I peonaurc, HO fl ,IIOTOMKI,I 'XA3CHHbIX MAICTCP.OBbIX, <<AAHIHb]X IIIO YKA3AM>> CqE B ,ileprroA crponreJlbcrBa 3aBoAoel flo HaIxI{M He[oJIHbIM AaHHbIM. raxux oKa3aJlocb 6 cenaeit zs 35 yKa3aHHbIX B crlucKe le. Cpe4u HLlx, HSrIIp l4illep, rloTo M Ku rIIrorHl'I'K a lvleBa,rleoHrleea E ar a Ku,Ha, 17

l8 l9

IIf AAA, $on4 Eepr-xo,r!'Ierltr (271), on.1, t.1394, n.267. Tau ;xe, ,r, 270. TarvI xe, n. 271. fAnO, $.

36, on.

l, a.

184. ,r.t.

132-136.


r. 14 3 HeBbqHcKori c.;ro6oAbr, [roToMKr{ TyJrbcKoro MoJror'oBofo Marcrep a Te,peHrHfl I(o'H,cTa'HTLIriroBa TepexoBa, rB3flrofo mo yKa3y B roM )Ke roAy, 'r4 ,Ip. fIo3AHee saBo.1CKI{e IIfi,CaJII{ ,B lnpoueHtzl{, r{TO lrx AeAbI pa6Orana Ha 3a"IIOAH ,eoAe AeNIi{AoBa ItIoToMy, r{To Ha 3a,BoAr{liKoB ,6s1.ry!r nos,'Iorpuc,'raHHoro no yKa3y B 1702

'IIZIIIb

)KeHbI BoeHHbIe ,[OcTarBKIl ,(,'Ifl apMI4r4 n Qrrora. B 1779 r. IIOCTaTBro6 orquc,reKLt 6buri4 oHfl'TbI, LI 3a.BoA'crKHe ,'rIoAI{ ilo4Hqrlz "gry,poc 'HHrt ,Hx or gaBoAo'B 20, B,ce ero He ,rro3iBoJrfler 6esorolsopoqHo BK,.rrcrrarb AaHHyIo KaTercpfi]o 3aBoAcKo,ro HaceJreHHfl ,B pa3pflA ,rrroAefi, 'pa6oTaroqlrx Ha 3aBOAe nO ,npu'Hy)KAeHr.rrc ,Hapa'B'He ,c KpenocrHulru yxe e I IIOJIOBI,IHE

XVIII

'8.

C,re4yr,ou1aa flpfinucKa cocro,flJracb rBH3r.riH.

iB

[rep]roA nponegeHux I pe-

15 lra'pra 1722 r. iBbrrreJr zuensofi yKas

o frepellficH

Bcex

3aB,oAcKHx ,roAeft c yKa3aHLIeM Ilx ,rrpon,cxoxAerHrlrg r{ rlrpe)KHefo MecTa xr,rTeJrbcTBa. Kpoue To'f o,,yKa3o M 3 anp eUIa Jrocb orcbrd,rr arb 6er.nux JrIoAefi c sa'no4on. Bcero.n Cu6npcxoi,r ry6ep,glrH 1rlo I perBr{3nll 'Ha 'coJrflHbrx fl,poMbrcJrax H ,Ha 3aiBoAax 6rt,ro yrrreHo 5389 a. M. rr. <<pa3Hux ry6ep'u,lrfi mcsxoro ,qn,Ha JrroAeft..., Koro-

pbre pacoflp,ocaMI1I [oKa3aJrr{, qTo... ,oHr.t... par6oranr BcfK.vro paoory,rflgpgxoAgc3aBoAa Ha 3aBoA, a AoNloB r{e HMeIOT, a }hHByT rro saBoAcKHM r.r,316aM 'rreJroBeK rno 300 lr rno 200... Brrueogua.reHHbIe JrroAr.{ He Kpe[ocTtrbre, a KoTropbre I.r KpefiocTHbre, r{ Te H3 Tex rcorrJ,'ru lB AaBHr.rx roAax>>. rflprlru,rux paeperueHo 6uno lII'O'Ce,lIHTb ,II'pH 'Ka3eHrHbIX 3arBO.(aX H SaIIUCaTb B rnO4yrUnuir

ry6epHzft or,ta,n

21.

y ce6n 6erfibrx, Kpenocrurrx, ,o6yuuB[rr{x:cfl Ha 3aBo.I,ax Ma,cTepcTBy, 3arrJraTIrtB ga ,HHX rroMerrlr.rKy 50 py6.22. B, pasprA 6er,uux lrn 6esororBopoqHo Moxe.M 3aeoAqrixl4 TaK)Ke MorJrH ocraBlrrb

OTHeCTH dllI,lIIIb 'TeX, qbe |IIpOnCXOX,AeHHe HeH39eCTHO, a Ta,KOBb]X, no AarnHbrM poBlr3r414, He'M'Horo. rflosrouy yxas 18 nrcns !722 r. He Mor IIoB,flt4qrb ,Ha ilo,-ro)Kegr.re '6o,rrurHHclBa Nure,ryeft gaBo-:tcKofo cer'IeH{49.

Hest,fl,HcKo,\,ry BasoAy,6uno rn'pl,tnHca*o,cBbriti€ - _ -Ha'npuuep, 800 A. M. itl., a llo rB]ceM AellnAors,cx[ld sa,e,o,[aM oKoJIo 2 rttc. AyuI 23. Bce gru d'rroAl.r J,oJr)K'nlr '6sr.na pa'6ora,rl- roJrbKo 3a ,lroAyrUUuft OI,IIaA, HO rB To Bpellfl, rIIO-rBI{AHiMoMy, Aa}Ke LarO rpe6oBaHI{e CO6.nrOAa.no,cb ,He cTp0fo, TarK xaK SaHHTepgCOBaHHbIe B yAepxanur.r Ha oBiozx saBoAax rpa6oq[x AelryrAonar o6paulanu,cl c 'rrr{Mr{ KaK ,B,oJrrrHoHaeMHblM}r, 'ue @arxcu,pyg BHr.rMaHrlq ,Ha HeraTnrBbrx cropoHilx .flpr.rrurrcKr4 rK 3aBoAaM. He4apo,r,r rroroMKH grrax .rrcAeft oo[aipH,Ba,rH rrpaBo 3aBo.4rrraKa Ha HX rpy,(. Oxu yrBep)K20

Tau xe, a. 189. ,'r. 83.

2r nC3,

22 23 8

r. VII,

Ns 4699. 4145

nC3, r. VII, NbJ$

fAnO, S. 36, on. l, a.

u

4533.

189, .r. 83.


Aa,,IH,

qro

rB

r.

<<MacTepoBbtMli 'rloKa3ai'Ia KOHT0pa Ho-KTO LIX I{ KOrAa e ceft poA orAaJI' Ha

'rlepeIII,Ilcb 1722

,tto cBoeMy npo)KeKTy, MoJloroeoit paro HnKaKoro ,no""nanra ner...o6pauaflI{cb xeH Btt"Iary [o"Iyqa'tl,t )Ke"'IaH[Io (He cBoeMy no a l[o tlpllrlti4'cKe, 6ore 6u 'n'poHe raKylo, KarK 3a'BoAcKag KoHTopa roKa3bl'Baer, '6y4ro I{3 HI'IX MHOII{M I'IO A C 'TPCBOCXO,X.CTBOM' TI4B KA3CHHbIX 3ABOAOB, TaK rKaiK rBo"IbBpeMeHa' pa3Hble lB orxagu'BaJlI{ ceit or oa6orsl gnru...rr'0.

orEc,ru yuecrb cpaBHllre.nlHo cna6ya 3ace"ieHHocrs Vpana' HerBo3Mo)Klr rtpaKri{qecKylo rg.na'cteil J,areHuocrb IIeHTpaJIbHbtx ga l[pOX]liBaiOuII'IM B 3aBOAaX HaCe"IeHOCTb CTpOfOr'O 'HaA30'pA q'oHO' llTO OAIII{X rrlpI{HyAIrTe"Ib'HbIX MeToAT9:i; HUeM, TO CraHeT Maocy JlIOAert ;-ro H€AO,CTaTOqHO, AJIfl TOfo tlro6H yAeplKarb 3ry HK npu6eta-fb 3aBoArrH'KH Ao"rxsoi'6u'rn nou'o*y ;;"'-;;;;A;". qI{Ha>>' B npo<<BcqKoro J'IIoAeH rpli'BneileHHfl ;;;t;;;;;;6;; ir'd"r" 1763 r., iroA;HHoM iHa HMfl H' A' AelruAosa' HI'l)KHera-

qTO 'PAHBTNE <<PA'6OTIT lilOTAiATI,IJIbOKI{E )KIiTCJ'II] HA'IIOM'I'tHAJII{' 'ne 6ltno rpeKplrcl{fix 'ct6opoe i-r pacxoAoB Ha

r,nlcb'B'oJlbrorno)>,

yroqeHl{enplle3)KeroHaqaJIbcTBa'HaKBapTI4pbiI{|[poqee'rno3ToB rlpe}KMy oHlI <<HaxoAIrJIl{cb ,rlpu 3aBoAax 6naro'nonyuHo I'I KaK rB tl i4 c bllnepelll4'cl{ npoqfie ',I{ Hlolo, TaK l,I lBO BTOpyilpeB[3]'II4, -AO'sOJIbHbIe

BairH',Cb rIpe3

oT ce6q

rI',I

3Aepx'Kn

A. 'L) xe,'Iaq AllpeKuirr raKoro BeJIIIKoAyIII(paspn4xa Halra. 6lttl>>' rrlo3ToMy <<3arBoAbI BaIIrn ,Hofo 'r'ocnoAvHa 14 coAepxareJIR qacy or Il HapoAoM $a6pnru ]r peMec"Ia [peAHarroJrHlrJnloq 'Iac 25. 3ro,BbrcKa3bIB aHUe qpe3rBblqa]I'Ho I{HvcfleBart{,u,efr crBfie]ra...>> qro 3a'BoAq[K He BrcorAa AeI'IcrBoroM' i"paa"o. ouo roropur o I{'HaxoAl4fl rciloco6-br Ho cllrl'oft, rpy6od tuSt^"1-":1.;o'np"Tar "oro*o K 3aBoAaM InpHunbIX nroAeft nlu'n'rre1a1913.L1i' nr.r,cKy |lI.l)KHeTafu"'IbB 'ilocJlaH 6lt,'I lB llro.rrq 1738 r. A. Aenrlu,losltNl orcKyIO 'KoHTopy opAep, rB 'KoropoM AaBai'Il'lcb pacfiopf)KeHl'Ifl SaBoAar{' K erre rIpH[I[caH'HbIX noburenrso npuurndx lnAet?, He 3asOAqEr nuiepeconaJr.ff, KaKyro pa6ory BblnoJIH'Ior 3TI'I JII.AII npI'I 'Ha 3aBOAe <<I1I rHaAextHbl ,,'II{ BrIpeAb B',paboTax 6url }t xrHTb OKJ-IaA IIOAyIII',HbII'I To ,6yAe xed'Ialor, ollbrx 3aBOAaX xeJraloT ,ru n 3aBOACKI.{MH -paTCSMIC Jrb ga ,CO6g 6yAyr... 'IIJI?TIITb HJII'I HaIII4Mlt 26. Ka'x sltAuN,I, npuIlIJIbIe o6poOorauro 6y.Uyr a up u'G'"oi"urb...>> {BOJIb.HO

rH :MOUIIT in,p,nlll,I:cblBaJll'Icb AJIfi ,nJIaTe)Ka ilIoAyIxHbIX AeHel

nn6o oria6arurnarb IIx Ha 3a'oAe' 'rltr6o nnatl.Tb

AeHbrraMI''

yueuoil ap6oHA I'lcropuqecxoro apxrlBa flepn'rcxori ry6epucxoir 4' n' 1074, 2, t' xnnuofi xottsccrin (297), on' 2s Huxueraruno.*'r'l-$rn'ri'n ioryarp.tu_."Horo apxnBa CnepA.rloecr<oir o6Hnxucra.racru (o la.l*refiurerr,r"fff*O"-iACbl,'6o"4 l.ras'oro VnpaeneHlrs 97' saBoAoB HaqJIeAHI.IK6B AenuAona'(t0)' on' l' nl' 24

fAflo,

rr.{JlbcKrrx

u Jlyurencxtlx

n2. '^-'zo qlA,[A, gonn Aen,ruAosr,tx (1267), on' l,

g.' 609'

'r'

38


Ilnctmo 3a,BoAr{[Ka [rpeAloJraraeT Aaxe 3,BecTlHyIo oBo6o4y rs616opa. B rcoB-oKy.rrrHocrr4 ,c Ao,craroqHo rxr4p)oxnM ,nu6opo,u sa,irauzfr, Noropuri unaencs B ropHosaBoAcKHX ueHTpax, sro, HecoMHeH_ INPHB,'IEKSJIO {IPI4III,TUX ,rrcAcfi AJI,fl TIOCCJICHHfl ,TIPN SABOAAX. -H-O' r{ro6u y3ano,Hr.rrb oBoe ,n,pebblBa,Hrje Ha rHoBoM Mecre }K,r{Ter,rbcr14

Ba H HaBCefAa ocTaTbcfl )KIITb 3AeCb B KaqecTBe te,'Iefi, rtrIoAI4 utllt Ha AeHexubre Ns4epxxa 22.

,IIOCTO,flHHbIX )KA-

Tarvu

or6,pa3OM, nepefln,cb 1722'r. He .AaiBa,,ra rno.rrrHbrx .,.DarB rBd'racnflM Ha rpyA ,np14rxJrbrx ,rrc4erl. 14ue'ir'Ho rnoarouy Bsgelroxorr.ry n 1763 r. 6li,rz ,noAastr HeBepHL,re ctrulcKrz. iB H,Hx oKaga,rocb BMecro 2^rttc. (a x 1763 r. Hx 6uno, HecoMHeHHo, eule

3a'1BOAOKHM

6onsme) scero 488 Ayur iu, np[nzcaHHbrx B r[epByro peBa3uro,

ocrar'tbHble gxo6t't ,6tr"tH ea,nHcaHbI B IIOC.rIeAyIOqHe rrepeflI{cl{ a

B

PffiYJIbTATE OTHECCHbI E III{C,[O (BEqHOOTAAH,UITX. ,IICPCA HAMI,I rNPI{. Mep tnp gM gtO rIIO.("rIOf 2.

llpnnzcxa

<<''plrrrr,rrbrx>>

K

3aBoAaM Ha ycdrroBl{flx orpa6orxu,no-

,u,yru'Hoir rroAarH ,npoAo,'r)Kad'r3 rrrps,KTr.rKoBarbcq u rnoc,re lZ22 r. .rl3BecTHO, qro rg JU-x foAax ylnpaB14TeJIb ErOulnxlaHcKorr0 3a,BoAa

bep.rrzl 6ltn

o'6reI.IHerH

_y-K,pbI,BaTelTbrcTBe

-,8 A. Vnapoay

,6er,tux. enucr" nopy-

lnpoBecrr.r <<crreAcrBr4e o npru_ :1-11 JIbIX)>'". .bepr'IIZH OrlrpSB[,bt,B8JIrCfl TeM, <<qTO {IIpr.rHLIMa.[ OH TeX "quplyx,BopeHy 'rIp,HuIJIbIx... A,lrt laclrparB,leHng 3aBoAcKax j,I ,ro,p,HbIX pa6or u ea OCKYAHCHHCM TNP}IN'ACAIHHbIX K TOMY 3ABOAY iKIPECTbqH, A HE AJI.fl

cBoero rlox,re6crBa H Kopbrcrlr, Ho AAf npi6rrirra SaBoAOKOTO IrH/{a,ree rorBopr,rrcf ,o ToM, rITo 3TH <<rrlpHrrr,rble>> 6brr,'.r Ha ocHoBa.Hyrw yKasa 2l noa6pn l72g r. ,nonoxestr ,Eep.nnuunr n no4y_ruruuii oKJraA ,rrpa sarBoAe H oc,Ta,B./reHbr <<)Kr.rrb 4o yxasy lpr.r Tepeca>> 30.

rex

fryrurx'IcH'oKr'rx-SaBoAaix r.r 3a rnoAyrrrHbre AeHbrIr

uex oo60rc aK H Ha 3AelrHHX Cvt6wpcKr.rx 3aBoAax ra,Kt.re rneDe[rH_ ,OrKa3aH,HbIe paonor'rox(acl sapaoarbrtsarb

3a'BioAcKr{Mr4

CaHHbI€ I{

B !BeAOMOCTflX

rII

A eH H o r? x o'M r.r,cc n

Ia

pa60ra,ua

ap a,6 a ru,s 2191;Bl

,K

IIO VqO"*-

rrA. I4rax, Hautr MarepuaJrblnoKa3blBaror, r{To Her ocHoBa,gilir ro_ {Bop}trb o ro'c[,oncrBe rllp,HHyAr.rTe,,rb,Horo TpyAa {a paccMoTpeH_ Hbrx rHalr'u sa,BoAaX rB )rrep,Bbre rpr.r Aecqrr.{n'eius XVIII croJrer[fl. Il_palu,oxy tL]'.

rua.

3

(pasp'aA,K'2

)Ke rrprr,txror,o JrroAa K 3aBOAaM ,He.rrb3fl paccMarpr.{Barb KaK 3axpe[oqeuue. Oro 6trn rcprz4aqecKr.r o6ocHoeanHbrrl

aKT Sar''l,Ic,' ,''o/l,aTHOrO 'Ha,ceJleHr,Ifl ,A,'rlq r,'r,raTe]Ka 't.,cyAapctBeHHbrx,HaJroro,e (nogy,mHoit no4ara). Or.nizque 3arBoAcK.lrx .rrrcAerl or rocyAapcTBeHHbrx KpecrbflH cocTorrJro B TOM, r{ro nepBbre Ao,rI{_

-'tAln*:. rAco, LpjlKrHK4^ roarBepxAaercff H aBoACKofi 4oxyueHraqueri. -O. 36, on. l,;. l8e, ;. 8b. :: l_JTo 2n 3

UIAAA, b. 2?t, *n. t+Oj,'a. xe, m. 75 .76_

ou I aM

3l Talr x,g, ,r. 10

76.

tl,'r.

Oe.


lHbI ,6br,tl.l orpai6arbl'Barb 'rloAyluHyFo rl'o.r,arb'Ha 3aBOAe' T' e' Hecrt{ TIIOBHHHO'CTb. oc060to IBHAa Harypa,'Ib'HyIO -6olturoe lcxoAcTBO Aan'nofi IIpa(KrI{rKH c HHrepecno oritl^errzrl lB rorploAax. B '{acrH^ocrn, 'B ca,rpl4llll4CKI'I llplllllJlblx vc,,roBHgMn n, (e ocHon;.piuoa np'BeAeHHs pe'ens:n'r't <<npurld'bre> ln I'l e 3 a q Ii c"I r K a o c l't AC xp ecrus,He, rBoeH'Ho cJIy)K-l'Ir'I-bIe,r.loAu uo OMI'I'Br6O6u,reft>>. flBJIflJlcq Caparon. TCOCTaB <<ropOAO'BbIX J,rr{cb B

'i;;;;; ; lt

I

)

reHHbrM peqHbtM ,noproM, 3Aecb JlefKo 6smb nairra pa'6'ory' 3ro' Br.rAI{Mo, u npr.r'n.ilexad'Io cIoAa .nrcAefi. .II,o I peen3I'IIt lcaparorBcKl{e 6o6sr,r,u He 'nec,ru rfffJIa, Bbllrlor'I'Hff'fl HarypaJIbrnbl€ rrloBHHHo'crl{

a TaK)Ke <<foHfl,'IH IIOAB KaqecTBe rpe6qon Ha Ka3eHHbrx cyAax,33' flo'c'le I pennsnu ux 3aforo{BJfl/.Ill Apotsa ceHo, ,no.qyuruuii oKJIaA 6lt.n ycrauoBJleH B pa3Mep.e I p' l0 K'' r' e' 3a' ra^oft )Ke, KaK y rocyAapcrBeHHblx xpecrlau noAyultoit nopa3Mep sltq'cHutl ueo6xoAtlr'to B csqsl{ c rSrHM JIIOAII. L 3TOll irrd'IaTHTb 3aBOACKIIe 6mnu KOTOp'yIO AOJI)KHbI AaTI,I, 1732To'r'6ysuHa r{eJrblo pa,ccMorpllM MarepHaJIbI rlepsnn'cn 3alBoAoB c orcblJlarb 3aIIpeua,I fieperr.r:cr] 1734 rr.-vxae o6 aroii 35' Ilrpl{lllr'lblx, O'CTarBJIflq HX 3AeCb BTIIJIOTb AO 'C[eUla"IbHOrO yKa3a rHaiBeqHo lnpl{fl11lcblOu r.36. xbroplrir v r3flB1tilcfl 7 nrueap'n 1736 BaJr .K 3aBoAaM JIIoAeft, o6yut'r'nruuxcfl lla'crepcr:By' To )Ke caNIoe' (BoAbl>>, Ko'cl'IJIIi

CtIIeHO B OTHotrreHlLI AeMI4AoBcKI4x 3aBO1AOB,'6bUIO 1[OATBSp)K,II,g^H^O a r., tson6pn 1736 12 qr.rairbHbrM rrocrarHoB,,reHHer.{ r4Mlrreparp_I.rIIb^I 1738'r.37. 29 vapra yKa3oM 3areM HM€HHbIM

H. Vl. lIas,'IeHxo cql'ITaer' qro,

<<IIonaB B flepe]lncHylo KHi.Iry Torr6ystlu a, 3Ta ilaprl{fl rrIplIIlIJIbIX'ror€prqJ'I 3 rlp aBo p acilops)Karbcq ,cBoeft pa6oueft cnnoil KalK rO'BarpOM,^ lflpeBpaTuila'cb ts 3aBoAHacxlix o6H,eaTeJrefi, u^rAa,HHbrx lIIo yKa3y>>s8. BOO6X{e npu,nHc'Ka (KSK 3&.pacIleH.i,IBaeT.o'I I4cTopI,IKaMIi MHo|I,l.MIi tsel{Ho .K 3a,BoAaM 3e. KperrouleHr4 e

IOpu4Lruecxuil craryc

erllx ,'IIoAeii relt

Hr,rTb, rITo rIIo ,[ep€III{Cn TO"r6yenHa

6onee 'Bax{Ho tsblrcI{o BCeM ypa,'IbcKLIM 3arB'OAaM

<({aCTHO BbI[IeAIXnX AeMHAOSa r6n,ro upurnHcaHo 5l7l A. trr. rII., O6parnmcfl 'K Te'Kcry yKal3a or H3 pa3Hblx Ka3eHHblx ce,reunfi>>a0' <<llpuururun ua r,'IacI4JI: Koropofo nyn,xr 7-fi r., l83B irrapra 2g 32

*

Cpe4u HHx M.Horo pacKo,'IbHl'tKoB, KaK v Ha 3lBoAax Vpa"ra'

s I-no,losuHe XVIII s. <flpo6nevut,coll'fia'{bS] U. Kyuren a. Caparon 'Poaar"r. C6. cr. r 85-"'rer'o aKaAeMllKa H.11. [p1''o-3KoHoMr4qe"*bfi crP. 115. xrrHr.rHa. M., 1971, "ctopr" 34 IIC3. r. XV. i\b 11120.

flc3. r. VIII, Ne 4699. r. IX, N 6858. ilpoti3BoAcrea e Pocr fIC3, ij. -re-p* u". zarop"qecKoe -HaqepraHne-ropHofo flC3, r' X, Ns 7548' ."fi"*on-'"ontiJp"t. E*ut"pninAypr, l8l0' trp.^178-'179; 38 H. U. fl a s,r e rt x o. Vxag. coq'' crp. JdI. 3e A. M. fl anrp aroB a. Vras. cou., crp' 424-425' 40 fAlIO, g. 36, on. l, a. 189, .rr. 84. 35 36

lt


ero,

AgMI.rAoBbI, BaBOAbI ,cI4HoAa,JIbHbt,M, MoHacrblpcrKLI,M I{,ro,cyla,p-

rn,pn cn,6.r,pc1xnx no freperrHcn @e4,opa T,o,n,6y3a,Ha, a npn Kd,rareanb-Bocrpeces,crux n T6lrcxax MeAHbrx 3aBoAax, tno rnepeflficrl 1735 roAa ABopflHr4Ha llerpa MenrHrzxos a fl'Bwrrztcb u utr'He o6perarclcs. rz o6vqunficb NracreDrcTBeHrHbI'M lKpecTbgHaM, KoTopbre

crny,6url ,rrpl,t ero 3arBoAax eeqHo Lr,\p'r4nacarb K rKut"itHbIM cno6oAaM (paspn4xa Harua.-A. tI .), Koropbre ef(l

3a'BOAarl AaHbt, 14 t[,]IaTHTb 3a HLIX ,KaK nOAy[IHbre, TaK 14 r{eTbl_ PCX.FPI.IIBEHHbIC AEHbII4 CTrY ACUNAONY... A .B 'TIPE)KHI,IX )KI,IJ'II{UIAX I.I3 .IIOAYIIJHOTO OKJIAAA BbIK/rIIOqI,ITb; BMCCTO'TIOMCIUhqT,HX KPCcTbg'H, oTAaTb K,pecTbflH I,tS eto ,BoTr{UH 6es nnarexa ,noxirrtt.r AeHer>>.

Ka,x

sr.rAr.tM, yKa3 orJra.qaer rrrpr{u,rrbrx rocyAapcTBeHHbIx, Moa lcl4Ho.tl,aJrlrHbrx rKpecTbfl H oT n.oMeIw,rIbLIX. flep,g61g

HacTbrpcKnx

npI'IKpenr'IflrTIiCb K 3a,B,OAaM HaBeqHO, /OAHarK,O rtlpr4rllltelt,!flJILI,Cb K Ka3eHHbrM c.uO6o4a'r,r (aa uux ,IIraTHfla,cb nolyuriraa ,JroAaTb KarK sa focyAapcrBeHHbrx KpecrbflFr- I p. l0 x.), Bropbre xe o6nresn_ ,BaIOTCfl Ha Kpello,cTHtrx !,eu,u4oBa r{, cJIeAO'BaTe,trbHo, /IIepexoAflT Bo 'B'raAeHHe 3aBoAqHKa al. 3anncl ,B ,rrepenflcb Tol6ysuua" He pacrreHHBaJrarcb s 30-e rr. rKalK garKpeloqe[rr]e 11 3aBoAclKLI.Mi{ Er'racTflMH. I43'necrHo, r{To ,Bo rBpeMq nepertr4'cH ,paoKoJIIrHI4Ko'B Ha 3aBoAax

s

AeMnAosa

f

l73B

r.

,npn'rasuni< sano"do,uraAeJrbrra o6parn,rca o

euep an - 6 ep r-[,np exrop

,CTBO

<<O

TeX,

H

[r p o[reH,r.re

M

'o,c Kro 6lr.nz 'umo,ro)KeHbr IIpr.r

rrp,or.r3iB

ecr' B

3a,BoAax

cBuAe re,ir b -

,rro.qyursuii

'TeX 3aBOAOTB rOOII,oArHa eno MHor,oe qarcJro nnAerh corrrJrH K pa3,HbrM gaBoAlruKaM r{ Ha crapbre }KH,rrr4rrla>>. XapaxrepHo, qTo rB {npoueH}rr{ HeT ,rILpocb6br (BepHyrb y,rxeArllux, a orpaorKJraA>>

xeH,o

<<C

>KeJra,ggg

rs3figsaTb

I,I3,l,uIrrHr.rx

n.rrardxeil ea guxa2. Ko()ue

rolo,'6er.nue KpenocrHue a,6ecnac[opTHbre

focyAa,p,crrBei"ore, MoHarcTbrpcK[e rKp_ecrbfl He colBeprIJeHHO no-p a3,HoMy serl.{ ,ce6s ,B firepnoA ,nepenvrcerl. E,c.n,n rrgp,661g, KaK rlpa,Bx,to, <<cKagbIBa,r?Icb>> HerrlrolMHflI{HtMI.r poAcrBa, To rfiocrdreAHue rno4po,6Ho paccKa3bIBaJIu o lrlpe)<HeM'MecTe xI'ITeJIbcrBa, ctllpaBeAJILIBo IIoilarafl'' r{To' 3a'[d'IarHB Ha HoBoM Mecre ,[pHrlHTa]oqHecg c H[Ix IloAyrttH6t" AeHbIIl, OHIt r'IeraJIIiI'3yIOT TOM CBOC rI]OJIO)KeHHe. ABOprIOBbre

'fl,pnro'x

lI

pa3drr.rr{Hbrx

rrr'rcJreHHbre yKa3br

o

xareio'prafi t[pHrxJrbrx .nn4eri H

MHo,ro_

IIpa'III,IcKe K 3arBOAaM co3Aa,rr{ ,60.nuuyrc rnecrpory B IopnAHrrecKoM,rroJroxeHHH 3aBoAcKofo HaceJrenvs (oraasHbre Jro yKa3aM'Ka3eHHbre'MacrepoBble,,6errbre KperrocrHbre, .nCIan, )KHByIITIe rflo rnaclopTaM' rtlpl4 IIIr'IbIe,,fl pz'[ucaHHble <<HaBeqHo>> Ha 'npaBax focyAapcrBeHHbrx ,KpecrbrrH K ;KaseHHbrM

c.no6o4au, u, Ha_

4l E'

6.

I(atpeurays

BnepBbre o6parrzn BHr{MaHHe Ha

ro, qro B orJrriq,e or

KpenocrHbrx npllunbre 6u;r-lt upunucaubr K Ka3eHHsru c;ro6o4alr; 6. 6. K a_ 9_qI r a y s; ncropwfi xogsrictna AerdnAosurx s XVIII_ XIX es., r. I, M. _,[., 1949.

cro.

42

12

365.

nC3, r. X,

Nb 47663.


r(oHeu, KperlocrHble 3aBoAt{I'IKa)'

BaHbr Aa,'IeK,O He cKopo

u

3ru paa'ru'tus 6btnv

HI4BeJrHpo-

rnyTeM SHar{I'ITer'IHHbIX yXUUlpen',uft

3ABOAIII,IKOB.

I'I e AoKa3 a reJIbcTIB a'II'p l'I'BeAeM 1c,'IeAyloul'u e^$ a'rru' 1763 AJI'fl '3aBOACKI'IX c-ocraeneHHOii .i1rc4efi, 'Be.4,OMOCri'r qro IiMeHHo 'B nepl4oA rIpoBeIrcHI4q Ha A. A. BsseMcl(or'o,

B xaqecree

s

r'

'BI'IAHo,

neravAos,cxllx 3aBoAax reperrcn Toa6yex'ia (1732-1734 rr') 6ul a,l ep en HcaHa 3,H aqli TeJrbH a g q acTb In p fl IUfl OrO_ _H acer'IeHl4tl. Tax, r'ts 7450 1,. rM. rn. llpH[IJIbIx, yqrsHttux .II p-e^a^u'sneil ua ecex AeMHAoBcKI,IX sasoAaf CpeAnero Vpa,ra43' 4333 A' y' 'n' (57 olo \ 6u,rn,np unI.lcarnbl'K 3a'BoAa M elrre B'nepI{oA'nep enucu To'r6yzunaaa. -

llpaueu u II peBl43u'fl o6napyxuna Ha 3rl{x 3aBoAax 724 1,. M. rII., BHoBb <<BbIIIIeAIIrflx qacrHo Iz3 pa3Hblx Ka3eHHbIx Ce;lesuli pa3HOI,o 3Ba,Hrtlfl npAefi> 45. MUOrue I,I3 IIHX IIpOIKI'I'Bar'II'I sAecb errle co BpeMeH I pernSHu, HO TofAa 6u.ltn inpunucaHbli'IIJIat{ro'6lt Te)Ke rnoAyIUHbIX AeHer Ha lnpe)I(HeM MecTe xl'ITeJIbcTBa. grLrx,rroaeft Ha 3a'BoAax, Aen'IaAoe sa'seJ,o6nrr,cq 3arKperIJIeHr4fr. pIIJI IIpaBI,lTeJIbcTBo' <<qTo B ql{c,'Io oHbIX Hanl{caHo MHoroe qHcJIo rano.nletu"* or 12,6, 2 u I ro!,a MJIaAeHueB o.II,HLIXi6eg orqos n poAcrBeHHI{I(oB>>, I(oropue-s'xo6sl flp}TIII{'ca'HbI K 3aBoAaM eIIIe B i perusuro n rfleperll4cb 1732 r. <<Otqaulr, '6'parr,run n poAcrBeHnncanu [o3AHee iHeBHqHlcKHe )KI'ITe"IH, - rcTarpaIrI'ICb HI{KaM.I{, roc[o/(a ,[,ert{'HAoeH yAepxarb srnx rloAeli or 'BbIBo'J'a 'c 3a'BoAoB no yra3y 1743 roaa Qenpaln 3 AHs... A rroeraKy I{ eu{e HeMaJloe qilc,ro nrcAeil [pI{ 3atsoAax I'IMe,'Iocb, To 3aBoAcKI'Ie KoHTopbI u He'HaIxJIllIyTrIarOCpeACTBa'KaK[OKa3bIBaTb?lx-rB-pOBi'l'3HIoHe 46. 3ro yrsepxrloMHffulnMlr poAcrBa I{ He3aKoHHopoxAeHHbIwIh>> IeHLIe BIOJIHe Cofd'IacyeTcq c peaIbHbIM iIIOJIO)KeHLIeM pa3JIHqHbIX rarenoprfi noAeft ,B To tspeMl. Ectecrgeuuo, tITo nerqe 6u.no Ao6urtcg 3aKpeloulegag <<a'uqefirHofo>> qeJIoBeKa H/'II'I AaX(e Kpeno,crH,ofo, rreM Iop[AI4r{ecKI,I CSO60AHOTO. Marepua,llt rrepenn',celi noATBep)KAaroT cJIo'Ba 3a,BOACI{IiX XUre,reft: ecnu I ipgBi.l3l{g He :a$nxcu,ponana s HesbllHcKOM SaBOAe HH OAHOTO He llloMHtllqero poi.""a,'ro II penusnifl 's Hux'HerarI'IJIbcI(oM 3aBoAe yqna 100/o H

e,IIOlM,Hfl

IIIIX'p

OrACl]B

Hes a'xoHHHe oilep

a fi

HeB arKOH HOp OXACH H bIX.

a(IlH gagoAoxoft

B ,n€pHo!, npoeeAeulax

II

penr'reui'r

aAMI'IrH[crp auult rR.bI3rBaJIrlI ,flporecr qacrH xnreneft Hesl-

a3 Herraucxufi, Euurroecrnfi, IIIaftraucxllti, B.-Tarn;rrcxufi, IIIypannucrrafi. H.-TarH.nlcr}lfi, Bsrircxuil, Jlaricxue (asa), qepnoucroquscxuir, BucNtuoIII afi rascxuri, H.-CalArucxttft , B.-Vmuncxufi , PeeAllHcxxfi ,,Eu-cepcxuft . 44

qaercq

10, on. l, a. 1796 a-73','r.n. 9-15. 3ta qn$pa orrror npe4sr1yqeit, raK KaK u3 Hee I.icKJIoqeHbI yMepuue Ko BpeMeHIr npo-

HTO |ACO, Q.

BeaeHurl

II

peeuaui'r.

fAfIO, 36, on. l, a. 189, .n. 84. 6 Tau xe'S. 45

13


flH,cKa Ia H'tz>KHefo Taru.ta 47, Ho oH rHe lrloJlyr{lr,'r urrpoKoro pa3Maxa, TaK iKaK IIOC,'reACT,BI4g rnp'fiIll,ttcKr,t B To BpeMf ,6u.rrr uu ue.qocrarorrHo xcuu. llepnue Aelrr.rAoBbr Ao rropbr Ao BpeMeHH He o6ocrpflru orHorueHurr c JrIoAbMr.r. lloarouy lr !B TeqeHr4e nropoft ver,Beprrl XVIII,B. B3ar,rMoorHoueHrirr 3a,BoAqHrKoB ta siga.{,firerlHort

qaCTII 3a'BOACKO|O Ha'Ce,lIeHI-lf CTpOl{.rlhCb Ha

O'CHOBa'X

1B,Or'Ir]-

HOrO

rsaftr,ra. Hecnaorpn'Ha B:ceBo3Mo)KHbre yxuurpeH,lu, Aeunnoerrr,r yAaJrocb B cepeAaHe BeKa Ha ocHoBaHr.ru yKa3oB 1736 u 1747 rr. 3arrrlIrcarb B pa3pqA Ber{HooTAaH,Hbrx KpenocT]Hbrx ecero 18f6 xure,reft cBozx 3aBo,ILoB a8. Ocra,rlHbre, xorfl n ,6unw ,trpn,rlI,tcaHL,r K 3aBOAaM Ha'BeqHO, OCTa,Ba!'IH,Cb rHa IIpa,Bax,focyAapcTBeHHbrx KpeB rlnrrzponaHHoM rBbl[re [poIxeHHrI iHeBb,f,HcKrrx txnre,rert

rcrbflH.

qI4TaeM:

A. q.)

<A xor.qa ,IIoBeJ'reHo ocraBr{Tb IIX (r. e. ]npulltrtrx,

tilpr4 ga,BoAax, To Ir Haqa!'rr.r r4,cKarb opeACTBa, qio6 ralru saBJIaAerb>> 49. O tolt, 'r{To rrpnrrtl4cKa K 3aBoAaM He r,aBaJra eue trparBa Ha ,BJIa.AeHI,le 3TI,IMI4 d'lIOAbMI,I, InOrBOpflT r4 3aIBOACKH€ AOTKyMeHrr,l. Bce ,[p]lu,rrbre, 3arrncaHHbre B,flepeflzcn 1722,1752, IZSS,- IZBB, 1739, 1742 rf., ,B r{are_p_aar'rax II peeusur.r orHeceHblK focyAapcrBeHHbIM KpecrE,flHa,M. 14 nvtltrsr, a III pennsvlo grt4,rrloflr.r 3SrtrHCZrHbr {BEqHOOTAAHHLil},{fi, <<OBCPCTAHIHbIMI,I c KpenocTHbIMI] B OAI{H ceMI,I. rpu'nenulrii ox,r a,A>> 50. B Aanrsoft ,crarbe Mbr He 6yeeM pac:cMarpHBarb rBce crtorco6br, ,rrp].r, rroMorrlr4 ,xoropbrx 3aBoAqH,KaM yAa,'rocb B [repr4,oA ,lrexay II n I I I peausrrnwr4^<<3aBJr aAerb>> trrp Htrrr{carH,HbrMr{ K s aEoAaiM [rparuJrbrMH Jrr,o,Abvr. Ocran,oiBuMcrl Jrnrrrb Ha ceHarcKo,M vKase 30 lexa6pn 1755 r., xoropsrft, rro HarxeMy MHeHHro, 6H.[" eaxHerlueii

eexoti

B gTorM inDorlecce

51.

illognaxoran:Mcq c efo coAe,p)KaHHeM. '1724 'l)

r.

Brcex npr4rurrrbrx

Ha Ka3eHr'bre 3ajBo.rlbr ocra-

''ocre )Ke lloicre 'Blrrb:rr'plr H.r{x BeqHo. llpurue.qruux Ha,npe>K'Hee MecTo )KrItTeJIbrCTBa.

II

pee'ueua BbrcJrarb

2) Ha qacrHbrx BarBqAax 3aKpelr.rrb ,Bcex 3arrncaHHbrx ,no [epelr4cqM H rocralBJrerHHbrx A,o yKasa. Kponae t6p6, firpeArrzcbrBar,rocb Tex [pHrxJrbrx, Koropbre paHee 6lrnz ,npvu[c/reHbr x rl]Jrare)Ky no-

AYIXHbIX AEHEI K KA3CHHbIM ,CNO6OAAU, OTTYAA HCKJIIOqI,ITb T1 ilPUnru'carb K EaBonaM I{ <<cgu'c!'IHTb c inporqaMr4 orAa,H,HbrMH u]M c rKpe-

,IIOCTHbI M LI rj,Ix M arCTep,O,B bI M Lr

3ra

JI I,Onb M I{ >>.

.ra,crn yxasd upes,nrruafiru.o HHrepecHa, raK KarK 3Aecb 3aKoHoAareJrblro o$opu,reso 6uno,IIpeBparrleHr.re BeqHoorAaHHbrx .ggr4 x 1lBepcraHHbrx c KperocrHlrrau>j. 47

B. V. CeMescxarl. KpecrbrHe B II,r. I, Cn6., 1881, crp.'445-446.

reprHur

cro.

1.

9 f

302,

C

rp y r,r yr Jrrl t.'lri.cropun uepnofi Mera.rrrypflrfi 36, on.

-'^t _l_4!O. S glq rAco,0. :: 51 lIC3,

l, a.

I89, "r.85.

t0, on. l,.

r. XIV. l\b

14

uapcrBoBaHr.re nuneparpnqsr Exa_

10494.

i.

nsaa_78,.ir,r.9_15.

g

CCCp,

r.

I,


Orueruu, rrro ,c toplrAuqecroit roqKlr 3peHllfl o'cHoeaHI'lii f,"r,r la'xoft cBeprcrKl,I y ceHaropo,B He ,6blro,'flocKo,'IbKy B xarlecrBe riloICTYJIATA AJI''I TAKOTO PCilIEHI,Ifl OH'?I BbIABI4HY,'IX YKA3 I7 ]CCHTq6Pfl 1742 r. Sror yxas lnpeAll4caJr MacrepoBblM, ocBor6olKAeuuuu Eeprllp u,e,nleruefr oLrIJI are)Ka nogyruHoil rIoAarH, B,HoB [, In,n a rHTb ee, a 3aBoAcKLIx .rrcAeit, n'p.II,nI.IcaHHblX B rrIJIST€)Ke .no4y,uru,oit ,noAarLI K KaBeHHbIM CeJIeH?IflM, mpI,IrqnC!]II'ITb B STOM III.IIaTeXe H€IIOCpeACTiBeHHo K 3aBoAy 52. OAuaxo Cesar I{cro"IIKo;B2rrI 3Tor yKa3 TaI{I.{r,{ o6pasou, rITo Bcex flpfirll4creHHbtx rB rIJIare)Ke ,lt'oAyttI,HbIX AeHer 'K 3aBOAy CJIeAyeT Ha gTOM O,CHOTBaTHI,II{ <<CqHC,'trITb C rIIpOTql,IMH OT53. Tar rarHHbrMH r,rM KpenocrHblM.Ir Llx MarcrepoBblMn JIIoAb'Mtt)> ,IIOq

B'14

JI a

Cb

HOB a g

lKaTelopll4

fl

<<CBep,g1

2rg11blx C Kp eIIO'CTHbI

M

I,I >>.

3) Haxoneq, rIIpHtII4caHHbIX IIo II pewtslllt Ha ocHoBaHvlfi gaflB' qTO BCC OHI,I flBTqIOTCg ,POACTBCHHTIKAMN BCI{HO''IEHI.II'I !.CUZAONA, oTAaHHbIX, TaK>Ke peIXeHO r6HrO OCra'sllrb nptl 3aBOAaX. O,Cta,SneHbI 6br,'ru Ao yKa3a ir{ fipr.{ixqArrrr{e [o'cJre II peen.szu. illpraHn'uaa 3TO pe.IXeHI4e, cenar IicxoAHJI I,I3 TOrO, qTO 6oJrbruOe qI4Cr'IO BHOBb IIp irlueArxl{x Ae,'r aeT r,p aKTLIqeoKri HeBo3 Mo)KHbrM r.rx [epeceJreHl,Ie Ha r[pe)KHee Me'cro )K[TeJrbcT'Ba. flpnueu peqb H ,B 3To[{ c,'Iyqae HAeT He O rrrOMerr{r4{b.rix KpgcTb,qHax, rlocKoltry ceuar ,noArrep{Kr.rBaeT, qTo, e,cJ'ILr gTI,Ix r'IloAet? rHe BbIcbl'raTb, <<Ka3rHe ue 6yAer y6urrKa, laK KaK [o.AyIxHbIe AeHbrI{ oHIr rrlJrargr r]cnpa'BHo>>. Kpoue roro, o6paula/rocb ,BHr,rMaHIre Ha ro, irro <<c rrroMflHyrbrx Cu,6wpoKltx Ka3eHrHbIX It IIapTI.IKyJIff,pHbrX 3arBOAOlB, TaKr4e, ,KOI,I yx{e MacTep,g1B2* o6yun,ruct, x,oTfl i6bI I.I 3a rlpo,Bo)KarblMn Ha rfipe)KHee xlIIJII4IrIe BbI,Be3eHbI t6annw, Ho ogble, rKaK y)Ke Ir3Aa,BHa oT rlaIrIHrl oTcTaJrH, n rIO lIIpUo'6UXsOCrU K 3aBOACKnU pa6OraM, rHa Tex rrpexHHx 167r11.1rir{3X He y)Kr4 ByTCfl ...)>. o fi OMerq[qb].Ix xe KpecTbfl HaX B icfleql{a,'IbHOM rn]HKTe rcBOpI.IJIOCb, qT,O 3a H'I{X rC,IeAyeT [lJIaTlrTb rBJraAeJrbuaM AeHbfr4, rnoJroxeHrHbre no yKa3y 1736 r. 54. Tarxulr ,o6pa3,oM, yxas 30 Aexa6pq 1755 ,r. flMeJr ofpoMnoe sHar{eHI1Ie Ad'rq

ooopMJreHi{fl KperrocTHo'fo npaBa Ha 'qacTHbrx

Aax. OAnaro

I,I m'ocJle

efo

3a,BonroqiBJleHnrtr IIDaBOBoe :flo,ro)KeHae ,Berr-

6uno flcHbtM. B 4o,xasare/rbcr,Bo npr{rBeAeM ,cJreSaxrlr. B nepno4 pa3AeJra r4MyrrlecriBa AeNraAo,eHx (1757-1759) ,seqHoor4a,HHble rK 3aBoAaM rrlp1allrJrbre nrcAu 6lu1.r

HoorAaHHbrx He

Ayror{He

B pa3Ae!'Ir,HbIe aKTbI HapaBHe c,IIpilrIIIiCHbIMI.I KpeCTr,flHamu 55. Ha'ro,HeU, Aax(e 's 1764 r., KofAa saBoAcKarr KoHropa O6,parLI,,'racb e To6o,'rloKyn ry,6epri,cKyro rKaHqeJrflprzrc c npoG6oil co6u'parr rroAyruHbre .ieslrra nb tp. l0 (noprua rroAyrrrHoro oK!,raBHe_C_eHbI

r.

Aa rocyAapcrBeiHHbrx rrpecruu) ToJrbKo c rex, rKoro Bq3eucrnfi 52

lIC3, r. XI, N! 8620.

53 lJoAo6Hoe roJrKoB aH[e 6nlo 54 lIC3, XIV, N! 10494.

55

npeg,roxeHo 3aBoAr{uKaMr.r

r. fAnO,9.36, on. l, a. 189, ,r,r. 102, 116.

ID


aJr rccyAapcrBeHHbrllfl 56, To,no,tyql{,'ta'orKa3. I(auqe.napur rpe6oaara raxoft >Ke oKJIaA 'co6uparl u 'c rex, 'KTo rlpllrr'ncaH B ,rrocJreAyloqfie 'rrepenfi,cr{. 'CreAo'eareJlbHo, Iopl4Al4qecKoe rloJloxeg11s ,lpHlrIKCaHHbIX [o yKa3aM ilpI,tu4ryI JIroAeft rne,6Hno qcHo I*ecrHblrvl Bd'Iacrfl,M .Ilaxe ts 60-e ro.q,H XVIII re. C 1760 r. 3aBoAcKHe iBJIacrli HarIadltl caMoBo,lIbHo coi6Ilparb co ',BCeX <<OAI{H CeM'l,Ilpi4',BeHgltft rorrnaA>>, KaK xaJIoBa,'II'IlCb 3aBOAcKHe ]Knre,'ru. KorAa )Ke BcIIbIxHyJIo Bo,IIHeHHe 3aBoAcKI'Ix JIIoAeII (1762_1763 m.), He xeJIaBrIHx Nlupltrbcfl c i[orepefi 'upan, sa,BOAqI4K .OIIEIIIHO YIITATI-IJI 3A IHI,IX AEHbII{ IKAK 3A i6CTNbTX, II JIHIIIb He3HarrlrTe,rrbHarfl qarcTb 3a'BoAcKI{x xnreneft 6una n'p'l'tsHaHa focyAap crBeHHbrMI.I KpecTbqHaMI,I otlf Tb >Ke'Ha ocHOBaHu.I{'oII,ncKorB, n'p eAcrarBJreHHbIX 3 aBoAcKlI'MH rKoHrop a MH It 6es rnpornep KI4 n acn'op 'r'oiB 14 KBr.rraHqnft ro,6 yn,IIare,floAylxHbIX AeHef rHa rfipe}KHeM Mecre x(H rer'r bcrBa'r.r M arepr.r a Jron,nep ennceft 57. I4syueHae 'peB,I43,cKHx cKa3oK u 3atsoAcKofi 4orylteruraqnll pac.npu3,H

xpbrBaeT cJr'oxHylo'c[IcTeMy IIOAJIOTOB

LI ,06MaHOrB, lnpo',B,OAI'IBIIIUX-

C qeJIbIO 3a'KpeIIJIelrflfl HatseqHo rrpurrrJrbrx cso6oAHltx ;rrcAeft 3a cBoHMIl 3aBoAaMI,I. no1wsafl,ct' yKagoB o 3aKpenouleHuH npI{IIJIltx .trcAeft, oHLI crpeMI.IJIlrtcb /'IulIIIlrb ,Ofl 13a,BO,I,q[KaN{H

rI Hx CJIyxaqHMIi

ux r,oKa3areJrbcrB lrncbrlra,

or6upanu nacfiopra, orrlycKHble ynlare 'no4yuruoil ,noAarll, 3arIHcbIBaJIll B He II'oMHf IqHX poACTBa H

cBol4x lIIpaB:

KBHTaHUHLI O6

OKagKI4 |IIOA rIy)KI'I'MI,I HlMeHaM,I4, B Kaqe,CTBe

He3aKoHHopoxAeHHbIx. Hear,sHcK[e xLITeJI14 flvcaru o6 arou Brnporreurln Cenary or 26 Hoa6pg 1780 r., qro <<6oratcreo n cIIJIa npeBosMoraJro Bc.nKoe ,npaBocyAue, n6o i6unurl{Mlt 'IIpH Heers}tcroNt 3a,BOAe IIepeII]IcflM'H I'I rpgBI'I3I'IflMw IIIO/J..L4 /B rCKaSKaX CB'OI'IX 3a[IyTalHbI H 'B

IIOAJILIHTHbIX

iIIOKa3aHI'IrfX )KIITeJIItCTB I'I OTeqeClB

TCBOHX

'ile-

peMe[raHbr, noHe)Ke rl]pfi nepenl4cqx BbIX0AHJII,I TaKHe or6'CTOfl Te,'IbcrBa, rrro xax 6u qeJroiBgK noAJII.{HHyio cBolo ,lrprtpoAy He lnoKa3bIBaJI, FIO B CKa3KaX peBI,I3CKHX O3HaqeH IZHaKO, a HeKOTOpbIX [nca,'In H 3aOqHO C TeM HaKJroHeHHeM, ur,o'6 IKaK 'BO3MOXnO '6UnO yrpelnl{rb eBO K 3a'BOAy Kpeflqe' a ts Apyfyrc IepeIIHlCb TOT xe rle,'loBelK rnOKaAa'H I,IHaKO ApyfOlO ,CKS3KoFOr [,pLI TOM eCTb Ta'KI'Ie rceUeficrBa, qTo oAr{H AOM pa3AeJIeH Ha ABa Ha3BaHHq, OAHII I,IMeHyeMbIe BeqHo oTAaHHbrs, KoIIX ,IIO yKa3y 755 r. Ber]IeHo n pa6otax ynorpe6.rarl c Kpe[ocTHbIM14, a Apyrlle HarliHrcaHbI 'B oTqI'{'c"IeHHb]x 1763 r. Kirs3eM Bqael,IoxtlNI, rKot,t pa'6oralor H3 oAHoro {rloAyrutHofo

A. A, Bggerucruft rrpll3Han raKoBb]MI.r ,runt nrcAefi, 3aIIilcaHHbIx B nerota. 57 lAlIO, Q.36, on. l, n. 189,.n.85; crr,r. raK)r(e cr. aBropa <K ronpocy ,u.Br.rxyulux cur'rax BoJrHeHzfi n ropuosaBoAcKllx lreHrpax Vpa,ra n cepeAltHe _56

penucb CorHqesa 1722

o XVIII

seKa>

(flo

ucropur.r Vpara>,

t6

rraarepua,ralr HrxserarzJlbcKofo sauo4a). C6. <Bonpoctt fleprur, 1966, crp. 38-49.


oK.[2,i{2,]Iex.I,yreMecTbTaKHe,KOH]IarIIHCaHbIBr{nc-'''IeKpe'[ocT58' HbIX, a SaKOHHblX Kperlocreii Ha oHbIx rHe I{Meercf "'>>

,floAo6uue zarwcw 'l'lMeJIlI Mecro

iB rlep14oA npoBeAeHI'Ifl

III

pe-

ca]lblx ooulecrB','Bra.BI4314H, KOfAa CKa3Ki4 CTarH 'loAaBarbcfl 5s, qro npnpeBn3opoB>> oco6ux no'cunxa 6e3 crefi x BJIaAeJIsIIeB, rHa Mecrax' ,BeJro K paSIHI{HOnO poAa 3Jloy)norpe6,reHNn}'I 3ro ,i cnorc 'ouepeAb BbI3BaJIo Bo,'IHeHue 1762-1763 ff' Ha 3aBoAax AeMI.lAogltx.- OAnaxo BepHyrb ce6e npexHl'Ie InpaBa 3aBoAoKI,IlI r'IroAfl M He yAa,'Ioct. f,ra'ea'fi'|parBnrerbcrBeHHotr KoMHccuH' puaan"eo"uB'ureil [piH'q'I'IHbI SOrHeHUil Ha 3aBo{Aax vpala' A. A. B"teucxtlii no.lroe'p,nu,'r ,npa'Ba AeMuAoea 'Ha 'BeqHoorAaHHbrx K 3aBoAaM [p[IxJIbIX .nnAefi, [pu3!HaB I'IX KperIocTHbIMH' I4arecrno, qto A. A. BqseN.roKr.rir 'nltta,Icq i4fpaTb pO,'Ib oII'pa<<or

,u.an"uo.oapi6nrpa.Eroln,pHe3AgaH'nxrrerarunlciluil3aBo,x. t?oa r.; H Nrtrnocr''goe o6parrpnue c nn6opuun'tu itfii u".yitu or >rure.neft 3 alBoAa, no,BH,AI,IM,OMy, o,6 ivt anynn 3a(BOACKIIX rII'p HK83rrr.rKOB. llOar.ouy oHI{ CHaqa,rra iloAaJr,i4 A. A. Bssel{cKol{y BeAOB IKOTOMOCTb O .ittoAgx-H[xrHeTaf[,'IbcKoro u Bblft'cKolo 3a'BOAOB' pa3JIHqcraryc toplt4lrqecxllft poft yxasttBaJlcn AeilcrsnrerlHuil *a"etopnft Hace.leHl'I'fl 'flocerxoB 60. "ot*llpuneg,eir,r AaHHbIe rno o6ouu 3arB'oAaM.

focyaapcraeHHble SaBoAcKI{e,'IIoAi{, lrIJIarfllque'noAylxHbIe n'- (cn'4a BoIITJIH JIIoAeHbrH B pa3Mepe 7 w 4 tpuseu, 812 A. M' r' tl To'r6ysuna 1722 Ar{, 3anncaHHble B nepen'rlcs Co.nHqesa

r.).

1732

<<qacrgtcq paBHo c KpelocrHbIMI{ ,'IIoAbMII' a nJrarsr rIoAyIx,BCe, {Hbre AeHbrr... i u 4 rpu'neu>> 'll. N{' 'r' (croAa BoIlu'II4 --t-t^3p roAa). 1736 rilorcl,e 3an,acanHble e,nepenflcn rB pa3' K v'n.l e g u lte Kp el'ocrHble, II JI a r1fl IIru e noAyIlI H ble AeHbrlr 303 ,u.. M' r. repe 7 rpuBeH,

KaK

-

nLIALI,N{, d'IIOAft, npnrll4ca'Blttl{ecfl

K

3alBOAaM rB rrleporlaCtr

3a'BOAcKI{TO.n'6yanua, yrKa3aHbI B I{UCIgI{ltecig <<DaiB,xacaer,ca TO tp}IIrIIbI, nr,opoil MH JIO.U,bMH.'I{ro HO C KpenOCTHbrMH>> TeM He MeHee rIIJ,-IaTLIJIII 7 14 4'rpnBeHHbIR OKr'r aA, Ka K I,I :r\ocyAapcTBeHIIbIe KpecTbqrHe. -l-1. BeAOM,OCTI.I TOCyAapTCTBeHHbIMI'I

A. Aeruiiaon, ya"a'" o6 grou, rocJIa"'I 24 ot<rn6pn 1763 r'

pa3,rHeBaHHOe rrll{cbMo s 3aBOACKJIO KOHTOpy' B xoTopoM AaJI 'cs,oe ro,troBaHlle yKa3a 1736 r.: <<Bce re, Koropble I{ rB flepenllcb

non""u""*a To;r'6ysuna 1732 r' 3anaca'Hd n yxaaauu 17361755 rr. or.ILaHbI rHaM ,Bequo, fliKo KpenocrHble yrBepxAeIIbI' a or MI',I B a c nora g a HbI cq I{ cr'I g rcql,I MH'Cq rOCyAap crBe HrHbI M_l{ 3 a BOACKI'I .nlq.u,bMH, B qeM Ban't'n geluxaq oxl'ur6xa yqHHeHa"' l4taK nH, BMe-

fAflo. 6. 36, on. l, ,u. 189,.rr. 16. r. Xv, ltg t tgo+. 60 U|AAA, 6. 1267, on. l, A. 179, .n. 98.

58 5e flc3,

2

Br,rnycx

z

l7


cTo ,cTapaHHs ,Barrrefo 06 yK,peqIeHr4r4 rBCeX ilptl 3a,BOAaX MOHX ,lIOAeIl peIXI4JIII'BI,IAHO ,Ha3brBaTb MHOtI,tx ,B fipoTI,rBlHO'CTb rBCeX y3a-

KOHeHI{ft...,cq14c,ltflrotqrz,Mr.tcr ro,cyAap:crBeHHbrMLr Sa,B,oAcKHMlr J]IOAbM'I{... A AOJIXCHCT,BIOTB&JIO BAM HCKATb I{OCIi JIOJIb3bI ,I{ ITO.KA-

3A'Tb I,IX OTAAHIHbIMII YKA3AMI.I... U XONATAfiCTBOBATb, qTO16 OHI.I II oT... B,fl3eMrOKOrO'Ha3,BaHbI'6U,Un xpenocTHbrMr.r, a 6yAe Tof o

JrcIIpocaTb

HeMoN(HO, TO CTapaTbcq

BaM O

Ha_

II M e,H o B a H Lr 14 11 x B e q H o,o rA a H,H bI M u .K g a,B o -1 a M...>> 61 ,1.). (paspa4xa Harrra. - A.caM gaB,oAq,HK Taxnu o6paeoiu, He 6u,t ynepeu, y4acrcr Jrlr

eMy c'Beprcrarb Beq'HoorAaHHbrx ,c KpelocrHlru,z. v rHac ecTb ocHo,BaHire fipeArroJrafarb, qro aro eMy yAaJrocb cAeJrarb, npu6ernye K rlcrrbrraHrHoMy MeroAy rIIoAKy,IIa. B ,pesynmare A. A. Bssenrcrrrft 0cra'BHJI 'B qaci-r'e rocyAapcrBeHHbrx xpecTbflH natur ll2 uenoeer, Sarl[carHHbrx rB lflepenficb 1722 r.62. OAuano r.r oro 'pe[reHrde ,KasaJr.ocb H. A. AeMzAoev <<o,6n.{_ HbIM>>' rr oH BMeCre c 6parorr llpoxonzert ,npocllJl U grfiX .rrrO4eft

<<qr{'|cd'rr'rrb yKpen,'reHHbrMrr K 3a'BoraM H y[orpe6ngrl ]rx 'Bo B.cerAalrHHe 3a,BoAcKr4e xracrep,crBa u pa,6oru>>. Kpoue ,roro, H. A. Ae-

Mr'rAoB H ero [rJreMrHHHK A. f. Aeuu40n Hall-epeBaJrr]cb 406urrcR pa3peueHilff 3aOAHO rr KpecTbsH I],p[[].rcHbrx K 3a_ -<<yKperrr{Tr,>> BOAY Aqrcxon rz KpacHono,rloxorl c,ro604 Ic ce/]ra flo'rposg11sfs oa. o4Haxo groro A. A. BrqseN{cxttr? 'c4ena* rHe cMof, o qeM o,H rcoo6ulnn B cBoeM irrr.rcbMe K [rr'reMrHHrirrry H. A. Aeurzao"r-. n"aoro A. A. BqseMcxoro ,noATrBepxAaer Harre MHeHr.re o cpeA,crBax, ,Ka_

xrlru,.406unacl [eull40Bbr yr(perrJreHrrfl rB€vrHOOTAaHHbrx K,3aBo4au: <<l{raK, ocraerct- MHe eAIrHoe B AoKa3aredrlbcrBo ncrugrlorl lroefi'x sa[4 A'pyxL6u H flpeAaHH,OrCTH COXaJrerb o ]Barx"* yOotrxax, a-6onee o r,oM, uro nprz pa3Aer,re po4rare,reft Barunx ,o*"" Axqraa u l(p:cuo:no,rncraq c.no6o4nr, raK ,r.t ,ceno florpo,n!s1l 0T cKoe $amnnwu Baueri [Ir7Ta,HO ,6rrno... co6,crseHHrrMH KDerrocTHbrMr.r, a f ,cKo,IbKO Hrr cTapaJrc'- yce,pAcrBo_ B a r b B a M... (paspagra Harrra. A.' ,t.) ronrio ,ru".o 3a

- He cu,lorc... BaKoHoB ,rloJre3Hofo cAeJrarb

vu

y6e4anaCb, <<,gyg1a;rtgu ft !rHofo.

{KHfl

cMory...>> 6a. OAHaxo,

gb>) cyMe,,I qAe,lr

arb

xax

ao.cra roq Hi)

Cne4ye'r orMeraTb, qro ,B Erouuxu,ltcKoM 3aBoAe, HecMoTpq 11.759 r. rpa$y Bopouqooy, >KnreJrH, rrpnrucaH_ Hbre K HeMy-B 1729 r. H [osAHee ,Ha rnpanax rocy4a,pClneHHbrx KpecrbflH n 7 n 4-rpaneu*ltfi oxnag, rax n ocra,r.lcb B liIaHHoM Ha nepeAarry ero.

6l 62

Tarr,r

xe, ,r.

I

I

l.

Taru xe, .r. 204. 63 Tau xre, nn. 221-224 6a

l8

Tau xe,

t.

226.


flo,rox<eH6lr.

llo III

peBugur4 6HI'I cocraB,'Iflrtl4 'rIorITI'I ,[o,rI'oBH'HY 65.

yqTeHHOfO eIO HaCeJIeHI'Ilfl 3aBOACKO|O IIIOCe,'IKa

Taxnu 06pa3oM, rrlpeAcraBaxercr

rHeo6xoAliMbIM nepecMor-

perb 'Borlpoc o rB'peMeHI'{ r oo'pMax 3arKperIJIeHI{f fopHo3a'BOAOKoro ,lla,CeJreHufl. llpizxpen.teHl4e np[U,'IbIx K 3aBo,[,aM,AJIq IIJIare)Ka rroAyitrHbrx AeHef B reqeHl{e I tngnosuHlt XVIII 18. lHe AeJIaJIo I'Ix

]I ,npI,IpaBHI'IBaJIO 'IIO ,IO,IIO)KeHHFO K iIIpHTIII{CHbIM fOcyAapcTrBeH'HbrM KpeCrbflrHaM. fIoc,re.l,crs14s ra5-o-fr-rnpllr[I,I'cxl'I B e 60-x IOAax XVIII CTO!'IeTHfl' Mepe ,cTaJIIl qCHbI 'nb,rn^Ofi "II4i[]b1755 T . ,llllxb ciBe'pcraiJl BeqHoCeHarcxltii- yKas 30 AeKal6pfl orrAarH,HbIX C Kpe[ocTHblMI{. AO HelO 3HaqI',ITefIbrHafl !Iacrb n Dr.r n14caBrrleroc.fl K 3 aBoAa M AeNrHAosa H a,ce,'reHr4q oTp ar6 aTbI,Ba,'Ia

,KpSIOCTHbILMI'1

na sux ,fioAylxHblfi oK,'IaA, a cBepx Toro pa6oTail3 <<I4g BOJII{>>' B cgqs[ ,c srI4M 'Bart<Ho HccJIeAoBarb ffoHl(pernblll npoqecc 3a'KpeIIJreHIlfl 13aiBoAOKLIx ,'IIOAel? 14 {Ha ApyruIX MaHysa'Krypax ypaJa, reM 6onee, AeftcbBHe pacoMorpeHHblx HaMI{ yKasoB paonpoCrpaHsJIOCb I'I Ha MHofl4e Apyrl4e 3aBOAbI crpaHbl' qro nOBBOJII'Ir'lo 6lI ssrscullTb AeiicrBlrreJlbHylo KaprHHy 3Tofo Ba>l<Horo tlpo{ecca. 65

a.

U|AAA, $ou1 JlauAparcKlrx KHIlr lI

1680, ,'In.

259-310

peBu3cKI'Ix

crasor (350), on. l,

o6.

2*


y.tlK

947.07

B. B. Mgxun

BCEBOJTOAO EJIA TOAATCKI| E 3OJrOTbt

E

n pOMbtCJI br

B NEPBOR NOJIOB}IHE XIX BEKA (ne ucropnn soJroroAo6uearcqefi npoMbrrrrJreHHocrn Vpa.na) Cenarcrzft yxas l8l2 r. <<O rnpeAocraBJreHr{H rrrpaB Bc€M poccuttcxuu noAAaHHbrM orbrcKr.rBarb a paapa6arbrBarb 3o,rrorble r.I ,cepe6'pflHbre pyAbl> I ,orxpul tuflpoKyro Ao'pofy B sororyro rn'poMbIIIIJIE.HHOCTI qACTHOft I,IIHI,IIII4ATI,I'BC; A NSO6PCTEHI,IC YPATb'CKOIO

rureft nepa JI.

Ll. Epycnlrqzua,

AoKa3a,Bruee Bos'MoxHocrr Ao'6uqrr

poccbl,nHoro 3oJlora, o6y,c;ronu.uo pacfipocrpagegr.re so,'roroAo6n'BaloIIlHx [peAflpllflrr.rfi rrro rBC€il orpournoft Tep'prlro,ptll.t rxpas. BosHLIKHoBeHr4e eroft Hoeofi orpacJrl4 ropHogaBoAcKoro Aed'ra B gHa-

qure,rlnofi Mepe r.r3MeHuno o6lux Vpanlcroro npoMbrrxJreHuoro pafto,ua nepeoft r[oJroB]rnbr XIX s. tr4,cropus ypanrcxoir so,'roro4o6Heanqeft ittpoMbrrrrrJreHHocrn IT3Y,I{EHA CIIIC

flBHO HSAOCTATOqHO, XOTfl IIIO HEIOTOPbIM EC

ACJIIEK.

TaM HMeeros ps1 rcepbe3Hbrrx pa6or2. He,Aocra'Tor{Ho Hcc,reAomaHA I]OKA I.I H,CTOPHfl OTACJII'HbIX 3OJIOTbIX ITIPOMbICTOB B .CI,ICTEMC

ropHo3a,BoAcxlrx xogsficre. Bo"ree rrJriu MeHee {iloApor6HoMy H3yqeHLIrc 3AeCb [OABep rr'r r4 cb Tor'rbKo AeM AoB oKLr € rlrp o M bl,cJr br 3. MH ,cra,sfir,r ,csoerl saAaqeft rrro3rnar(oMr{,Tb qHTaTeJrfl c r,IcropHeii Bcee,or,oAo'6rarcAarlcrKi.rx go,'rorbrx rl,DoMblc,ro,g Bcesono)K,c,Kr.rx r.1

,r 4opeQoprr,rengsrfi flepnoA. VvuruBafl, uro pa4 ee EonpocoB noryrrur Her<oropoe ooBeuleHne B Jrlrreparype4, Mbr cocpgAoroqr4M t nCaJ. XXXII, Ne 25119, mp. 328, 329. , P.B.,{,aHur'reBcKr.rfi. Pyicxoe 3o,rroro. M., lg59; B. fl. KpHBoHoqac"HoKaflurarucruqecxofi

goaoronpblrururesr o n. 3apox4eHrre r pa3Barne uocrn na-Vpqqe-.I c-epg4uHe XIX n.. C6. <<leHegt,tc KanuraJru3Ma n nfouuur,reuHocru>. M., 1963; A. B. IX u r o s._ Zs ryrop{4 Bo3Hr.rKHoBeHnfl 3oJrororrpoMbrrrrJleHHocru B qacrHbrx oxpyrax Vpa,ra. C6. <<HccneAoBaHr.rg ro lrcroplru Via,ra>), Bbrn.

I,

Ileprr,rr. 1970.

E* Ilu 0 H r_a y 3. flepnue uarn 3oJroronpoMbrrurreHHocru ua Vpai -D<flpo6,reusr " o6uecrseHHo-no,rurl.rqecxofr uciopNr.r Poccllu u c,,raBsH.ne. C6. cKHx crpaH>. M., 1963. _ 4 B. fl. KpueoHof oo. @oprr,rlrponaHr.re KaApoB HaeMHofo rpvAa B

I

norosuHe

20

XIX e. C6. <Vs

Hcropr.rr{ 3aBoAoB r.r Qa6pnx Vpa,ra>, nsrn.2,'Cuep.r-


o,cHoBHoe ,BHHMaHLTe Ha HCrOpl.lI.I pa3Bnrl,Ifl n,poH3BoACTBa, HIIKe Il,HCKOTOpbix 3KOHOMIIT{eCKuX BO:IIpOC2X.

elo rex'

C xonqa ,eioporo Haqa,'ra rperbero AecflrllJlerus XIX s' s MHofHX ypaJIboKI'Ix ropHosa'BoAcKIIX xosqftcreeHHble KoMndIIeKcbI Jarlr$ynAlrft (fron.rre'Bbrx, Pacro'pryeBblx, AeiltuAosHx, fpueaa

Ii Ap.) rcraJla BHeAp)trbcg Ho,Baq A/'I'fl 'iHI'Ix orpacJlb_- Ao6blqa 30,rora. He MLIHOBa,Ta STO|O U ypaJlb0Kafl BOTqHHa BceB,oflox'cKnx,

'KOTOpbIe Cpa3y xe ,nOCd'Ie OTKpbITI"Ifl 3O,'l'OTbIx pO'ccU'neft e EOIOc,'roBarKoft aaqe s 1823 r. [p]Icry'[vr'Il{ K'noucKoBbllu pa6oram u r

,cBo€fi 'coceAneft 3aosepcxoil Aaqe, pacloJlolKeHHofl Ha ceBepe Bepxoryp,cxofo ye3Aa, rAe,oHI{ eule ,B I{oHIre XVIII cro'lerl'Iq tnaIII,IHAJIII PAAPA'6OTXY MEAHbIX PYA I4 AC''IAJII{ IIIONbITKI' MOCTPOI-{Tb UC/ICIJI A'BI,IJIIHHIi

gA

B,ceg onoAo 6,'r

a

SOA.

Heciuorpa Ha ro, qro gra Aar{a He 6lt,ra o,xonqareJlbHo 3aKpenreHa sa Bcesoro)KcKHMI.I (Ha uee 6H,r o'6tssJlen onop Ka3,Hoil u yqacruuKaMz ,s 'o6qer4 crporaHo'BcKoM ,BJIaAeHuu-lonurrbrHbrMH, CrporauonuM,H lr Ap., 'xolopuft rtrpeKparl{dqcr rou'IbKo K 1838 r) 5 u orrcyrcrBo,BaJro cneqllaJrbHoa rpa3peIIr€HLIe Ha pa3paSorry Aparcqenuoro MeraJlaa, 3arnoAqLIIKH rIIoBer'II,I B rcBoeM ,ceBe'p,HOM B,[aAeHHH rfltrpoK]ro. pa3rBe,4Ky poocbl,rreft (no-en4uMoMy, c ;rera 1823 r.), floryr{fl's d6HaAexr{Ba}ou{t4e ,pesyJrbrarbl yxe B 1824 r. B lB25 f. onr.r Haqa;ru 4o6uuy 3o,rrora B rrpoMbrnIJreHHbIX uacrtrra'6ax 6. Orxpnrrre gAecb nproMbrcJrbr rndnyun.nu Ha3,BaHI4e

B

af

oA

anpe;re 1825

rc

Kr.r

x.

r. B. A.

ropHoe npaB,'reHne, qTo

<<B

Bcesoroxct<ufi. tncan,B llepMcl{oe

Co6CreeHHOft ero Aat{e... rAe AJIfl

'IIOHCKy

HaXoAfl',TCq KoIIn :II'o JIeBoii 'cTopoHe rperlKll crpe,re'6Hefo HOfi, rrrzl,4,rrreft pery cocsoy, HapoqHo .nocbIaaHHbIMH !'IIOAbMT.I HafiAeHrt ,IIeCKII, BO CTa [IyAaX .KOTOpbIX COAepXI4TCq 30-

MeAHbIX

pyA

or

r

or rpex rrerrBepreil Ao oAnoro 3oJIorHLIKa>) rfi inpocLUI pa3pe' [rnrb pa3pa6orry r.r BbrAarb 'IxHypqBble 'KHI4rI{ Arq 3a[H'cI{ 3OrOra 7. Paspe[reHue ua 4o6uuy 3or'rora 6u"ro inonyr{eHo AoBo,'Ib'Ho 6ucrpo. I( nauany 1826 r. Ha p. Crpe,re6noft yx(e 6bIJIa rlocrpo-

JroTa

eua n,p'oMbrBa,'rbHafl 'Sa6pr.rxa, Ha xoropoft 'pa5ora.no 70 qe,roeex. Croaa 5u.no nepereAeHo 6onruroe KoJrl{qecrBo rpenocluux pa6oqr4x ng ['plIKaMcKLrx tsorqr.{H 8. !,.n'R co3AaHHff sororoAo6Healo-

roscr,

1963;

B. B. Kceno$oHroBa. floloxeulte u 6opr6a pa6orunx,rrc-

Aeli BcesoroAo6;raroAarcxnx 3oJlorblx [poMblcJloB n i0-50-e roArr XIX n'

Crep,uloncx, 1964; B. B. Myxrrrr. C6. <Bonpocn -cu;ra ucropau Vpa,ra>, sun.5, na npe4nplrarzrx ypanucxofi ropHo3aBoacKoti eo,qt,tuH BcesoPa6oqas ,'to)KcKr.rx s I norosuHe XIX nera. C6. <He ficropl{u pa6overo KJIacca }I KpecrbaHcrBa flepucxoro xpar>, flepur, 1965. 5 UtI,lA'CCCP, S:1341, on, 26, A. 945, n.243; S. 1152, on. l, t. 44, ,r. 194. 6 CO|ACO, $. 12, on. 2, n.2, n.76o6.

qlHA CCCP, 0. 1341, on. 26, 4. 945, n,'r. 8 CO;ACO, O. 12, on. 5, A. l, .rr,r. l-2, 39.

z

1-l

o6.

2l


Iql4X IIpeAIIpl'IflTI'II4 rB f!'IyXOM Kpae, ,'IeXaB[IeM 32 tIIp€,{e,rlaMI{ rofAa TeppLrTopHH,,npeAcTofl ,'ro [peoAo,'Ierb rHeMa.lble rpyAHocrrr. 'B. A. lBceno,'ro)KcKr.rfr B 3aflrrcKe, ]rroAaHHoft s l83l r. 'MaHr.r,crpy $n,ua ncoe f p a oy,KaH'Kp I{Hy, cJreAyrorrlH M,o6p a 30\{ xap aKTepH3oBa,rr 3ToT p ariorH: <<cro,rl corKpoBr4ilIecTByrouaq Mofl .1,aqa MeCTHbIM OB'OLIM IIO/IO)K,eHHeM HaxOALITCfl rllp'oTI4iBy BCex CO'CeJ,cTBeHHbrx 3aBoAoB Hecpa,BHeH,Ho B Aa,rrbHefiner,r paccTof,Hr.rH oT o'cB.oeHHoir

HaceJIeHHbIX MeCT Lr npeACTarB,'rfieT CO16Orc OAHO rIP,OCrpa}H'CTBO 3eMJrr4 rB.O BCei{ 'HeO6pa30'BaHHOCTH Ar.r,KOri rlprrpoAbr, rroqrl1l He npoxoAHMyIO, TaK,CKa3aTb, InyrCTbIHIO, OKpy)KeHrHyIO OAHHMI.T KOqyloIqr{Mri 'Bofy,rraMr4>> Ho, HecMoTpfl Ha rpyAHocrr.r, Bo HMfi <<3o/.roTOFO TeJrbUa>> BCesOnOx,CKr{e 3a Crr'eT TpyAa r.r JrI,IrxeHr,rii'Kpenocr-

n

HO|O Hace.leH[fl CBOeri Borqr.rHbr ,cyMe,ln co3AaTb rHa ceBepe Jr a Kp yn H oe 3 o,'r o ToAor6 br B a Io IIIee rrrp eAlp I,Is Tr4e.

B

ypa-

3aosep,cKoii Aarre oAr.rH 3a ApyfnM rorrK,pbriBad'rucb rnpr,rncKi.r.

Bc,reA 3a rnepnblM Crpen,e6uu'M rnpur{oKoM r6brr,fi or'xpuru [Ioxponcxnft (1827 r.), llerpolae,rroBcKr4ri Ha p. IIIariraHKe, ,rpr.rroKe p. Vlsaent (1828 r.), flpeo,6'paxencxuft,Ha p. Lllarure (1830 r.), 3sauescxnfr aLlsaHoscxnri (1832 r.) u gpyrne r0.

truy, ucKa JrH'c a ]4 ble c Hnx 6lrln 'cHflTbI <<CJIll,BKa>>. EcreclseHHo, r{T.o n,pLI gToM 6orarlte poccbrrllt 6ucrpo krccflKrt, 'a s a,xc,rlryararrl4lo cra,rll{ 'nocrynarr '6onee ,6eAsue MecropoxAeHuq. Ecnz, Hairrpr Mep, e 1832 r. ,cpeA'Hee coAep)KaHrre 3o,rrora ,e 100 [ryA. ,rrecKa cocraBJrrrJro 2 so,'rorHrixa 49 AoJIeft, ro s 1860 r. oHo.KoJre6ad'rocb B ,rrpeAedrrax I so,'rorHr4r3

o.noronpoubl

IIIJreHHI,I KLI, yBeJI I.rrlltrB

a'a

6oratrte ,poccblrllr, za6pacal'ean:ltpil,r.r,oKu

4o,6

KarK TorbrKo

11. Ho Ero 6u.uo ropasAo Bbrrre cpeAHefo coAep)KaHuq soJlor,oHocHbrx IrecKoB ypa,'Ib'cKl,rx qacTHoBJlaAer'tbrrecKl{x ga,u 12.3ro flBJreHI'Ie 6u,ro,tutnqHbrM A,'r,q ,ecefi gororo4,o,6lrnarcu]eli n.povrrru-

48 ao.rreft

d'ICHIHOCTIi ICTP AHbI.

B pesy.nlrare nocro)rrHHbrx H AoBo,rrbHo rxlrpoKr.rx pa3BeAor{Hbrx pa6or Ha rep,pr.rropuu La.url r6u,ro orNpsrro MHoro HoBbrx Mecropox4enarl (BosuecenoKoe, Ka3aHoxoe, CoQzrlcroe u ap.). 3ro cBl{AereJrblcr,BonaJro o roM, 'r{To rrorrrr.I ,Bcfl TeppaTopaa palioHa I'er{qercfl go,'roroHocHoft. flon,oxn goJroTa rrprlBeJru K orKpbrrl.IIo B 3aosepcxofi Aaqe Apyfor'o AparcrIeHHoro Mera,rrJra rrJrarr.rHbr (ne nos4nee l82B f.):,llo ee gor6lrua 4o peSopmbr He- TroJryqr4,rr,a AOJI)KHOTO

paS'elttut

,llpnne4eu e

'o ll

ra'6Jrtz

13.

uy,

.rroKa3br

Ba

II|I4A CCCP, 6. J/, Ofl. .r, A. Dlb, JT. /. corAco, o. 12, on.2, p,.2, ,ur. 8-9, 76 u np.

Cratuctuqecxoe onucaHr{e 3aosepcxofi ,uaqu

<ntB>, 186t, N! 36. 12 l(parxuii oueDx pa3Burr.tg,racrHoft

<fX>,

xn. 7. cro. 102. '3 CO|ACO, o. i2, on. l,

22

roqyro,Be,'r lrqlrHy r.r

1861.

t.

18, .n,r.

A. B.

Bceeo,'toxcxoro

3o!'roronpoMbllrrJreHHocru

l-9.

AH Ha Mu,Ky

n

poccuu.


AO6bt,{u 3O,'IOTa Ha BCeBOTOAO6,'IaTOAaTTCKI,IX n,pOMblc,r'taX B TeqeHHe Bcero,KpefirocrHoro repr{oAa (ra6.n. l). llpn cpaBHeHurz AaHHbrx npe)KAe,Bcero c,'reAyeT oTMerr.rrb 16o,rluryrc'Hep aBHoMep Hocrb exeroAnoil Ao6uqu. flpi.rulr'ttrr pe3KHX cKaqi{o'B 'KopeHr.r,rl{cb ts canaoft rlpi{'poAe ro14aruneft 3o,'roronpoMbr,u,]reHHo'crr4, 6a314 poBa'B-

rueficq Ha ttpr,rMHTI4gHoli rexgn'Ke, cHJrbHo ga,gHceeueft or rrofoJ-

HbIX yC"rOBI4ti, ,143Me,HeHI,Ifl ICOAep)KaHl'tfl 3,O,IOTa ,B IIeCKaX, norepb

a6ouero B'peMeHH npr.{,[ep e6a3r.rp o,B aHr.ru,ilp or.r3BoAcroa,c o4uoft

p

poccbrnu ,Ha Apyfyro H

,rIIpuql{Ha

M,

r. A. B

gor,{ilHe BceeonoxcKnx K gr,r.rM 4o6ltqa, Heo,6xoAti-

or6'bqcH'fl BII]1.1M HeparBrHoMepHocTb

Ta6;ruua .4o6uro

l1i

,4,o6srro 3orora

3oJrora

,oror""*o"

rpynron | i 825

63

I 843

r 826

AA

1844

6

l3

li I

t4

1827

a

20

I

845

828

30

38

I

846

26

4l

1847

6

29

8

27

1

848

R

33

1849

9

I

1829

2

1830

A

l5

831

12

1832

11

d.tJ

7

I

1834

6

I

1835

(

12

i 836 i 837

1

I

17

11

25

26

64 85 34

28

1850

o

31

78

52

l85l

16

6

1

r852

86

A

23

4

87

1

853

16

6

5

6

56

1854

19

12

36

4

/l"l

1855

27

I

1n

I 856

2l

t2

tr838

6

36

59

839

l3

t9

20

I

857

io

17

30

l 840

t2

l3

t2

1

858

18

1

5l

1841

o

24

72

I

859

12

2l

.t

l?

tlJ

1860

I

I

1842

ZI

l4

1

40, t.785,.r,'r. 38-39; |ACO, 0. 24, on. 2, t.277, '4 U|I,IA, S. 37, on. g.

12, on. 2, n.76; V. Ee.qouocos. CeeaeHuq KoJIHqecrBe rIDoMbITL,rx recKoB H ,uo6rrroro 3o,'rora Ha Ka3eHubrx lr qacrHbrx npoMbrc,'rax Vpd,irrcrofi o6,ractr, <fX>, 1865, xn. 12, crp. 442-443,450-451.

,r. 376 o6.; CO|ACO,

o

t.2,

23


MO Ao6aBHrb rpyAHocrrr, ,cBfl3aHHbre

c Sx,HaHcl.{po,BaHL{eM

[Ipo-

MbrcJr,oB, o6eone.r'gHHeM HopMaJrbHort pa6orbl npeArlpnflTl,Ill, pacIIIO,IIO)KCHHbIX B I.NYXOM HC'HAICCJICHHOM lKPAC I,I T. TI.

VqnrlI,saq HeAocraToqHo'cTb'oAHHX

rroro.u,rHbIx AaHHbIX A,rg aKTepI{crlIKLI [pOI,I3BoAcTBa, Mbl II'plIiBeAeM CpeAHI,Ie,nOKa3 aTeJIr.I A06brqH 3oJl,ora'IIo .\ecflTrlJlerrdflM Ha Bceso,'IoAo6raroAarcKr4x npoMbrc,lax.

xa,p

Ta6tnua ,{o6uro sa nepno,(

Ao6Hro s cpeAHeM 3a

Qynron 1825-1830

Qyuron

30

40

I

1t

1840

dD

JI

dd

8

23

1841-1850 1851-1860

'71

t2

8l

7

179

qt za

38

l7

I 831

-

7

2

ro.4

3OJIOTHHKOB

B

t2 27

38

42

Taxuu o6pa3oM, Ao6brqa 3o,rrora Ha BceBo,'roAo6fiaroAar,cKlrx orpax(aer o6uryro reHAeHr{Hro pocra fipor.r3Bo.r,crBa. Cpe4uero4o,Baq AoSbrrla 50-;< foAoB XIX ,s. s 17 c ,'urilrHr.rM pa3 npeBocxoAllr cpeAHloro Ao6brqy 20-x ro4on. 9ro o6'rqcHflercfl reM, .ITo 20-e roAbr flBJr,flKlrcfl neproAoM craHo,Br'reHHff rIIpoMbrc.rroB. 30-e roAn roAbl pacuBera 'BcesofloAo6laroAarcrux rtpoInpoMblcJrax

MbI,Cr'rOB 'B CLICTeMe KpeTIOCTHOTO XO3fliICrBa. 0/'6 3TO'M rKpacHoperrr4Bo roBopflr unQpbr cpeAHeroAoeoft Ao6HqI.I, 'rpeBblcHBrueti '60Jree qeM B 8 pa3 iiIoKaSareJIH 20-x roAos. B c.ne,4ylou1ee Aec'srH,'reTr.re, Hao6opoT, npoucxoAl{T rnexoroprtfi cIIaI,'q?o cBl{Aere,lbcrByer o HaBpeBaHHH Kpn3I{cHbIX flBJIeHHI.i BHyrpIl Kpenocrnllqe-

cxoro xogqft crea B,ceeoJrox(cKllx. lIpeapeQopMeHHoe AecnrI.I"rerI.{e xapaKrepH3'yercn AanlseiirxrrM yxytArrreHlleM QllHanconoro H xogqftcrBeuHoro rIoJIolI(eHHn 3aBOA[{[KOB. EAr.tHCrS'eHHO EO3MOXHbIM Arq sllX CnOCO60M 3KC-

,nJryaTaqlln 3oJroToHoc,Hblx 3eMeJIb ,cTar'la cAarla il'pl{l.loKoB ts apeHAy. lIpeArtpI{I.rMqI4BbIe Ka['I,ITaJLI{crbl-a'peHAaropbI cyMeJII{ tsbt)Karb n3 3aosepcror? AaqH fopas4o 6o.ur,nre 3oJlora, qeM oHa AaJra sa'Bce npeAbrAyrqae AecflrnJrerr.I,s.

Ho s xouqe 50-x roAoe Ao-

6r,tu a 4p a rolreHHoro'Mer ar'rd'r a 3Aecb g a MerHo coKp arItJI acb, qro, .tlo rBr.rAHMOMy, O6tqCHser,cri o60crpeureir,t o6u1tx,KpI43HcHbIX qBreHu ft rn rop uos a,eoAero ft np o MbIIxJIeHHocrIr Vp a;r a.

I(axoe x<e Mecro

3 arH,H M a

JIH B ce,eoroAo'6JrraroAarcKr.re rlrpoMbrc-

!'rbr'cpeAr.r Apyfr4x go"roroAo6H'Balournx npeAn,pllffrllft xpan?

flo


pa3MepaM 'npol43BoAcrBa oHI4 Mofyr 6url orueceHbl K 6peanrix N ,nocraa,'IeHbl B oAI'IH PflA c 3o"Ioron-p-oMoit^.it"*1ot*" nDe4nDH,rrTHfMr.t Ka3eHHttX fopO6,raIOAaTrCKI'I1 3aBOAOB, KpecrIIIaftraIIcKI'IMI'I- fpueears' flo o6ue;ffi#;;;&rnr,rn Eyrepo nrBecb rxpenocrnoft n6plao4 soJlora (361 Mv o6.beMv Aor6brroro sa r{l-{'c"I}r

zo QvHibs) oHI4 3annMa,rn 9-e Mecro (us 15) ^cpeAI'I Ka3eH"vo. I{ rIpoMbIcJIoB fopru632s9^q}IKoB n 6-e uecro (ne JIpoMbIc"IoB HbIx npoMbIcJIoB Bceso' ll) cpe^u,no.n"A""i. Paeyirleercn, rlro MecroeoaomAo6orrezlolqeil Vpanrcxoir noi*oi."i,e o6uIeN.I nracrura6e llonlsyncr - 4a'HIIDONrbrIu,,reHHOCTr.r He ocTa'BaJrocb,HeIi3MeHHbII\{. 3orlora ma vpane il;;'B. fl. Kpr"o"oooBa o pa3Mepax 4o6stullnpoUeHrHylo.l,o,'I'o s 1831. 1340, iB50 ra 1860'rr.16, Mbr BbIBeJIII 3a 3rLI qeTblpe IaAO6H.rr.r -O"uB,ceso,'roAo6JraroAaTcKl,rX,iIpOMbICr'IOB pa'BH'rra'icb lcoorBercrBeHHo: 3,47010, 4,1l0/e, 2'l1o7o v i". rno orHoureHI'IIO X Ao6uqe Bcex fipoMblc'toB Kpafi;7'9l0 ls' 2,ggolo qacrHblx jnpo7,4gol;,3,37010 rlo orHo[IeHnn x ro6ltqe Bcex ero x 'qoorHolxeHlllo rlo 10,730/6 *o,c.trb" i z,gt%,8,480/0,4,550fs w 6srue npoultcJloB ypaJIbcKHx 3aBoAIil'IKoB. Texsu,xa .Ao6dqn 3OrOTa Ha BcegorOAO6,'IafOAaTCKHX np'O-

Mbrc,rax, KAK

14 BO BrCefi 3O,'TOTOAO'6bIearcqeft IIpgMbIIIJIeHHOCTII

rBpeMq, 6ula ,nec.noxrnofi. flpouecc ,IloJIyqeHXff 30g'OJloTa pa3Ae Jlfr[Icfl'Fa HeCIOd'IbKO 3Tai[OB: paAne,qXa pOCCUneft' ycrpoftcrrnpoMblBar'IbHblM 6uqa^neoxoB, Tp8HC,[oprI{poBKa nx K EAM, TIPOMbIIBIKS 'I,Ir HAKOHCII' OTKATKA B OTBAIbI TICPCPA6OTAHHOfi 'ropoAbr.

crparrb|B 3ro

,Pasoe4ra

np.oI-{3tsoAI{JI&rCb CII€[I,I3J]b|HbIMLI IIapTHgMI,t

IIo

"'Io-

nporauexti. c cefaM.r,r DerrKaM ;nyreM urypQoeannfl poccbll]efr crapa3BeAKe g0l* t,ny6uHHofr e.ltip,l ktx .. p"a"""i ro'BopI'IT HA/lnsrou Jro npIIMeHsrb,clff l[pl'IMI{rIdiHOe 6ypenue' 06 : 3eMJ'IqHbIe fi llcrpyMeura qt,Ie ha fl'poMblcJlai <<3eMJIeII'poxoAHoro>> II AP'' 'no,4ry6Hue 6oesbte n Ao"lora )KeJIo'HKI{, 6ypa,eu, -enotot, 17' pa'6Orax fopHbIX ,coiBepilreHgo :HeIIpLIMeHHMOIIo [pI'I Apyrnx npn noMoll{n pa3t''o6uua necKon iBe'tacb rrlpei'IMyllrecrBeHHo I'l L'IaBHbIN{ c)6pa3pa60ToK e' r. TIIOCOB LId'II{ pa3pe30B' lqrKpblTblx ynorpe6'rn"Irlcb pa3oM ,B rerHee ii"*"' ilprlpalqglb -9,6-nuttnc ie ypa.rrocroft ropHofr npoMbluuleHHocrH roro BpeMeHI.{ i{IrcrpyN'leH)Ke<<'tItnIIIKH>>' TFi: fopHble JIoMbI I{ 'flIlKll' ropHble <<6a"IAbI>> r4Jlw T' A' KyIIITaHbLI'I iKU!KVI' J'IeSHbIe pyCOKI'{e 14 TnOJIbCKI'le JIOIIaTbI' i6yp-o^-espun{npoBoAll't'ltcb nopoAaMI'I ll'pr,r ecrpeve co c{KaJIbHbnMM n"ie puob"o, c oTnanrofi ,flopoxoM, rrptr iKoropbrx r{c'rroJrb3oBaJlHcb LI 'OrlblrHofi

14.6erIoHocog. Vxas. coq'' crp' 442-444' q acTHoKa nlir a!t llcTuqeB. fl. KpuroHoro_B.3apoxAeutle lt pa:Bltrl'Ie s' C6. <feHeslrc Kanura' XIX cep^er'nHe B ria Vpane' npotr.ttturJreuHocrlr crofi 196^3' crp' 252' .nu3Ma B npoMbllufisHHocru>, M' . 4', "'*?COiAaO, g. 12, on. l, .u. 109, n,r. 6-10. r5

t6


TPAAIIIIIZOHHbIC 14HCTPYMCHTbI J{ T. .r. 18.

6YPbI, gA6O\THLIKLI, IXTPEBC,]II{ ,llo4eeuulre ,paspa6orxr.r 6unn cpaeHr4re,rbrHo peAKrjMrz ,BeH

"Iil{'cb f,]a'BHltl.t o6pasont np4 Halrhqul4 OqeHb,60raru^x ,[ecKorB.,fIDe_ LrMyilIecTBeHHOe rnpuMeH,elrr4e orKpr,rTbrx p asp a6orox ynpoula,ro ru yAerueBJItJIO 40t6UUy, TexHI4Ka XOrOpoir rB T€r{r€rHH€ Bcero rK,pe[,ocrHofO rllept4OAa cyqeClBeHHO He x3MeHflracb I paiHCnOpTapOiBrKa IIe,CKO,B K MeCTaM ,IIpOMbIB.KZ, a OT Hee Ha

orBaJIbI ocyu{ecrB,rlfl Jlacb npx noMorqu f})Kr€Boro rp aHclopra HJrI{ rpuMrzruBH oft n'puucxoBor? TaqKH. E4au,crseHHbrM lrcoee]lurericr_ BO,BaHI4eM,S erori o6,'IacT}{,6U.ru ne60,rrblrlu.e K0HHO-]Ke/re3Hbre IOpOtIj, KOTOpbre rnog'er.Irtca Ha MHOfl{x 4b-;;;: u. raK'e oooo."'uo*i;%ilr"#"J:iffi83;: "ule ILIeBIOI(OM rz Eo.opoAcKOM ^u. IIpJ,il,ICKax B,ceeonox,c,ntzx le. Ho rg_ga TpyAHocrI-I AocraBKa 'peJrbcoB c fipkt KaM.KHX 3SrBoAoE Ho,Boe tp e.4,crB o He n or y,q r.rr,r o rr r4p o Ko f o,n p r4 M eHeHr.rfl . Ta^T_o_p^T:e'cp ,-anoo,'Iee cJIox{HbI'M n rpyAoeM'KlrM gra[IoM,npouseo4crBeHHoro lpoqecca r6lr.ua npovbrB'Ka 3oJroroHocHbrx rrecK-OB. Ee n,nepeyro OI{epeAb }I KOCHV,IICfl npOrpeCC TeXHr.rKr.{ ,Ha ypa,,r.CKHX lrrpoMbrc_ .irax. !,e,ro B ToM, rITo ro ,nrepe pasneprbrBaH,nfl etoli uo,eon' orpacilH [poMbrrx,rreHuocr,a e o,6opor ,nocry,nana s,ce ,6onee ,6eAnsre

iil

3OJIOTOII reoKH' rllepep€6arbrBaeMafl Macca KOTOpbrx Ao,crlrra,Ia orpolrHorl 'BeJrrzq[Hbr. !,arsHerhuee ,pa3rBr.rrve 30Jroron,poMbr,ruJleHHocru 6eg yexanasar\nu np,oqecca ,npouu,nxa ,6u;ro 'npoiro ue_

ao314oxHlt[,{

20.

llep'n'ouavanruo Ha rrpoMbrcJrax. B'ceso,roxcxux fip'oIz3tsoAIrJIacb Ha npHMI'trI4'BHblx BarxfepAax, ',poMbrBKa Ho BJraAeJrbrlbi npqA[p_I4Ht"I].I MepbI AJI' ,B,Be,qeHrif 3O,rrOrO:rrpOMbrBaJrbHbrx y,CTa_ r ; ----

HoBoK 6o,nee rgH,coKoil [por{3eo{HTe,TbHocrlr.

lgSl r. poa"ou"n""r ,B. A. B,ceno,rox,oxoro .^-_E-_q: | ropHbru r.rHxeHep A. [enrzcob rnprrB€3 so Bceso,ro4oOlul.aur.n r{epre}Kl.I HOBbIX [poMbrB a JIbUUX ycrpotlcrB <<Ta flt,,rbcKl,rx ro,ry'6oqex>> (naaurnu,.o3AaH*rbrx uepenairo"orua -) . ufloniru--o"oir, ..Oeapa,re

CTollT tB TOM,-,n7rgg,r fleuucOn 3arBOAquKy,-r{To Ha oHVIo JIo_ 'rpe'6no 6 ueroeeK, Korr rpoMbrBaror B .y""'" 27d0",";;";'JJoo"o_ H'o'cHblx lecKo'B' TotAa KaK Ha HgBbflHcKoM uJII,t 'BeHfepcKoM craHxa x ( yco rreHcrBoB

e

repru.

_

B.

a

ra f LI.rIbcKr4e

M:i

;"";;;;6r r.r., 16 unu lB .reroeex, npoMbrBaroulrzi ue oo,i".'tis'0il;#;ti B Qeapa,re 1832 r. clerlkraJrbHo .HaHrrbru Ha [poMbrcJrbr <<AJrfl parcrnopq)KeHrff 'no HcKyccrBeHUOfi 'qa,crn>> qaso,sH^'K A. eep

KoB

Ha rlp a,BIi.iI np

IE

t9

n.

187. 20

2l

,26

a HHbr

Ba

rrI

aKa3,qarxa B oeeoA nHa

H

14.

IIIua-

n po M brc,,rbr

Talr xe.

U|HA

CCCP, 0. 37, on. 3, a. 686, ,r. 40; CO;ACO,

B. B. Aa

H.rreecK r.rii. Vxag. coq.. cro. U|I4A CCCP,0.652, on. l, s. 960, H

155_

"r,r.'34 -35.

S.

12, on.

l,

a.403.


<<{JIf IIIOC\IOTpeHl,lrfl i.I rcH'I TLIff Ha n"IaH 3,OJIOTOIIpOMbITBaJIbHbIx icTaHKOB',r{ M a Ix!{tr>. rflpr.rueu aAM HHHCTp aqHlo B ceBo"Io)KcKI4X 6O'rlrue Bcer.o LI HrepecoiB ar'I np ouecc aHarrlbf a M I'IpOBaHlIfl-.- K erouy BpeM eXH ,II.JIf B'CEg,ONOAO'6JIAIOAATCKIJX IIIPOMbIIC''IOB B MOCKB'E Y111E 6bUIO 3aKyrr",reHo 3 nyaa pTyTr.t 14 3aK,'rrcqeHo con'ra[reHLIe sa ee ilocraB-

rITo Ha rlpoMblc'6o,'IbxroM Ko,'Inqecr'Be. 3To ro'Bopl'lr o roN{' .rru,6o yxe ,fl,pr4cTyrrrr.rJrh, ]1t46o roToBlrr'il.Icb IIp]ICTyIII.ITb K 22.' aH aJrbra r,r auuLl go ilor a r. lB32 Jlerolt 'c,'Iecapb Ilaplxon r apxHreKropcrxltt? yr{eHI4K cIaro,s n06brBa,,ru Ha 3or'roTbrx rrpoMbrcJrax Bepx-Heftnl.IH'CK]tX I4

IKy

;

.nax

Clrceprcxux 3a,BoAoB H cocra'BI'Ir'II'I IIraH <<6yrapuoro AeftcriBl'Ifl> Ha 3rgx IIpul]cKax. Byrapar (ao,roro,npoMbrBaTer'rbHble MaiIxI4HbI) groft cHcrer{bl y)Ke 'AeJIaJII'Icb Bo BceBo,'IoAo6raroAarcKe rIoA py23. KOBoAcTBoM Jliplxo,ea I'I rnpHcMorpoM Llliuaxoea

Tar aHr,tll,eu-e'xpenocrHble Macrep a B'ceB'o,'Io>I<rcKlzx He orp aCb KOTILIPOB AHHCM ),ICTPOfi CTB, I'I306P ETCH,HbIX APYTI'I M H'

HI,I qI]B A,-IH

B 30-x rr. XIX B. OHI'I co3,Aail14 opI'IrHHa,'lbHylo I'I AoBoJIbHo BbIcoKonpoH3BOAIITeJIbHyloKoHcTpyKIII.l}o-<<[Ia.[IUnHcKyIo3o,'IoTo'flpo.

t4trrt <<[rafl11rr,rH,cKylo 6yTapy>>, tIoJIytII4BMblBareJrbHyro Maur4Hy>>, -LI-lanurn p. Ha ceBepe 3aosep'cxofi Aar{H, fa'e Ixvro Ha3BaHne or

Ha 6yiape \['poMbI'BaJIocl 2000n lO-uaconyp cyeny' tr4g'ge-ctHltft py'ccrail roputrfi niuxenep 14 yr{eublfi M. M. Kap'nnricrnil, nocer}r'etult-l1 ts 3Tt,t roln Ceeepitrft Vpa,r, BI4Ae,'I ,Ha npl{ilcKax 'rlo lUa:[u]e 3 raxne #u ,n"o"ore

6bLTa npnnteneHa.

2500 ny,q. necKa

6yrapn, o.dna us rirlx,npv no4I{JI acbB AeftcrBae'n aponoft MailI{Hoii 'B 3 ,r. ,c., a 'ocraJ'IbHble-'Bo'x,tlHbIMl't 'Kore'caMI't24' "irurito"tot B 30-40-x toAax cro,'Ierl'I's 3rl'l ycraHoBrKI't rrrrlpoKo IIp'I4MeHgr"ILcb

;Ha MHOII4X IIPOMbI'C'IaX KPaf.

B 1836 r. sa 'npoiutlic,rax 6u,ro yxe 4 6yrapu c MexaHI'IqecKnM n'pl'lB'oAoM. Kp'oMe rofo' rB I'IIOJIe erofo >Ke roAa Heicl{or'IbKo 6yrap '6otno eaxae'aHo Ha floxes'cKHft 3aBoA, A,tfl Ha'6rIoAeHHfl 3a

IZ3;OTO'B,'IeHI,IeM KOTOpblx

ryla

16u,r [ocJIaH 'BCe rOT 16e Ma',crep

Ornrn" ,Ilapuros. B l'$9 r: Ha EorocJIoBcKoM' Crpe'le6uou

tl

Bocxpeceu,crioru npuncxax 6u.nn coopy)KeHbr r6yrapuue ycraHoBru. IIpn rfloMoll{u oreuIIaJIbHbIX rKarKoB I{x 'M'ofJII{ 'fiepeMerlarb Ha ,rro6ofi Vqa'crolK fl,poMblcfla

25.

floq:Breuue r6yrap i{ Apyr}rx ,orHocr.rre,'rbHo rcr'Iox,Hblx Mexa-

HH3MOBHa3oJIoTbIx'[poMbIcJIaXBbIABlIHy.noBoIIpoc.oSHeprcTI4.

tiecKori 6aSe. O6trqHafl rLIApO,SHeprerI,lKa,B CIIeIII4QI4qeCKHX npnr{

cKoBbrx yCd'IOBI.{rttX (6Onnuraa p a36pOCa,HHOcrb H HSAOIf orBeqH'oCTb rz

*

qfUA

2, nn.3, 23 24

CCCP,

13 o6., 19.

S. 652, on. 1, a.

960, n.272; C@|ACO'

COrACO, e. 12, on. 2, t.2,,r.n.83o6.,84 go,rorouocHbtl-

$'

12, on. 2'

poccbtnrx. <fX>, M. M. K'a p n li'rr c x u fi. O xs.8; B. B. Aanu,'IeBcKltfi, yxaa. cou., crp. 176. 25 C@rACO, $. 12, on.2, t.'4, an.2, 11 ; on. i, t.210, n.28'

1840,


oTAeJrbHbrx oqafoB npor-r3BoAcTBa, Ma,rrbre 3alacbr BoAbI B pyqbflx Ir peqxax) rnpH'MeHfl,'Iacb B KpaiiHe ofpaHriqeHHbrx pa3Mepax. Ter\{ He MeHee Ha,HeKoTopbIX [IpHHCKaX BCeBOTOXCKT.TX AerlCTEOBadTr.I Ifi ,Ip arB,ll aqecKl,Ie y,cTp oft CTB a, np HIB:6AH'B IU LIe B ABuxeHI,t e n p o MbI,B a J bHbIe Ma[Ir.rHbr. B 1843 f. B 3ao3epcKort Aaqe ,6sr.uo 4 BoAsHbrx Ko,'Ieca 26. Ho ece xe 3HeprerkrKa 'Ha'npoMbl,cJrax 6onruroro pa3'Br.r'TI4fl He rno,{yqil'ra.

C'roeo6pasubre ycJro,BH'ff 3o,'roroAo'6nraarcqero

ttpo]4srB'oJ,crBa

sacTa'BHJrr{ 3aBoAOB,rraA€JrbI{eB'pauo o6parllTb BHr.rMaHfie Ha rrapoBbre ABi4rar,edrrn. Vxe 's Haqa"'re 30-x roAoe ,B MexaHr{qecKHX

.MacrepcKr.rx, 0,6cry)K[BaBIrrnx npoMbrcJra, 6wna ycraHoB,'reHa flepBan MaIrIr.rHa MolrlHocrblo s 12 n. c., r,r3roroBJreuHas 'Ha llox(eB,cKoM 3aBoAe. B erO X{€ rBp€Mf CrOAa 6U.na AOCTaBrleHa <<[a-

poBafl rrroABr.rxHafl Marrrr.rHa>> (noxorrlo6n,rs. B. M.) ycrpoftcrea r. Tera>>, Ho yx(e gzlrori 1832 r. osa'6tr.ta -oroc;ra'Ha o6paruo a

flox'ny

olrrpaBKrr lto ,B,ecHe Ha 6apxe 's CaHrr-flerepllo4euxHocrb Ma[r[Hbr rrt,o3Bo.rlf lTa l]crroJrb3oBarb ee HeIIOcpeACTBeHHo fla 'IIpfil.ICKax, y'cr'IO'BLIflM KoTOpbIX rKaK pa3 OTBcqa,ru ire6o"rluue uo6u,rrbHbre ABr.rraTeJH. . AAul.r uu'crp aur.rfl rrrpo M bICJroB Ae,'r a Jr a H a crofl Te,'rbHbre lrorrbrrxn 'o6sasecrficb rrap o,BbrMH r\r a [rr4,Ha MH. Orre,eqaq,Ha p alopr rrpllrKag r{uKa npoMbr,c,ron C'nrorea, H. Bceso,toxcK[ft ,rr4car ,s 1833 r.: <<B 4eyx fiapoBb]x Marrrr,rHax, rn'poclri\rbrx nr6orl A,'rff orJrurr.rr ,BoAr,r qro Ha illpeo6pa)KencKoM pyAHr4Ke (npuzcxe. B. M.) - a KaK Haxo)Ky, TaKOBbre 'MOfyT rnptIHecTLI 6o,rtUytO '[O,'Ib3y, oAHa x re6e yx<e ornpaBJreHa, ro o gpyrofi Aa.[ fl fipelillrcaHue y,flpaBJrflrorqelry o lloxeB,crKoM r.rMeHuH MexaHuqe.cKoir qacrtrc r. Teiy, .K,oropoMy H BMeHI{n e oco6eHuyro o6asauHocrb o ceM osa6orHTbcff>> 28. flepnan Marrr,r.rHa't,rg AByx, o Koropbrx rrrla peqb, '6u,ra ornpa,aJIeHa Ha npuI4OK exle fio CaIIrHoMy,[yrI4,B Mapre 1833 r. H flBn<<AJrr

6ypa,

27.

JIO.Cb

[eP.BbIM IIIAPO'BbTM ABUTATCJICM, HA,IIIEAIIII{U,CE6C

.NPAN{CHE-

B 3o/'rororrpoMbrcJro'BoM 4e,re. VcraHoBJ.reHHarq 's lB34 r. ,Ha flpeo6paxeHcnoM 'nprr4,cKe, oHa rrrplrB,oAuJra B ABr.rxeHr,re He Hacocbl, KaK rll,pe[rllo"rlaro,Io,cb, a 6yrap,Hyro y,craHoBKy. B 1836 r. sa npoMbrcJrax ltpriBroAr{Jrr{ n gefrcreue 6yrapu y>xe 2 raporBbre \,raHr.re

tttttHu

2e.

_,1-Iaponarr Maru'rrHa B 3oi]IoToAo6UUarcUleri,I]poMbr[r,'reHHocT]r

P'occtn-r nofl'Br.rJracb oqeHr, paHo, eIrle rB KoHue XVIII ,e. (BoHrIxuii go.norofi pyAHrcK a l(ape,rl.ru), uecro.nlxo rrro3xe oHa Har{ara ncrro,rbaoBarbcfl Ha bepesoncrnx r.r Apyrfix [poMbrcJrax. Ho cQepu

[pI4MeHeHLIfl ee Orp 26

a HLI qHB

aJIH,Cb noAbeMOM Lr B,OAOOT,TI4BOM.

28

0. 176, on. l, n. 666, a.2, nn. l0 o6., 108, 109.

CO|ACO, 6. 12, on.2, t. 4, tr. 17; fAnO,

an.322 o6.-323.' 27 C@rACO, 403, ;r. 68; on. 2, o. 12, on. l, ,8 C@|ACO, 6. lD an 9 t. 5, ,r.n. 7-8. 2e corAco, 0. 12, on. 2, g. 4, m. 17,20.


rnSpoB}Io Ma[I]rH] rlpl{,[,o 'cttx ,n'op cq'rrarocb' I{ro rlep'BblYI{ MeHuJri{ A,rfl npoMbriB,Kl4 rIecKoB n. n. Aloco=e (uau6o'rree-pa'Hg}Ie 30 u E. A' u M' E' tlepe' cBeAeHH,s o6 eiou BocxoAtr x 1838 r.) 31. oAHarKo, KaK Mbr ycrago'B1lr'rl{, rBHeApeHI{e,naflarroBbr (1836 r.) poBoro ABHrareJIn 'B sry HoByI'o A,'Iq nero-cQepy ltpxvl-en-eHns npoilaoilulo Ha HecKo,lbKo ,'I,eT paHblxe Ha lj,ceBo,loAooJ'IaroAaTct<nx,npouuc,rax. 3ror Sarr, rno-sraAnMoMy' Hy)KHo crluTarb fiepeoft nonurxofi,IIoAo6Horc poAa e PoocI4l'I. a J'I lt T a rn u,o.6 p a so lr, nsyuennu.e rrra M r{,{OK}M enrrt s a s u rcl{po'B B cepeAr4He 30-x r.. XIX e. H3 'n,p0\461g,rax Bceson,o)KCKLIX TplI napoBbre Mallrr.rHbr, HerrocpeAcTBeHHO 3aHrrTble B SOJIOTO,[O6U3arcxreM npolr3'BoAclBe u;rn 66c"ryxll'Baloilrue ero peMo'HrHyro 6aey-' rexnnqecxoro locHauleHus rorAauruefi Hecouireuno, ,qro na

vp

autcxoil so,'rorof{

Sone

np o nr uur.neuHocTr.I _ B'ceeofl oAo6,'I

af

oAa TcKil e

rp,oMbrcflbr BbrHrHAeJrr{ [epeAoBbrMu. flo AaHH.bIM o$nrqlra,rluoft (,sI{Anr,Io, Heoronsro 3aHI'IxeHHbIu) 4axe x l861 r' "iu"rit"*t lBCe npr.rH'CK14 Kpafl. pacIIoJIara"II{ Tor'IbKo IxecTblo l[ap'oBblMll ,ll,BH-

t"ii;*?.t',n

apoBble M arII'IHbI Ha B ceeo,roAo6n a noAarcKHX'npo i6o;rlnre He {[osBJI'ffJIIa'cl. Qepea 13 ler, s lB49 l', rall '6ltr\,lbr.cJrax ,na,poBble ABr{raTeJrJ4, qTO 'U S 1836 r.33. ,,rH ToJrbKo re xe caMbre oAHOTO Aeficrsy]oqero K 186l r. Ha fi,poMbrcJrax He ocraJrocb Hrrqauax n 6yrapax c KoHI,BUfaTeJIg, rlpoMbl'BKa tBe,'Iacb TodrlbKo Ha HbIM H rnApaB,'InqecKI'IM IIpI{BOAOM H Ha pyr{HbIX CTa'HKaX3a, a npltZCKI4'B 3TO IBPCMfl OTCTA'III4 OT-IICPEAOBbIX SO''IOTOAO6HBAIOil{I4X np e,1rrpu,s rnri xp an ( npnuoxon AeMlAossrx' Ka3eIIHbIX Ma accxltx H Ap.)

35.

TaKOTO rexHl{qecKoro perpecca, Ha HauI B3riItlA, HHafl apeHAa,[pHIicKOB p a3II.IrIHbtMII AeJIbIIaMI',l' CO'

flpuulluamu

6t

llu

,IIoCTOfl

.BepueHHo He 3a.I,IHTepecoBaHHbINllI B rIIpllM€HeHI.rI.I Aop.o|ocToflUll{x

MauI,lH' g2 11rpe'{11,p.11flT11flx' He npIr,HaA,'Ie)Kaxl11'x t-llt; lxarserrt.rrltft npuclrorp; or6ulee xoesiicreeHnoe ocKyIHeHI'Ie Ecero ypaJlbcKoro artresus iJce,so,roxcrux'e 40-50-x rr. XIX's. f,on'opa 6 1e1HI'Iqggrxoil cropoHe''c,'IeAyer oxapalKTepI4!3oBaTb B,Ce'BO,IO{AO6J'IatroAaTCKHe InpOMbICJIbI KaK'IIpOI{I3BOACIBO' 30

Vxas. coq.' crp. 167' 185' 219'

B. B.

tt b. q. .II,aHr.rr'IeBcKufi. Kpr"oHoroe. HaeMHHfr rPYA^e- ropnolo6rmaroqeft. npouururreHHocrri Vpuni e 4opeQopruenuutfi nepuoa. C6. <<Haerrasufi^"pyl B ropllo3agoAcxofl nporunur,renuo-c"i iparu e 4opb6opuenHoe BpeMt)>. Cnep1;roncr, 1964, crp. t7l.

32 navqtHaq crp. 128-129.

KIILTXKa AJIS

pyccKlrx ropHblx .ltpAeir, roA 2-ft, Cn6', 1863,

' .t COpACO, S. 12, on. l, A.403,.n,'r.33-34, 107o6., 195. 34 A. JI o c ri y t o s. Cse'u,eurl 0-6 yn-p-19ne-tt-nIr^ .Ce^eepunx H' B'

JroxcKofo 3oJroTr,rx npoMbrc,'roB.

'

HHe

3aorepcxofi 35

B. fr.

,u.auu,

<fllB>,

<nfB>, l86l'

Kp"BoHoroe.

1861, Ne

Bceso-

34, CrarucruqecKoe onuca-

Ns 36.

Vxas. coq., crp. 127, l73wnp. 29


,HaxoAlrErxeecfl Ha ,MaHyQaKrypHori craiAr4 r4. Tevr He MeHee ylKe c Har{aJra 30-x rr. XIX e. (r. e. roqru c HaqaJra cBoero 'cyqecrBoBaHar) oua Ae/'raror rxarH rro rrryru BHeApenr.rn Sa,6puugoft rexHlzr<fi, 'r{To Bbrpa)Kaercfl [pe)KAe B,ceto ,B coeALrHeHHI,I rrlapoBoro ABr.rfareJr,rr c np.oMbrBaJrbHoft N,rauHHoli. Ho 3rH rrrarr4 ,se 6uJILi TBepAbrMrr, H Fraqa,BilrHiicf 3Aecb rexHr.{qecKHft ,fiepe,BopoT He roJrbKo He noryr{Hr'r p a 3Br.rrafl , a,B'nocJreAHel{ n,peApe,Qc p lreir no u .qeCgTH.rIeTLIll 'IIO,'IH,OCTbIO IIOTepTflJI 3a,B,OeBaH,Hbre IIO3HIIIII. 3rO gg,'IeHHe, ,KaK HaM Ka)Kercfl, 6lt,ro oAruzM r,t3 cl,tMrrroMoB Kpn3.I,tca BOTI{I,IHHOft 3O,'IO'TOIIID OMbIIIIJICHHO,CTI,I.

Kax

nrnr ylKe rro,xa3a.[il, reM,rrbr

pagBurlfl 3o/'roroAoi6breatou1eir

,BoTqHHe B.CeeoIox,cxllx ,6u,tr.r glrlcoKHMLI. llp^o-lrlrc,r_u ,cJry)KrzJr.r KpyrrHbrM HcrorrH,H.KoM ,rrpil6u,reii. tlpoMIrItil.rtoHHOCTI,I ,B

ypa,rt,cxoti

B nepn,o4 1836-184 1 rf.,oHr{ AaBaril B cpeAHeM 2B,B0[ scero AoXOI3 ,BOTr{IiHll B,C0SO,I,O)KCKLIX, 3aHfl,B 'nO yAerTbHOMy ,BeCy B.Topoe

Mecro rroc!'re fopHbrx 3aBoAoB, rrpr,rHocr,r,Blxr,tx B aro ,BpeMfl T0,20lo AoxoAos 36.

A,rq

B'ces,oJro)KcKr.tx,,crpeM

r.{B

rxzxcq

Aox'oAHocrb ,cBoerl nara$yn4rlLr AJln

rc6ori ueHoft yBeJ flq]rrb

"r roro, rrro6br ,Bbrlyrarbcfl

H3

eeqHoft rl]ayTl,tHbl AO!'Ir,OB, ,BO3MO4HOCTb p aSDar6orxlt go,rora 6r,r.la c,Iacrrxgofi Haxo4xoft, H oHV cTailH uc'no,rssosarb ee BecbMa 3HeptI,IqHO, ,He ,OCTaHaiBJru,Baflcb Hr4 /IIepeA TpyAHOCTflMH OCBOeHr.rirr oT_ AadlreHHOfO

3arpaTaMpr.

palioua,

Hr.r rrlep€/( QHIHaHCOBbINTA r.{ MarepI{aJIbHbr},r}r

Ho 6u,crpue reMIIbI pa3,Br,rrlrg 3o,'toronpoMbl'IreHHo,crr4 B BorqI{He HeJIb3fl O6bflCHLITI iO,ruxo erara. HecoMHeHHO. rITO CaMalrrDHpo4a uoooft oTp acJrr.r O6ycnoaz,r a 6o,llruyn ee,np r.rB!,reKate, o"oc"o AJIfl IIPEATIPII'HI,I'MATCJICII NO

'CPABHEHUIO

C

METAJI,'IYPTTqEOKI.{MI{

3A-

B.O.IIAMII. ,B

o-rtep'Bblx, 3o,rorble,ttpoMr,rc/Ibt .c orHocuTe,rbHo [pocrbr M,rrp o-

[rO Cp aBHeHr.r]o c MeTa,'rJyp f r4 rrecKr.r Mr,r np eAnpr.{fl THfl _ MI'I TpeooBa/'II'I 'BecbMa He3HaqI'treJIbHbIX Kan14TaJroBJIoxeHarl. llpoMbIBaJIr,Hble ycrp,Oft cr,ea, rfl A'pOcO,Opyx{eHr.r,fl npov 3iBOACrBeHHbre H3IBOACTBOM

,

[pfir.ror{oB no ceoeii npocrore u Aeuenuine He irrr'rfi HI{ B KaKoe'cpaBHeHlie'c 3aBoACKIl MI'r Koprly'caMH, AoMeHHbrMLr IleqaMrl rI'I T' jr. Tax, no cocrosulrro aa lB42 r. ,crorzuocrb npor.{3,BoAcrBeHSEAHAEL

Hbrx coopyxesxrl Ha npoMbrc,rax Bceeon,olKcKHr

COCTaBJrflra

M a rrrr.r H r ycrp ofi,crn _ - cep.457, 246U5, r.rHcrpyMeHros-21239 py6. TorAa iKaK Ha Merar,rJryp_ ruqecKl4x ilpeAlp14qrI4trx'BoTqu,HbI ro,Ha 'cocrarB,rlfl"'Ia ,coorBerc.tlBeHuo: 589332, 1160978, 35603b, 94049 py6. cep. O6uraq,u"nro"n, ooHOBHoro 'Karruraila 3,o,rlorblx npoMbIC,rroB pa/BHqracb glbg3, a y^.]_r-i_{yqilqecKux 3aBoAoB 2200994 py6. ,cep., r. e. ,B 2T paz ood'Iblrle' TorAa KaK croHMocrb [poA)nKIII'I[ Mera'],'Iyprfir{ecKHx 3a-

2z.l< py'o. cep., fr.rApo,coopylKe

HH i4

29

- fAnO, dr. l76,on. 1,4. 666, ,r,r. 331-339, 30

3b7-360.


BoAo'B

cpeAHeM 3a

rreproA 1836-1841 fr.

cocrzBr-rfr,{?

391040 py6. cep. H npeBbrrxa.,'ra crorrMo,crb rltpoAyKuIzrl 3:o,rorbrx Jl_poMbrcr,o'B 3a oror nepv oA (161776 py6. cep.) ro,'rb,i(o n 2,4 paza. Hecnorpa Ha ro, qro rro AaHHbrM 1836-184 I rf. soJrorbre rflpoMbrcJrbr B'cegofioxcKr4x Aalailv HecK,o,rrbKo lrentururi AoxoA rro orH'oixeHrro K cyMMe exeroAHbrx 3arpar (139,4%), uelr fo,pHbre 3aBoAbI B,orqpl'utt (142,20fs) , na 'uux HopMa inplr6brr'rrr4 rrl3-Ca lMeHb[IIix,Karrrr{raJrbHbrx enoxeHflft 6lr,ra s ll paa iBbr[re (115,50/e, roIrAa KaK 'Ha i3aBo[ax roJrbrKo l0,40lo\ 37. 'Bo-nropux, AJrfl )Ke,.re3Hofo pbrHKa Pocctttt'nepeoft TIoa'roBltHbI

XIX e. 6una

xapaKrepHa xpafi,He Heycror?q'il,Ba,q

rorr,pHflr,Hafl pbrHor{Has K,o,H'bloHrKTypa. Bcn )Ke

,q,o6H'saloulux ltp eArrp rsruil

u qacro He6,'ra-

'rr,po[]4Kr{r.rfl

3oJroro-

acrsbrx,rrp o Mbrc,ro:a Vf a,r a nocryrr a r'Ia B rocyAarpcrB€HrHlIo Ka3Hy. oHa c4a,eanacb B Br,rAe [r.rlrxoiBofo 3o,rrora B 3'o,'toroofldla,Boq,Hylo,ra,6op aropuio Vpa,rucxoro fopHoro ,rrpaBJreHr,rrr,s ExarepzH,6ypre, orKyAa A,Ba>xAblB roA orrrpaBJrrrq

JIacb Ha llerep6ypncrxuft lroHersuft 4eop,,irpr.rHr,rMarBrurzrl sonoro IIo coorBeTcTByroilIeMy Kypcy. KasHa pery,'rfl prHo pacrldrraqn,BaJra,cb

3a

cAaH,HOe SOIOTO

35.

Hecu,orpa Ha,onpeAeJreHHoe .HeAorBoJrbcrB'o xosqeB soJrorbrx npoMbrcJ'roB focylapcTBeuuoil monononueli, cyu{ecTBo'Ba'B[taf cHcreMa c6ura 3oJlora 6u,ra 6o,ree BbrroAHofi, uett yc.uonnq [poAa)Kr.r xeJ're3a. Oua rapanrlrpoBaJra 100-npoueHrHnft c6ur u orsocnTe!'IbHyIO ,Crar6a.tnnocTb qeH, a c,rreAo,BaTe,-rbHo, u cra6'untuocTtr a0xoAoB.

..B-rperrzx, 3oJr'orble ,[poMbrcJrbr rHe Hyx{IaJrn,cs ,e ra'Koii ofpoMuoft uacce rgxeJlofo <<eftarlercKofo>> TDV.rIa Ha'BcrloMotareJrbnbrx pa6orax, KaKylo rpe6o,na.nu 3aBoAbr, sa;HMaeuue KoJro,ccaJrbHoe KOJrfiqecTBo pa6outtx py,K Ha 3aroToBKe To[r'ri.rBa r.r TpSH:crroprHpoBIrc nOroeori r[po[]Kr{Hr{. llpouseogcrBeHHbre )r{e rn,orpe6HocTr{ 3O,rIOTOlrIp.O,MbIltUJreH,HOCTI,I

Hlrq necKoB I{

rB TOTIJTLI,Be

oTOIL-r€Hlrlfl lIIpO

M

bt'BaleH

(n,rg 3IiMHero paBoif,peBa) orp air willB ailucb,cp aBHLI-

Te'lIbHO nei6onr'u,vt'u IKO"I;HqeCTBOiM ApOiB, 3aroTOB.Jr,flelMbIX []O ,COCqA-

crBy

c

npoMbrcJroM.

Ornpa'sra np,oAyKrrr{u rBMecro fpoMosAKizx

KapaBa,HoB rpe6onana o4uofi rroBo3KH.

B,uelneprux, goJlorble [poMbrcJlbl,lro rilqecKfi

M

cp a,B,HeHLIrc,c MeraJ'Ir'ryp H rllpeAllpr.rfl Tr4fl v,n rpe6oa arrrr.l fop a3Ao MeHbllre re a,rn $u-

ullpo,BaHHbrx KaApoB. !,nn'no4an,rrqrcrrero ;6o,rtmus,cr,na nro4bii, 3aHqTbIX ,B 3aB,OAC,KHX rreXaX, Heo6xoAr.rMa 6lrna ,eHcoKaq IIDOr.r3BoAcrBeHHan xnanu$v.Karlnq, npuo6peraeMafl B To Bp,eMfl r,rltilr,

A,rare.tlsoft

np

a

xrnrxoii. 3 o,roro4o6lrB a rorlarr

rrp,oMbrrxJreHHocrr,

37 fAnO, 0. 176, on. l, A. 666, nn. 142, 3n-312, 31 6-329, 332-339, 343-343 o6.; 356-360; U|I4A CCCP, g. 37, on. 5, l. 251, "n,r. 415-417. floaCqCTbI HAIIIH.

38

lAnO, $.

176,

on. 1, A. 666, ,r. 233 o6.

3l


TOX e HyX(Aa Jl a cb B STIeIIH a JI I{'CT a X B bl co'|Ko ft 'xr a;i u rp'u Kar\Lrr4: u11efi tep ax, oIIbITHbIX Illyp QoBuu{Kax H AOBOAT{IrKaX, crecapqx' Mex aHI'I-

Kax, rr{ApoTexHfiKax.-Ho sx '6u.no nyx<'uo HeMHOTO, a Hal46o,llee N{accoBble Ha lrlpllHcKax oflepaqu[ '[pdMbIB'Ka H nepe' - Ao6blr{a, He IiMeBIIIII M'll OCO6Oi{ JIIOAbMI.I, BO3Ka IIeCKOB

-,BbI,nO.IIrHttdII{Cb ,noAtoToBKI{. fl'parxrruecKl,I I,lMI,l MOf,'II4 3aHI'IMarb'cfl Bce KpecrbflHe' 3HaKOMbre c o6tr,{ust14}r Ha ypare <<'I]o,II,3a',BoA0KI4MI{>> pa60TaMH'

,{axe

rro'Becb]!{ a

3 a,HI4

)KeHHbIM Aa,HHbI M I 843

r.

inB

a.r'Il{0lrqu'poBaru-

Has pa,6oqafl, cvila Ha BceBoJIoAo6JIafoAarcltoM |rlpoMbIcJIax coCTa'B,'IEJIa BCefO ll,40fo,S TO BpeMfl KaK Ha 3aBOAaXIBOT[ILIHbIOHa

paBrHflJracb 3l,20lo 3e. 3ro o6croflTe,'IbcrlBo HMe,rlo 6o.nlur'oe 3HaqeHHe AJlfl pa3Br.ITL{,fl 3O,'IOTOAO:6bIBaIOUeft [pOMbIIIIJIeHHOCT',I, TaK KAK ITIOsBOJIfJIO'MAHCBPI-{POBATb'KPCIIOCTHOft PA6OqEft CHJIOft BHYTptI xo3flfi'crBa, ico3AarBaJIo y,cJ|oBLIg A,'Ifl cpaBHI'ITe,'IbHo_ 'uLlpoKofo rrpir MeHerrr4fl 3Aecb BoJrhHoHaeMHoro TpyAa rJIarB.HbIM,O'6p a3OM Kp e' CrbgH-Ce3OHHI4IKO'B Ha OCHOBHblx yqaCTKaX rIIpOI{3BO,(CTBa. Bce nepeuucJI.eHHbIe n,pHqt.riHbI o6yc.t'or,lu'oaJII'I 'BbIloAHocrb'BJI0x{eHr,rrr cpeAcTB ,B ,H'oBYlo orpacJlb ropHo3aBoAOI(OrO AeJIa. oun e oI]p€.{,€;1e,HHofi crenenn o6'bf cHqIoT rHe ToJIb'Ko 6ucrpoe pastsI'ITI',Ie

3o,rrorbrx rrpoMbtc,lo,B ,B ypaJlbcKoM xo3flft'crBe BceBoaoxcKHx, Ho u re :no6yxAeHlzfl, Koropble 3acraBI.I/II,I 3ai6orerb <<3'oJloroft JII4xopaAKori>> H IIoAaBJr,fl Iouee 6ofl btx't4 HcTBo yp aJIbcKI'rx MarHaToB-3aBOAIII-I KOB H IIIP CAN P I4HI,I M ATC/ICft KANT4T Ail]1'CTIJqCCKOIO TI4TI A, IIP H' crylHBrrilx K op raHr,r3auHH err{e'B Aopeoop MeHHbI.ft ,rIep}IoA 3'oJIOTOn p OM

bIIIIJIeHHbIX

TKSMII a,HI,l ft

.

Ho cre4yer ,orMerltrb, qro, HecMorpr Ha

oTp ac,'rH ropHo3aBoAOKoro Aer'Ia, ABoplqHe

,'rr

'BblroAno,crb HoBoll tHe cMor-

BceeonoxcKl'Ie

gQOeKTtt'sHo gxoniryaTl,tpolBarb 'cBol,l 3oJloro,HocHble 3eM,'IH. 3a-

rryra,B[rHcb rB AoJIrax, I4cnbITbIBag KpylllHble xo3fllicrBeHHble 3a50-x roAax XIX e. sHrpyAHeHv rr, oHr.r Bo Bropofi nor'roBl'IHe 40-x Hy)KAeHbI l6U,tU qactuq'Ho I,IJIi{ TIoJIH'ocrb}o cAa'BaTb cBoI'I 3oJIoTbIe 'II p O M bl'C/II

bI p a 3!'l l{q

HbI

M AeJIbII

a M - Ka n I4T

a"I

14

CTa

M' yCTyII afl

H

M r'Ib'B 14 -

Hyro AoJrro [IpH6bulu. 3to, HecouHeHHo, qBIqeTcq ,oAHI1IM I'13 ,rIpH3HaKoB Kpr4svca ux $eoAanturtx narnQynAl4ft, orpax(eHneM 06uero Kp rr 3 r,r'ca yp a,'rbcKot? rop Hos a BoAcKoft npoMb.IIIrJIeHHocrI'I. 3s

|AIIO, S.

176, on. 1,4.666,,r,r.357-360. floAcqern Hanu


y,ILK 947.081.2

C.

A.

Op,,Loea

AEflTEJTbHOCTb M. n. MyPABCKOTO B nEPHOII. CO3AAHHf ,<<3EMJII'l H BOJIII> 1860-x I'OAOB

B reqeuire noc,rleAnero Aecqrn,'Ierlrfl ,ilocrl,ItHyrbl gHaqure,trbHble y'crlexfi B ll3yr{eHlti4 HcroplIH <<3ennn H 1860-x roAoB. 'so,'Inlt llpu srov HeKoropble r.rccJreAoBare,'ru yKa3brBanra ua 6o,rsruoe sHaqeHlle .IeflTe,llt,HOCTLI pe,BO,'IloqfiOHHbIX CH,'I rB rIIOIIOTO'BHTeJlbHblfl ,nepUoL ,CQI,ITSfl , r{TO I.IMeHHO 3AeCb CiIeAyeT tsHAeTb HCTO,KI,I ,Cpa'BHHreJrbHo 6u,crporo o$opnu,enxff ooHoBHbrx 3BeHbeB 3rofi opfaHlr3auHH s 186l r.t. ^ O4Haro noKa He yAaJrocb rrorlyqurb no,rrHoro rrpeAcra,B,'reHr.rrg N -: o xapaKTepe, MeToAax AegTer'tbHocTH H d'II,rrrHoM co,cTaBe peBoJrloJrarepr f{ uuouuoro ,B

;(

B

eror r[epuoA. OAHa

r-rs

,np[r{HH 3roro 3aKJr}o-

vaercr

y3ocrr.r rrcroqnr.rKoBeAqecroli 6asu ,npo6.neMbr. AyMaercq, IITO 'B ,IIOI{CKaX AO,KyM9HTOB, OCBeIqaU{HX 3TO 'BpeMfl, He C,'IeAyer ilpeHer6,pefaTb yx{e Il3,BecTHbI\,tH HayKe, Ho He nodryqHrBIII.IMH ,BcecTopoHHero paocMoTpeHr4rr r.1cToqHa,KaMH. K uuc,ry rarKoBbrx oruocqrcq flucbnla ll3BecrlHoro peBoJrrou[o-

Hepa-AeMoKpara

M. [. MypaocKoro K

oBor.rM

iAp]3bflM

r.r eArHo-

Enpcxa u Opeu6ypra e 18601862 rr., r. e. LIMeHHo B raHr€pecyrcqurl Hac,ttepfioA. B srofi rnepenHCKe HeO,6bIKHOBOHHO )KHBO I,r TOqHO, nOA HerroicpeACTBeHHbrM ,Bner{arr'IeHueM npot4cxoAqlqero,orpa}KeHbt MHoftre,co6bITI4,q rex ner. He cflyrrarlHo B[epBbre ony6.nuxonasn[ft nncsua M. .Ileuxe MbrrrrJreHHH'KaM, Harrr{caHHbre r.r3

OIIEHHBA,II UX KAK SAXHHfr I1ICTOqHH,K HC TOJIbKO .[,,III'I ,BOCCO3AAHVfl,

6r.ronpa$xn,caN{ofo Kop,pec[o,HAeHTa, Ho Lt 1its. xap a,Kr€pr.rcruKtr grroxu 60-x roAoe Boo6ue 2. Xora n,orpoc o6 oru'oruenuu M. Mypa,ncroro x <<3eu.ne u no-

JIe>>

OIIeqnaJrbHo Hr.rKeM He p accMaTpr.rBaIcq, HeKoTopbIMIi ItccJreAO-

t

11. B. Heqr<rrs a. BogsurHoBeur.re neprofi <<3eu,'rn u BoJrH)). C6. <Peso-

cnryaquq s Poccru g 1859-1861 rr.>>, M., 1960, crp. 284: IO. H. KoporKos. V ucroxou neprofi <3eu,ru li Bor'ru>>. I4cropr.rueixue sa_.rurH_oHlr_as

rrrcKx,

r. 79, 1966.

' M. JI.".**.;."11o,ro,locrl orua Mr.npo$aua. crp. 193../- .';,,-..'" .E

3

,bfdvgr..}

,

.

jt.: 'r ,'" .,

' a-

I

<<Bbrroe>>,

1907, Ne

1/13,


,BaTe,'rflMI{ peBo,.1rcql,IoHHofo ,I,BI4]KeH[q rIIepU'OAa 'nepBoii peBor'IIorrrzoH,Hoft ciiryaqar.r 6un ycra'non,leH $axr '6,r1l3ocrlt ero x sroti OPragnSaIlltLt r.

'B 'Hacroqulefi crarle Aer'Iaercfl .rlollbl'lrKa Ha ocHoBe a{ailr43a irnceM Mypaecxoro BblscHI4Tt, HeKoropble cropoHbl rlpoqecca lt4ertruoft u opfa'H1r3aqnouuofi KoHicoJII4AaqIllI petso,'IrcUI4oHHbIX cH,"l HAIKAHYHE,OQOPM"TEHHq <<3CMT}i I'I EOJIi4>>.

K 1860 r. M. A. Mypaecxaft uMer 3Haqrre,'IbHblft orlblr peBornqaossoti AesredllbHocra. CryAenr Xaplroa'cKoro yHHBepc[Tera e 1854-1858 rr., BoJlbHoc,'Iyuare.[l KzeecKofo B lB59 r., oH sB,'rrfl,'rcq oAHIiM I,I3 co3Aare,rerl nepnorl ,s Poccl4l'{ nocd'Ie Kpsilrcxofi XaplxoBcl{o-KHeBOKoro B,oiiHbr pen'o,rloquoHrnofi 'opf a,Hlr3auHn

caMoe rafisoro o6ulecrna (1855-1860 rr.), ,rpHHqJI

aKrlI'BHoe

y'qacrr,Ie B Aeg'Te,'IbHoctlr o,6urecrBa, a'Bo BpeMf c,reAcreils '6H'iI oxap a,KTepIl3oB a H KarK <<qed'ro'BeK,ca Moro 6esup a's'crneHiHofo o6 p a 3 & MblcJl€ilr 3 a,p a)KeHHblft Aer.l arorfi r{ecKH M I.r H Aefl.Mt4>>, KaK <<'Bp a I BCerc cyqecrByroqero IIopqAKa, Tpe6yrcu[ii oco'6oft ocropox{Hocra n ycrofir{u'Bocra B us6,paHr4v. rlyrl.{ AJIfl 06lnqeuus>> 4. B uto,se 1860 r. fio'cJle oKoHqaHl.lfl c,'IeAcrBI'I'fl 'rlo A€JIY o'6ureCTBa <<yqpe/J.ITeJIII' U fr'Ia'BHbIe AeflTeJII4>>

ero'

B. qHCJIO KOTOpbIX Bo-

iIIeJI Ir Mypae'cxufi, r6bt,'IH pa3ocr'IaHbI 'B ye3AHbIe ropoAa orAaJIeH-

nux ry6epuufi . <<Veorensltii l.rs Xapl,xoscxofo yHll'Bepcllrera... 3a epe4irrrii oi6pa3 MbIc,'Iell I.r He6"'IaroHaMepeHHL'le rIIocrlII'KI4>> M. MypancKI.lii s rloJe 1860 r. .rpu6bul B <<orBeAeHuui:t elty A,rn

)Kr.rredrrbcrBa>> ,r. Enpcr Opeu6yprcrxofi 'r,y6epHI,IH BMecre c [IpeA[HcaHueM fopoAHHqeMY <<'6Anre,rrHo Ha6,'II,oAarb 3a o6pasou xI{3HI't ero (MypancKoro.-C. O.), 3aHrsrllflMH I't r'o'BeAeHLIeM H AocraB,'I'ITb C)KCMCC'IIIHO CBCACHI,If S III OTAC,'ICiT'NE C. E. I'I. B. KAHI{CJIfl. ,pua>> 5.

l860 r.

pe$opl,rbr,,neplzoA o'crporo,tto,Ilurt{r{ecKoro

-'KaHyH auarcull{xcfl KpecTbfl I{CKHX Bo,'IHeHI'Ifi KpLI3uca, HonpeKp

.B

crp aue

3 P. A. T ay 6u H. Peso,'rrcqloHep-AeMoKpar C. C. Pulvrapeuxo. <<I4cropuR CCCP>, 1959, r]\b l, crp. 138; fl. 14. JI H H K o B. PenoflrcqnoHHaq 6opr6a A. trI. lepueHa u H. ll. Orapeea u <<3elr,ts ir Bo,'rt> 1860-x m., M., 1965,

crp.90.

4 UfAOP, $. 109, I 3Kcr., A. 26, q. l, 1860, na. 86-87. 5 C,reAyer orMerr.rrb, qro rro coBoKynHocrlr npeA'btBreHHblx o6nuseuuii <-vrrp,eAuTe,'Ifi u fJ'raBHbre AefreJrg o6ulecrsa> Ha ocHoBaHI-In crarefr 173-175 CeoAa gaxoHoB noAJrex<aJru cuepruofi ragulr. OAsaKo B Haqa,rle 1860 roaa npaBr.rreJrbcrBo He peura!'rocr ua no1o6uyrc pacnpaBy. flo <BncoqatilxeMy noBe,renuro>, nocJleAoBaBrxeMy Ha Aor(r'raA c"reAcreeHuotl KoMxccr.rH, 4e.no 6sl.no npHKasaHo peul{Tb arMr.rHr,rcrparuBHbrM nopt,[Kol.t. Ho nplr gToM oco6o orlreqatocb, qro o6suHrer{L,re noAB,sprHyrcrr HaKa3aHuro no ncefi crporocru 3aKoHa, ec,'ru BnpeAb 6yAyr aalreueHtr e qeM-"'ru6o noAo6nolr. Ioxa x<e uu crpoxaftue npeAnr.rcbrBa,Tocb Aepxarb rafiue Bce, cBg3aHuoe c Ae,'roM o6urecrea fi c,{e,{crBr.reM no nsMy (cu. c6opHux AoKyilreHToB r.r Marepua,'roB <<O6uecrseHHocrp. 76; II|AOP, no,'rr.rrr{qecKoe ABuxer{ue ua Vxpauue>. KHes, 1963, Q. I09, I eKcn., A. 26,'a. 5,,r,'r. 5, 56) .

s

r. l,

34


np OICXOAITT'I npOqeCC

KOHCOJI

I{AaUHI'I- peBO,'I}OIHOHHbIX Cil"I'

uilrsuurics so 'sropofi ro,'IoBHHe 1861 r. o6paso'nanxelt ce p o c c Ii fr oxo ft p e e o.r toq u o s tt o il o p I a'H a 3 a Ill4 I'I.

3

aBep -

'nepeoft

,B

KaKyIo )Ke'no3ilqllrc 3 a H'qJ'I ogrttnxaer ecrecrBeHHblit non'p'o'c B 3rr4 x ycJl'oBl,tsx Mypa'ncrnfi? O6craHoeKa ye3,.lHoro Bxpcxa oxa3a,,ra onpeAeJreHHoe soeAeft,crsue Ha H,paBcTBeHHOe cocroflHlle peBO,'nOqIroHepa B rlep'BbIe Mecsubl npe6lteaurnfl ero rB 3TOM rop'or]e' <<Ves4uata xt43Hb, qyBcrBo oAllHor{ecrBa (KyAa HH or,'IflHelrbcl ,Be3Ae,uuuo,euur) Ha'Be,lt4 'Ha MeHtl CTpaIUHyIO ToCKy 'l{ aIIaTI4IO>>' rB

-

[nca,,I og. oAgaro 3TI4 Ha,cTpoeHarl o,Ka3ar'Ir{,cb KparlKoBpeMeHHbIIta. Ta <<Hpa'B'crBeH'H3ff ,cl'lJl2)r Koropaq orJII4qa,IIa elo Ha Bcex 9Tarlax peBoJlloql,IoHHofo rIyTH, AOCTaTOqHO pKO^ |rIpo'q'BI'IJIacb I'I B ne6. 'I pzoj nepnofi Ezpcxo-Opeu6yprcxofr cclt,rxu Bcxope oH pa3rBepHIJI Aerr€rbHocrb' Koropan 'no o6'b"eKT[BHOMy cBoeMy 3HaqeHHto cTaBI4r ero 'B OAI'{H PqA C KpynHeHiul'lMIr KoHuy Aefre,'rqMI.I sIIOXI4 rlepBoil peBo,'IouilouH',oti cnryauult' K r{JIeHa" 1860 r. Mypa'n,c,xuft rBoccraHalBrrll'l'Baer cBq3I'I co MHorl'lMI't uu Xaplroe,cKo-Knescxoro o6qecTBa, yqa'c.rHHKaMH ABI4)KeHHfl ,BOCKpe3gbrx ITIKOJI 11 cryAeHqecKl',Ix BO"IHeHI{fi. llepenncxa, c 11o\rcul;Io lKoropoft oH loAAep)KHBar'I cBr3b c HHN{I{ il Me)KAy HH\{l{, coBepureHHo onpe.r,ereHHbIM o6pasou xapaKrepll3yer Ito Ae'iTeJrbHocrbT. Cne.l.ver orMert4Tb, r{To oHa HocH,'Ia !,€JIorBot{ xapaKTep. <<Ae,'Iorr, ,ila noune Koroporo oHa'Bo3HI'IKr'la, SBHO O'6rrrecreeHHo-rlod,rHTlrqeoKoe, u UeJI14 InepenIlcKH on'peAeJIfl IoTcfl HM' llnclva HaIIUCaHbI I4MeHHO AJrfl TO1O, rITO6bI CBtr3aTb rrlr4M ,AeJroM>>,

H,ofr qe,'rI{. <<!,eno>>

r4lttr

..i.;Ha:cie

3aH'qTbIX <<06-

"IroAeft, BCe ycI'IJIHfll(OIuHQOpUUpoBaTb o HeM, HanpaBHrE'

[ocroflrHHo Qnrypupye|B III'IcbMax, c HI4\'I raK JII,OAI4, yrloMI'IHaIOUUeCq B HI'{X. 9TO O',6-

cBfl3aHbl BCe

6lt,rO OTMeTIeHO eilIe B 'CeHaTcKOM oIIp€.ll,eJIeHHI'l tno <<fl'peAuer ero nepellll'cKl4 3aKJIlo'qar B ce6e MypaBcKoro: .Ie,ry CTOflTeJTbCTBO

no'npel,IMyI{ecTByyq.pexAeHHeiBe3Ae'|AeToJIbInolBo3Mo)KHo'Boc-

rKpeoHbrx ,urKoJr, .trrreparypuux _c-o6pauuft n eoo6ule pacnpocrpaHeHlre s sa'pole rpaMoTHOCrl'I. HO BCe 3rO, KaK BI'IAHO I'I3 COAep-

)KaHIlfl ilII,IceM ero,

6blro A,'Itt Hero He ueJIbIo, a cpeAcrBoM rBblpa)KeHlllo elo, o6ulero Ae"Ia>> 8.

pa3-

tBLITrLfl, KaKOnO-TO, rIO

6 6 uapra 186l

r. 6onrnoir, naxoAaulnftcs s

ucx,'IbqnreJ'lbHo rpyAHoM Mano o6ulecrgy ll. JaBaA-

Tepr{aJrbItOI\[ nOJIOXeHI4I', OH [rICaJI CBOeMy CopaTHI.IXy

cKoMv: <<... Beab 9To B caMoM 4eae 6yaer cMeIrHo il crblAHo' ecJII'I MbI' eABa alanu'u,uta nepaufi uaf, c[orKHeMcq u [aAeM... He 6yaerr' noAAasarrcs"' Ec.rrn MEr 6yAelt eAunoAyIlIHbI, ecJII{ cTaHeM noAAep}KIIBarb oAI-IH Apyroro' ro H}IKaKfie M'3pbI, HLIKaKOe pacKaccupoBaHue,-HI',IKaKaq CCbIJIKa' HIlKaKat <!!poeuuqua,,rbHarr cpeaa>) HaM He crparuuuu (<Ennoe>-, 1907, Ne 1/13, crp' 198' 203)' ? flucrlaa, nOnaBIIIUe B pyKI,I CleACtBennoi KoMI'ICCHIj' COCTaBJISIOT J'II'IIUb He3HaqareJ,rbHyro qacrb rori nepenucxtr' KoTopylo ne,ir Mypancxufr..HeoAuorparHbre yKa3aHr.rfi Ha oro rzuerorts n o6uapyxenHbrx fl,cbMax (<Elr.noe>, 1907,

N, li

13,

crp. l9l, 202 u

Ap.).

8 <<Bnnoe>. 1907, J\lb l/13, crP. 230


iMypa'nc,rnft He npocro

,B€,rr

rrrep€flrrcKy, orH Hacroilq'u,Bo r.l ttocrofl HHo'y6exAa,'r Apyrllx B Heo6xoAr.rMocru recHbrx cs,qseir. To,rlrKo B oAHoM 'rrlrcbMe lI. 3aea4croMy,or 2l/I-1861 f. oH HecKo,'rbKo pa3 ,Bo3B,pa[raJrcs 'x sroft reve: <<Bu Ao rof,o gaxaHApr{,Iu, r{To

y Bac frBfi.l2cb Aaxe MbIc,]rb, qro... rn€penI{cKI4 HaM rBecTrr rHe crour... flerp Bacn.llesr4q, Bu y,nycrz ilw LB BnAy, rrro, He roeopa roii o qelr ApyroM (o6 erou unxe), ltepettuoKa Heo6xo4lzMa AJrs rrac JII4qHo. Kpoue roro... BH BnAe,'rH, r{To lr IIo qa,crH o,6ulero Aena TBopHTcr MHoro xoponefo... ,Bo ,ecqxotr c,'ryqae Bu ,eu4ure, vro ,nepelucbl,BaTbcfl HaM ecTb o ,r{eM, To, o qeM cB06oAHo tIHcaTb He,'Ib3lfi, tHaM r,I 6ee roro H3,BecrHo r4JIr4 nax<e HerpyAHo o HeM AoraAarbcq :tro KaKoMy-lw6o HaM HaMeKy... ,Bu 3Haere, qro,nepeflHcueo6xoAr.rMa... ec,'rr4 y Bac ecrb o qeM rrr.rcarb, m ,Bcryrrnre .B flepefificKy ,c Kasaurrc, ,6oo6ular?re Bce: fl AaBHo yxe nepenncltBalocb co cryAeHroM KasaHcKoro yHr.rBepcnrera B. A. Masac. cer.rHr,rM. Bcry,nure n Bu Ino 3ToMy aApecy B cHorrreHas c Ka-

xa

gaHbro>>.

3araHqfi,garocl nHCbMo

,cd'ro,BaMu: <<klTa,K,

Bu

6yAere

Lr MHe H ApynrM: Bu nu4ure, qro gro Heo6xoAuuo, rKaK A,rIq Ha,c JILITIH0, raK I{ IIo ApyfHM InpI{qHHaM. llepelu'cra AJrs .,Hac orleHb Bax{,Ha>> I,

nficarb

IJ,e,ra nepenrioKu oflpeAe,'r,qrucl Mypaecrr]M eure 6o.ree roqH,o raM, rAe eMy He HyxHo ,6u,ro y6exAarb ,B calroft ee Heo6xoAHuocru. <<Mu y)Ke 3.HaKoMbr,-rrlr{ca,'r oH 25 rcxa,6pq 1860 r. B. Masaocetrffy,-:HaAo 3ro 3HaKoMcrBo rlptlMeHlrrb x 4e.ny. lloruuy Bu h qr.rraere renepb Mo€ ru.rcbMo. llo r.rs,Becruuu npzuunalr... (orro.que AoKyyeHra. C. O.) rr HaxolKy, uro xparkocrr - qro, mocbr/'rafl Ko LMHe nuCtua, Brr Erro,rrHe HeodxoAr.r'Ma. fl ynepeH, groM g4yqae cord'ra,[rarbcfl co MHoro>>. 20 aueapn B TgT_e-,6'yAere 186l r. oH rroBropfl.t Mauacceuuy: <<Cuoneulrfl r{pe3Buqaftno seo6xoAnlrrr. floqru He BcerAa Arq 3roro 'yAo6Hbr...- HeJrb3fl nw, Mt4Mo 'Ka3eHHbrx lnoqr, ycrpor{Tb co6crseHHbre>>

10.

.O,6unrpslre,rurcbMa Mypaacroro coAepxa,'ra s ce6e rHe roJrbKo HHQopMaIIuIo 'o ToM, 'rrTo n,peA[pr,IHr,rMaeTgfl rr'o rra,crr.r <<o6ulero Aer'ra>>

B pa3ru,r{Hbrx ,Mecrax, Ho

r.r

npa,KTLIrIecKIle coBerbl. Oco6euso

flpKo gror HarIIpaBJrffror{fift xapaKrep flu,ceM Mypan,cxoro rllpoflBnilcfl,,B rrepelncKe c B. A. Mhnaccbr.rHbrM. lloapo6Haq ry,HQbpMaqLIfl O CBOIIX rItJI?HaX I4 AeJIaX HO.CUJIa B '],I3'BeCTHOft ,Crenenr xa_

paKrep peKoMeHAaunrz B ycrax ,6o.nee o,[brrHoro, qeu MaHacceun, peBoJrrorlnouepa. 'Coo6ryan 20 sHBapfl 186l r. o ,ce,oefi AeqreflbHocru'n 6up,cxe, Mypancxufi ,no4por6n-eft ru,uu,o6paeonr ocBeu{aJr B,ce, .oBq3arHHOe C CO3AaHLIeM BOCKpeCHbIX IIIKOd'I, HaqafioM JI,I,ITepaTyp_ Hux'co6panlrft, 4earellHocrbro yrrr,ur[[{Horo KpyxKa. I4udioouNpoBa.rr n'q4po6uo rr o rrrJr2HdX ua 6y4yuree: <<B ;mreparypHrd 6es-<<6u,roe>, 1907 N! l/13, crp. 193, ro Tan crp. 207, 20S; 218.

xe,

36

lg8,

202.


ceAbr uMeer

6url

eHeceH H HcKaHAepoecrufi s./IeMeHT. B 6.rrnxal.t-

ne'pcneKTi,rBe I{Merorcg ,BocKpecHble ,uIKoJIbI B ocraJIbHbIX Tpex ,{epeBHrrx n yqpe)KAeHLIe JIIrreparypHbIx,6eceA Me)KAy yqeHI4KaMI{ ye3AHoro yqr.urnilla: e 6o,,'Iee orAare:unoft o6urecrsa rpe3'Bocrt{ lre)KAy iKpecTbflrHa MI.I, nolrlyJlfl p urte 6eceAlt- .uo reorp a,SHLI, ecTecTBeHHbrM Ha'yKaM r.r pyccroft lrcTopI{lI B BocKpecHbIX IIIKOJIax, rrl}6;tlrlrHbr€ ,'reKqrrfi>> 11. I4 Aa,ree Mypaecxnli AaBaJr Magaccengy pa3,lllqHbre,coBerEr: o6parzrr'BHLIMaHI{e rHa yr{e.Hl,IKots ye3AHbIX yqu-

ueft

<(rIOKOp,Oqe O6nI4SIlIrlCq C,BO€HHbIM COCr'IOBI-IeM>>, 06parHTb oco6oe BHr.rMaHr.re Ha ye3AHblx yunre,reft H IIorIoB, rK'oropble <<,Boc-

r'II{I]I,

I[ITbrBaroT BCe [OApacrarculee rIOKo,'reHI]e>) 14, <<KpoMe KoTopblx flpo-

B ye3Aax yrHII'BepCI4TeTCKOe AeJI'o .HeKOMy>>, a IIOTOMy <<)KeJrare,rrbuo ,6u,ro 6rr, ulo6u ,Hattpa'BJreHLIe rex I{ Apyrtlx 6bulo TO)Ke yHr.rBepcr.rrercKoe. A rax rKa,K oHr,r no 6o,rruefi qacrfi 6epyr-

IOJI)KaTb

crr H3 yHuBepcr.rreTcKr.rx rzMHasHri H .ceMr4HapHfi, ro xenarer'IbHo ,6ri,lo r6u, .{ro,6H y rex H y A'pyrHX 6u,ro aro HarrpaB,rrerHI,I€>>. Car€AoBaJr[ ri coBeprrreHHo roHKperHbre yKa3aHua: <<Xopouo 6u yul.tBepclrrery c6;rugnrr,cs c ceMLIHapI{eft n araAeuueft, rax oH c6;ru3UJrCfl C O6eHMH f}IMHa3LI"sMi.r, 3aBeCTI{ TaM Kpy)KKI.r: OnUr Xapl-

IKOBA, KI{CBa I,I KA3AIHI IIO,KA3AJI, KAKI,IX E€I'IHKOJI€TIHbIX .PC3Y,]bTATO,B MO)K,HO 3Tr,rilr AOCTr.rfHyrb>>. 14, naXOgeq, ,CnOeO6paSHble B'o[po-

cbr-yKa3aHr.rfl: <<I4sAaercff Jri{ y ,Bac cryAeHrcKuft pyronncHnft xypua;r? Z ecrr Jrr-r cryAeHrcKarr Kacca? He,rles ,'rrd H To 14 Apyroe 3aBecr[ B ,rr.rMrHa3Hflx, ceMr.rHap'r4v v aKaleuuu? Henlsq an

B BOcKpecHbIX III,Ko,laX ['pen'OAaBaTb pycOKyIO :l4cTopl{rc? I4Ae[ IIIan,oea xax 6ttnu 6rr cunr'narilqHbr iHapoAy! Herrsq JrI{ ga'Becrr.I ropoAcKr-re,'rr{TeparypHue co6paHuq... o6ulecrBo Aar pacrlpocrpaHeHHrr rpe3Bocrr.r, o,6qecrno B3aLrMHoro BonoMoulecrsoBaHl4fl>> 12. 3Aecr, 'no cyurecrBy, Aaerorr ueJrafl .rrpofpaMMa, co,craBu,BIIIaq cMbrcJr,rrpaKTr.rqecKoil Aeqre,rnHocrr.r,Kpy)KKo'B, ua'6age Koropr,rx ,Bblp,ocJIa <<3elrrq Ir Bo,'Ifl>>.

B ceula,6pe 1862 r. Mypancxrafi 6u,r apecrona'H euoar. flpn.{fiHoil apecra flB'nJrr.rcb o6Hapyxenubre B 6yuarax ,H. A. CepHoCo,rogsegnqa ,rrucbMa lI. 3asaAcxofo, Koropbre rrrpuBern cJreAcrBeHHyIo xoMnccnrc x Mypancxonay. Ha BropoM cBoeM cJreAcrBarr oH ,IIP.OSBI4JI elqe ,60,.'Ib[Iyrc CT,OfiXOCTb 14 peIXHTe!'IbHO OTKa3a,lCrr orBeqarb ma ,rn6rte Bonpo.cbl, cBs3aHHbre c KoHKperHbrM xapa'K-

repoM erc) Aerrre,rrbHocrli. CreActseHHaq KoMuccr{ff noororry He oMorura yrurqu'Tb Myp aooxoro,B,np'aH ar.ryrelK,Hocrr.r K peBoaroquolr Hot? .oprauz gawrr4. O4Haxo H3yqeHL{e ero trepenficxlt rroKa3brBaer, r{To'o.H recneftruru o6pasov ,6H.lt csqgaH c JrIoAbM]r, ilpr{:HaAr'rexHocrb ,Koropbrx K <<3eung H BoJre>> 60-x roAoe ycraHoBJreHnuir

$axr. 3ru

cBtr3LI q,BflflroTcfl oAHuM r.rg 'BecKHX Aoxa3areJlbcrB ero

rr Tau 12

xe, crp.2l4. TalI xe, crp. 216-218 37


yqacrH'.fl ,B co3.I,aHr.r?r e,lr.rHoir BCepoccHijicKol'r opfaHr3aql.IH peBo,rrrouHoHepoB.

B nepuo4 1860-186l rr. Mypaecxrfi axrHgHo nepenilcbtBaercr c coparHr.rKoM no Xaplxoecxo-KueecNouy o6qecre-y fl . H. EeKMarHoM, iKoropblfi BlIIocd'reACTB Lru cT a;r pyKo,BoAl,rrer'reli Bo,roroAc'xofo oTr,e,'reHHg <<3eu,ru H Bo,'rH>> 13. 20 4era6pr 1860 r. EexlraH r.rg Bo,rorAlr ilucar'r fI. 3ana4cr<ouy: <<C .NLypa'acxzlr tl ,rlen'qeuxo ,fl B rflepernucre. Mypaacxuri e ye3AHOM cyAe B Brapcre Open6yprcxofi ry6.>> ra. Vcrano'erenHo, rlro Alypaecxri:i 6u,r nuqso 3HsrKoM en{e B xapb,KoBcKorKrieB'cKvfr trepilo,{,

a 3are]r

no,1.Iep)KI.IBad'I pery,rg,p-

llerep6yprcKoro KoMHrera <<3elr.nu H ,BoJH>> M. C. fy;reBnr{eM 15. lloc,'reAHuh e 1862 f.,rocJ.'re apecra H. f.HepHbrlreBcKoro, H. CepHo-Co,roBbeBrrqa, C. C. Punrapenxo 6nn us'6pa+ 'B ,cocraB l-lesrpartluoro KoMr,rrera <<3eu,tu 14 eo,'r'H>> 16. C,re,qyer orMerr.Irb, uro'f y,l eeuu rep,nu ii .BoccraH a B,rr rrB aer'cB rr 3b c Mypancxr.rM B Har{a,re 1861 r., co,Beryrr eMy B cr'ryqae ocno6oxAeHLIT HeMeAJreHHo rnepe6uparbcr n flerep6ypr. B nncbMe ;x MaHaccerrHv or 19 $enpa,rq 1861 r. Mypancxuil Aaer A.rs ceqerz Ka3aHr.r c llerep6yproM r.rMq ly,re,azua (uepea K. I4. Ee"ro3epcKoro I ',. <<Kpoue fyneenua, ,s flerep6ypre eil{e... Pnlrapeuxo>>, - coo6rqa.r Mypancruri 3ana'Acxo'lty 6 'lrapra l86l r. 18. C. PultapenKo cryAeHr Xaplroncroro yH'lr,Bepclrrera, yqacr-'6unurnr1 Hr.{K anpeJrbcKxx'Bo,rrHesuft 1858 r., e 1860-1862 rr. cryAeHr r{eAr.rKo-xHpypruqecNoli aKa,r,elraa, a,xrnsHrrit yqacrHl{K ABH}KeHHq BocKpecHblx [I'KoJI. EllooJle,lcrBvrfi qile+ L]I( <<3er,r,rr ,x iBo.nta>> 19. B ,n€DI{o.rI 1860-1862 rr. Mv,Daecxrzrl noccraH'o,BrlJr 'c,Bfl3b c 6ornurvra q,'IeHoM XaDrxoecxo-Kueecxoro o6uecrea. a 3areM r{,[eHonr <3en,nr a 'ao.ru> A. TuungcKlllr 20. B ,nncaue or 6 uapra l86l r. Mypaacxuii coo6ura"r 3asaAcxoMy HMfi H aApec ,Koppec[oHfeHra !,Jrfl cBfl,3u c Mocxeor:r. Srnu JrurroNr 6un A. fl. flor{d'reH Kpy)KKa a r.rqHesc,Koro-Ap rnp onyJr'o, B,noc,Ie.r,xp o'ncxrz r? - ug aiKTr,rBHbIx3Aeqrereri crBHrz oAHH Mo,cxoscxoro orne,reHnq ,Hyro cBfl3b

c

rrJreHo),{

13 Tau xe, crp. 221,223; P. A. T a v 6us. fl. H. Eeruau H XaprxoecxoKnescxoe rafiuoe o6urecreo. B c6. <<Peno,rloquoHrrafl cliryarrurl e Poccnu g 1859-1861 rr.>>. M., 1963, crp. 420. 421. q. '4 U|AOP, S. 109, 1862. n. 230, 95, n. 19. 15 <<6unoe>>, 1907, J\b 1/13, crp. 198-199; P. A. T ay 6u n. Vxaa. cov., crp.442. lo M. B. Heqxrsa. <<3en,rq rr BoJr)> 1860-x rolos (no c,relcrneuunrr nareoaa,rau). <<l4cropuq CCCP>, 1957. N, I, crp. 112-l 13. 17 <<Bbr,roe>>, t907. Ne t/13, crp. 198,223. l8 Talr >xe. cro. 199.

re P. A. T a.v 6u s. Peno,rrcuuoHep-AeMoKpar C. C. cccp>. 1959. J\b L 20

38

<Bn,roe>, 1907, Nb l/13, crp. 211,214-222.

Pr,rlrapeuxo. <<trlcroirun


<<3elr;rllHtsoJIu>>,npu'co,u.eficrBl{IIKoroporoilpol'l30uJ!'Ioo6beAI4H MocKoBCKoro ee orLe"leunrr'" HeHHe'nerep6yprc'Koro ""'i1;

* Enpcx Mvpaecnnfr inocrapa'1cn-"-t?tl )Ke.Bocpery!'IfipHyIo cBfl3b c ob]Bur[craHo'BL1TL,, a 3aTell ',rloAAep)KlIBaTb o'qnuL 1'13 lloMl.r rrreHaM" xupo*o"''&io-k"*""*otb oour6ti"u' gTor 6ot'r vnonepl4o'l croflHHbtx'*opp"'ano"t"nroe MypaBcKoro B I o'r o o-r p n ro a s il ttH K u n t' C o i o, t. f."d ;;; At'lti ii' * "Heurxofiry6epH'I4Ir,'noc,qeAsHi'taKrI{BHoBK"Ircq'I'lJIcflepa6ory'no " ", " ",i. "'

;;;6"iito

'opraHH3aIIHlt rBocrKpecHblx lIrKoJI, IIbITa"Icfl co3Aarb o16ulecreeH-

;ffi ; ;;6,.,, ot"*v. t{ ep es

Ma

I

a3H

H

H

no c o.no-1o^t^"^::?.

:y

*""

14-c-ep op f aH't3o'B aro Aoeo,oiHo'lilu poKyro rop roBJrlo'n'pofpeccHBr'ol{ "rl KpeHeKoropbIMH 'cB'3rI 'c ;5;;;tp;t. EJy ynanocr yiranoe,rb I'lx cryleHqecrbflHaMll, Macrep',o'BblMl',I n AalKe 3aHHTepecoBarb BpeMfi ero 6yxar 3aea!'cxoro 'Bo

l",tamn22. I4ayuenue

nosso,'Il'uro c'Ile.q,crBesuoft xovtrccHl'I BbInBI'Irb Becb){a il'IlpoiKllu 6y-"ero ceqeefa <(c npoflalfaHrlucravn e 'd6e-

""*"" ;;;;;; I tsoz r.

B tsql

Kap-

L cro,rrgrr>> l1nporl'rHuuaJlbHblx lopoaon' 3alr'{Hes,cKoro B' llpaoTUos' rolrroa'rb 6ltn coc.lan-un"n KpyxKa 'c qepe3 Hefo xoroplril nocer,rl,lcrr BMecTe 3aeaAcxlau. 'oueen4no, ux

o MOCK'O'BcrKoM coo-'6urano'cs o ;;t**". B nNcita", esflrltx y 3ana'l'cxoro' I-l-In'nosa' KNapecrax ai'n."ii"noo"o*o'", ir. 1p""pony'o,'o6

3aeaAcxl'l11,ro,{yqa,l] ulZpOlKyIO rzl$opvauuro

u :,p. crepa "'-b;;r; qeHs flerep6yprcKax KoppecnoHAeHroB 3asarcKoro yHxBep,""n.,1 ll. CnaccNllii: 3rb 6unuuft cryAeHr Xapl'roncrofo cr.ITera,IIorKI4HyBlrlI"lileroflocd'Ieanper'lbcKl'ixco6ltrnfi1B58r" a rrn gultfi EnocJIe!,crB"" atyo"", netep Oyp ncnoto y""'uep cl.l rera' 'qr'IenoM Er't'r r' 1861 ocesiro soJiHelinfi yqacrHl4K ae'onpeo6p "rya""u".n"x flerep 6yprcKoro yHI'IBepcl'lrera' KoM'llrera f,r]rfl€Hro'B

II' orrenesue JlureparypHoro Qoru4a' ibbz t. ;;;;;;;-t IlIlKoJI, APY| "o il. C,nu..nuk-a'x.rustrlttl Aeqrenb Bo'cKpeCHbIX o-n coo6uan u !'P' fla'sre'rreeea Jr. H.-t;;";' ;;r;;;ileHHrIK crvAeHrIepyKo'Bo'u'ureneft 3 a,ea.r.cxony o'Bbl'|cbllrKg 3 I(apron'o"Ib Mux au s u a f es clarere yu u nef * t"io n.""po vp .";;;;;;; L"ii 11

" o-eaxpltrl'll'l KH'i4)K,rilca c peKoMeHAal{r.eii'ttCofirucb'c:HI'lvrfi>>23' qepHnirs.e.Koro I'I apecre ;;;; ;;;t;na Cepuc-Co"'IoBbeBrqa, fl' B' flaeflerep6ypra na BblcblrrKe o ;;;p";" u-o"p."."HlrKa>>' qro <<]'13 xapHKoBqeB 3Ha'noKa3a"I, Cnaccx'fi cneAcig'nfi Ha .,roea. no" l. Mypascr<nu u 3asaAorLru>>. 3ro npr*111"^,1t-_o:^to.1""" qro no'Ao6Hylo t,uQop-'' ,,ouo" no.iiofi yBepeHHocrblo yr'BeplKAarb' i;;"^'o';'n;"'"poyp.u'loiryqar I'r ca'r x[ypaecxnfi''orcrcAa ero ,t l\4" 3. Heqxuua. K Bonpocy o B3aHMoorHoIrIeHHffx <Mo'rol.ofr Pocn c <3eu.nefr n uon"A,.'B-a6' tiP"uo''tnulloH}laff cllrYauut e Poccufi roAax>>, M., 1962, crp' 2Ql' tgSS-tAOt '""i, ijiaijF,'Ol ios, i8or, i. 230, q. e5, ",r.r. 2-3, 12, 70, 81 il rp' 23 Talt xe.

-

cgr{>

3,g


ur.{poKafl oc,BeAoMrreHuocrb o co6brruflx e llerep6ypncKoM ynlr_ tsep'clrrere. Blreo4 creAcrBeurHoit,xol,utccaH,nocre nsy.reur,n- 6y_ Mar 3asaAcKoro fdrracl4Jl, r{TO BCe efo <<nl4cb'Ma [poHHKHyrbI Bor,IbHOAyM,HbIM'LI I4AeSNII{ 14 CTpeMJ'Ie,H[reM K rrpo,flafaHAe>>, CaM OH sd'r oyM brrxJr eHH r,rKa M Ltrs,,p a cIIp ocrp alHeHfi ff np o _

<ynorp e6nnr'r c,fl nalaH4bI>>

24.

v

a

Becr,naa a*Hsuorl 6H;ra cesgl Mypancxono 14 c {pyrr4l,r q,tenoru Xapuxoscxo-KraeBcxoro o6qecrea ,n. C. E$nueu,io. |Iocn":-

u'nfi 6u,r

BbrcJra.H 'n flepu'cryro ry6epHrro, rAe BKJiioqrzJrcq ,B <<oDaIIarc yecrHbrx gJreMeHToB, inprrBeAeHHbrx a,6poxeHrze noAi_ eltorrr o6ulecreeuriorl Bo,'rHbr, ureArueit Hg qeHrpa>> 2s. Xaplxoacrr.ui onur.E$uueHr{o cbrrpaJr HeMadrro,Ba)KHyro poil n trpoqecce 6o"ree qerKoro o0opvneHzr . fiepMoKofo pe-ao,rrcqu,oHrHo_AeMoKparuqe_ *pyrya n pacwr4peHar ero cgqseri ,c rpyruun ropolava. :1o_19 r,eHMeHKo obrJr oAHHM H3 rex, Kro InoAAepxa.n Mypancxoro e Mo_ Merr efo lyu_eaHofr ,cMflreHHocrr,r ,B rrepBbre Mecsqbr npe6lr,na.uua ._Eapcxe 26. B llepmi-r E$aveHxo nprna, a,Krri,BHoe yqacrire ,B 1 co3AaHHri BocKpecHbrx ITIKOT'r, cocraB,'reHr.rH,rrpoe.KTa o6qecrea ro aMOTHOCTH' a raKxte 'nepnofi, o6paqeHHOri HenocpegcrueuHo x uapoAy rrpoKJraMaqnr.r <<floc,raulre crap,ua Konlparrla>. B l86l r. 3a npuqacrHocrb K pa,cnpocrpafi €Hi4ro,eroii,np:ox.,raMarlarr oH,Bbi_ ,cblJraeroff e ApxaHrenlcxyrc ry,6epunro, ,Ho r.r orrvAa ,rrDor:to,rrlKacBoHM coparHr.rKaM: Eexvauy,3asaAcxoMy u, nepoorHo, T l-1._uto lvlypaBcKOM'y, xorfl nocneAuufi xar ontrruuri r<oHc,naparop ue AaJI ^B_ pyt<tz cJreAcrBr.rfl Hr4 OAsoir KoMnpoMeTupyroufeft' 6yraHlz3

v.ara27.

,coparHr.rKou MypaocKoro ,B . _ -Bepuuiu ApyroM H nepuoA lg60-_ 1862 ir. 6u,r' B. o. rlopryr"nou. riJ*e arpe,,rbor{r.rx ,co6srruri 1858 r. 'n Xap_u<o,ecKoM yHr.rBepcnTere loryr{fl,rr nDaBo sa,Ko,H_ rlilrb rKypc s Kaeanr.r, rAe ,Bxrroqfi,rcq soHo6trlear"6""d-:non"rru"_ cryAeHr{ecrsa. C ero r.rMeHeM cBrsa,H ,KpyxoK, Bo3_ :L9-:--l-"""T?lI_e HvI,KUtHu B Ka3arHcKoM yHr4,Bepc,rere oceHbro lg60 r. fbronqco orbesAy I(asaHa,,rlopryrinoe coo6qn.n mypa"irouy]."".onx .r43 -oi"pu"o." rrcAefi (17 Sawunuft), na Koropbrx ,no.ne4nrft' B peBoJrroquoggoft pa60re. Eo.nrrur,HcrBo \I43 ,HIIX ,BOTITJIO "* ,Brroc,,reA-

crBr'rfi

<<B

TOT 'r(py)KOK, Ha ocHo'Be K,O?Opofo Bo3H,nKro KaeaHoxoe

0. l0e,_1862, 230, q. e5,,r"r. 81, :j,t 9I49P, 52_53, t08, 13, 17. -z'"0. hp:n4.po, O. 377, I A. io6p.,lar-rZriO,'"r. n"looii'.ffi^..nr" "3aMerxr.l lI. Edtnrenro. -1860 26 r. oH nrcafl^MypaBcKoMy: <<f4e rnep4ocrb, rAe crofixocrr 'rlerou naruux y6ex,4euuri z xapaxrepa? !,d ecru .nu y Hac ern rBepAbre y6ex4euua, H*rKaKuMrr o6crosreftcrsaMu HecoKpyruuir,rne? "c raKrrM .rrri'6bpaio"ar,ier xapaKrepoM AoJrxHbr 6r_111 xoropue Bbrcrynaror Ha noup,n,ue noJr'ruqe-' 19,eu.e crori AeRre.nrsocra? Her... MBr ie sHnor'r.rrr{ cBoero uagHa.re'r.rq. Haue (<Eu;ro.e\ Aeno Bneperr...> 907,_ Nb I / 13, crp. I S7_ iggi. 27 r]fAop, ^l 4;. t0e, t862, t. bio, i5_ss.

40

"l-sB,l";.


OT.L€JI€Hi{€ <<3elrnn

lI

BOa'I14>>

28. COO6UIeHHbIfi B OTBeTHOM

11'14Cbil{e

Ma,Hacceuny gror ctll'tcoK, ,BepogrHo, Ao!'IxeH 6ul,r 'noxasarb crerreHb oCBeAOMJIeHHOCTI'I

Mypancxoro

B

Ae!'Iax soputzpyrcurercc'q pe-

IOATIOJIbfl H II'oc,'Iy)KI',ITb eMy cBoeo6p a3Hoii peKoc He3HarKOMbrM,Il'tr{HO Manaccen,riltrt. JIepeIII{'cKe MeHAaUI,Ieft 'B ocyqecr,BJr,s'BrrrlrM nocJle or6e3Aa llOpryranoBa oBx3b Myp ancrofo'c Ka3aHbro. iflocle oKo:HqaHlzq Kypca flopryra,roB B 'Haqa"Ie 186 I r' eoeBOJTI,OqI{OHHOT',O

e llo,rraBcKylo ry6epHAIO. floixo"rlxy oessu ero c Mypaecr[M [poAo,'I)Kanr ocralBarbcfl orleHb recHblne6eanrirepecHo Bbrfl,cgr{rb rrroJrLlrHqecKoe,'Illqo nopryf air", JoBa"oB yxparnncxift 'nepnoA efo xa3rHfi. fIO noeepaueHlru rt:l poauny llopiyraJlo'B npI4HI'IMaer aKrI{BHoe yqacr[e B co3AaHI'Il{ 'Boc' ,xpeinux uKo,rr .r{ Apyrnx Mepo,[pr.fl Tr4f x nporpecc'sHoi{ }IHreJL'IlI.6nr1"". He uues ,oirpeae,reurubrx AaH,Hbrx o ero orHotrleuull x Qo'p' MHpyl,oueft cx'acepoccnfi oroft peBo,'Ircqllouttofi opranl'l3auHl'1, Mbl 6rt'r B,ce-TaKLI MolKeM npeArIoJIatari, uro flopryra,roB He ro"'IbKo ocBeAoMJIeH 016 9TOM, HO I'l Ilpll'Hl',lMa,r I',l3BeCTHOe yqacTl{e B co6uoaguu DeBo,'InquoI'IHbIX cu,r. !,oxasate,rbcrBoM gBJlflercq ero ,ab"uo cBfl3b c C. PnrvapeHKo 2e, a ra,K)Ke ,c B'AHbIM \.[.ef re,'ierl o6urecrseHHo-no,'Il41l{qec'Koro A,BI'r>KeHHfl 'Ha Vxp arue H' fI' E a"r 06nnunlt no PltltapeHNo, C' c ,r"trr. lloc.reAnuit '6H.,r 6,rusox rqeft xsnxnoft ropro,e,rH cBrr3aH c H. cepno-co,ro,nnesl4qe]1, JI'lqHo sHaKoM c H. l. QepHuruenc'xizna. B 1862 r. noJIyqHJI rnpo.I,'rlo30 n, KaK yrBepxJ,aer )KeHr.re 'BCTltrII{Tb s €el\arlo lI 'B'OJ'IIO>> 14. E. Eapeu6ayu, rBepoflrgo, I{onoJIHflJI poab rlocpeaurKa r'Iexly' 3l' uu"tpo* '.,3elr"nu' 't't B'o,'IlI>> 'lI ee yxpauucxuntn S'unua'rannu o efo' B nnctuax Mypae'cxoro ecrb Mecra' cBHAer-e,'Ibcr'Byloiq[e 32. fl'opryrano'e 6u'r ocBe.ILoMJreHHocrI,I o AesreJlt,Hocru Ean,riz'ua oBs3aH 'c A. 14. CrpoHauum, Htr{eBruaM orH'oIreHI'Ie K {[o'rITaBcKoMy Bpaulaerc,g Ha Vrpaltujt,

33, u f B,'I.fl,'Ica <<4o6putM 3HaKOTMbIM>>' oTneJIeHI,Irc <<3eunn u BoJIH>> .Bbrrrre qJ'reHa Mocroecxopo oTAeJreHLI,fl OpfaHI'IyrroMr.r,HaBrxergcrr iagu,u A. fl. llor<po'BcrKoro 34.

f. H. B y "r r S c o u. I,ls ucropuu pa-3Hoqr-iHH-o--IeMOKparI.IqeCKofO .[,8I.{-' r e floso,lxbe. Kasan!, 1963' crp. 33. UitA, $. vez, on. l, A. 74, n.242 o6., t.71, n;r. l9l-192' Ilepenucxa floorvraloea c Pr,IlraPeuxo. 30'H: n. E a ,r ,'r u u. 50 ,ret Ltoeil x1lsuu. Paaepge Mollx coufia"Ibublx crpev.neHnfi. rly6,r. I4. E, Eapen6ayrrla. B c6. <<PeBortoul..loHHas CHTyalIHfl E Prjcclru s 1859-1861 m.>, M', 1970. crp. 336. 3r I4. E. Bapeu 6ayu' Mervryaplr H.-fI. 6a.l,nr'tra H o6uecrseHnoeaBllrr. XIX sexa. B c6. <<PesorrcqlloHHaff cu>Ke'ue B ro'qe 5b-x - saqane 60-i rr.>, M., 1970' crp. 313. e PoccHu s 1859-1861 rvauus " 32 <<6uroe>, 1907, Ne l/13, crp.204-225. 33 f. f y p e B Ir u. !,e,ro o pacnpocrpaHeHlill Maaopoccuficxofi nponaraHAbl' <Eu,noe>, 1907, Ne 7. 34 <Euloe>, 1907, Ne l/13, crp. 202. B 1862 r. B. [Iopryraros 6H,'I eropr.rquo apecroBaH ,t BbIcJraH noA crporutl Har3op Ilo'tlllqul{ n flepucryrc ry28

xeHr.rfl Ha Vpane ------rt6

4E


flepenncu'na,rcr Mypancrrft s 1860-62 m. c 6nusrrt4l{35,K -o6ulecrsy [Iluynenuuem (s Kzeee) yqacr:HHrKoM cryAeHqecKHX iB'o,rrHeHr{ii,e XaprroBcKoM yHI4Bep'cHTere B anpeJre 1858 r. O. llan.roecxr{u36. 6Hr ceseaHcocryAeHrov llerep6ypr,cr{oro yHl{,Bepcrlrera E. Z,rleHrKo, B ,qoMe Koropofo Xaplxbncro-Kzes,croN,ry

rB X a,p bKo'Be

rrpoxoAll,rfi co6p a unr,6a,T,'Ila,HoKofo Kpy)KKa 37, c 6btB-

uruMrr qr-reHaMlr qeHKo

o6ulecrea B. I4'eKosHu, A. JIe6eAeBbIM, M. .IIee-

38.

Ta'xuu o,6paeolr, Mypancxr.rfi,6nn ra'x r.rJni HFraqe rcBrl3aH cp€.AeficrgosanutiMr{ Ha Teppr.rTopr,r'lt lourn nceir Poccnz: e Mocxee w llerep'6ypre, Ha Vxpauue (rKuese,Xaplxone, XepcoHe, Exarepz,Hocr'raBe, Erarepnuo4ape), e flp'H6a"rrnxe (n f,epnre), a I{eurpanss,oli Pocclrlr (e Kypcxe, I(ocrpone), e lloso,rxle (e Kaeaun, V$e), Ha Vpane (n,flepura, KpauroySnlrore, Brrre). tr'lvr t6rrna cAe,'raHa no'rrbrrKa ycra'Ho,Burb rflprrMbre cBfl3rr Kasauu ,c .[,epnrou, flerep6yprou, (yp,crou, Bo,rorAofi, KapronoleM, XapsKo'n'ov, ;l(nenou 3e. B nzcllrax My,paucxoro ynoMr.rHarcrcs 56 Salrrnuil: Aecrrrb r.r3 ,HHx !'rnqa, [peAcra'Br.rreJ]r{ aAMH,HHcrpauv n, pe- c.uyualiutre a'Kur.roHHas npo$eccypa, ocraJrbHbre- q,'reHbr <<3eu.rr.r,H BoJrr4>>, lBO,rrroul4orHepaM14,

yqaCTHIIKI{ ABI'I)KeHHfl B'O'CK,peCHEIX llllKo,rl, CTyAeH'qeCKOrrO ABI,IX{e-

HHq, rrr'r€Hbr Xaplroncxo-,1(Henc'xoro o6qecrna. Taxnu o6pasolr, TOT Kpyr ,rruu, c- KoTopbIMH illepe,nHcblBaJrcfl aBTOp, He OCTaB!'r'fieT HrKAlKnX COIMHCHI4 fi B I.ICTI{HHOM HA3HA'qCHI,IN CIO IICDSIIUCXTA. IIO. .[po6Hocreft ,'rrirr{HoLro ceoftcrsa ,ilrzcbMa Mypancroro ,noqrn He co,q,epxar.

O6paulaer Ha ce6q BHrl,MaHHe u Qaxr'[opa,3r4Ter]rbuoft ocnegouMypanc,xoro o,cocT,osHlrn,peB,oJrroqfioH,Hofo ABHxeHHrr B crpaHe. Haxoaact ,B 3axo,'rycrbe,,oH ,rrr{rrr€T 3aeaAcror,ry l0 oxraSpr 1861 r.: <<O no,rlcxnx,[aHHxHAaxnllnrepe, Mocxee, Kneee, o BoccrarHr.r'Lr rKpecrbflH ,e KasaHcKoir ry6epHzr{, ,o rraHHxr.rAe xa3aHCKl,tX 'CTyAeHTO,B r.r O n'pOrIeM 'Bbr, Ha,BepHoe, yx{e 3HaeTe-Aa Lr He BpeMff rrucarb. B,ce gro Hnrrro B 'cpaBHeHar4 ,c ,[.ocJreAHefi uoJreHHOCTr.t

BOCTbIO>>

I{

AaJrbrIIe ,coo,6ulaerc,q

o

cTVneHgec'KHX .Bor'IrHeHHqX

ts

Ilerep6yprcKoM ynflBepcnrere, o6 apeirax e Mocxee <<rro Ae,,ry ,ru rorp a Qu fi >>, aApecax rBep cKoro r B Jr a.ALrMtrrp'oKoro ABopqHcrB a LI r. A. a0. Oqeer.rAHo, MypancKoro cqr.rraJrr.r 'HylKHr,rM cra,BHTb B H3BecrHocrl 0,60 'gceM ,grovl. 6epuuro. Tarra n leqegne Aectru Jrer oH nolBepfa,lrct

Hr{rM MecrHotl a4rr,ruuucrp ar\tv ga lllroH-ar'rbHo-ocno6o4are,rr,uoro3s <<Ennoe>>, 1907,

'u Ufl4A, g.

-s Tau 3s ao Tan 42

IBuxeHr-is

N! l/13, crp.

733, on. 50,

E. Eapen6ayru. :',VI .<Ennoe>,

cBs3r.I c

a.

nocroflHHbtM npecJleloBayqacrHl{KaMn peno.nrcuuoiuoto lr Ha-

(fAilO, Q. 65, on. I, n. 422, 1l4l).

200. 1062, .rr. 8.

Vxas. cou., crp.315. 1907, Nb-l/13, crp. 218 u ap.

lxe, crp. 193-223.

xe, crp. 207-209.


flepenncxa Mypancr<oro ta -\4arep-I{ailbl ero Broporc cr'I€'r'crBllf peBoi-Ilol{l4oHHo-AenoKa3blBalor, r{ro B'rIepI{oJ, I 860- I 862 rf' ero pa3BHrHe' Aa"rrneilnee noJ'ryqalor ;;;p;;;..rure y6exleHr'rr rllol3rBoilrer r6opu6n cpelcrBa Ha 83fJIfiAoB 3so,rloUnn efo raKTHr{eB h3Becruoft cre'nesn npeAcraBllrb rlpoqecc eupa6olxuroAoe' 60-x 'KpyfaMH pe'Bo'llrcqfioHepoB cxou -eio """A;,rltnnu uI4p'oKI4MI'r Harl'paBr'leHn 6rr'ru r'r-asH'l{ ;;S;p-"it raot r. cerl4ycu'rr'r' lllKo;I' xpyxxoe rz o6'eoc'npecnstx o6paaou i{a pacunpeHl'Ie Mypaecxoro 'MauacflllcbMo xe ilrecr'B rxupoKoro rana' llepeoe 1860'r'' orpaxa"Io ero 25'Jet<a6ps' Elip'cxa H3 ceuHy, or,rlpaBYIeHT{oe lrIKo'rI o -Enpcrxe: a'BTop Aerre,-IbHocrb II'o '|co3AaHlllo 'BocrKpecHblx yuuteleil'

co,o6ua.n

o

couIaaJIbHoNI cocraBe

yqauruxcr' ua6ope

IoBoprr''l ugbrc.KaHrrvr opeAcrB, yue6uux noco6nli,

crlr coeA?rHarr"

""ra.i,""i"n"anrt

cun. llnanli

o

rHeo6xOAItN'1O-

Mypancxoro ua 6y-

AyueeTaK>Keco,cpeAoT0ql{.Ba,,'IucbI'Ia'co3Aa;HI4I4'ceT}lHoBbIx'Boc. 'oH' - 3a'Becru 'BocrKpec'niai"ot* ul{od'I: <<Ecrl Ha.il,e'NAa' -rvcar al' Coo6u'eHr4tr B Kaeanl ne apy.r* '[,epeBHtlx> Hbre IuKoJIbL " lnocBrIIreHbI sroMy N<e' l'Ig llepnu coo6-

;;il;^;;eoao"

'oitn"

ilIa'lIOCb' qTO TaM 'OTKpbL'lOCb

<<HeCKOr'IbKO BOCKpeCHbIX IIITKOJ-I>>' OO3-

14 rlo<<o6rr(ocrea Arq pacnpocrpaHeHnfl fpaMorHocri'I "po"n" TIegHbIXCBeAeHI{?I>)'fd'laBHaflUe'lbKOTOpOfOOIIflTt'-TaKI'ICBOAI'1K rIIpeBpaue]Hl{}o JIacb K paCIxHpeHI'Irc 'CeTI{ 'BOCKpeCHbIX ill'Ko'rl' a2' Ha 3ry )Ke reuy.9urrlKoJI <<HapoAuoro r{regllfl>> B opraH 3TI'lx B nr'IcbMax nar{ar'Ia l86l r' ;;;;;;;;;" ,i k"""u

ilu,"

<<AaTb "'x,po^o'uu43' xapaKTep 'BocKpecHbIX IxKo"I olpeAeJlflJ1cfl 6o'ree roqHo yAOB"'IeTTaM Hax'oAIzr'I HapoA Uto'6lt ITIKOJIaM'.TaI(Oe .HaIIpaBJIeHI4e, 44'

tsopglou{He 'or,Berbl Ha BCe cBol'l Borlpocbl>> sHepfur]Hylo 'u'ettfIapa,rle.nbuo 'c 9rl4M Mypancr<uii pa3BtlBaer 'KpyxrKo'B t4 o6q-":l-:' reJrbHocrb rlo co3AaHHIo 'BceBo3MolKHbIX 'o6'beALIH,qIouItzX

lilupoKne Kpyrl,t nporpeccu'BHo HacrpoeHHoLI IIH-

'opraHH30Barr' B ran"rt""urn. B lexa6pe 1860 f' o^H flblraerctl 25 t6xa6pr 1860 r' Coo6utas' 6r.rpcxe nrr"puryp"tt"?Op'""g' ^flepufi pac<<O'6uecrea

Arq lflpoeKra Mauaccenrny o co3AaHIan a rn cBeAeHv fi >>' Mypaacxull rIoJIe3HbIx aMorHo'crlI rp aHeHIlf npocrp e AeqrenbHocru byayutero o6ueoAHo I.r3 ocHoB,HbIx 'cO'6paur'rfi n ny6'rn'u"u'npuun*nt{ft JII4reparypHbIX yrlpe)KAeHI4II <<'B crBa BuAHr

i.r|itfi>+s."Bbasparrarcb K sroMy nonpocy B rll'IcbMe x Ma""* or 20 nnnapr 1861 r', ott oco6o [oAqeprKl'IBaer 3Har{e"u.""*ny Hrie nllreparypHblx id6pannn AJIn BocnI{raHIIff 'ttpe-noAaearereii ,BOCKpeci{bIX IlI,KO,',i: <<B' eror',r oTHoIITeHHI'I'TIOAaIOT 6onruyio uaAex{Ay

rHar{

aBlrl'lrecfi SAecb JIIrrep aryp HbIe'co6p

a

nna' cKoilbKo

]I'o>l<-

*e, crP. 207. 't T^" Tau xe, crP. 210.

'2 43 Tau xe, crp. 213. aa TartI >Ne; c'rP. 214. a5 Tau xe, crP. 209-210 'B


HO \[peABr.rAerb, orrH

6y,qyr rlMerb xopouee BilprrHHe na 6upcxyro

,r'u'6epannuyrc ,Ilap'I]trc, T. e. Ha Tex, Kor,opbre yqacrByroT B ,BocKpecHblx illxo,r ax>> 46. B ,uaqa,re 1861 r. Mypaecxuil coo6qaer,s Kaga:Hb o co3AaHnlr n Bzpcxe KpyxKa tzs 'npenoAasarerefi ye3AHoro yqlr,rlrtr1a r{ <<ilx K,oporKI,Ix gHa'KoMbIx>>, B qHC!'Io 'Koropbrx Bxo,qt.{JI ,I,I caM MvDa,e_ cxnft. Os no4po6Ho nu$opunpyer Ka3aHcKylo Mor'roAexo b'rapaKrepe pa6oru 'KpyxKa: B ero nlrcblvre oi ZO fl.H,Bapr 186l r. o6pasrno ottucaHo 'oAH'o lr3 co6pannil KpylKKa, qpiKo xa,paKrepr.{-

3yloqee'cre[eHb,no,rr.rr].rqecKoft spenocrz urrdporKnx KpyroB,cpe.x_

rTCJl NHTC,TNI,IICHIII,IH i4 TE TPYAH.OCTH, KOTOPbIE .BCTA,BAJII{ I]EPCJ lolU{oHep a MII B rl{x [orIbITKax c[,'IoqeHI{9 AeMoKp arur{ecKlrx cuJI ,' . Tenr anuxa Jrr4 rep a ryp Hnrx,oo6p a,an ii n ue"r a noJrr4r'qecKyro H a _

p eBod'I

npaBJreHHOC$: <<B 6ece4r,r uMeer 6nrr eHeieH Hc"rr4reparypHue Myp aroru ir.,B noc,re,apTBr,rtr oH KaHAep oBcr(uft gneueHr>>,

-,rrHrrrer ,rlpoflBJrfler caMylo cepbe3Hyro aa6ory o coxpaHeHnrz xpyx,xa. llo_ d'ryr{r4B pa3perileu,lle Ha nepeesl n Open6ypf, orH coo6qaer ,s Ka_ 3aHb fiMfi 6npcxoro 'KoppecnoHAeHia yuimeJrfl K. fI. flerpona, rrJreHa r(pyxKa H npocar Manacceu,sa: <<flp.u lx,rHre.croAa rno60,,ruIIIe 3anpeqeHHbrx coqnseulrft... fJraBHbrM o6pasonr raKae coquHe_ Htt'fiJIy)KHbI AJIq 3Ae'IxHefO yrrHrH[IuOrO xpyxNa>> a8. Eo.nrrroe 3HaqeHr.re npa4anan Mypanc,i<uft cosAaHaro Apyfnx !{Aon o6re4aueuzrt <<,4nR ,'rrcAefi Henbc,e,xqeusux>. 2b aerd6po 1860 r. orH nnca,'r s Kasaut: <<Ecrl cna6an Meqra o6 o6ilfelrea*

Tpe3BOCrH >). B flep nrrE <<cocr aBr,s ercq o6'x{ecrBo rp a MorHocrrr H,rroJregHbrx ,ceeAeuraft... ,KaK ToJrbKo rrporrre,Hue H ycTaB nepeAa,Ayrcfl --pu.n'piilun"_ ,e llerep6ypf, ,r'o,q,Hr.rMercfl ,Bonpoi o,6 s6qsgiu" Hfifl rpe3Bocrr'r..- a raM rroroBapr.{Baror o6 06urecise ,ssaHMHOIO', 'Bcno M'olqecrBos a'HH t >> ae. B $enpane 186l r. rocJre BbrxoAa .Ho,Bbrx rrpaB,r.rJr o ,BooKpec'HbIX III'KoJIax' KofAa MHOfI'IM H3 grr,rx rrr'raHoB He ,cyxAeHo 6lr,ro ocyulecrBr-rrrca, Myp ancruri, auQop Mr.rpys Ma sa'ccez,sa o Ha Mepe-

Hr{ffx ,rrepMcKofo K,pyx(xa, coo,6u1a,r ,o rBo3,Ii[Kurefi

pe)KAeHI'I'q AoMau.HLIx JrHTep arypHbrx iB€qepoB

JIEHII'I

rau zgee yuc ueJrbro o3HaKol{-

C,OCHO.BHbIM14 ICOBPEMEHHbIM].I BOTIPOCAM.I{,'TIOAHSTbIMI-I B

Jrlrreparype. fl'acrua Qenpa"ra-,Mapra t6Ot a6 Tarvl xe, crp. 213.

r. coAepxanu r,te,o

a7 <<HeAanno, Mypancxufi, 6tr;l cnop... o roM, rrro nyqfie Aec_ - nrca,T rrorr{3M unu cno604a rrs rocyaapcrBa -r{ fAe .ryurire n Aurnuu nrrr'u po..", H cnoplrJrl{ He B BH.tIe a_ cepbe3Ho, MflaAeHqecrBo caMoe nepeo6orrHoe! _rxyrKr,r,

u

ABoe orcragBa,ru cro6o4y AHr,rurc, oKoJro nflTlI 6unu nporun'"roro, o._ raJrbHHe qerBepo... o6uapyxu,ru ra.yro He[puBbrqKy K noAo6ir'ru 6e."aa*, uro g [oJIoxLITeJrbHo orKa3brBarocb.p_emlzTb, rrro ogrr oao6paror: 4ecnorusr,r' r.r " iroc_ clro lnu cno6oAy ra Anr,ruro>^ (<iBu,r^oe>, l9g7, Ns iii.3,'irp. ZTai.

- ""

.4 <Euroe>,-1907, Ne l/13,'crp. {e Tau xe, crp. 210.

44

Zt+,'ZlS.'-'


opiaHH3arlhH nporecra nporl'IB crecHeHHft H 'OrpaHHqeHHft xpecHbtx tuKoJl

BOC-

bu.

Pe$opva l86l r. fl'Ba,'Iacb ceoeo6pasuult 'py6exorl 'B pa3BI{I,I Ta|KTI4qecKI,IX IIIpH'IIqI,IrIIoB peBoJltotll,lottttofi

THH nlp,o|paMMHbIX

,co,lJlacH'oe jl,eMol{paTI4l.t. <<PaspenreHxe KpecTbfl}IcKOrO lBOiIIpOCa, .He 'co 'c'ilpa'BeAJI'I,ITBbIMH rpe6onauunNII'I 'KpecrbflH>>' fl'Bl4Jlocl, no co6-

crBeH.HoMy npH3*IaHI'Ilo Mypaecxoro, oAHoil'I'I3 -fiplltlug' oKonqa.Teirbiio yKpell].{Brur{x erlo B peBod'r}oqr4oHH,oM o6pase MblcJ'Ieft 51. Bu,pa6orxy Hoeo}'t .raKrl{qecKoir .n.uuuu'np[xoAI'IJIocb ocyqecTB.JIflTb B,C,rOXneftlrelr O6Cra'HOg,Ke, KOfAa OAHOBpeMeHHO nepeIIJIeTa.rl,trCb KpecTbgHOKOe, CTyAeHqec'KOe H'HaIIiloHa!'IbHO'OCBO6OAt4TeJrbHoe .ILBIi)KeHHfl. B nilcume 'x 3aeaAcroMy or l0 orra'6px

186l r. MypaeCrNft ,npOfllBJl'|fler caMoe rnpI{CTa,'IbHOe BHI.{MaHI{e KO ,scern ,euAiM o6ulecrseHHoro rrporecra rofo ,BpeMeHI.L _14M orMe{eHbr ,rr.oJrbcKlre IaHHxI{Alt 's /vlocrBe, llerepi6ypte i'{ Kueee, eoc-

,craHI,Ie rKpecrbflH B 6e3AHe, rIIzH14XI{,.I18 'Ka3aHoKIrx'cryAeHToB' 'cry-

reHqecKlle BoJIHeHI{n e llerep6yprcKoM yHl{Bepcnrere' apecrbl B Mocxee <<flo rIIoBoAy ;rnrorpaQnft>> I1 T. A. BnocneAcrBI{I'I B 'rloKasaHlrflx Mypancruii Ao'6a8,'rqeT K Hr4N{ <<CTeCHeHHe 'BocKpecHbIX III,KOT'r>),

<<[OCTynrK]t [pa,BHTe,lbCTBa

B

'fIO,'Ilule>>, InOReAeHI'Ie pyC-

cKoro rrlp?BIIT€JIbcrBa, II'o 'or'Ho[IeH14IO 'X fepqeny I,I ofape',By, KreBery Ha cryAeHqecKoe ABI4)KeH,l{e, orcyrcrBl'ie f,'IacHofo'cyAonpo-

B cTI4X YC''I'OBI4flX }IM .,.iLe,taeTcq 'BbiBoA. <<B 'garue '|BpeMfl 'Ar'Ifl AocTl'Ixenuft 'HssecrHoi1 Ue!'Ia OrpaHI'IqHBaTbC's [yTeM MeA"IeHHbllvl, nyTeM pacnpoCTpaHeIH3'BOACTBA TO IIIOTIITIIqECKI'IM AEJIAM

I{ T. A.

A2.

rnp,r.rrrrdro BpeMfl OrKpbIrbIX H HeIByCMbI'CJ'IeHHbIX AefiCTBI'rft, KOTOpbIe',He oKoJIbiIbIMI',l IIyTfi MII' a [p'oAo'rnpq 1ro 6rr x,satao'I'14'cb 3a qe,'Ib-.. orxpltrue Aeft'CTBHfl '

Hafi o6pa3oBa:H:/.tl ,He uAer. Tenepl

Heo6xoAIiMbI LI [o.;Ie3Hbl 'rloT'ol'lY, qTO XOTb OH'H qACTI'I BO36YX{AAIOT HO HCYAAIIHO, ,OKAHI{I,IBAIOTC''I rrO 6O,TITUCTI ,ny6,'rl4Ky. flyrl'uapo,lHoro o6p a3o'B3 HIfl 'IIP I'I 3ro M, KoHe'I{Ho, ro)Ke .1o,l)KeH HITH- 3TO y)K CaMO cooot'{>> "". )KaeT o.H Aa,'Iee,

tr4snecrno, Ka'Koe 3HaqeHi'le np[Aa'Bar'Ifi rHAepbI ]peBoJlloulloH-

HO-AeM'OKpaTl4qecKorro d'Iafe_pfl IIpeA'bfl'B,'IeHHI'O 'QOpMa"Ib'HbIX rpe-

6osanuia barr,ro4epxa'B'Irtlo. OqeBl'IAHo, 3rH I{AeH 'Hax'oAI'I"tu Ixl4poKoeDacnDocTDa'HeHHeI{'cpeAI,IpflAOBbIxyqacT'HI,lKoBABhxeHHf.

tO

ofrs6ps tgOt r. Mypancxnfi'nucan 3asaAcxol{y:

<<Xoporuo 6bl

ec.nn ,6 IIpnMepy TBep,cKoro r.r B/-raAr4M'HpCKOTO .ABOpsI{CrBa IIOCJIerI{ Apyrue coAOBa"il4 'He roJib'Ko ,AsopsHe Apyrllx ry6epHlti:r, HO c.;t'oBr,rfl

-

3arlpyAurr r6u rpe6oeaHllev ce6e peQopM,

ocHoBaH-

Tau xe, crP.223. Tau xe, crp.225. Tau xe, crp. 204-205, 225. si Tav xe, crp. 205. 50

51 52

45


Hbrx Ha caM.oynpa'B,rreHr.rH. yHnBepcrlTeTa\{ c,'re.I,yer [oTpe6o'BaTb..peQop M,

o cHoB a

HHbrx,Ha ca Moyn,p

aB,'r

eH,r.r H

>

54.

tr4urepecHa orIeHKa, AaHHafl Mypaecxnlr raKoMy xpynHeliure-

uy n o6ulecrBeHHo-rro,rnruqec'xoii >xIz3Hrl Poccxu co6nrrnrc, xaK cryAeHqecKoe ABr.r)KeHHe n flerep6ypre oceHbrc l86l r. Ona co-

or l0,oxrs6pff, r. e. cnycrq rrpaMepHo l5 rHeft flBlflercfl ,B H3,BecrHoir vepe caMocroqrerbHorl. Hanoyuus o eax.Hefrrulrx co6urr.rrx iB o,6qecreelrirori x'asHlt, Mypa'ncxufi nuurer: <<Bce ero Hr4qro B ,cpa,Bne.Hull c noc.reAuet? HoBo,crbto, c grHM rIepBbIM qBreHr.reM ApaMbr, c Ha-

Aepx{r.rrcn B,rri.r,cbMe

'iloc,'re co6lrrzft u rnogToMy

cTyntr,Brxa

M yxe,Ha'K,ol{eq,cToJrb Ao.rIIo o)KuAaeMbrx,t HacTofl IqI{x,r

[oMse .Ka)Kercr, sro

Ae!'roNr, r{eabio: 3aKpbrrr,re llerep6y,prcKoro yHt4,Bepor.ITera,r{

c.leAcrnIaq

erori ueo64ylrauHoft

rua"rocru...

AOdIIXHO nOAHfTb ,B'Ce ).tHI{'BepCHTeTbI, OH'II AOd.IXHbI 'BCTy,IIIITbCfl 3a lierep,6yppcxuli. Mox.er u lftlrep, BocrroJrb3oBa,Bur.{cb norKa XeJIe3O ropqqO, rnpH,CTIIIIIT 'npflMO K ,rleJrr.{... nO Moelry MHeH,t{rc,

6trrl

c/'reAyeT 06 ernx np_onc,mecTBraax rpy6nrb, pa3yMeeTcfl, c HyNiHbr}Ilr KoMMeHTapHflltH>>

55.

nr.{cb},re x 3a,ragcKoMy Mypae,cxafi tsbrABnfaer o rrp fl Mo u o6p auIeHil n K Ha p oAy c lpeBor'r rouaon.soir aruraq,ueri H npolaraH.qofi: <Xopotuo r6br,'ro ,6r,r usAa'sarl ,c6r_rpHuKH A.ns ,npocrofo HapoAa, cocraBJreHHbre rr3 /'ryqrxr4x cTareii B TIPOSC I{ B CTI4XAX C NOIIYJISPHUVI'I O6'NgCHCHHfMIH ,HEIIOH'ITHbIX Mecr... O6paso,naHuaa rny6,ruxa ylKe He Hy)r(Aaercq ,B raKux BeIqax, Haq14ra,rracb a rrpo'croMy-r'o HapoAy Hy)KHo ,6u>> b6. B yc,ronuax ocrp eriurero fi.o,r'r.rr,'qecKoro Kp ].r3 r4 ca oKoHq are,,rbHo cKdIIal.ilbIBar'Iocb lI]per,craBr'Ie,H,I]e o pe'Bor]oqr.rr[ KaK erAI,IHcrBeH-

T'or4a iKe B

rlp eAJro]Ke-Htr4,e

HO B'O3MOXHOM,BbIX,OAe I,I3 CO3Aa,BIUefOCfl IIO,1O,)KeHI,r,q. <<HaCrOg_ rrlrze rr,or'rr.rraqecKae y6ex4eHn,n>>, KoTopbre Mypa,a,cxzrl o6tqeHjr

cJreAcrBeHHo[ xouncczH Ha A0rlpoce 13 .oxrq6pa lg62 r. 3arK,irroB ,cdTeAyroqelr: <<,B nocJreAHue rp,H xJrH r{erbrpe roAa fl npulxeJr K TBepAoMy y6ex4enzrc, r{ro or py,cc,Koro ,lpa,BuTeJrbcr_ rraJru,cb

ea (no4 ,HMeHeM Koroporo [oHaMa]o riMneparopa r,r Bcex HbrHe CYUICCTBYIOIII'I{X,BJIACTCII) rNO4.E,rA,CTHbIC CMY HAIIIOHAJIbHOCTH,HC

r

AoJIlKHbr o)KrlAarb,HarKaKax cyulecrBeHHo_fl o.[e3Hbrx npeo6p aeoe a _ Ht4it, raw KaK npaB',IT.JIbcr,Bro He uMeer gn cnoco,6,goco", )Kedtra_ HLIq'cAeJrart ur'o-H,rz6yAb rtoAoi6Hoe A,qx rH2ps^a ,tr !rro eAHHCTBeH_ "ri Hoe CpeAcTBo K rllgpQl,leHe .CyU,eCTByrOqerO [opsA,Ka

y

OCTaerCH, rro

rc, nyrb,H a ca Jr tcrgeHHo rZ- p eao,r rcqv,rE >> 57. I4 ntnap.n l863 r. s c,or6clseHHopyu,no*r ,oco6olr Ao,'o,rHr.rreJrb_ HOM r[Oxa3aHlla Mypancxuft eqe pa-s-,no4rnepAr{Jr, qro ror <<o,6paa r,r

oer.{

5a 55 56

s7 46

M HeH

r-r

Tam xe, crp. 204.

Tau xe. Tan xe.

Tau xe, crp.

205.


IIOJ'II,lTHqecKHX Aei{cTBHfi' XOrOpOr',ry oH coriy'B'cTByeT>>' 3aKirloqaerB ToM, rITo <<Ad'I{fl Poccan B Hacroflxree BpeMfl eAI{HcrBeHHoe Ir

ct

TIIOJIOIKe-

caMoe HaAelKHoe cpeAcTBO eltftrn Ii3 CBOero Tfl)Ke,'IOro HI'Ifl 3aKrrIOqaercfl B Hacll,'IbcreeHHOfi peBo"Ircqfia' T' K' lls leiicrenft npaeltreJlbcrBa BI'IAHo, 'rITo oHo, BolrlepBbIx' He yMeer cAe"Iarb'

HHqeto cyqecrBeHHO-l[oJIe3HOrO AJIfl HapoAa, BO-BTOpbIX' He xorler oTKa3aTbcfl or cBoefo AecloTZ3Ma' rlloqeMy R caMl{x 'npeo6paeoea58' HI,Iflx cBollx ofpaHnql'IBaercfl {rloJiyM€pa'uu>> cyqecrBa peBocaNlofo gru rIoHI4MaHrne yr,ry6l{r'Iocb rogrl B Jrroqu,olHHoro nepeBopora.

,Bclblx,uBanu{eM

<<B ,OAI.IH

or

npeAcTaBJIeHIlf o peBo.Ilrcqnu KaK o AeHb>> noA Br'II'IqHI'IeM npo-

rnpeKpacultft

xranaunft raftnoro o6ureirsa- BoccraH'HI'I KpecrbflH Mypa'ecruili 'cToJ'IKnpH6nuxa,rorr K IIOHnMaH'rlrc peBoror{HH Ka'K pe3y,'IbTary '11porgubgennn caMblx pa3r,I14,qHbIX COqUa,'rbHbIx I4 ['O,'ILITI'tqe'cKr'IX soDeq,flft. ^Tarnn

o6pasou, ecJII,I rHaIlI,U AaHHbre He II.O3,BO,'ItIIOT KaTefopllqecKl{ yr'Bep)KAaru Qopuanl-Hoft 'IIpu'HaA,lle)KH'ocrl'I M' A' Myp anoKofo K <<3ellne r{ BoJre>> 1860-x roAoB, To xapaKTep efo AefreJlbH,ocrrd, Kp yf cBfl 3efi , uanp a'rneune -I'rAetluoil e'eonnql4l4' Ha[IeA[Iee spKoe orpa)KeHI,Ie B nepel[cKe, y6eAureflbHo'cBl4Aere"IbcrBylor o TOM, ilTO OH rIIpl'IHflJI CaM'Oe aKTI'I'BHOe yqaCTI{e

'e

npOUeOCe c'o6'U-

paHr,rfpeBoJIIOUllOHHbIXCHJII'IMeHHOHaTONI3Ta'ne'KorAaco3AaBa Jr acb nep,B aq ecepoccuircKafl p eBoi-rroq_rroHHa,fl op raHI,I3 al{hq. B ce 3To rlo3,Bo,'Iser ,ro'Bopl4Tb o He\'I, rar o6 oAHoM I{3 BblAalourl'lxcr .u,egre,reft o6ulepocc1tftcKo1o peBo,II1gqnoHHoro ABII111eHI'Ifl SnOXIt

neprofi peBoJII,oqnonHoft cnryaunn. 58

Tan xe, crp.207.


vAK

947.081.2

fl

. E.

PaduuaBri,t

PEBOJIIOUHOHHAT nPOnATAHAA CPEAH PAEOTIUX YPAJIA B 70-80-x rOAAx XIX BEKA Bonpo,c o peBoJrlorlJ.ronn'ori ,IIPoIIzrf?HA€ cpeAr.r pa6ounx rHa Haqar'rb'H'oM 3Tane

pa6oqero ABH>xeHI,tfl

s

Poccnu [pI{,BJreKaJr x

,ce6e

III III.}IPO'KO OCBCIIICH.B JIA-pa6orax Teparypel. I( coxa.neHuro, B 3rr{x nni6o soece He HarJJra orp a iKeHur r4cropur p acn'pocrp arHeHHfl peBoJrroqfi o,uusrx r.r4eft cp e.u,u pa6ouux crapefiurero i[poMbrlureHnoro paftoua ,crpaHbr - Vpana, ,rn6o coAep)Kar'cfl JI,uIIIb rKparKHe ynoMI,IHauul^ d6 orAer'Ib,Hbrx BHI,IMAHII{C

MHO|IIX

COBCTC(KHX HCTOP'H,KOB

rpaxrax noAo6soro poAa

2.

B

,nocneAsee BpeMfl rlro oroMy Bonpocy BbrflBr4Jrr.rcb ABerfiporzBorro.rro>KHbI'e roqKLr 3peHHr. rB. E. 9ernH, HccJreAoBanuruft ucrop n r,o H a,q ar,'rbHof o STSrrra 6opr6u yp aJrbcl{ofo fi,poJreTapfiaTa, rrpHmeJ'r K BbrBotAy, qro HapoAHur{ecKoe ABI{xeHr4es4ecl <<ne6HJrocBfl3a'Ho c pa6,outrlr ABltxeH'r{e}r>>3. Asa.noflqnoe MHeHr.re o noJr,HoM (,i.Ir 14 roqru Inor HoM ) orcyr'crBnrz cs,sseft MelKAy peBoJrrorlr4 onep aMr.t u ypa,'rb,cKrrM.H pa6ounvn ,g 70-90-x m. XIX B. ,BbrcK832Jr3

T. K. fyclr<oea a. I4Hyurro3z{rlrc 3aurr,'r [. B. faepr.r.aoe. B 4nyx ero,cra rbrrx, rt,o cBq[IeHHbrx p a gHoquHcKo My 3Tany,oc,so6oAl{rerlHolo ABHlKeHr.rq Ha Vpa,re, yrBep)KAaercg, qro peBoaro[]roHHafl nponaraHAa Ha Vpane ,B 3Tor rrepu'o4 3arponyJra <<He roJru(o ropoAcKylo HrHTeJIrtLIreHI{tIIO, HO,tr MaCCy TOpHO3aBOACKOTO,HaCeJreqro s 70- Ha'qaJr.e 80-x rr. <<npolaraHAoli peeonnqr4oHHbrx I{ap'oAH;lKos 6L,tnu ox,BaseHbr noqrn ,Bce rop,oAa... flepu,croft rvi{rrs>>,

6epHun... r.r MHorne

aa,nogu>> 5.

pa6orrr B. I,rI. Heacroro, A.

M. Ilanrparosofi, lII. M.

^ A.t9,t. 3. {oponuqyb 6_: C. I,lren6epra, O. A. Coro.nona u 4p. _^^^2 Cn.: .Q. A, C oK_orr,oB. !a _sapg pa6o.lero Asu;Kenrs e pocclru. M., 1963, crp. 129-130, 177-178; E. C. I4r'eu6epr. Ileprufi I,Inrepuauaoua,r u

pe^Bofrouuousaq Poccaq. M., 1964, crp. 60. 3..C6opHux MarepnaJroB uayuHofi ceccnll By3oB

ro parloua. a_

rirn 48

Hcrop_u-uecxue Hayxn. Crepa.noacx, <<}1icropun CCCP>, 1963, Nb 2, crp. 230.

t A:.8.- f anpu.rron. O Ha Vpane.

B xn.:

Vpa,rtcxoro i963, cip.2T.

gKoHoMuqecKo-

Hexoropslx Borrpocax HapoAHl.rqecKoro ucropuu Vpa,ra>, Ilepvit, 1966, crp.

<<Bonpocul

,IIesrHa,

ABH)Ke-

bl7:

on


K coxa.neH,r4ro, a,BTop He pacKpbrBaer ,HH xapaKrep I.r 'coAepxiaHr{e peBo,'rFour4ouuoii np'onaraHAbr, HH crerreHb ee B,r'IzsHll,s Ha

3aBoAcKHX pa6ouax. Ero yrsepxAeune o uacura'6ax eroil np,olraraH,q,br HyxAaercfl s ,6onee secxori apryMeHrallur.I. @axrtt o

qro B

3aBoAcKoM ceJreHhH 6una 'o6sa'pyxeHa npoKr'raMaqro y apecro'BaHH,ofo cry.AeHTa 6alna ugt'gr ? H€r€f&.ttbHa,rr r14Teparypa,'r4trlr4, HaKoHeq, qro B 3aBoAoxoil noce,roK nptte3)Kar'I peBOr'IIOqI-{OHep-npOIIaraHAI.iCT, caM14 no ,Ce6e ,He MOryT .C,'Iyxnrr o6ocHoBaHr.reM Te3LIca o6 ycnexe peBo,'Ircqu'ottnoft npo,naraHAbr. Torlxo Ha ocH,o'BaHnu noAo6sux Saxr,o'e [. iB. la'ap,uno'n BKJrIoqaer B ltepeqeHb <<ox'BarleHHbIx>> npo{naraHAoit <<muorne>>

ToM,

qtlfl,

Hr'II,I

3 aBoAbr ( u anp a uep, B. -I4cercxnft ,'CyxcyHcxI.rft , H.-T aru.urcxnft H Ap.). Asrop K Torlry )Ke He yq'r.ITblBaer, qro oqeHb r{a-

yp a JrbcKrie

CTO iHAMCPCHHq 'BECTI.I II,PONAIAHAY I,{ AA}KC NPAIKTI,IqEOKI4E TIOIIbIT. Klr B 3TOM Ha'[paBJIeHI4H He ilMe,'IlI yclexa H ,He AaBaJII,I ,cKoJIbKo-

,Hrz,6yAr p,eaJrbHbrx pe3yrbraroB. Cnelyer [o,'rafarb, qro He nce

Qaxrrt peB,o,'Ircu,HoHttoil nponafaHAbr Ha ypa,'rbcKux sa'no4ax 6nr,l.r pacKpbrrbr )KaHAapMcKhMLI nllefixau,n u [oryql4,Tr4 orpa]KeHr.ie ,B r.rcro'q,HHKax. Her 'coMHeHLIn H B TOM, qTO AaJIeI(O He rBCe IICTOqHI4IKHrBbIfl'B,rIeHbI 'I'ICCJIeAOBaTeJrqlrr4. I( rouy )Ke xapaKrep Il3BecrHbrx HaM Marepl{aJroB (n sua-

qare,rruoft ceoeft qacrlr oQuqua,rrsoro flpoucxoxAeuna) He rr'o3BoJ'rfler ,o,cBeTr.rrb c n'o.uuoft AocToBepHocrbl,o Macrxra6u n co-

Aep)KarH.ne' peBoJrrorluouuoft nponaraHAbr Ha y,pa,'rbcKllx 3aBoAax. Teu He ,'vleHee'ficcJIeAoBaTe,IIF, Ao,'rxeH ,crofrb Ha noqBe rlpo'BepeH-

Hbrx u xpnrnudcxu npoa,Had'Ir43r.rpoBaHHbrx Qarroe.

Hacrosnla,s crarbrr paccMarplrBaer Bonpoc o peBoJrIoIII4oHVpa,ra (rouHee, 'fleplrcxorl ry6epnnu) s 70- HaqaJre 80-x roAos XIX s. B ee ocHoey rror'ro)KeHbt MaTepuar'IbI IIeHTpaJrbHblx I4 MecTHbrx apxI4BoB, Korooble .BKr'rroqaror Ka,K,Hcr,oqH,nrrn o$uqnar'rbHoro npo[cxo)KAeH]rs (rnran,ofi nponaraHAe cpeAr4 pa6'ouax

repHaJrbr )KaHAapMcKHX Ao3HaHHri u np.), rarK 'r.r AoKyMeHTbr. aBTOp a M I,l . KOTOp bIX flB Jl'fl JILI Cb np eICTa BH TeJI H p eBO"IIoUHOHH'O rO,1 a -

repfl.

3a4aua peBoJrrorrl4onuofi nponaraHAbr cpeAr.r pa6ouzx Ha Vpa-

,re 6rr.ra

Bnep,Bbre rBbrABr4Hyra Exarepran'6ypfcKrrM,HapoAHHqe6. B ,Cd'Ie/l,CTBeH.HbIX Marep,i{aJIaX OTMeqar'IOCb, qTO sror KpyxoK craB,ri,'r ceoer? ued'rbro <(Hr.rcltpoBep)KeHr.re'cyuleclBy]oil{ero ,nopflAxa .Berqeft>>, A,'rfl qero [pr{3Har ueo6xoAnrauM <<e,'rnflTb

,oKIaM Kp',y)KrXOl,I

xe.

Ocso6o.4nreJlbr.roe ABlrxeHrze ua Vpane B pa3Hoqr{HcKofi ra,ru 6ypxya3Ho-AeMoxparnqecKr.rfi nepuo.4 186l-1895 rr. B rn. <<Hexoropue BoIIpocbI coqua.rrbHo3KoHoMr.rqecxoft ucropuu Poccau>>, Bopouex, 1971, crp. I16. 6 Crnl.: 6. P a 6HHoBLru. Exarepuu6yprcxuii peBo,'rorrHoHHo-HapoAHr.r-

f.

uecxuri rpyxox (1871-1875 rn.). <<VqeHste 3arncKLI ro>, r. XVII, nnn. 4, flepur, 1961.

4

Bunycx

2

flfV uu. A. M.

foprxo-


/Ha Ha,ceJreHLIe BoodIIIe H Ha pa6oqvi4, Kilacc rnpeuMyIIIecTBeHHo>> qeJlb <<KoHerI'H crp erM afl flo,a a,xrloqeHru Io r)K 2 HAZ p MciKo f o Ao3H a H,H fl , qrd6lt qJIeHOB <<IloMofarb HapoB ToM, cocroqr'Ia KpyxKa JreHr.Ift>) Ay, o[o,co6,cTBOBaTb 'BceMIl cll,.'laMI'I ero o6pa,aoBaH]IiIo ,t',t ocso6oxr8. a6unro pa6oqnx t3-troA fHera Kallrtira"Ia>> Haxoseu, ,B ,rIo'Ka3aHHqTO qd'IeHoB 3aAaqeit Couua.rouotl raKxe loBopI'IJIOCb, KpyxiKa flx tlpoIIafaHAbI oHH cllr.rTaJII] <<rIoAHgTLle yp'oB.H'fl o,opa3oBaH'lrfl pa6o,rero KJIacca rr 3areM gMaHcnnaqfirc efo or rex HeBbIFoAHbIx ycroBraft, B KoropbIX oH... HaxoAl.{Toq>> e. B reqeu'ue ,HecI{o,'IHKax ,rer ErarepnrH6ypfcKlll? ,xpyNox (xpy-

xoK AeitcrsoBaJr c l87l no 1875 r.) peBoJIIOqUOHHO-AeM'OKpaT,l'I'qeCKllx

H

Be,rI aKrI{BH}Io rrlporlaraH.{,} yrOn'I{qeCKo-cOI{I{O"rIHcTHqe-

cxlrx uAefi cpeAlr yvaqeftcn MoJIoAexH H Mecruoft AeMol(partrqec,ro

ii

n

gre.nJr.ItreHqr.r'r{.

9nenu KpyxKa p asp a 6 arrtnar''I'H rrIJI a'HbI rlrp otrarrarHAbl cp eAH p a 6oqnx H rflpeAnp14HflJrr,r florlblrKy I]x peaJILI3aultn. Oun IIblra!'IHcb Becrr.r ycTHyro ,npoiIafaHA}/ Ha Heslsncxolr, H..tr4cercxont H B.-HefrenHcKoM 3aBo,x,ax. tr4u yAaJIIo'cb opfaHlz3,oBarb parcllpocrpaHeHHe HeJrefaJrbHofi n'nreparypbl rue roJIbKo rs Erarepu'H6ypre, Ho ir4 Ha HeKororpbrx 3aBo.rax. 3ro noArsep'xAaerofl TeM, r{To rrp}r o6u,cxax HeJlefaJ'rbHaq rnTeparypa ,6una o6napyxeHa y xi'nre,rerl

HgslqHoxoro ru B.-Typu'Hrcx,oro

gaB,oAorB 10.

Mbr 'HaxoAr.rM r.r B rBoofloMr.rlHaHlrflx C.

CBnAere,'rbcrBo 3roMy

C. Cr.trery6a

11.

O4ua,xo ycraHoBHTr, [rp,oqHbre cBq3H c pa,6,ou'urau r{JeHaM Kpy)KKa He yAaJrocb. C. C. Clr,nery6 B ,BoottoMr4HaHn,flx c <<r{yBCrB'OM AO'CaAbI>> OTMeqaJI, qTO eMy 'He'[pIIIIJI'OCb 3aEeCTrH TeCHbIe

3HaKOMCTBa C SaBOACr(Zl.tn 'pa6OUtt'r,ril ,S HesrfllHcKe. (<rBcrly[a,'r f ylKe rB pa3foBopbl l.t . c pa'6outr,Ml,I, oH, ec,rlu '6u rtr'p,o)Kr4rb 3Aecb-,n, uHe 6ecnpertqrcTBeHHo 'rrpr4rlrJrocb -,orMerlaJr eule ,c ]Tecrrq (C. C. C,rlnery6 Hax,oAl4Jrcfl re HeersncKe c KOHqa lrloH.rr no ,Haqaro aarycra lB72 r. P.), q BceHe,rrpeMeHHo 3aBer 6at 6nuz-.fl. gHaKoMcrBa KHe n c HHMu>> 12. B nepo'oft rroJroBLI,rH€ 70-x roAoe Apyrile Saxru peBoJrroui.{ouHofr rrtpotraraHAblHa ypa,'rbcKr.rx 3aBoAax HaM'Heu3BecrHbr. E o.n ee yofl eIuHbIe rlr p es y!'r br arr.rrB Hbre n orrbr rKr.r Bnecrr.r p eBoJr Io rlr.roHH,o-AeMoKpaTHqecKHe I{,corlr4arr4,cTr.rqecK,H e n leh ts p a6,oqyro 7 U|AOP, 109, 3 ercn., 1874, a. 144, ,rr. 305. 8 II|AOP, 0. 109, 3 ercn., 1871, l. 76, q. 2, n. l2B. 0. s

Tan )Ke. Jr,'r. 122 o6.-123.

r0 Cu.: <Il,lA TACCP, g. 89, on. 1, a. 1609, ,r"r. 4-15; t{fAOP, 0. 109, 3 excn., 1874, 144, s.4,.rr.rr. 304-306; 0. 109, 3 ercn., 1871, a. 102, a.22.

t.

Cu. raKxe: O. L. C o r o,r o s. Vrae. coq., crp. 129-130, 177-1781E. C. Ul r e n 6 e p r. Vxas. cou., crp. 66. tr C. C. C u n e r y 6. Bocnolrr.rHaufiq qaftxoeqa. <<Ebr,'roe>, 1906, J\b 8, cro. ' 1246.C. C. C n n e r y 6. Bocnolrusauuq qarixosua. <<bu,roe>>, 1906, iNe 8, crp.

50

49.


cpery 6unn npe4npnHsrbl 'ua Vpane Bo Bropoil'fio'r''IoBI'IHe 70-x roIoe. Han6oJlee xapaKTepHbIe I{3 I{3BecrHbIx c,'IyqaeB I'IMe;I}I }'Iecro Ha KHHoecKoM'H Pexescxorl 3a'BoAax, re Kynrype u 'flepllt't. B arnrycre 1876 r. Ha KHHosct<rfi aasoJ, Crporra'Hoeqtx rpll: exan cTvAenr flelpo'e'cxofi genueAellqecrofi a KaAeIt'HH,'6lteilfi fi neprtrcrift ceMgHapl,tcr I,I. A. Jlro6nuor. Euy yAaJl'o'cb y'crp'orrFjctt

yquTeJIeM iB 3aBoAcKyIo IlIKoJIy, ycTaHo.BIlTb OBql3b c MecTHbIMI,I c ]eflTe;IflMl4 Ir Hal{arb flpofiafaH.[,y cpe,n.u pa',6ouux. ou 'npono4un qHTa,'I rycrHble,6eceAH, arI{TauI'IoH' HapoItHI{qecKI{e I'IM p a6ouumn irne 6pouropu (<<Xurpaq MexaHI.{Ka> 14 Ap.). flponaraHAucrcKas AefTeJrbHocrl tr4. Jfto6nMoBa Ha KHHoecxdM 3aBOAe npoAoJIx{a,racb oKoJIo rpex Mecq[ea (e Hoa6pe l876'r. ou 6u,r apecroean). Bpnl nr{ MO}KHO ,fOBOpI{Tb O ee uplpoKoM pa3Maxe, Ho <<BHHOBHOCTS>> JIio-

6unosa B rrpornafaHAe cpeAr.r pa6ounx 6u,ra 'npnsnaHa

HbI,MLI

CJIeACTBeH-

13. flpu apecre y opfaHaMl4 <<coBeplueHHo ycraHoB"IeHHofi>>

uero 6dno o6napyxeno 6onluoe KoJr'r{ecrBo Her're,ra,'rbHori Hap oAHr4qecKoft ,trurbp aryp sr ( uouep a )K'ypfi a,'I a <<B'nepeA>>, 6porurcp a <Xurpan ltexannxatt I'I Ap.), a ral{)Ke <<Karnura,l>>, <<I('xpurnxe no,wrrnqeCxOft 9KOHOMI,tu>> K. Mapxca I{ TerpaAI.I C 3a[Il{cflMH lIIo,'I1zTaKXe Tr4 qecKofo xap a KTep a. <<BeulecrseHHbre Ao'Ka3 aTeJrbcTBa>>, a pa6oqux .i4 [rp'HrB,iIeqeHHbIX'K Ao3Ha'HIlrc noKagaHl{fl .[ro6nMoea pacKpbrBalor e o6u[x qeprax efo B3r,'IflAbI 'I'I 'COAepXaH[e rex u4eft, ror,opble

ro'H

rIpoBoAI.IJI cpeAI'I paooqfix.

14' Jlto6{Ntosa xa'x y6excyirlecroyrcqefo c1lpos. B ero 3anrncqx yAe-

3ru uarepnanu xapaKrep'rr3yI'or .leHH,olro ntporxrB,Hr{Ka

tltpl,t11'1Ke aHTH,'I€HO MH0IO BHI'rMarHl'lfl O6,1ltqe'H'l'Irc CalMOAep)Ka'BI'Iff,

Hapo,lttofi cyxrHocrl'I rocyAalprcrBes'soft tg"la'crl'I 's Poccnl4' O'H 'orMer{ar, qro <<focyAapcreennuft nopq,AoK...'He Aony'cKa€T'Hrl{'KsKoro qeJroBeqecxoro pa3BHTI'rg e o6uecrBe u pa3opser-HapoA>>' qro <<pyccKoMy HapoAy rlop-a 'noKoHqHrb cqerbl c Polta'HoebIM'H>> u'

i. l.

1

n.

Ha c,rbacie nu 14.,rI rc6'n Moe'He

cKpbI'BauI'cBol4x y-6eN4e-

ulirl o6nuqan o6uecreeHHuft n rocyAapcrreenHuit'crrp'oft Po'ccvt n. flporHeHtlx caMoAep".aBI"Iff I4 cylqecrBYtoullx nopqAKoB B POCCI11 .IIrO6uruOs BbICKa3bIBa,'I CBOe OTpI'lqaTSJIbHOe OTHoIIIeHr{e K 6ypxyasHoMy crpolo u 6ypxyasHoMy rocyAapcrBy 3anaaa. B cBol,tx IIoKa3aHI'Iflx oH 3agBdlfi"I' qro pa3oqapoBaJlcfl B BosMolKHocrlr Ilpofpecca B llHrepecax HapoAa e 6ypxyasHstx crpaHax. <<...Co npeuenn Spanuyscxoli peBoJlloquu u co3AaHl{tl N

Auepuxancxux CoeAuHeHHbIx Lllraros, - roBopI4JI oH, - MHofI{e ueprz.rnt B Bo3MoxHocrt 6yAro 6u nporpecca AJIn 6fiara scex' Ho renepr r{oxHo cKa3arb, tITo nporpecca Her, r'tJrr4 oH ecrb Bote

qfl4A,

1405, on. 521,

r.

395, ,rn.

64-66.

0. la Pyronucu 14. ,rlrc6umona sauu ne o6uapyxenr,r. I(parxoe ilx coAepxaHHe H3IOXeHO B panopre nlr-oKypopa KasaHcxoir cyle6noii nararbl MI'lHI'Icrpy rocrHur.rl. Cu. I-lfHA, S. t405' on. 75, n.7148, ,'r.n. 4-5 o6. i4

DI


n!'rolreHze B o6xlecrBeHHble SopNrbr Hec,npaBeAJrI{BocrH>> 15. Ou orMer{a,'r,

qro }r B orr.rx crpaHax cyulecrByroquft crporl Hocijr

Ha-

cunbcrBeHHlrir, axcn.lyararopcxarl xapaKrep: <<Bce npanure.rrbcrBeHHbIe Cr4JIbI X(?r,lU H >KHByT XT.iIIIHHqeCTBOM, OIIAparlCb Ha IIO;1lrUHIO Ir SOftCKO.., rIIpaBllTer'tbcTBeHHbie BJIacTH>> CJIy)KaT'6OtarUu <<A.nq BbICaCbIBaHvfl KpOBi.r MHJTJTIIOHHbTX MaCC...

opyAHe AJrq carbHbrx ,IlpHrecHrrrb cr'ra6brx>>16.

3aKOH €CTb "{i4ltrrr

B cyx4eHHsx .IIrc6una-oea orpa3ur'rocb HeKoropoe B,rrHflHI4e Ha Heto aHapxlrcrcKux uAefi. B ero rerpaAflx 3Haqurer'rbHoe Mecro 3aHLlMa,'IH 3aMerKll. BbInHCaHHble rr3 corrnHeHuri M. 6axyunga. lny6oxnft r.rHrepec. npoflBJtrr,lt ,IIro6Hrr.roe x pa6oveuy Bonpocy. Cpe4u ero pyKonucHbrx 3aMeroK 6unu o6napy)KeHbr raKze, B KoropbIX roBopLLIIocb <<o 6e4creeHHoM IroJIo)Keltr4r.r Kpecrbfltr-

cKoro cocr'toB1fl u par6or{efo Kdracca s Poccnl,{...>> 17. Ceol.rn c.lyrrare,rrflM .IIrc6r.rMoe foBopr.rJr o rqlKeroM noJroxeHr.ur pa6ouHx, o TOM, qTO yflyr{txr.rTb 3To rlro,'to}Ker{ne MoxHo ToJIbKO,[yTeM COrIUaJrb_ Hofi peno.nnuull,,qro <<Hyx<uo cBep tnyrb inp aBl,rre,'rF,crBo, yHI4r{To;'I(r.rTb AyxoBeHcrBo, He rrJarzrb rnolarefi r.r HapoA 6yger 6oraqe>> 18. On paanunaJr rrepeA, pa6oqri,Mr.r nporpaMMy 6yaytrl-e.o ycrpofrcrea o6qecrea B Ayxe HapoAHr4r{ecKoro coqua,'rr.r3rvra. llo noxasaHraFo pa6ouero ,rl. Harurona, Jlrc6uuoB foBopri,r, irro <<>Ku3Ht pa6oqax Mo)KHo 6u 6uno Jryqile ycrpor.rrb, cr'reAyer roJrbKo yHlrrlro}KI,ITb :nPABI]TCJIbCTBO, AYXOBCHCTBO, HC 'lt,'IATI,ITb NOAATCfT Z XUrN ge6o,rrruulrn o6uecreaMu, Koropste 6lr Ae,rrlr,rru MeIKAV co6ori csolt 6orarcrBa>> 19. BnrcxasHeaHlrq I4. JIro6H[,roea o6Hapvxnearcr 3HaKoMcrBo ero c 3arra4uoeeponerlcKHMr.r couua,rucrr.r.{ecxnMr.r yqeHr{gMH rr, BrrAHiMo, c <<Kanura,tolM>> K. Mapr<ca. ZHrepecnu B ero 3aMeTKax yloMI.IHaHHfl O <<,HayqHoM coIII4a,[I,t3.Me>>, 3aIIIrCb O TOM, qTO <<Hacroflrrlee n 6yayuee rrpHHaA,'rexur 6eccnopHo Mex(AyHapoAuouy pa6oqeMy coquaJrr4sMy>> rr AIrs, ycne[rHoft 6opl6f coqza,'rr4crbr ocHoBa,r[r <<Me]r{AyHapoAHoe o6qecrno pa6ouux>> 20. Ha c,'reAcrBr.Ifi "IIrc6untoe BbrcKasbrBaJr aHaJrofuqHbre cy)KAeHHq. On foBopHr'I, r{To noc!'re coqtta.tsuoti peBo,TrouuH H yHr{qroxeHHll cyrqecTByrouefo cTpofl HaAo ycTpoHrb x{rr3Hb TaK, <<KaK fJracr{T pa_ 6o,1uft coIIHaJIv3M>>. .<<Het H He Aor'r)KHo 6tpl ngoii ro,'rHTHKr.r, BHe :rro,'[rT]rKn pa6overo BOnpoca>>, B AOKyMeHrax $pasa, cKagaHHarr .Ilro6nMosH[.r-rnpaBoAr.rTcfl Ha cJreAcrBHH2l. Bce er,t .flB"IfleTcr eule oAHIIM AoKa3are,'rbcTBoM Tofo, ,r{To pa6ouutl nont5 IJ,fI4A, 16

0.

1405, on. 75, a,. 7148,

Talr xe, ;r,r. 7 o6. 17 Tan xe, n. 5 o6. 18 Talr xe, .n. 6 o6. ls Tau xe.

20

IllHA, S. 1405,

2r Tau xe. ,r. 8. (o

n.7

o6.

8.

on. 75,

t.7148, na.5-5

o6.


poc

npHB,'IeKad'r

K ce6e uHTepec H

BHr'rNlaHHe peBo,'rrcql4oHHbrx

nponaraHAr.rcroB 70-x foAoB. B rolr x<e l876 r. 6una ttpeArrpHHflra ttonbrrKa peBo,rrorrr4on' uoli nponaraHAbr Ha PexeecKor\a saBoAe. BecHoli 1877 r. B xaHAapMcKr.re opraHbr nocryrrrrJrr{ cBe.1eHr4g, qro yqr4Te,rrbHr.rubr HapoAHbrx urKo,rr Er<arepuu6ypfcKoro yesAa Mapua ZnrarreeHa tlurupr e PexeecxoM 3aBoAe n Enn3aBera I,IeaHoeria MaIr,rsIneea B ce,rre Jluneqxom npoBoAflr <<BpeAHOe Hanp aBJieH IZe

Me)xAy yr{aqnMucfl Aa>>

22.

flpz

B

y }II{x

pe,TI'lrHO3HO

-

IIo,'l IITI'{q€CKOM OTHOIIeHLII{

AerbMH I'I B oKpy;,tiaroutejt cpeAe I{apo-

Aosuauun 6li,'to ycraHoBJIeHo, qro

M. tlurupr n E. XIa-

MbIlUeBa IIOCaIIe OKOHqaHUfl neAafOf UqeCKUX KypCOB flB,rifl,Iillcl)

yqurerbHfluaMI] qacrHblx ruuuagnfi n flerep6ypfe, fl 6lt.rtn cel3aHbr c rpynnoft cryAeHroB-ypox{eHueB flepntcroii -ry6epulttt (Kapanae-nlru, gepeuyxl4llbtM, Ka,raruuaxoelrM z Ap.) 23. B rpyntne, K lKoropoil rrllpl{MbIK&,{H e flerep6ypre E. Maltuure,Ba ,l M. Lln,rnpr, r.IMeJr[cb KaK cropoHrHl4'idtl qt{cro 'KyJ'IbryplHl'{qe.cKofr AefTerrbHocTLI, TaK I,I CTOpO'HHL{KL{,peBO,rI0[IIOHH'OIi rpo[araHAbI, HarlparB,'reH'Hroft na 'BoBl,'IeqeHI4e HalpoAa B aKTI'{rBrHyI,o peBo;:trc[fiorHH]ro ,6opr6y. l4z',lLrcna rocr'IeAH,Ilx ,peu14re,rlbHo Ha'cTpoeHurre E. MaMuureea n M. 9urupb ,rlo coBery cBoltx ronapuureirypartbueB o,ceHblo l876 r. HaIIpa'Bl'tr'tficb <(B Hapor>> 's ,ll'epM'cKyIo ry6epHr.rn. B Etxarepa'H6ypre oHI{ ycraHoBu,'I}'t 'cBfl3b c yrIeH[Ko]{ Vpa.rncxoro ropHoro yql4r'Illqa B. f . Ka,'ruHuHbIM I{ c HaxoAI{BITIHMCfl

1NOA

HAA3OPOM ,TIOJ]IHUHII 6IISMUN{ AKTI,IBHbIM qJICHOM EXATCPI,IU-

E. H. KopotKo,BblM 24. 6yprcroro'Kpy)KKa E. ManrslrueBa Il M. Llarrtlpn B Ayxe HarpoAHuqecKoli reo,pull 6u,ru y6en<AeHbr B Bo3MoxHocru n ueo6xoAl'IMocrn HeMeAd'IeHHoro

yH'r,rqro>KeH'r.rfl 'cyuecr'Bo{BaB[Iefo 3KoHoMI4qecKor'o crpoq. <<...tlro6 a E. Ma NrHruee a s yur.rqro)K'r{Tb rKopeHHbI,M o'6p aa,olt r3JIo, -,rIH'ca,'I yHHr{ro}KHTb Ha'CTOnUIee Hy)KHro oAHOM r43 'rrficeM 6 M. tlz,rurpb, HOBbIe 3a,IIJIaTKII 3KOHOMI'I'qeCKOC IIO,'lOlKeHHe' BCe )Ke OCTa!'IbHOe

-

Ha crapoM py6uule>

-

25.

,llepenncxa He'ocraBJl,fl er corMHeH'HIl, qro pe'ualolxra'M cpe.lcrCylqecrByloqefo cTpoq oH?I cq'liTaJI'I'I Hapo.r,Hyro peBoJtrouHro, IIoAforoBJIeHHyIo'peBoJIfoqnor+uofr nponaraHAofi nuie.nnuresunu. B qr.rrurporBaHHoM BbIIrIe rltt4cbr,le E. MaNrtttureiea n!lcaJr a: <<...yHlrqroxlrrb (cyuecrnyrcrulzli erouonrltqecruii crpoil. f. P.) "'g." cBepxy Her'Ib3q, cJIe.II,oBarer'IL-Ho, ocraercn 4,pyroit rITO pa3BHTxeM Kpe' MOlKer 6Url rrycrb-<<cHI43y>>, .qocrntHyro BOM yHAqTOX{eHI1I'fl

22 23 24 25

II|AOP, S. 109,

3 excn., 1874,

Tau xe. ,r. 16 o6. Tau xe, n.2 o6. Tan xe, nn.28-29.

r.

144, q. 261,

n.

2

53


crbsH rlocpeAcrBoM'npottaraHAbr [I3BecrHoI']o pola uLeft...>>26. ManHruesa lr 9'Nrnpl ,crp€Ml{,rrt{cb c6nae[rtrcq c pa6ounltn a K'p ecrbf'H aMH I{ p ac'IIpocrp aHtl JII'I cp eAH HI4x HapOAHI'I'qecKyIO a nu rarllroHHyro Jrnreparypy. fl,pr ,o6ucxe y Hlrx ,6ntnn o6'sapy,xeHbl npeAHa's H aqgHHbre A,'rs p aoflpocrp aHeHnfl 6p,orurop rr : Kpecru ucKoe rope>>, <<6eso6p ounlrfi >>, <<!,ep eeeHoKh ft T,op,ra[r>>, <<Mn,pcxo ii yqer>>, <<IOpo,oal>> rH T. rII., a raKxe P,fA rxg,urr flo cotl[a,rlbHblNi BorrpocaM, cpeAr.{ KoTropbrx 6una <<I4'cropr4r peBor'rroqun l8-ro mapra>>, <<Pa'6oq,sft n,po,rr€rapwar rs Asrnnli>> H. B. [IIe,rryHona, <<Aa<<

6yxa ,coqua,'rbHbrx HayK>> @;repo,ncxolo

r.r

4pyr,ue

27.

14s teHqsreHrrblx apxxBHbrx MarqpuaJioB rpryAH,o {BbrflcH,r4Tb, KaI{Oe B,rr}tflHlle oKa3bIrBaJIa 3Ta n,ponafa'HAa Ha MecTHoe Ha.ce,'teHue,

Ho Aetre,rrbuocrn E. MaruHrueeoft u M. Qu,rupt '6u.na npnsHaua III orAe.nesuer.l <<'rpartue nper,quoir u onacuolo>>28. 'Herorop,og npeAcraBi'IeHr{e o roM, KaK Boc,itpr]'HIzMa,'racb rrpo-

u yTolllaqeclKofo coquaJrr4'3Ma, AaeT Ae,rro 10 in,ponafaHAe cpeAr.r :nopT'HbIX I{acTepcrori [I,y6r.rua ,n flepnrn ,a IBTB r. Ha'qa.no etorl np,onarfaHAe 6lrno no,ro>neH'o cryAeHro,u l-Ierep6yp ncxoro yHH Bep cHrera 6uin,urn v nep M'oKr.t M ceM,r.rHap r.rcro,lr Xlnno'BeAb ugeN rpee'odtrIotI,HoHHorfo J,eMoKpaT'H3.l1a

c roprHbrM Anercau4por,r lllaraencxurM, M. Kpolo'n rcra,r,cna,6xarb efo peno,rroquoun.orlr JHTeparypoft, uacrn xoroport oH ,no,'ryqa,'r rlr3 ,He,rrera,ryluofi cer,r,uHap-cKoii 6n'6nn'orexu. Ctao,zlau 6eceAayN M. Kporos oiKa3adllua

xarrJroM Kporonulr. flosHaxoMHBurncb

A. lUa,naeacKoto 3HarlnreJbHoe

BJ'tvfl H,t4e.

Co.qepxan[e 3rHX 6eceA ,6H.no srtAep]Kano B Ayxe rocno.q,crB,oBa,Btrr,r{x Ha,poAHr.rqecxnx u4eft. M. Kporoe ,Bbrcry,naJr 3a HeiMeAlenuuti rcorqr,raJIbHL'tr.r nepenopor, ,THIKBtlAarrgro ru,MylleclBeHHo'ro Hep a,BeHcrB a, ycra Ho,B,rr eHr.re B Poccr.rrz ooqpr a Jracrr4qecKoro crp or. <<...Xopouro,-,foBopn!'r oH A. llla,raeBcKoMy,-ec,rru y Hac 6yler Ta,K, rITo Bce HMyulecrno ,6'yAe'r ritpi{HaAr're}Karb BCeM, a He o.lHoMy "{t.tqy> 2e. 'McraHos,'reH]re coqilaJrarcrr,trqecKorro crpofl roH paccMarp,HBa,r KaK pe3yJrbrar Haporn,Hofi pononrc{u,tl c yqacrrzer.r Kpecrb'tH, pa6ounx tr r{HTeJI.rIHfeHuuH, AJrq qero Hlelt lneipeBCpora Aonxsr,r 6url oco3Ha,Hbr ,HapoAoM. B pe3yd'rbrare ,peBoJrrout4H AoJr,)KHo 16rr'rl oogAaHo nu6opHoe rllp a'Br,rreJrbcrBo, <<tKorop,oe Ao,rx,Ho 6u,ro ,6H y11pargr"t6 s2rpoAo,ra>> 30. Ta'KHu o6paso,l,r, Hapo.r,,slrqecxur.i yronuqecKuft coquanusM B,Bbr,cKagbrBaH,H,sx M. I(porona COqeTaIC)fl

C qerKo Bbrpa)KeHHbIM peBO/'IOI{HOHHbIM

AeI{OKpa-

TI,I3MOM.

lIo,{, 26

2E 29 30

54

s,'r}rs,Huenr

M. Kporoaa Lllanaes,cxufi pasnepiry,'r ltpona-

UfAOP, 0. 109, 3 excn., U|AOP, 0. 109, 3 excn., Taru xe, ;r. 55.

UfA

t.

1874, 144, q.261,.rr,r. 28-29. 1874, n. 144, q.261, ntr. 10 o6., 45

TACCP, S. 89, on. 1, s. 1633, .r. 26 o6.

Talr xe,

.n. 27.


raHAy cpeAu c,BoHx roBapnl{eft no }IacrepoKofi' oH :-"u-9I.11 qTeH[q"*14 He.[gfar,IIbHbIMl4 l4g(LA]Fl:l4fl',l,I'n, ryctpall'BaJI KOJIJIeKTI4BHbIe B Koroo6cyx;,enufl lp'oql{raHnoft pesonroquouttoit Jlfireparypbl' grilx H r{re'qe']IoBeK' 6eceAax B ryr{arcrfle 7-B Ao pblx Ilpl'lHI4ilI2119 OcTp'l'I iIIpeo6JIaAaJIH Hgrrx. cv.f,rr 11o rorKa3aHvqrM MacTep0Bblx' rrIoJIo-

iiotruu. AxrHsHo'o6'cyxAa'lcfl Bonpoc o'rtlxe'r1o\1t rpecrmn: <06 u3"Il'Iu"o'"n"*' )Ke,HHIt HapoAHbIx *u"'g aru'u"inr''r o6pasou

'qTO <<HapOAy TpyAHo Helr Ha,'rgfe rrIOAST€fr Ha KpeCTbqII>>, O "rOM, inoAarfl'Mu>' rlro o6lpeMeHeH ttnap'o4 N(rlTb-'Ha'poA xMyr...>>' uio ecrb r p arBhre,'l b crBo B H HoB a ro B',ceMy rtl xeJ'Io My toi g-1t-:-11:-',Kp peBo"IlolruoHHoh ;;;ai H r. A. l'o,nopn,rocl o neo6xoAnMocrl4qro 'IIpaBi4TeJIbcrBOJI'IIKHeEt{Aallu}t cyqecrBytoqero 'crpoq, o r'orM' 32' >> <<6 yAer u H yxu a p eBo JI loul4 r yt ;,'qro u o o 6 xoArlv o " "onp ""p:."" rarxe 'Borlp'oc o 6yAyue'v rocyAapHa,Koueu, paccuarpnoa.llcs pobc,ur, 3aMeHi4rb cylqecrBytorHeo,6xoAr4,Mocrr4 o crpoe .;;ild 33' rBbI 6op'HbIM [Lp a B"IeH'Il eM>> n', pL641,ot & uu ft itp o n toTaixurr d6pasou, e 6eceAax Macrepo'Bb"Ix "ulptAll-u::1l" oocy)KAarrlraH' UHu qrlla.r[crliqecrKlze I4Aea,rIbI orollrr'Ill Ha 'BTo'poft rAeMoKpanir 6olee pear,rlitrcrllrr{H'y}o Ar'ln rofo Bpe\IeHI'l'[Pol'Po'M'My o6<<

<<^H

lru..ioio' rp"oopuuo'";;; .rpunoi. caun,nponaran4ucrH caMocTOgTedtbHbIe

Hap'ylK14,lIr [o-/rHyIo Hec',fioco6Hocrb IIoHqrb c cyulecr3aAarrn t.t ocooyrc po.nl pa6oqero KJIaCCa e '6opl6e c'MHelor ocra'BJI'fi Ma,crepoBbIX'He crpoeM'. fl6xaeaH'l''s . 6eceAaxcoceorx s (p"ron " "ionl, llla'naescxrft A' u m. ;t;;';;i''I"" lHa cyAb6ax KpecTb'qH cpeAOTOr{}r'Bad'IH B]HH\larHI'Ie n',cKJIIOqHTe"ID-I{o rC 'HelOCpeAcrBeHHbIMI4 3a'cBfl3a'HHbIX ,npo6neM, n He KarcaJlucl pat6oq[x. .r,aqaMH - -nonoitny npo6neltut npeAn'pI'IHqJI B ro''\{ }Ke 'BbIABII'Hyrb -3-rII BerepI,IHa,pr'ofo'I'IHrcrnryXapuxoscxoro lB78 r.,6orrJurnft cryAeHr r' e Kynryp 3a yqa'crlle B Cocna'nHltit B'oe6enlixnfi' A. ia A. cryleHqecKoMABI'I)KeHH',HrHIIoJII',ITI',IqercKyIo'He6'JIafoHaAexHOCTb' ccbl'IbHoro p a6o;.' 6;;a;;;;;;"fr' "p " noAAep)KKe rnorll{rl'IqecKoroMecrHbIX pa6outlx .ra.o rt. Tyllauoaa co3Aa,.r ne6o,nltroft KpyxoK peBOJIIOI{I4OHHyIO ',MecfqeB HI'IX cpeAlr Be,'I H B TerteHlte HecKoJIbKI,lX nponauaH.u,y

34.

qro Ha'poA'Hwru 70-x rroAoB 6lt'ru euHylKAeHbI crarb IIo'H]IMaJIH HcroHa nyrb nponarau4li'cpeAI'I pa6oq[x, xorn 'u He icql'ITarb Kpe'flpoAoJllxarll rpro.nru pa'6ouero r'racca 'l,r p"uetxot:l tr4seecrHo'

srTanxe.;r,r.18,24o6.,35o6';Cu'raxxell'fIZA'O'1405'on'77'

l-2. *x 7678, ';"ifi;tn. iACCp, g. 89, on. 1, n, 1633, -n,r. l8 o6', 25 o6' ,

nn. is-";;'i;. ;;;; uiHA, o. 1405, ot'77, n 19!9'n'2' "3a rl'''*q Cu. rIfLrA, O. iibz,'"'.-i,-a. A1;_q. 1'405, on. I, a. 7975: UrA

TACCP,

g.

89, on.

peBonaulroHHo.o

r, ao.-r'oz+, iofs; rn^nb' Q' 65, on' 2' t' 37; 122'

A""r*.urq n

Poccul.u>,

r'

2,

sun l' ctp'

<<'[l'exre'rn


crbflHcrBo fJraBHorl rBr.r)Kyiqeft cilnoi4 peBor'rrorlr4oHHoft 6Opr6rr

H

cor!4aJr'H,crr.rqeoKo,fo npeo6,paeonair'na o6qecrna. O6pauleHr.re Eo,e6e,'IlctKolo c 'tIp,Qtl6BeAbrO LpeBO,rrcu[oIIHbIX H CO]UI{adII'I.CT,Uqecrax zAeii x pa,6ouuu ue 6nno clyuaiiHul,r h,r,r4 r.t,cK,rloqr.ITe,rr,,Hbn,I

flBJreHr4eM. Xaparrepuo, qro rB paccy)KAeHVqX lr rBbrrcKa3bl'BaHHflx DOBOeJTboKoro o peBoJrorruLr'11 rcounaJlrncrtrqecKoM'lepeycrpoftcrBe o6qecrBa ,coBepIxe,HHo Tre yfiroMr4,H&r]tocb o rKpecTb,qHcTBe H KpecrbflHcKorl o,6ulzse. Ceon BbrBoAbr o ueo6xo4l.rMocru rr HeH3_ Oexs,octn Ko,peHHOro H3MeHe.lrr.rfl cyqecrByroulefo c'pofl oH rrbr_ ra,lcq cBfl3arb c rro,rro)KeHr.ren u'6opt6,ori pa6ouux, a ue Kpecrb_ trHcK'HX Macc. B cosAaH,r{orM Kp-y)KiKe, KyIa Botrrr'rIz pa,6oq[e H. TyvaHoa"

H. fgp6V-Huoe, B, t{eprxor,-E. t{yu,clon,'ll.,I(auen.n"*' apyrne, Eo,n,6e,rlcrufi paccKa3brBarT, <<KaK pa6orarcr ,s Mocx,se " Ha Sa6paxax v KaK rrrplrrecHsror pa6ouux xo3fleBa>>, r{To <<TpyAHo pa,6ounu r'IIoAflM x{aTb... [pnE],1,,'refu,poea'H,ilslri {Kr,I&cC *nt,"L, uru cqer rpyAa ,pa6out.rx, HHqefo rB3aMeH 14M He Aa,Baq>>, qro (<HacTofl_ IlleeTI'pa^Bq.t Ter]tbrCTBO HeCIIp

aBe;IJHBO rIIOCTyfl aeT n pOTr4B Da,6OqerO K/'ta,cca>>35 ,u. fIpr.r aio.ra Eos6e.toc^rrfr uo,"nu'rou"*'yO**r"_ H'He, qro <<AocrlrfHyTb I,r3MeHeH.urfl cytilecrByioulelo o6u{ecreeHHo_

ll r.

r10 crpofl BoSMODI('HO Jl{'irrb Toff 3, KOf.Ia ,par60uue co3Hare,rlb,Ho or_ Hecyrcq _ K cBoe_My rtroJrox(eHuro...>>, u,rrpa3brBaJr <<,ycrpoarl o6qe_

clno

.pa6,ouux>>

36.

_Cpe4creoM Jrr{KBx.{&{fir.r rcyulecrtsyroqero,crpoq,B HHTepeca-\ pai6ourx Sos6enbrcxnir cqurai peno,rroqzro. Eri 6",_ "apoaHyro aHapx,r4crcKrie reH.(eHuz,n. lHa,poAH,Hqe_ O,H rTpeoAo,,reJr a1 ""yyryr'r cKilu arrolturll3M LI Bblcryna"r KaK cropoHnzx pecny6,ruxaucxoro AeMoKpaTr'rqecKoro crp'ofl

crn

Jr

HHe. I

. oH y6ex.1a"u,p a,6,our4x,e- Heo6xoAr.rlao-

HKBHAr4po{Barb ca MoJ.ep xa B,rie

lo noKa3a,H'r.Iro

HflJI, qTO .1oJrx(Hbr

fi

.co3.f

arb sor6opHoe

n

D

a,BJre_

pa6ouero fop6y,uuoea, Eoa6e,T ucxr.r ii ob:r,sc_ <f,'larBa npaBHTer'tbcJB?-H BCe rlp2rsgle,rlbrcTBeHHbre ,ri qa,,

Ollrt

sor,6op,HbrMH32.

crr'r

He

,noHHMafl 6ypxyas,uori cyqHo_

reMroKp arr'rqecKoro rep eBopora, Eoe6en bcxui Hans,uo nur, o enop or Molr(er us6 a,ewrb p a6ounx or r*.n,ry, _ Ii'xori-:nep ,6y,l,er ru6o,p,uoe ,rrpSB,rrgHH€, y1BepllKlar,r ,oH, TaIJHH- KorrAa <(IeHbr

Iil,l"?,

rN pa,6oveno_He 6yAyr nocryrrarb a xapuaHu 6braqeft>rr. tTa,pq_ 3TH'M EOA6e,'rlcxfifi rnlrrancq 'n'HyI]rI{ro pa.60u,u,u yroli{qe-

Ay c

cKylo HAeIo o'Bo3M'o)KrH'o'cTI,I rKopeHHoro H3MgHe1v[fl Hx rrlo,!'Io;KeHr,rfl zpre,,1eft. llo ,c!,roBaM ,pa6ouero rleprxo,na, Eon_ :11:T. :?r{aHrrrr oeJrbcKl.th yoex,.lar'r ,fix, qT,o <<pa6orunxaM Hyx(Ho ocTaBI,ITb c,8.0'.\

j:

U|A^JACCP,

O

89, on.

on.77, s.7975. nn.4.7. _jl_UrA^ TACCP, g. 89, on.

x.

7975. n.8.

:: rs Il!4A.Q._1405, TACCP,

[l-A

l, a.

1635,

nn.

I

o6.,

l9; (rI,IA,

O.

1405,

l, a. 1635, ,r. 19; t{fHA, O. 140b, or.. 77,

on. 77, t..7e25, tr.

T.

S.89, on. t, a.'IOSS,'n.2T

o6.


xo3qeB, a pa6orbl irpol{3BoAlrrb caMi]NI, apreilbHo>> Mep'Ho r43ilarailv

orl{

3e.

Tar;tre rlpu-

MbIcJIi4 Bon6enr'onofo L{ J,pyrfie pa6ovr're.

Ooo6uii'Llnrrepec fipeAcraB,rl,nlor paccyxAeHfin Bog6e,'Iscxoro o LcoqllaJrH'crl4r{ecKor,I rCTpOe, CoAep}KaUII{ecfl 'B ero []IrcbMe' lHa'IIllcaHHoM B cenrn6pn 1879 r. e flep'vcxoft rFopbMe. Sro,nncllto 6sIaiApecoBaHo IleprMcKol'ly ry6epuaropy c inporecroM lrlporl{B 'K"Ie-

"'Io eerHlaqecKux o,6'sratueHaft <collnaJlurcroB>> B [loA>xorrax. C;ryxrl o6 groM ,paonLp'ocrpa'Hfl;ln 3Aecb ,MecrHnte o6HeareJlu 'l'l qapoKHe q14fpaHA]lo3rHblx [o)KapoB e llepx{i{ e-ecHoli 14 HOEHiI'KH I]o cryqarc -Ornepruye

,'rerollr lB79 r. Tad'r.CrI

r.rH,cr{HyaUrE,

A. Eoe6enlcrnit

O6OCtHOgarl ra'y6OxO ryMa'HHCTIIqecKue Ue,lH

LrIonL'I-

l't I4i.eAibr

pe-

BOJrrOUI4OHe,pOB.

Kax u Bce couuaJll{crbl-yronllctrt, A. Bos6e.llcxnft He nosnqro icoul4aJII,t3M ecrl'seu3i6exsuft o6leKrl'rs'Hltri peayllrar p a3Bllrllff o6ulecrs a, rIIoP oxEeH^Huft ol pe,leJleHHbl M 14 collrl a"] bHo3KoHoMI,Iqec{KI'i'MLI ycJlogrlgvr'u. Ou nltra'n'cg o16ocndea'rl Heo6roMaJI,

n 'Heus'6ex'Hocrb ,coq?laJIllcTl'IqecKoro crporfl 16'140.[0rll'lega'I{o,HaMH, Tpe6o'Ba'HI'IflMI'I pa3y'Ma I4 cn'parBgAjrrl'IrBorcrl{. CKI,IMH Tolnxo 'coqfia,'IbHblft crpofr, l[[car'I 6o'e6e,'Ilcxzfi, <<e ocirosy KOTOpOfO InO,'rO)KeHbI eceo6u-uali TpyA, [oJIHefiIIats pa'BH'oiIpa'BHO'CTb ',BCeX i{,'IeHOB o,6ulecnsa>>, a <<co6crBoH',Hocrb I',I 3rHa',Hn'I - AocrogHHe BCex>>, ocHoBaH Ha ecrecrBeHHoM I'l HpaBcTBeHHoM 3aKOHe a0. )Klr3HrI. 3ro oAancreeHHttil <<Hp aBcrBeHHo-p a3yMitblit>> crpoir ,urM,ocrb

Ccrtnaqcr ua 6uo,r'ornqecKl'Ie

3arKoHbI,

oH AoKa3bIBa,'I' riro

<<qe-

,rloBeqecTBo ,B'cefAa 'l{ :noBcloAy crpeMI4JIO'Cb il crpeM'l'ITcfl np}1i6g 'gaur4cKarb rarKl{e 'yc,'IoBl4fl, il'pl.{ KoTopbIX rB'o3MO>K)Ha 6lt.na a'c/IeAoBare"rbI'l'HTepecoB, o6uHocrb 6o;rsurag rco,tll4Aap Ho,c'Tb

- Te )Ke rcoqllaJIbHbIe oTHoIIIeHI'{tl, KOTOal. pble cyuecrBylo'T s Pocci{fi, .qalor Bo3Mo]K'Hocrt' <<cparBrHllreJb'Ho ne6o;rlurouy MeHbIxI{HcrBly>> lrIoJIb3oBarbcr'co6'creeuHocrblo' <<a cae,4,oBareJllrH,o, HatcJlax.{,arbcq 6na'raua 3eMrHbIMH' Oi6'peXa'r e ro )Ke BpeMf ueJrble Maccbl HaceJeHHq Ha Ber{Ho rpyAoBylo H crpaa2. \4e eroro Eoe6enlcxt'tit AeJIaJI BbIBoA' rITo Aa,'rbqecKylo')KLI3Hb>> HO, CqacTbq Ha

3eM/'Ie>>

cl{cTeMa, KoToparq cTaBI4T BHe qI'IBIIJIH3aIIUI/I <<qeirlble Maccbl Hacer,'IeHr{rr... He ecrb 3arKo'HqeHHafi $opua o6qecrseHHoro Crpoq, a flB' ,'I

eHr,Ie qlrlcro'Bp gM eH HOe, n ep exo4uoe>>

a3.

OH'srtcxagHBaJl rBepAylo yBepenHocrb, qr'o <<Hacraruer'BpeMfl' xorAzi Bo3HIrKHer Hoeslil crpoll, rAe He 6y.uer Mecra HaqI'IJIHI6 Ir pa6crrny, ne 6yAelMecra lHl4rlere, 'r'o,'I'o.{y u 6roae3us'n - 3rHM 3e ao

Tau

a2 a3

Tau xe, ,r. 98-98 o6.

[fA

TACCP, S. 89, on.

al Tau xe.

I, a.

1635, ,r. 98 o6

Tau xe.

5T


scerAalrHr.rM c[ryrHI4KaM HeBe)KecrBa I.r HepaBeHcrBa, rAe Bce 6y44. Ayr')Kl.rrb AJIff Kax{Aoro lI {Ka}K'Ablll AJifl Brcex>> rBsr.lt,qAbI Eo's6enb,croto 6lt.n'n'He3peJIbItll{.

B

st'tx'}'IMe,'I'lIcb

3,'rgMeHTbI xpHrcrl,taHcKo'ro <<,coU,ya,'r,?t3Ma>>. CoUua.uyI crr{'rIecKI,te r4,Ilea,rbl o'H fiIbITaJI'cg o,6ocHo'eart eBaHrer'IaqecKi'twll4 ga'rloBeAf Mrfl a noyrreHll,qMI.r (rpo4e: <<flIo6l4 6,ruxnero KaK caMoro ce6l>>, <<cxor{eM 6oraruii pee 'rep6nroA rrlp,otiAer qepe3 ule,ryb il4roa-IoqHyIo

- ro, 'r{To <<clrraaoftAer B I{a,pcnBo rHe'6ecHoe>) }r Aa}Ke ccbl/'IaJlcq Ha cr.{TeJ'rb 6un nepnorM rBe,'rHqafi u;rr.{M colrua,r}rcroM a ltnpe>> 45. 3ru sa6.ny>xAeHuq He yBoAr.rJrr{, oAHaKo, Eos6enrcxoro B cro-

pouy '61 peBroJrroi{r.{,oHHbrx

'BbrBo,Aoe. OH He ,Bep'r.{,'i B xp,rrcrnarHCtKHe ..a,o6po,u,ere"r14 tl'pa,Bqtrlnx K,rra'ocorB. fl,paag,a, oH 'BbILCKa3bI'B8,II ro-

)KeJraHlle,'qro6u fiepeBopor coBepur{Jcfl Mrlp'Ho, cauoii rBJracrblo, roropafl 6u ur,ra <<pyKa 'o16 pyKy c rHapoAoM>>, Ho ryr >Ke 3aMeqaJI, q'TO

<<3'TO

He 'B rllrpil'poAe rBeulefi>>

46,

exAeusr'r ri p eeo.u rcqn o'Hep E'os 6e"'rlora fi p euia ren lno,LI p e3 r{o BbrcryflaJr {rrporhB caMoAepxraBzg. 11 ero aHTnHapoAnoft no.nnTl.riKu, o6fil.rqaJr Aecrtrorr,I3M, rI'poH3'Bo.iI H Ha,cHJrHe, qapflu{r{e e Poccuu. OH BblcKa3brBa,'r yBepeHHocrb, qro r.nyxoii flporecr HapoAa npr4Mer 6narogapa'coqua,,'rb'Ho-pelBo,rrtoquroHHoMy r,BHxer{fiIo <(BnorrrHe ocMbrcJreHnuri x ap axrep rr'7. O'n onp a BAbnBar'r reppop p eBOJI}OqI{,OHeP,O'B ,I,I I]I,ICaiI, ,[ITO Tep,popHCTnqeCKae aKTbl 3T,O <<trpe.f,,tseCTHLITKI4 Be,IIHKOIO inepeBop,OTa>> 'H <<H'l,lKTO He B 'COCTOI'IHHH np'VocraHoBr{Tb xo4 ucropua>> 48. !,erTe"rlu,ocrr A. Bos6eJrbrcxoro, 14. trIw6u'yroBa, M. Kporona 14 Apyrux flpoltaraHAr4cro,s 70-x 'foAo,B He pacrrpocrpzrHfiJra'cb H& 3HaqareJrbHbre M a ccbr ryp a JrbcKnx'p ai6,ou,nx. I4x rnporn a ra,HAucrcKarr pa,6ora '6rt,ra uenpoAoJlx{r.rreJrbHoit. ?lrrr rHe yAaJrocb oprrzlrHr,r3orBaTb -{,ocraroqHro ycrolturamsre ,u cra6'u,rnsue rpa6ovue rKpyx,KH H npHB,rreqb nepeAoBylo 'qacrb pa6o,vrlx rK aKTr.r'BHoM'y yqacrr.rrio B ocBo6oAnre;lln,oft 6ops6e. Bnepnr,Ie nepeAoBbre ypaJrb,oKae pa6oune rco3Ha'Te,'rbrHo npno6uIlXJIllcb K peBO,'IlOqHOHHbrM I,I rCOqUar'IHCTLIqeCKI.IM l4AeflNI H flpi{HfJrr{ aKT[BHOe yqacTHe B peBoJrrorIHoHHOM ABI{)KeHAH B Haqa,ire 80-x rogo'a XIX rs. ts cBr3r.r c AeflTeJrbHocrbro rrepMrcr{o,ro H&Fo,{,: HUr{ecrKoto'Kpy)K,Ka, I,I3BeCTH'OtO B,'It{'TepaTVpe nofi Ha38a,HHeM V'6

Kpyx('Ka [IepM CIKHX,<<geka6purClds>> 4e. H a.r afl o AB,l{')KeH}ir,o rarK Ha3brB aeMbrx InepMcrux Aexa6pucToB

6uno no.noxeHo 'cryAeumlr KagaHcKofo yrru,Bepcarera B. @. KuqfI4A TACCP, S. 89, on. !, A. 1635, .'r. 101. Tau xe, ,r. 98 o6. 46 Tau xe, ,r. 100 o6. Talr x<e. 4E UfA TACCP, $. 89, on. I, r. 1635;.,r. 100 o6. 49 _flo,upo6nee_o6 HcropEr{ nepMcKofo HapoAHuqecKoro E. Pa6rHoeH,r. fleplrcxlle <4exa6pacrsr>. flepui, 1966. 44

t. 58

Kpy)rtKa


1880 r. o'cHoBar'I 3aKO'Bbrl{, K6'ropbrir B ,11epgoA "lerHfix B saBo.Lc,Korr noceJrKe lioro'sH,'il,rxa (6nns rfleprr,r,il) He6o,'Ibuloft ,KarHr{Kyd,I

\lecTHoft 'H'HTe,'-1,'InreHIIaH''flOCrerIeHHO KpyxoK paclllHrBK,,rtIo.VHr'tHCb nepeAoiBa' qacTb nepMrc{KHx ceM}'HapI,IrCTOB lI rllMHa3'I{CTOB, lp}IIrIIS MeJIKHX C"IyXaUIuX 3aBOACKoiI r<oHropu II rolpHO3arBo'ncxoft )Ke,'Ie3',Hofi AOpofl{. I4aeecrnyn ponl B [olioroBxe u4eilrnoil fioq'Bbl A,'rg B,oB,'teqeHl4fl IIIepMcK'oI'{ HHre,]r'IUT9HUH'H'B 3TO ABII>KeHHe CbIIpaJII{ rflO'lII{TLIqeCKHe CCbIJIbrHbie' ( 80-x roAoe e flepun'npoxtl-sano 13 ccunlsux OHII coKDVIK,OK

pincn. B ruero

"uuiry ,rl; cBoii'|Kpy)KoK, rx6l6ootli co6np an ol BoKpyf ..AeJlornpol4l3Bo,{Lrre,lf B yrl,paBJIeHll" ypanncx'oft rilp'uosa'B'OACK'Oft )KeJIe3Hofr

craBd'rfl

Ma,ruK',oBa. HeKo'ropble I43 ICCbIJIbHbIX [o'U,Aep)KI4Ba!'II{ TCCHbIC CB'I3I'I C MECTHOiI XIHTC''UIfiIEHqIACfi' CPEIH 3HAKOMbIX

J,op'orH

A. K.

g. f. (oponu",no, li. I4.

Cepreeea

u C. V\. Cepreena,6T'L1

IyuIHe q.IIeHbI ,rlepMcKoro HapoAHur{ecKoto KpyxKu !'} A' fI. Ee3ryK,'IaIH'r{lKo'B' A' )rx,roB, B. A. flouep,aHueB, .r,an-l-opcwlzi 7 AP. "u.

OV-

' :',crpol" llpoKy-

'6lt,ra eoe,'IeqeHa-fpyrfla-ileperoB xouqe l88l r. {B 'Kpy)KoK -pa60uux glgr's'pt't B' 14' flepurnn, Bbix rroroBllr'Iluxt,t'HrcKl4x ^ O'HH rnpll'uqJl}'l }KXfHesH'uee. M' A. B. O. Eorto,'r'I,Iq 't{ cJlecap; Boe yqairr.re B pa6ore xpyxxa il cbrfpa,'ru caMocro're,'IbHylo n BHAHyIO po;:Ib B

efo

Aeflre;]b'HO'CTI'I'

C-au*ir axrnnHuft ttep'Ho,u, B .Il,eflreJlbnocrll iKpy)KKa fipuxopyKoBoJ,Hrcq Ha 1882-1883 rr. B ero BpeMqero rrpH3HaHHblM IIo' trr",ra., 6ltn csls ropnoto qnHoeHuxa 6Hsurllft cryAeHr B'3aA' yqayHI4BepCHreTa Ea Ka,saHcroro Mepa,HueB, r.r,oK,'rloqeHHtrrl crue B cryAgHqecKI'IX B'O"'IHeHI'IAX. ',B pyNoB0AflUlee HApO Krpy)KKa' KDOlre B. A. flouepaHue'Ba,,BxoAr4JrI4 Xe,'Ie3lllroAopoxHble cJIy)Kauine E. B. I-l'ono's,'A. LL' Kyson'H'lltxo", A. 4'-Eaxapee, rI4MHasHcrbr, a 3areM 'cryAenrbl B' B. fp]'6eJlb I4 B' f' KysneqoB' a raKxe pa6ouue B. 14.llepuuu, B.-f. EprraoilHH u 1q' Kpyxox rno'lMocKelt, llerepfep)!(hBa,r,cBfl3fi c lHap'o.II,H'l4r{ecKHMlI'KpyraMH rlISBecrHbIM BJII4'fl.HI'ISM HapoAonoA HaxoAI'L'Icfl n 6vbra Kargaru'lr 'tz u6.iouaan* lu,eoiro{rr4r.r. Pyroa,o4nreJrr{ rKp})KIKa rcqt{Ta_,'tH csoeil rir a Brrofi s aAaqeil npotraraHAy uAefi rno,ruru'qecxofi 6op l6rt'nporlrB ca M oJ,ep)KaB'r{fl 3 a ycTaH,o,BJreHr4e pemry6Jr HlKa H'cKoro _ cTp ofl TTIOCTBT€HH€ C'OU'Ha,',ll4,CT'IlqecKoro ,npeo6paeo'n',an'fls 'o6qecrrea-

II OCy-

CouecTaTBI',IJI'cBoeH KpyxoK MaTepnar'laM, f.rlaoHo cr'reAcTBeH,HbIM ;rtrc <<,nos6ylK{AaTb HeAOBOJTbcTBo npoTr.r B cyu{ecTBy.loulerorperBo,rllo"Ko,HoMnqecKor,o u rorcyAapcTBeHHolo cTpofl, yKa3bI,BaTb Ha rlor'lo]KeHI'Ifl>>' n3 HacTo,qulero rKaK 14cxoA Ha eAHHcTBeH,illtil 11urc. roroBaTb cBorllx qr'IeiHoB <<grrrn ,6yAyuleir peeo.llouuosttot'l lJeR'Te,'Ib-

UfA

TACCP,

-t scrpequ I\Ioil

{r.2,

on.-3530,,;r'rr' 68'

o6'' 74; 14' f'-OcrpoyMoB'

<BocnouuHaHul o , or"ota"'" c n' tt' $altr'nnu-Clr64paxon' le36' crp' e"l; cocpAroncx' 3'' i;A;;'*;' ;"4' r' 7,.q'-pn9'-*-''nu X:'il:'#;;;;"; eit*o. M'; 1955' crp' 189' cooi' coq', r<opo,1

E. r.


Hocrr.r, Ha3rHa qeHue Korop otl .],o,crr{r'Hyrb ycrporlcrB a o6qecrn a ua HoBbIx Ha'qa"rax>> 51. Kpy)K'oK pa3,BepHlJ a,KrH,BHylo nponafarHiAlrcrcKyro _B lleplra paoory cpeAH yqa[Ir4xcfl r.r vecTsofi fi,HTe,r,rruLreHrlnu. OAHNM xs ee op,raHr.r3aTopos 6u,r q,'re'H r{pyx{xa A. z. Eaxapen, BbrxoAeu H3 IIOTOiBT'r,riHxrr'rH0KI.rX rKpgcrbfl'H, ,c,ryN,u,sul,ttl rrjeprelKlH14l{o,}.t Ha }Ke-

,resHor?

Aopore. Boxpyr uero

s

1882

r.

o6ieAunranacb fpyrra

r.{e.rrlKflx )Ke,,:Ieg,HloAopoxtHbIx c,,ry)Kaulptx,,KoTopbIe co6npa,rucl leH i fl, p ?s Jr r{r{,H biX o6 ule cr,n enHo,rror r.r rr4r{ac KHX Borlpo _ lf1 : I* coB."Sbecglbt 3T,fi clBoiAIi,'II4cb, IIo 3a,K,,rIo,qeHr,tIo MLrit,IdcrDa IocrH_ I-(I{H' <<aclKJIIoQI'tr€r'IbtHo K rlop14r{a'HHIo lcytr{ecrByrouero rccy,rap-

crBerlHoro

n

'o6rqeclneHHofo crpor>> s2. 3,4ecl ionopa,ro,cr 'a ,n-

x{€r-IroM IIo,'lox{erH'HI4 ,Hapo|!,a

1 11ryrflX ero yr'ryrlue'H11fl, o ,ueo6xoAa\{ocrtr a,He,ug6exuocrtr,perBoJIlol{ltu, ycTaH,oB.leuug,pecnv6,r,u_ KLI rr co3Aa,H,Hr|Ha,poAHoro npa,Br.rreJrbcrBa 5s. rlneHu qn_ xor,.xxa ^,He,rera,rlT a ilrIl H p acflp o'cTp aHf ilr{ B 3H a r{HTe.rrb,r{brx M a crrra 6ax Hylo Hap,oxHUqecKyro (nss.au'ns <<3enn,u H BoJrfi>>, <<Hapoauoir e.4e/r a>), coq H HeHr, n lI.,rI anp o o a, 6uo ip a rz rr i?l 1]," j_1"pjgro'rep s ,AeJIflOotBa, llepo'ecxoli, Kn6anr,jHqa u Ap.) rr 3arna-THyro ,io,lru,'rficrur{eoKyro J.r,r.rreparypy (couu,HeHHq .Ilacca,Tx, LIieSie r.r fp. ). a raKxe orreJrriHbre [p0'r.{3Be.leHun Map,xca u 3,Hre"rlca 5a. g.reHaMr.r K'py)Kixa .6nrna orrreqaraHa ,Ha reKrofpa$e pacrnpocrpa_ n HeH a rrproKJr a M arrnfl Ka3 a HcK,h.x u apo,(HHKoB' ..iuroreo in pli"arory Ha'pOAy>>' riIpA3bIBaBIIIaq K,KpeCTbq,HrCKoH peBOr'rrOrIHIz,C qe,trblo <<']o4e.r'lrrb 'B'iclo 3elMJrro [o-_paB'HeHr.'rc... ycTaHOBr,rrb 3aKolHbr rKpecrbfl'HlcKr4e, 2 He ,6apcxtrg>> b5.

Taras xe pa6ora BedTacb r.r cpeAr, rnepe,1o,e,orl qacr' .[eD]\{cKHx 'n ruMHa3l.icroB. C 1883 i. qneHr,r ,rpvxrxa craJrrl Ittu u-ulo Arfl yq auHXCfl feKrof'p a $apoearuHyro rasery <<LLINo"r a ceMLlHapHCToB

>>.

tt'cBOeH nponafa,HAarcr'c'xoli AeflTe,lrb,HocTr.r,cpeArz yqall{uxc'fl pyKoBoAHTeJTH Kpyx{,Ka, a npe}KAe rBrcero B. lloveparHrlgB, BbrABHra_ JrH 3a4a\y eupa6orarb y ,MoJroAe,Kq.r rBeprAbre .peBo,rrrcquo,HHbre yoexAeHHfl. Ha 3ro 6^u,rn Hanpa'Bd'reHbr ocuoeHme cra.rbr.{ B. floMepa'HrIeBa ,B ifa3ere. Ou rnp,aslrsa,,r yqaulyloc,r MoJroAex(b co3Aa_ Barb r{pyxtKr.r caMopagBHTH.ff, ,K,orropbte Ao,-r}KrHbr 16u,rl.r, tto efo y'6exgeu,arc, crarb cryrrefibro, BeAyureii x aKrr.r,BrHo],rv vqacrr.tro B

qfA

TACCP,

laM

)Ke, fl,r.

2,,ol. I,

3-3

a. o6., 5-b S. llfun,0. 1405,'on. b2t, ieeS, a. aig,.r.2, r. t05. :: gfA TACCP,0. 2, on t. r.3b30..rrn.53,8t o6.,82. 04

_5'

3b30, ,rn.

o6.

'_r

3, 4,29,31, 35, 37 o6., 38, 52_52 o6.,56,72

_ raxxe <onncr, BerqecrBeHHblM o6. n cll. aoKa3arer,rbcrBaM no Ao3HaHr.Ilo o6 o6paso^p. BaBrreMcr n r. flepun couuarrbHo-peBorrro{rroHHoM Kpy)KKe>, IfiUA, O-."'140b, on. 83, a. 1 1332, n.n. 46 o6. 55 3xseunnap - 53 o6. . rpoK,TaMarrHr'r--H,axoanrcrr cpear. BerrlecrBeHHbrx AoKa3are!'rbcrB no ae"ry A. Eaxapera. U_lA JACCP, $. e,^on2q, A. E,A ff""puu" ora [poKJ'ra],{aq[q onv6,'rarosaHa H. Cepruencxilr. Cnr. ia",o^ur, "Kiropri 1931, Nb 1, crp. 52-53. " 60


no,'II4TI{qecKyIo cnoi6ogy. lasera 3lBa,'la MoJIoAexb K 6opd6e, 6y,a,u,ra .ee rrloJli.trllllecKylo ublcr'lb, rBocnI4TblBar'la B g,yxe HenpHMllpuuoii Bpa)KAbI K CaIlO,{,ep)KaBI'lIo, Ko BceM lnepe)KI'ITfiaM Kpe,nocrHI4 qecrBa It cpeAHeBeKoBbq 56. Kpyxox oKa3a"'I 3HaqI{TeJbHOe 'Bd'II{flrHI'Ie Ha CpaB'HI'ITer'lbrHO tUI,1pOKHH I(pyf NIeCTIH'OI'l l'lT{re,,rJHreHqll1l V yqalt\L'ticq. K AO3HaHHIO rn-O Ae.r]y t<pyxxa ',6ol,ro 57. np'r.rBJ.'reqeHo l4 yuauluxcs u 20 c,ryx<airfilx Ocuoe'Hoe BTHHMaTH'He KpyxolK cocpeAoroqvil'Ha npolnafaH.ll,e peBoJrloq[o'ssux lt'r,eii cperll pa6ouzx. rl{eHrpou Aeqre"IbHrocrn xpyxxa cra,'ra Morosu,'IHxa - pa6oqxi{ ,roc€.,'IoK Boxpyf rpynnetinrero na Vpane Ka3eHHo|o 'IlyueqHoro 3aBoAa. Pyroaog'rarenn KpyiK Ka, KaiK OBI4;I ere,'ItrclByer ostlqN alsnltfi ncToqguK, <<rc 60"Iluoii ua'crofi qnBocrblo z y6exg,eH'ueM>> rfl pec,rye,u,oBa,ru. <<'Ha'MeqeHHylo HM14 I{eJIb rl'po,rlafarHAbl cpeAl'r 'pa6outlx o lHeo6xoAnrMOCTI4 HIiCfIpOBep)KeHLIq cyulecTByloilIefo'crpof rlyre'i\I peno.nrc'qlru n ot6pa3'oBaHr.rfl 'HoBorro or6lrecreenHoro crpofi 'Ha HaqaJIax coqua-

6op#e 3a

.rH3Ma>>

58.

B MoroeH,'IlIxe

q/'IeHaM'l'I rKpyx{Ka 6lt,ra'cosEa':Ha 6t't'6nuoraxa'

KOTOpafl il,clorb3oBaJracb Ar'rff rpS,clx,ilpeHla,tl'c,Bq3eii c pa6o_uilltlt noI,r pacnpo'crparHeHHfl cpeAIz '|HHX Heilera,rsuoii !'II'ITeparypbI' B 6u'6ttwoTeKa'HacqI'ITbIcn'elHu,l nepnoa,cBoef.o cyqecTrBoBawun

6oiree i00 ,u'"rateneil, rl,raeHtr,v o6paaou pa6ounxo''u.c,'IyxatJ Harlaulnx -N',l,oronil.raxHrHcKo'fo 3alBoAa u xe"legHotr Aopoflj ac [lKor'la' orxpura'HapoAHafi ,re lBB3 r. s MoroeH.IIl'Ixe 6u,ra

Bar,r'a

MaDTaToIo)KeroAa'Bll]lKo.IecTa''IHlIrpOBoiAHTbC'IBo:cKpe0Hble

puo"** no o6uteo6paaoeatetussil rn'porpaMue60' ;J;"'-;" c rpyn,noi;r nepe4o,ettx pal6o,u'r.rx 6lr.uil ,opratul43orB&Hbl 'KpylKlKOBbIe pyKoBoAnrefl14 rKpry>l{'Ka yAe"IsJIlI rr'IalBtHoe =u""inq. B 6eceAax

,cyulecrBy}oqefo 'cTpo'fl, .BorrlpocoM no"Io)KeHl',lfl pa6o'lefo ABI4)KeHxfl, a raK>Ke 6yayurero coqlla"Illcrlloa6oqirx il o6'ecr,sa. Kax Bblti.HeH,o '6uno c,reAnp6o6pasoearnus ia.*o.o at""gat, d, no""puHueB ro'Boprl4,'lI I'lr\{ <<o rloJlo>Neuu'u 'pa'6oue'no K,'raoca... 'o Heco3rHarHrll ,I[lr cBoefo 3a'Bl',l'cllMoro iloJIO)KeH[fl"' o Tq)KecTH H HerIocH!'IL'1HOrCTI4 TpyAa I',lx'.. o 6yeyureu o6ulecrae' o'c61. B pa6ounx rpyxxax 6uHoBa'HHoM ,Ha couuaJlBHut 'siqalax>> <<3M'Ma>>, a 3areM rlreHlle lU'eeir-uepa 'p'oMa(Ha Jro opfaHlls'oBauo tli e$,r e C yuluo crl co'qlr a r'I H3 M a>> 62. xg, ",a cpeau,MOroBr.r,.rr.rxHHCKLIX pa6outtx rnocTeneHHo BbIAer'II{' I4s B. llep6o;ree,co3rHaTerbHafl r,r tnepeAoBaq,fpynna (pa,6our{e

BHrt4 N{arHHe

,Kpl,lTI,IKe

<<

,racl

56 Cr,1.:

Vrag. cou,.crp'.70-85' f.6. Pa6uttosrq. 11332, n,r. 74-74 o6'

sz

qfl,lA,

58

Tan rxe.

60

Tau xe,

s UiA

O. 1405, on.83,,u..

TACCP, S. 3, on.23.

l.

640.

n'

r.638, nl. l-24.

l3B.

.' ia" xe, O. Z, on. l, a.3530,,'r,'r-.-10 o6.-_11,30. - UiA'r,,iCtp,'O 2, bn. t, r. 3530, n,'1 6 o6., ll, 45. 61


Irrr{H,

B.

EplronnH,

A. frrentruee, H. 6axapee, f.

6enanuu,

14. Ear.rrruell r.r Ap.), 'xoropbR ttpHHrr,'ra srKTr.rrBHo€ yqacrr.re,e ,pa6ore

lPyxxa.

P'1rt<o,e'oncrno'npaKTr4qecxofi AeqreJrbrHocrbro r.rpy)i{Ka -Hsa,H,o-B

Moroelrnuxe QaxriluecKn IneperxJr,o K,croJrfl py B acnl,lto nruy llepruilHy. Oco6oe BHHMatHr.re B. [leprull,H n ero roBapt{tq}r y,reJrrr,'rt,r norryJr,rpH3a u].r'tr rH e,'ret-a.n suo rl,'r r.rrep aryp br cp eAr{ p a6 o qux. tr4'x yCHl'1IllflrMllt is MOroegngxe ,6ttng paq11pogrparHOHbr B 6o;rtIIIOM r{o,'I"HrIe'CTBe pa3JIItrIHbIe HapOAHH,r{eCKLIe fir3lAanllfl A,'rn pa6oqrx: HapoAoBo,'IbqecKaq <<Pa6oqaq ra3era>>, qepHortepeAe,'rbqec'xgfi nuclOx <<3epHo>>, ,Bo3giBa,HHe <<,I4,Cn'o.nHzred'IbH0fo ,KOMi{TeTa rr .r,p.ut. lHapo4nori,Bor'rr{)), <<Pyccrxol,ry pa6,ouelry,HapoAy>) B BlIliAe lrlrpoK!'raMarlnn pac,[po,crpaHsr'ra]c; rax>xe - <<flporparuMa pai6,ouux r{reHo,B lIIapTI{I}I <<Hap6gHaa Bor'rfl>> 64. 3ia npo-

lparMlMa BbI'3rBaJIa, tIIo eCeft ,BepOtTHoCT[, 3HarIHTe,'It,Hlttl ,lt,nrepec e pa,6oveu lKpyxKe, rarK'KaK, rno ]rlpo-cb6e B. flepruuHa, peueno 6o,pa3MHOXI,ITb ee HalexrOrpaSe 65. "IO Hapn4y c ,HapoAHuqecxori q,reuu r'II4

ii

,rureparypoft

pa,CnpOCTpaHfl,'II,I

KpyxKa qnra-

ga(IIaIHbrx a,BTopa6ouero ,JtsHxeHr.rfl (,IIac,..a.rr.

'e I\tOrO,eH,'rHXe

COTIHTHeH,]r,fl

,IIo 'Bonp_o_caM corllaJH3Ma u Ill'neir,qep a, trlg$ne,n Ap. ) . fllrpoxori noly.nap.Horcrbro P:9B

rrrod,rb3 oB a -

pa6oueuy. ABr.r)KeHr.rro n fepua.Hr4r4>> tr4 6pogrropa <byp)Kya HrnpoJrerapHu> (r,rana zs <<MaHu$ecra Kouuvincruqe_ cxoti ,taprnn> K. Mapxca n O. Surenlca) 66.

r-tHCb KHI{IH <<K

Tarxu'nr,o6paeou, ocHoB'gafl AerrreJlb,Hocrb rr(pylK,Ka cBoAr{JacL,

y lacrpocrpaHeH,iiro cpe.l,r p a6o,ullx peBorrorlr4onuux aAeft bopl_ alY9Iap>Ka'BHeM i4. npo,rafaHAe ,coUra,rurcrr.rqecKr.tx yueui.ri:i. ::t^ aHeCOMHeHHO, JTO' CO4eficrnonaJIo rnpo6ylKAeHlrlo rnonuraqecxorl MbITcJII{'[epeAoBbrx pa,6ovr.rx, cnoco6crsorBaJro rlx peBoJrroua.oH,Ho_ MY :BOCNHTA.HHIO.

t{.neHu neprli4'ot,ono HapoArHur{ec.Koro Kpy)K,Ka .[porlBJr,sJrr{ rjtyx pa6oueuy rBorrpoc|, x npo6,reuanr pai6o,uero .1eu)KeHHq u C0qHa,'rr{,crHqecKof0 nepeycrporicrsa o6qeclsa. 05 Erorr cBHAereJrbcrByr,or He roJrbKo nepeqeHb pacnpocrpaHqsuericq,,rllTeparypbl' He roJIItKo in'orKa3aHI'Iifl q"IIeHoB Kpy)KKa Ha CJI€,ACT\BHr, uo n o6,HapyxeHHbre y Hr.rx ,IIpr4 apecre opHrHHa,,rb,Hbre AoKyMeH_ TbI ln14tg6111a' SalMerI{[, Ko'HcrtgKTbI, c[;[cKI4 peKoMeH- AHOBH'I4KH, .x,o,BaHHbIX A,]q rqTeHnf KHIif t4 T. X.

_

6oxuit,r.rHrepec

6] __ Taru,r,xe, nn.3-3 o^6,4,9, l.S o6., 19,3b_3S o6.,41 o6._ 42,44 o6., 57 o6.; g.89, on._1, a. 1650,,r;r. o6.,'26-26 o6.,29. o" laM xe, 3b30, ,rrr. 31, 6g, 6B o6.; cr!r. raKx<e e. 2, on.

l-l

-1, l. 1881, a. 627, nn. 19-20. S.An, 65 IIIAOP, + AI, 1881,,q. 627, arr. 19,38

UfAOp,

o6.-39.

floaroroBrleHHaq

r{ reKTorpa$uponauurc <<flporpaMMa> 6lr,ra o6Hapyx<erra npfi o6ucxe y n. no*"pu,,_

IICBA H XPAHI,ITC' CDCNI.i.BEXICCTBEHHbIX AOKA,ATC,TIbCTB B CfO .qCTC, CilA.: '-"TACCP, $. 3, on. 23, 640, r.',. 0o

62, 70 o6.. 88 o6. B2

t.

si-iool"

III|A TACCP. 6. 2, on. l,

UIA

.u. 3530, l.n. 12 o6., 17 o6., 20 o6., 5b, 56.


O6pauraer ua ce6s

BHI4MaHI4e

ror

Q-axr,

qro

pyKoBoAll'Blxllll

ycH!'Ie,HHo ,u,eqrerbrnrocrblo Kpy)KlKa rs Moroeu,r'nxe B. LI' flepunu Ha crol4fl'por a'f aHAI4po'|Bad'I JI I'Irep arypy no p al6o'qeM y M !9_!y:, u'H I{HTaTb <<K pa'OOqeMy q,'IeHa'M KHhry rKp'y)K'Ka qHrgg pOKOMeHAOBa,I n fepuaHuu)> <<KaK'KHI'Ify cepbe3uylo>- lI <<B KaqecrBe

.LszxeHlllo

6pourrcpy <bJp5ya fi [poIIoKa3a,,rerapt{n>>, Jtureparypy IIo BonpocaM couHarll3Mab/' Ilo tpas'roBope B flepuruH qr,reHa C. xpytn^i"f. A'ecsrosa,_B. HlrsM coufiaJ'I'lIcroB>> I4 c HI'lM <<c coqyBCT,BIteM> or3bl'Bar'cq <o6 yueHun 68. <<Paonp'o'nara'HA}{po,oi6ilIecrBo>> rB cK,,IoHfl!,I efo <<B:cryrlrtlTb 't{x gaHHorft>> B. lleprunnuu l. Aecflroe 'IIbIraJICfi rIIpOlB'oEIarb srll I',lrAen coql{HeHzfl, Aocioft'noro

:B1HI;I'MaHIjfl>>,

cpeAn 'cBottx BrHalI{oMbIX. O'H 'een 'cpeAn 'HI'lx pa3ro'Bopbl <<o HepaBHoMep'HoM pacnpeAe,leHlln u'MyxrecrBa Me)KAy 6orarltlt'n n'6e'u'-

H ,o ro\{, qro <<l'lMyllrecrBo MexAy'6eAH lt It't l'i >> 6e.

HbrMIr>>

6orarltx 'cJeAyer

pa3Ae'[HTE

V nooxl,t,saBllero 'sa oAttoil I{Baprllpe g S' ;flepilu'HblrM cro-

;r,s,oa B^. @.

Epuonnsa 6u"r o'6napyxeu

p"6""!tv

;ffi;;

rpn

<<nepsqeHb

Borlpdcy>?0. nbA B. Epuo,r'u'H rlpo'g'B.tlg"I y'cl'IJIeHHbIII IIH're-

)KVaB.Horo coqua,'IH3Ma

pec

apecr.e

enl{nHneM taAeil uenrxg6yp-

o,6 <<accour{ar{uRx>>, pa6ounx apTeltlx

*

lI

TIIbITaJI-

"o,npocau cnnpe4npaHffTbifipaKT'uI{ecKI,IelMepbI<(4,'I-'I,op|aHI.r3aI{.HI,I'c,Iecap. 7 1' no ir i,r a'cri'p'oxori's i a p rer bHbl X H-aq ar ax>>

flpra o6ucxe y c,recapr Vl. O. Bafiilesa HarpqAy c iHeireraJlbHoft ,r'areparypoli 6sttu u's'asr.bl dIII'Irorpa$nponaHHue 3alMerKl{ fion rHar3Ba,Huel,r <Kro ,qent x,nlBet?>>, B KOTOpbIX pa3'b'fllcHrflJlocb 'noa cb K,'I a'c:co'B a'' girae mpn,6 a,nouuofi crol4 Mocrl4 tt4 a*ailA3_Llpo1Ba!'t 72' qe a o6urecle ro cKo cr',p yxryp a Ka,rI u r a JI licrl4 'Cpeli.r BexrecrBegHbIX AoKa3areJlbcrB B AeJIe 'r{r'IeHa Kpy)KKa ctya"n"a B. B. fpui6e,'r'f fdrraBHoe MeCTO 3aHwMaJIH rMaTepi{a,Ir,I no'fia,oouervry,Bonpocy:_crrH,cKI,I Jll'Irepary'pbI, <Ilporpl-nrya"p^a6our.rx, u,reuoB na'prurl{ <<Hapo.lHofi BoJl'I{>>, <<tlporpaMMa paoorHnxos> O. ilaccain, BbI{II4CKI'I It3 KHIrr IIo BorlpocaM pa0oqero..ABllxeHfir s 3a,flaAHoft Bnpone I{ r. ,I.73. B oAHoft I'I3 lpyKorluceft, nau,rn 6eCeAlt, pa3'bgcHgeTgf pOJIb IIOM,tIHaIOUIeft 'xOnCneXr

6. '

1405.

ur

6e 70

'

"ISK1I1I,H

t Ufa

TACCP, @. 2, on. l, a. 3530, ;i,r' 20 o6', 56, 62, 67; U|I4A' on. 521, a. 419,-q.2, n.122'

UfA TACCP, S.

2, on.

Tau xe. ,r. 59 o6. Tau xe, .n. 45 o6'

I, a. 3530, ;r. 57

rt laM xe. JI!T. J.r. ++. Tau xe, S. g, on. 23, a. 518, nn. l-5.

?2

MerKLr tBJrqJIHcb HeH3BecrHblM nepeBo.uoM

o6.

flo

e-ce[i BepoqrHocrl.r'

c no.nlcxofi 6porunpu U'

?11-_i_3--

AilxuITeH-

ua <Kro uenr xuner?>>, n roropoil n nony,rrpno,ii soptue us,naraJ'Iocb MapKcHcrcKoe yrIeHHe o npn6anotluoit crozuocru u neo6xoAI'tl'tocrl.l 6opb0bl- 3any^Hl{qro-

L nocTpoeHLIe COqI{aJII'ICTI'rqeCKOfO O6UleCTBa. I t03I'Hee' .., era 6polnopa 6n.na ugAaga rp-vnnorl <Ocso6oxAeHlre rpyAa) c fipe' ",(I4cJIoBuel\I f. B. fl.nexanona.

)KeHr{e KanI{Tar'ru3Ma

tSgS za

qfA

TACCP, @. 3, on. 23,

t.547.

6A


pa6oqefo iK,'iarcca B

KSlrrr4TSr],HCT'ilqeoKotvr

,I1pofl3,Bo,{,cTrBe, pa,oKpbr-

BaIOTCfl IIOHflTI,tfl <(Karrr.rTadI>>, <<'3apa6oTHafl IIJraTa>>, <<,II,p11I,6aiBo,qHaq cror.iMocTb>> H T. A. fIpH 3TOM B pyKonr{ctr oTMeqaeTc,s, qTo peqb fiIer o pyccKr.lx H r.{'HCCTparHHbrx pa,6,oq'nx, ra;K Ka,K <<roBo_ pr.rrb roa-rbKo o 'pyccKr.rx 'HeT AocTaroqHbrx MaTepr,ta,,r,oB. x .roMV

xe

To. r{To foBopt.tTcfl 06 HHOCTpaHHbtx pa6o'il.tx, MoxeT 6uIruorK pyclcrKHrlr>> 7a. B xcrnue pinxcnncil ,EC,TeA 3a CTL{_ xor,BopHbrMH crp.cKaI{fi <<f ncrc Pycl lzcxolr.l,'r, E,cro.ly croHeT My_ XI4K...)> alBTOp Ae,IIaeT Xapa'KTep,HOe |tpil\,IerIaHUe: <<TO"tt XO ]BMe{CTO qacTr.r crHe'ceHo

cJroBa 14 BOT

P,ycl a

MylKH,K ,HyX,HO rO,Cra,s,tdrl

'ClKara,fl KapTl4,Ha i6e,qcrauri

<<oBeT>>

,H <<par6oTHHK>>

_

pa6oqefo xna/ccar, 75. Pag;u.rq,uue 3aMerKH no pa,6oueuy Boflpocy ,6lrnu o6sapy)Keuu n 6ylrarax B. floraeparHqeaa. Cpeln H,HX,3arMerKz ,o ,nucfyn,re_

unax pat6o'qax B

craqxax n Eep,rvue u fix ipe3yJrbraTax r.i Ja,)Ke on'acarll{e craqxlr Ha Moronuruxlt,HoKoM sano4e 26. 'IouAoue, Ana,rolrl.r,Hofo xaparKTepa AoKyMenrlr,6unz oi6rHapvxenbr H y Apyfax q,'reHoB KpyxKa. Bce ero roBopr.rr o cpaenar!.rrlso run_ poxor{ rr SHar{r.tTe,'IlHona n,AelinorM ,Br'il4q,Hlt'tr ,Kpv)KKa Ha NTeCTHVIO lIHTer-t,'il'rfeHql{rc u pa60unx. c,ni.r4ere.rlcr,eo\,r'3ioro rBrtlflHr4q ,c;yx,HT ,nepex,BaqeHrHoe ,e o'xra6pe lBB3 r. frr.rcbMo yr{eH,r.rKa rrrepMoKo_ cbrHa MoTOBH,T[rxr{HcKoro cBrluleHHr.rKa 19 pea,'rbHofo yqr.rr'rr4rrla H. 6orgaHoBa K icBoex{y roBapHuly n Erarepan6ypr. <<A rxar rlr HACqCT HbIHEIIIHCIO .COq}IAJIII3MA?

M,HO|O, ,OqeHb

tro qaca'II 3Ta

-

CNTPAUHBAd'I ABTOP II'HCbMA.

_Coqfia,1r{cTo.e. PiesweaeTcfl He rIO AHfllM, a 77. 0 r3rgaq'LITed'IbH0M BJil4flHt4H 'I(DVXKa Ha pa60uux foBopnr n oQuqna,rlHue 40xyrueurnr.

M'HO.FO

'CI,IJIa>>

MOTOBH,'Ir4xr4HCKHX

lJ x{aH.lapMoKoM orqere

n,pH3Ha'BaJrocb, 1116 ,<<ts llepryg6ofi rv6eo_ HHI'I couaaJlHlcrll'rlec'Koe ABI't)KeH,He ,unp'oKo pas,r,rnocl ,rz naurno ce6e n,p'a,aeplKeHrleB cperAn r,rsoroquc,reu,Hux p a,6our*,"r ruuuAu" ,BOeHHO'|O M?tH!r{,CT€pCTSa ,B MOTO'BHr'rHX€)) 7s. He ,ClyqalirHO CpeIfi nepBbrx ,cor{r{a,'r-.qeMoK'paroB llepna,u }r MoToe,anuxyr B 90_x ro4ax 6urrlt pal6'orlue, ,Kor'opble jrloJIyqI,rILI HaqaJIb,Hoe peBoJIloqno,HHoe BOCrrrLrTa'Hr4e rnoA BJr,r{f HtreM Kpy)KKa 'rrepMcKr.rx <(Aexa,6p[groB>) 7e. <<P

a1oqilia B,onpoc>>,e,poccnficxoM ooeo6oAnreJrbHoM ArBlrxe_

HI4Ii oblJl BbIABI.{rHyr peBo,'IrcuaoHepaMI'I-pa3Hoqr,I,HqaMLr, r,rAeo,'IoraMr4 KpecrbqHcrBa. nocranus Botrpoc o Ka,ilurarrusMe, o [DoTrzBo_

perrr4qx MelKAy rpyAOM r.r KalrHTar,roru, peao.nrc[]to]rHoe,Hapo4Hil_ ?4

I_I|ATACC, Q. 3, on , 23, t. 547, "r,r. II-15 o6. Tav xe, "r. 15 o6. 76 Tau xe, g. 2, on. I, a. 3530, nn. 37, 37 o6., 39 o6.; tp. 3, on. 75

I.

640, .rr. 158.

23,

\rUA, 0. 733, on. 165, a. l5l, n. 8. 1' 78 <Xpouuxa couua,rncrfiqecKofo aBuxeHuq s poccun lgTg_lgg7 rr.>. . ^ uen_uuarbHbrfi oruer. M., 1906, crp. 245. y_a;l u u e p, Ha 3ape ryMaHHofi rcHocrn. Hs ucroprrn paI ooqero.uBr.rxeHHfl "^,.*9Y::...!:..5 B ltepun. <l(aropra H ccbr,rKa>), 1931, Ne 4.

64


qecTBo <<3a,Hff,'ro TeM CaMbrM rrepeAoBoe Mecro ,cpeAa nponpeccHBHbrx reqeHr4fi py,coxofi oi6ulecr,seHHoft ir.llr'cna>> 80. Pa'spa6orrxa flepBbrx nporpaMM ,no pa6ouolry Borrpocy, flotlblr-

Ka pacc\{arpurBarb pa6ou,ue Ma'ccbr ,KaK cocraBHyro qacrb rHapoAHo-peBo,'rlou,rroHubrx

cpe,rH pa6oqux

tcr4nt ,H

'HaqaJro peBor'rroltlr,onHoit rnponara'H'Abl

ero 6lr,10, Heco\4HeH'Ho, r,rcropHqecroft'sacnyrofi peno,rruuuoHHbrx Hapo{.tr,HuKoB. tr4x nparrnrqeoKafl -AeflTeJIbHOCTb U TeOpeTI,IqeCKHe ,rIOrHCKr.r B 9TOM I{arflpaB,'reHAI4 OOOra'ilI4,'Ill o

rrbrr p occu frcroro

Bce

o'ceoi6,oAI,treJr bHo

ro

ABL{xeHIifl

.

EcrecrgeHHo, tqro B paMKax'Kpecrltflrl1cKofo olHr.r

AeMoKpa1'1ISrMa

He rro'r.n,I,I npufiru rK HayrrrHoMy InorrHMaHr.rn <<pa60qero BoI]po-

arb uayuHuft aHaJlH3 x.[accosoft crpy,KTypbr coBpeMeHHOrO ,r4M Ot6UIeCr,ea H pa3perx,rirb 180llpo'c o,6 ucropnuecKofi MI{,ccr.rur ilpo"TrerapraTa. Oruu ne ,oMofJrr{ rBbrAe,'rnTb rrpoJrerapllar H3 o6qeii Maccbr rpylArqnxcfl i,r cBr3arb oBoe ABLIxeH,I4e c erc'KJIaccoBbrlrr{ 14HTepecaMlI, <<c K/'ra,cco,noft 6opu6oft mnyrpu pa3BH'Ba]oulerocfl Kan'r.rraJr'Hcrr.rqeoKoro o6qecrea> 81. Hecuorpfl /IIa'To, qro B3rJrsAbr peBoJrloq,u'o'HHbrx,HapoAHXKoB no <<pa6,oqeMy ;Bolrlp,ocy>>

ca>> f

u yrn'y6,r'fl,'Iucb, .? IIpfliKTi,IrlecKafl AelreflItHocrb 18 pa6oueft rcpgAe 'pacunpqracb, I{x 'orcraiBalrfie ;B pelxeHu],I sToii npo6.reuu ycl4d'rr.{rBaJrocl. flo'uepe pagBr.rrlrrr pa6ouero rABLr}KeHLIq, pocTa peBo,'[oul4 oHHorlo,co!3HaHrr.Irq,IIep eAoBbIX p a 6ouux, BbI3p eB a pa3Bu'Ba,rIlct

Hr.rr npeA[ocbrJroK p,acfl pocrpaHeH'nq Map'Kcr{3Ma,HapoAH}tqecKoe

e 6orsrueft creleua o6napyxunarb cBoro orpaHnqeHHocrb. O.ujnaxo 'Ha HarlatbH'oM gTarre pa6overo ABr{x{eHr,rrr B Poccufl HapoAHllqec'Kafl I,llHTeJI!'InreHqI4tl rcblTp'aJla onpeAeJIeH'HyI,o po,'Ib B rnpo6'yx,1ennn peBoJrloquoHHofo co3HaHl,rfl nepe4oeofi qacru pa6oqux. 3ro s 'nonuofi Mepe orHoclrrcfl H'x Vpa.rry. perxeHr.{e pal6ouero ,Borl'poca lHaqI,IHaJro ece

AHa.rurg KorrKpergoro Marepr4a,ra roBllAereJrbcr,Byer o roM, qro peB,orroqnorxHar|Ha'p,oAllfiqecKa,fl I,rHreJUrI.Irenulrfl Ha vpa.ue,ue 6wna cBrg,aHa co cruxufi'Hunt pa'6ouzM ABIzxeHI.Ieu 82. OAnatro 6uro 6u .o'xr'uL6Kori 'H'rnoptlpoBarb npouecc Aanuseftirefo pro'cra

oceo6'o,u,areJrbrHoro ABLITIKeHHfl ,ua Vpane ,s 70-x foAax XIX e. H Qaxr pacnporcrpaHeHr.rrrr peBoJrloq[onuux nAefi He roJrbKo B xpyrax MecrHoft paenoun'uHoft t4lHTer,rrfeHI(LIrH, rHo LI B cpeAe gaBIoA-

padoqfix. Oco6en,uoclx coqila,'rbHo-aI{o'HoMll,qecKoIro pagBLITlls Vpana

CKHX

80 B. I4. JIeHun. flo;rs. co6p. cou., r.6, crp. 81 Tarr xe, crp. 135-136. 82 Cu.: B. Pa6oqee ABr.r)KeHr{e

180-181:

r flepncxori ry6epuuu a 70-x E.9eruu. <<I,I3 Hcropr.tfi pa6overo x,racca Vpa,ra>>, c6. ctarefi. fleprrau, 1961, crp. l94t f.6. Pa6HHoBI.tq. Ctaqequas 6opt6a e flepl'lcxofi ry6epHilN s 70-x roAax XIX rexa. <<flpoul,roe Vpa;ra>. Vqesue ganucru flfV nir,r. A. M. foprroro, r. XXI, altn. l, crp. 23-25. 5 Brny"* Z 65

roAax XIX seKa.


lrero ueHTp a'fop Ho3aBoAcxoii,npo u sr u,'1 eH'HocrH, r!,e Sopunpornalcs'crapeiluulir orpsA poccr.rfrcNoro'rp,oJrerapHara,

Ka,K KpyrrHeft

rHaJro)r{r{Jra ceor? 'or.neqaroK Ha rBogBpeHr.rfl ,r,rgcrnoit pasuovurHuoli LI

HTeJIJII'If eHql4'i,I.

B eeoeft nrpaKTriqeoKoft gexre,rnuocrr4 peBorrouuorHHbre'Harpor-

Ha Vpane ,oqeub paHo Ha'flparBrlr'r{ cBor4 ,oc}toBHbre yckrJrufl Ha rlrpoflafaH.u,y pe'Bo.']nuxorrHbrx'nAeft He 'B Kpecrbfl'H,cxola, a nper{rMyrrlecrBeH,Ho,B par6,oueri cpeAe. 3aAaq'u,n,poua'fa,HAbr cpeAu pa6o'urax ua Vpa,re 6u.u'u'e'nep,Bbre rrocraB,'reHbr exa'repu,H6yprcKH'M KpylKKoM B HaqaJre 70-x rorAoe. Bo rnropoii nro,roeuHe 70-x III4I(LI

loAoB

o'TLeJIb,Hbre peBoJlroul{,oHepbI II,orIIbrTa!'rHcb lrr'po,rraraHAHpoBaTb,r4AeH'peBoJrroq[o'HHro'ro r!,eMoKpaTrrcMa H yrorrHqeoKoro coUI.Iar'IHBMa ,B He,6orb[Il.rx ,pal6Ouux Kpy)KKax, rHO ,HtM He yAa,r'o,cb B,oBd'reqb pa,6ouux B aiKTHrBHylo peBo,'uo'qt,toH]ryIo AeflTe,'rbTrocrb. B saqa.ne 80-x roAos peBoJrloutao:H,Hbre corlr4aJlr{crr.rqecKqg r]4r!€lr rrpoHr4Karor n pa6ovyro cpeAy, a lrepeAo'Bbre pabouue (B. llepIIITITH, B. Epu,o,run ,r.r Ap.) oKa3brBaro'Tcr He roJrbKo ,Bocfi,pi{r.rMqr,rBbIMH 'K 9TEM HlAeflM, HO 'CaMfi BbICTy'[aIOT rB pOJII{ fiX aKT}I'BHbIX rlprorrafaHAr.r,croe. ,llponaraHr,a peBoJrroq,fiorrHbrx HapoAHr.r'KoB ,He-

nocpeAcrBeHHo cpeAr.r ypaJrbcKlrx pa6oqvx s 70-x HaqaJre FoAorB He no,ryqlr,'ra 3,HarIH'TedtbHono pagMaxa. Te:uc 90-* A. '9. faepuno,na o ilupoiKlrx ,naa'curra6ax petso,lrcrlnoHuoit nponafa,HAbr Ha Vpane B gTor frep,noA rue fi,oA.nBep)KAaercfl ,KoHKper-

nuu

Saxtlr'qeoKaiM M,arepuaJroM. 3m ylnepxAeHue tsbrrgKaer u3 HeA0'CTaTOTqHO'BHI4MaTeJIbH,OfO'H Kp't{TI{qeCi{OrO OTHOIUeHI.{fl aB-

Topa K I,Ilcrlor'IbgoBarHHbIM 'ncroqHl{KaM. 6o,lee HJILT MgHee BHaq,uTerbHaq a ycnerxHaq peBoirrolu4oHHafl irrpofia'farHAa, KoToparr, oAHaKo, He ,6sua 'np,oAodll)KITeJIbHoii ,u ge HoclL'Ia cllcreMa'Trr{gc,Kofo xapaKTepa, r.rMeJra MecTo ,rr,urrlb iHa HeoKo,'rbKr.rx 3aBoAax (Moro-

Klt,Hosoxov, HenurHoKoM I{ \Ap.) ,il B HeKoropbIX rcpoAax (flepvu, Exarepuut6ypre, Kynrype). Pa,spos'HeHHbre no-

'BLIJI'ltxltHcKoNr,

[bI'TKlr peB,oJlroqr4oHepoB cKHe HAer.r

rBHecTr.I peBOJrIOrItHO,HHbIe OOqI1Iar'II'rCTH'r{e-

a pa6ovylo cpeAy He MofJrH oKa3arb

3Haqr.IT€rbHoro tut,rpoKr.rx pa60'vl.rx yacc. Telr ue 'Me.Hee oHri He 6u,rru 6es'pe3'yJrbrarHbr. Ceuesa, ,Koropbre cefl,Jlu peBor'rroq'iloHepbr, He Morrz'nplofiacrb 6ecc;reA,so. Onx-co,{,ericle,olsa,rH B 'KoHeq,H'orM r.r,To're 'rr/oJr'r],Tr.rqecKoMy npo6,yx4eHurc BJrLrfl:H'11't1

Ua

QOp VnpoBa,Hae'HAeO,TOfr.ta

ux rno[crKaM oBor{x,caMocroqreJrbiHbrx rnyreil 6opt6u. B. Vl. .Ileuns yqr{Jr, qro <<o6paqenne c peBoJrroqz6uuoii irpo,nopat6_guilx,

BeAbIO 'K Hap0.qy He lnpOIIaAaeT /:l,a'xe TOfAa, I(OnIa 'Ue,IIr,Ie AeCqTH,IeTrl.ig OT,.IIeI'IflIO'T 'nO,CeB OT XatBbI...>> 83. 83

B.

14. JI e s u

s. flons.

co6p. cou.,

r.

21, crp.

261-26;


vAK

947.08r/.083

JI. A. Tpe$urrola PAKTI4 q ECKO E OCYI{ECTBJI EH I,I E 3AKOHA 1893 I'OII.A O NO3EMEJIbHOM YCTPOTTCTBE

N

'

TOPHO3ABO,TICKOTO HACEJIEHVIfl B NOCECCI,IOHHbIX OKPYI'AX TIEPMCKON IYEEPHI,I}I I4syueHue no3eMer'rbublx orHolIeHuft ypa.urcroro ropno3aBoAcKofo HaceJieHHrI rrpeAcraBJlger 3HarinTe,rlHtni HHTepec A,'Ifl noHr.iMaHr.rrr oco6esuocrefi xanura,rt,tcrHqecKofo pa3BHTLIr Vpana. B. LI. IIeHun orMeqaJl, qro <<cpeAcreolt npno6pereHuq pa6ouux pyK qBd'Igercf Ha Vpa"ire He ror'IbKo HaeM, Ho u orpa6orxlt>>'. Ang MHoTHX ypaJIbcKLIx ropuopa6ouux 6ypxyasHslti npnuqun ceo6oAHori flpoAa)Kr.r pa6oueu cHnlt 6tt,r recno cBn3aH c AoKarrHTad'Il,rcrr,rqecKl,rMu orHotueHl,ttrMl{ B BI,tAe orpa6orox Ha 3aBoAax 14 pyAHuKaX 3a [O,'Ib3oBaHI'le 3eMeJIbHbIMI'l yqacTKauu. llpunx3.arb ypa,'rbcKofo pa6ouero K 3aBoAy H coxpaHl'lrb HHuIeHcKylo raKI'le IIeJIII IIpeCJIeAOBa,'lo IIpaBI4reJIbCTBO' [p11On,'IaTy TpyAa - o ttogeMe,'IbHoM ycrpoi'icrae ropH03aBoAcKoro HHMas 3aKoHL,I Hace,'reHrrrr. Ha.ruqtte cneuu$aqecKIIX rtepr B 3eMJIeycrpoficree HaceJreHl,rfl Ka3eHHbIX, noceccl4oHHblx H BorqItHHbIX SaBoAoe o6ycr'toBJIuBaer qe.tecoo6pa3Hocrb orAe,'IbHoro ucc,lleAoBaHvfl. Ka>K' Aoil nx fpyililbl. B AopeBoJlroquosnofi JII4Teparype 3eMdrIeBJIaAeHI'llo fopHo3aBoAcKoro Hace,'IeHllfl Vpa.na nocBqureHbl Al{nd'loMHatl pa6ora crv.il.eHTa oKoHoMLlqecxoro orAeneHua flerep6yprcxoro rro"rI'lrexHllrrecKoro r4Hcrlrryra n. H. Crenauoea n oqepK 3aBeAyIo^IrIefo no2. B yra3eMeJrbHbIM ycrpolicrnona ua Vpa.ne K. ,Il. flourcureea o 3eMJrerroJrbsoBaHIIri cBeAeHr.rfl pa6orax npr.rBoArrTcs saHHbrx Hace,rreHllfl noceccuotrHblx 3aBoAoB lleprracxoli ry6epuun x 1893 r", orMeqaercfl rpaliue HepaBHoMepHoe pacnpeAe,reHI'{e yro4l'rft cpe,Il,rr ropHo3aBoAcKOrO HaCereHI'lti floceccl]oHHbIX SaBOAOB' fi. U. CreiraHoB LI K. A. llosnrleB He craBuJrrr nepeA co6ofi sa-

g]/^lteHI.iH. flo,Tn. co6p. cov., r.3, crp' 486. 2 fl. H. CrenaHos. HaAenenue gerralefi ropHo3aBoacKoro HaceJ'IeHI'Iq sa Vpa.ire. Cll6., 1914; K. A. n o H Io ilr e n. Ovepr< 3ace'reHHr Vpa"ra o npeAerlax

'

ilepucxoir ry6epnnu. fleprul,

1917.


Aaqu IroKa3aTb BJIr{flHI{e CBq3r.r c 3eM"'rer? Ha noJlo}KeHrre ropHo3aBoAcKoro HaceJreHr4r, ua SopulrpoBaHne ypaJrbcKofo npoJrera-

pilara n ero 6opr6y 3a yJryqueHr.re ycd'roBuil xaeHu. B trloHorpaQl,rflx, AHccepTarll.rflx u cTarbflx coBeTcKHx ucToprrxoe IO. lecceua, A. A. Caeuua, @. fI. Bucrpux, f. B. KanvrrrHofi, !,. f. Bexc.nep, JI. A. TpeQl,ronori oceeueuur HeKoropbtc cropoubr noseMeJrbHoro ycrporicrBa fopHo3aBoAcKofo Hace,rreHurr rrocecchoHHbrx 3aBoAoB no 3aKoHy 1893. r.3. OAHaro n pa6orar yKagaHHblx r{ccJIeAoBare"neri Aaercs pa3JrI.rqHafl orleHKa 3aKoFra lB93 r. O. il. Eucrpux xapaKrepn3yer sa,Kou ,KaK KperrocrHuuecruft, xoropurl yctlJrLrJr xa6a.nrHyro oaBr4criMocrl pa6oulx or saeoA,{r.rxos a. A. f . Bexcnep crpeMr.rrcg AoKa3arb, r{To saKoH 1893 r. nprrBeJr K oKcrrponpr4at\llr4 seMe,rb ropHo3aBoAcKoro saj ceJreHr4q, ocHoBHafl Macca Koroporo florepflJra cBfl3b c geu,rerl 5. flo nanesun IO. fecceHa, 3aBoAoB,'IaAeJrbllbr rrpeAocraBr.rJrrr )KlrTC.II'IM 3ABOAOB MCHbIXCC KOdIIHIICCTBO 3CMJII{, I{CM OHI,I MOT,{U NO. 6. B <<Ouepxax rrcropr.rl,1 xolrnrynildrHqecKrr.\ "rryqHTb rlo 3aKoHy opfaHrzgaqrli Vpana> yKa3brBaercfl, qro <<HaceJreune orKagaJrocb

HaAeroB no saKoHy 1893 r., r. K. 3a uaAeJr cBepx oAHoir AecrrrrrHbl oHo ,AoJrx(Ho 6u,ro nnarurb BbIKlnrI>> 7. PacxoAqrcs MHeHr,Ir HccJreAoBarelerl n o crerreHr.r 3aBepluerr-

or [oryqeHnq

Hocrri seMJreycrpoficrea no saKoHy 1893 r. B esoAuori crarbc x c6opnnry <<flonoxeHue pa6ovrlx Vpa.rra Bo BToporl noJloBr.rHe XIX-Haqare XX e.> yKasbrBaercfl, qro pa6oru no 3eMeJlbHor\ry ycrpoficrny B rroceccuoHHbrx oKpyfax saBeprxllJlr{cb K Harlary MIIpoeor? soriHn l9l4 r., a B crarbe f. B. Ka.uyrunoft orMeqaercfl, qro 3aKoH 1893 r. <<He 6bur [poBeAeH B )Kr.rsgb>>

f ecceu. I4cropza ropuopa6ovlrx CCCP. T 2, M' 1929; A. A. CaOuepxu rrcropr.rfi KpecrbrucKr.rx sorueHlari ua Vpane r XVIII-XX ns.

3 IO.

su,r.

M., l93l; O. II. Dbrcrpbrx. O seM,'reno,'rb3oBaHfir.r ropHo3aBoAcKoro Hace,'Ienur Vpa,ra B KoHrre XIX HaqaJre XX ss. C6. <<Vs Hcroprla KpecrbqHcrBa rt - Vpa,re>>. Cnep,E,noncr, 1963; f. B. Kanyrr.rHa. arpapHbrx oruourenr.rir ua Arpapnufi Bonpoc B noceccuoHHbrx oKpyrax Vpa,ra n ronqe XIX-Haqare XX ss. Vxagasuurl pauee c6.; A. f. BeKcJrep. flo.noxenre ypaJrbcKux 3aBoAcKrix pa6ouax B KoHrre XIX-Haqa,le XX ss. KanA. Auccepraurls. "{., 1954; .IL A. T p e $ u.n o s a. 3el.rresflaAeHr.re r.r 3eMrreno!'rb3oBaHr.re ropuo3aBoAcKoro Hace.rreHus noceccuoHHbrx 3aBoAoB llepmcrofi ry6epur.ru s 186ll9l7 rr. C6. <Lls Hcropulr pa6ouero Knacca rr KpecrbtncrBa lleplrcxoro xpaa>. flepur, 1965. a Ouepru rrcropr{fi 6omruegucrcKux opraHu3aqr.rft Ha Vpa,re. CrepA,roncx,

1951,

5

crp. l5l.

A. l.

cro.2l4. -

B e x c n e p. flo.noxenne ypanbcKux fopHo3aBo,qcxr.rx pa6ounx,

6 E. IO. Iecceu. I4cropua ropuopa6ouux CCCP. T. 2, crp.20l. 7 Ouepxt rrcropur KoMMyurcrurrecKrrx opraHr.rsaurzfi Vpa;ra T. I, 18831920. Cnepa.noscx, 1971, crp. 147. 8 Io.nox<esue pa6ouux Vpa.na eo nropoir no,'roBrrHe XIX-na.rare XXne. C6. qoxynenroe. M. "II., 1960, crp. 6; f. B. K a "'r y I r{ u a. Arpapuu& eonpoc B noceccuoHHbrx- oKpyrax, crp. ll3. 68


[e,rr Aanuorl crarbn paccMorperb xoA no3eMeJrbuoro ycrpoficrea fopHo3aBoAcKofo HaceJreHr.rq noceccproHHbrx gaBoAots Ilepucxbli ry6epHr.ru flo saKoHy 1893 f. v efo pe3yJrbrarbr K l9l7 r. Crarlq Ha[r.rcaHa Ha ocHoBe AoKyMeHroB rreHrpaJrbHbrx u MecrHbrx yupex4eHurl, a raKxe 3aBoAcKlrx ynpae.reHufi lr KoHrop, xpaHflur4xcx e I{eurpaJrbHoM rocyAapcrBeHHoM r.rcropr.{qecKoM apxr.iBe CCCP, locyAapcrneHHoru apxr.rBe flepucxofi o6-

u ero $lr.nna,re e HnxHer\r Tarnne. Mexesue pa6oru B noceccnoHHblx oKpyrax Vpana HaIIIJIU orpax(eHrre B orrrere qIIHoBHI{Ka oco6ux ,nopyueHufi npr{ MrzHllcrepcrBe 3eM,rre LeJrrlfl, LI focyAapcrBeHHbrx I.IMyIIIecrB IO. rc. BeneulKoro or 16 4era,6pa 1896 r., B 3arrlrcKe r{r{HoBHilKa MuHucrepcrea BHyTpeHHHX Aen l. f. Canaua, peBu3oBaBrrlefo yqpe>KAeHl.{s llepucxofr ry6epHr4r4 B 1903 r., B sarIHcKe 3aBeAyloqero IIoseMeJIbHbIM ycrporicrnou ua Vpa.ne M. E. CrpyBe <<K Borlpocy o:[o3eMeJIbHo]I ycrpoficrne HaceJIeHI{rr B rroceccuoHHblx oKpyrax Vpara>>, Harrllcauuofi e 1907 r., B AoKJIaae M. B. Crpyee <<Arpapuo- ,recuotlt Borlpoc B fopHo3aBoAcKHX Aaqax Vpa,la>>, npoqllraHHoira e l917 r. Ira coBeIIraHLir{ coBera c'be3AoB topHonpoMbIIIIJIeHHI4KoBVpanae. B uepevi.rc.rreHHblx AoKyMeHrax coAepxnrcfl nHrepecusttl QaxrNqecxufi MarepHaJI, Ho K HeMy c,'IeAyer IIoAXoAt4rb KpI'lrl'IqecKu,

Jacrrr, locyAapcrneHHoM apxxBe GeepA.noecroil o6nacru

YI{I,TTbIBAff KJIACCOBbIE NOSI4IUIU ABTOPOB, BbIPAX{ABIIII,IX I4HTCPCCIJ

z saBoAtIHKoB. ,Il,oryuenrbl B apxllBltux QoH4ax COAepXaT CBeAeHI'lq O pa3Mepax 3eMJIeBJIaAeHufl' pI 3eMJIelO,'Ib3onpaBare,rbcrBa

aHIlq f opHo3aBoAcKolo H acer'IeHIllq, o6 orrp aunqeHI',IH H aAeJIbHbIX axt, [oATBepxAai]3eMe,'Ib LI BbIAaqe AaHHbIx - o$HqIaannnstft ruufi npaea Ha BrTaAeHI.Ie ser4reftl0. OcHoeHstNt AoKyMeHToM, onpeAeJIflIoIqttM IIo3eMeJIbHbIe orllo-

B

[reHlrr e nopeSopi',IeHIruft nepl{oA, 6unn ycraaHble ,rpaMg1lr. B 7 noceccuoHHui oxpyrax flepucxoft ry6epHfilr e 1862-1863 rr. 6lr;ro cocraBJleHo 74 ycraeHux rpaMorbl, no KoropblM Macrep_o-

Bbre I.{ ceJlbcKlle pa,6ornnxu ,no,r}qnnu I18.555 Aec. 3sM,rn ll. OAHaxo e lBTB f., qepes l5 ner nocJle cocraB,'IeHI'Il ycraBHrl\ fpaMor, nepucxnfi ry6epuarop rucaJl B orqere: <<B noceccllonttltx oKpyrax HuxHe-TarlldlbcKoM, AranaeecxoM H Apyrux c Hace,rlerJHeM e 75 rHcsq AYn, 6o,ruueft qacrbrc MHpcKIle 3eMe/'IbHblc yfoAbfi B HaType He oTrpaHI{qeHbI I{ CAeJIaTb 3TO HeBO3MO}KHO'

a.

s |ACO, g. 55, on.

l, a. 551, n4. 2-l\

Q,u u r nu. 3eu.ney^mpofim\. f.II|HA 48' on' I' CCCP'

ce,'rbcKux 66Heare,'Iefi Vpa,'ra. Cll6., 1907; 65, ;r,r. 28-40; a. 62, a,'r. 137-148.

Bo

to

qfHA CCCP, O. 51, on. l, r. I, a. 307 u ap.

Q. 55, on. 1l JI.

A. Tpe0nJIoBa.

213;

S.

fAnO, S. 38, on. l, r.

3eMnea,'IaAenue

BoAcKofo Hace,'reHlrg noceccr4oHHblx 3aBoaoB,

I1

137; fACO,

,3eMrenonbsoBaHl'Ie ropHo3a-

crp. 50-5l.

69


T. K. B,'IAAC,IIbIIbI 3ABOAOB PACXOAOB TIO MCXCBAHH}O HA CC6f HC npHHr.rMaroT, 3aKoHa )Ke, o6rr3brBarouefo cTopoHbl oKoHqaTeJrbHo orrpaHlrqurb HaAe.rrbr, Her>> r2. B nrcse lB79 r. locyAapcreesslrft coBeT, paccMaTpI,tBag npo[IeHHe 3aBoArrI.IKoB-IIoceccHoHepoB 0 BbrKyne HMLI B noJrHyro co6creeHlrocrb Ka3eHHbrx 3eMeJrb I,I d'IecoB, KOTOpbIMI'r OHtr AO 3TO|O B,'raAe,'il4 Ha nOCeCCHOHHOM npaBe, IrpeAJIo)KLIJI BaBoAoB,IIaAe,'rbuaM <<6egor,'Iararer'IbHo npncrvunrt x 6o-

nee no4po6Hoft paspa6orKe tsonpoca 06 oKor-rqaienluom ycrpolicrse 6ntra HaceJleHr.rfl nocecctloHHrtx gagoaoB>> 13. B Hon6pe 1883 r. ypa,rbcKr4e rroceccroHepbr HarrpaBr4trru MLt-

HACTpy fOCyAapCTBeHHbrx r.rMyrr{ecTB npolxeHr.re, fAe Bbrpa)KaJri.i cor.{ac?re Ha lepeAar{y <<B BeqHoe H 6eseos[4e3AHoe Ilo,itbsoBaHr,re)> Hace,'IeHuq, He3aBIrcrzMo or yca4e6Hoft oce4,uocru, rroKocHblx II rraxorHbrx yro4r.li, cofd'racHo p a3MepaM cyuecrByroulefo [o.rrb3oBaHr.ig, HaxoAHBIllrxcfl y MacrepoBbrx pocuzcreir, T. e. yqacrKoLt, KOTOpbre MacTepoBbre caMI] pacqzcTLlJrr4 H3-rroA Jreca, tr BbrfoHHbIX 3eMeJrb no 600 KB. ca)K. Ha Ayrxy My)KCKofo no,qa. 3anoArrr.rKr.{,,'ruIIrr,rBIrrHecfl Bo3Mo)KHocTr4 3Kc[,'IyaTLIpoBaTb HeApa HaAeJIbHbIx geMeJIL,, Aod'I)KHbI no,'IyqnTb ilpaBo Ha o6ueg yro4ltft n TerreHrre l0 ner. floceccr.rouepbr rrpeAJrafadrlu <<Me)KeBbre AertcrBtifl

rro

orfpaHr.rrreHr.rrc yroauft npo]r3BoAr.{Tb npaBHTe,{bcrBeHHbrMIt cpeAcrBaMx H Ha cr{er KagHbI>>14.

Ha coBMecruoM 3aceAaHnn TIJIeHoB coBera MLrHLIcrpa focyAapcrBeHHbrx i.rMyrrlecrB H ropHoro coBeTa rrpu yqacTr]n npeAcraeareneli roceccuoHepoB e 1887 r. paccMarpr{Barcfl rrpoeKr nocraHoB,rreHrrfl

o

no3eMeJrbHoM

ycrporicree fopHosaBoAcKofo

HacerTeHufl rroceccuoHgbrx 3aBoAoB Vp a.ira. VqacrHraxll gaceAanrrfl npvrxJru K BbiBoAy, qro xorfl <<seMJreAe,'rbqecxuft TpyA Aaer pegyd'rbTarbl cJIxrxKoM cKyAHbIe AJIn rofo, qro6lt cAe,/Iarbcfl caMoCTOflTC,'IbHbIM I,iCTOIIH]4KOM CPCACTB CYIqECTBOBAHHfl AA}KE TIPII o6ruupuolr 3eMeJIbHoM FIaAeJIe, TeM He MeHee troJlbsoBaHr.re 3er\'rneli (rnanuunn o6pasou AJrrr ceHoKourenv a) HMeer HeMa,'roBaxHoe 3HaqeHl,re A.rIr Hace,'IeHHr B KaqecrBe xossficreeuHofo noAcllopbt,

Aotro,rHqrolt1ero sapa6orxu ropuopa6ouero r.r Aarou1efo eilrv [por{Hyro oceAd'rocrb>> 15. B xypna,]re 3aceAaHi.rfl yKa3aHo: <<...npeAOCTaBJIeHI,Ie HaCeJTeHHIO ypa,'IbCKLTX nOCeCCfiOHHbIX 3aBOAOB Bo3Mo)I(Ho 6o.nee o6ruupHux 3eMedrIbHbIX I{aAed'IoB Ha BogMo)KHo 6onee d'IbforHblx ycJroBr.rrrx 6uno 6u noJregHo He roJrF,Ko ceMy HaceJIeHHIO, HO U CaMHM 3aBOAaM, T. K... 3eMeJIbHbIe HaAe,{bI Hace-

fAnO, g. 65, on. l, a. 44, ,r,r. 36. t3 |ACO, on. 1, a.259,,'r. ll o6. la Tarrl xe,9.55, ,r. 14. 12

ls A.

C. Kpr.rsott1exos. K

orHocflrrrHMcq

19ll, crp. 427

70

.

no3eMeJ'rbHon.ry

3axoHoAare,'rbHbre MarepuaJ,rr,r

no

Bo[pocaM,

1'crpofrcray fopHo3aBoacKofo HaceJleHuq. cfl6.,


.rteHlifl o6ecneqHBaroT SaBoAaM [OCTOnHHbIr.i KOFITIIHTeHT IIpor{Ho-

oceArbrx pa6ovnx>

h

16.

3axoil o 3aBeplueHl'l?I IIo3eMeJIbHoro ycrpoftcrea MacrepoBblx ce,'IbcKr'rx pa,6oinuxoe [ocecclloHHblx 3aBoAoB Vpa'ra, yrBepN(-

AeHnHli 19 uag lB93 r., BKrroqu,rr B cocTaB HaAeJIbIibIx 3eMe,'Ib KOI{X <<IIOKOCbI H pocr{I4crKl4 B Jlecax H KypeHqx B Tex pa3Mepax' B .noKocb]oIIpeAeJIeHbIycTaBHbIMI4|paMoTa'MLI,apocql4cTl.lnpnSHaHbI yCTaHOB,'IeHHbIM IIOpf AKOM>>' T' e' IIOJIb3OBaHI4e uM14 ooopuneno rocraHoBJleHYflMLr MIIpoBbIX nocpeAHl]Koe' MacrepoBbrM H ce,rlcriru pa6orHilxam [epexoALIJIH nOJIeBbIe H JIyfoBbIe yfoAbfl , H axoAltBtrllrecn a QaxrHqecKoM no,'Ib3OBaHI',lH HaCeJIeHI'Ifl ' HO Br-r&.[,€HHe KOTOpbTN{r{ He 6L'r,ro oQopu'reno II?I ycTaBHbIM14 fpaHCK"IIOI\{OTaMU' HIi IOCTaHOBIeH14flMH MHpOBOTO IIOCpeAHHKa' 3a Ha3HaqaJII4Cb 3eMJIH qeHI{eiM apeHAyeMbIX 3eMed'Ib. BltrOUnlte ;-p;;;;"p"'60"0"xe. ca)K. Ha Ayury Myx{cKoro norla' flpano co6cTBeHHoCTLI Ha rlepeqIlcJIeHHble 3eMJIIt HaceJIeHHe nolyqaro 6e3 c l9 ltas l90B r.,'uepes 15 ,'rer nocJle rBLaHhfl 3aKoHa' paspe3aBoAoynpaB'rleHl'lgM cpoKa eroro BcsKofo BbIKyna. ,II,o [raJIoCb rlpoI.I3BOAIlTb <<pa3BeAKy n paspa6orKy noJIe3HbIX HCKo'naeMbIX B SerMeJIbHbIX yIOAbflX, OTBOAI'IMbIX MaCTepOBbIM I{ cer'Ibct<trl,r pa6orHaKaM>>, H Tpe6oBarb 06fl3are"ibHofo A',rIn Macrepn RbIX rI ce,'lbcKll" pu'60"turo" <<pa3BepcraHI4f H o6MeHa )'foAHil>17. -

B uncrpyKlltln o [opflAKe MexeBbIX 4efrcrnuti no orfpaHllqeIi ceJrbcKr.rM pa6orHuxau uoceccliogqro c'beMKa Hbrx 3aBoAos or 15 4era6pa 1894 r. yKa3brBa,lrocb, qr{HoBH}rKaMr.r Muuucrepcrnl.t Mex{eBbrMu yro4uli [por43BOAHTCrr

Hr4ro HaAe,'roB MacrepoBbrM

3eM,'IeAeJIIls I4 rocyAapcrBeHHbIx xMyulecrB rlp14 yqacrl4li AoBepeHHbIX OT topHo3aBoAcKofo HaceJleHI.lfl H [peAcTaBIZTeJIeI{ 3aBOAO-

snaae,,tlqeB. B c,lyqae oTKa3a 3aBoAcKofo HaceJlegl'lfl US6paTb y[odIHoMoI{eHHbIxcpa3peIxeHI,I'3eMcKo|oHaI{a,iIbcTBa3Tupaoo-

TbI itIpOI'I3BOAI'l,tIICb Me)KeBbIMI'I qI'IHOBHLKaMH B TIpUCyTCTBI4I'I ilOcroDoHHllx cBllAere.rleil ue xHre,leii cMe)KHbIX CeJIeHI4iI B CocTaBe

3_6 ,r g

.te,,IoeeK.

1OTC

g,pT

S

HbI

noc,re oKoHqaHI,Ig C'be M KH

\[,'l

a

C'beMKI{ Me)KeBIIIIIKaMLI COCTaBH'UeTbI I'I T a6 JI I{ qbl C 0603 H aqeHl4rfl MI'I

Bcex yroAgft, o,6uero KoJrr4r{ecrBa'Yad6HOii H HeyAo6Hoil SeMnH. nnu"*a"r n ra6nvt\at slrql]c,'reHrafi yro,quft HaqaJIbHI4K ,Me)KeBoii napTI.Iuil]peA.bflBJ'Iff,'I[pe.II.cTaBI,ITeI'IM3aBoAoB,'IaAeJIbIIeBnAoBe.

B arKTe yKa3brBaJrgcb Bce I{x Bo3pa)KeHI'Ifl. cocTaB,'IqJICff npoeKT HaAeJIa, C KOTOpbIM 3HaKOMIZJll,i Bcex

peHHbrM or Hace,'reHr4,fl.

3areu

yro4uft. IIocne Aocrll>xeHHfl corJIaIxeHuq Me>xAy NPEACTAB}ITCJIflMI'I 3ABOAOBJIAACJIbIIA H IIOBEPCHHb]MII OT HACC' ,rleHr.rfl <<oTHocI,lTe,IbHo cocTaBa, pa3Mepa il fpaHI'IU HaAe"Ia>> [poBJraAe,rblreB

16

Talr xe.

li 3flc3, r. XIil, N 9628, crp.326-327

7l


ItSBOAr4JrOCb

orfpaHHqeHue HaAeJrbHbix 3eMeJrb

[peAcTaBr.tTeJrfl saBoAoB"rraAedrrbqa

Ha

rI

B

irptrcvrcrBlrlr

oT Hac-eneHfiq. rr irra o6 orapinruann,,,

AoBepeHHbrx

ocsoaaHr.rri MexeBbrx AoKyMeHroB

seMeJrb ry6epHcxoe npHcyrcrBr.te BbrAaBaJro AaHHyro ir a BJraAeHhe SeMerrlbHbIMr.r yroAbfl Mn.

_

AoKyMerrf

3axos 1893 r. n raHcrpyxuus lg94 f. He BHecdrri{ cyqecrBeir_ s re [peAJroxeHHs, Koropue 6u,rn noceccHoHepaMn B npoureHHr.I lB83 r., 3a r.rcK,'rrcqeHueM"Hcnusrno, nepeAar{}} 3eMeJIb g co6crgeuHocrb, a He B BerIHOe [o,'rb30BaHHe Hace,rleH?Itr. rorrbKo u.pJ iB-;;i u-"J"u"p.* 11" lu, :::, KaK Mlo-"p.aocraBrlsrlocb npoct.lJill 3aBOA[iHKI.{. B raucipyxquu l}g4 r. orMeqaJrocb: 3a ee roqHbrM Bbrrro.{r{eHrreu ua6.nrcAaer ,rlecHoe orAeJreHr{e vpanlcxoro ropHoro ynpaB,'resun. V ropHoe BeAoMcrBo npoflBr.rJro ce6q ornroao na'6[.nor_ crpacrHbrM sa6nrcAarenen. B .rvrae lBgS r. r.raanrrrl Haqanrur,* ypaJlbcKl4x ropHblx SaBoAoB HanpaBr{rT 3aBeAyroq}rM JrecaMr.r roceccl4oHHbrx oKpyroB pacnopflx{eHHe o npoBeAeHrrH <<TrrlaTe",rbHo Il, rlo BogMoxHocrlr, a cxopetlruee BpeMfl>) npoBepKI,I, <<Ha KaKr,r-\ ycJloBllflx BJIaAelor 3eM,'IflM?t xI4Ted'II{ 3aBoAoB, a ecJILI cpeArr BJr aAeJIbIIeB o6u apyxar cfl Jrv\a, 3 axBarr.rBrur.je seMJrtr ca NroBo,rr b_ HO' TO nO36yAratr rilpoTaB Hrrx prcK o6 0r6panuH or HHX 3aXBaIrbrx r'r3MeHeHzfi

qeHHbIX 3eMerb>> ls.

B fleprucxoli ry6epriiru

saKoH uqa lg93 r. rroryquJr pacAnanaencxonr, -19 Bepx-tr4cercxoI,r, HeilqHcxoN{, Hirxue-Tarn.nlcxoM, _PeBAHH.K.M, cuceprcrou n IIJaftrascxonr oKpyfax. Jlerom lS9!^f. HaqaJrrzcb pa6orr,r ro c.beMKe yro4url u rlpoAoJI)KaJILIcb Ao 1907 r. Taxofi A,'rlrreJrbHbrrt cpor< cterouuo6 pa6or o6tscHqercfl orpoMHbrM K_oJruqecrBoM cnopHbrx Ae,,r, Bo3_ HUKLUUX B XOAe sTZX pa60r. 3aeoAoynpaB,,leHHff OTbrCKnBaJil{ ,TP6OI1 TIOBOA, '{rO6H 3AflBHTb CBOI4 TIPABA HA 3CMJIH, HAXOAI,IBIxI.ICCfl B IIOJIb3OBAHIIZ HACCJICHHfl. IIOA AABJICHHEM 3ABO.4OBJIA. n_pocrpaHeHae

n

AEJIbIICB MC)KCBbIC qUHOBHHKH HC O6OEHA'{AJII,I MHOII]C YqACTKII Ha nJIaHax' I'I HaceJIeHI'le orKa3bIBaJlocb npHHI.{Marb vqacrfle B

cbeMoqHbrx

pa6orax.

3ro

oc.rroxHnno pa6bry,

raK

xix

yro4rx

6u.nr.r pas6pocaHbr Ha ofpoMHoM [pocrpaHcrBe, rroKocbr 3aqacryro HaxoAI'rJIHCb r.ny6uue Jleca, I,I 6ee enaAerbqa 9Tr.IX yqacrKoB.

r

o6uapyxuro ux 6u.rro rpyAgo. B ueroropux cryrraflx Me)KeBilIu_ KI{ He CHIIMaJIH Ha nJIaHbI BbIroHHbIe 3€MJI[, pacrloJlo]KeHHbte BEaJIV or HaceJIeHHblx nyHKTOB' ccblJlafcb Ha nocraHOBJIeHIIe coBeuraHnfl rpe4cranare.uefi 3aBoAoynpasneHr.rft flocecctroHHbrx oKpyroB I{ HaqaJIbHI'lKoB Me)KeBux naprlttl, cocroffB[Iefocr noA IIPCACEAATCJIbCTBOM rJIABHOrO HAqAJIbHI{KA YPAJIbCKI4X SABOAOi] 18

to

M. B. KyKaperrrH. C6opullx

It

HaceJIeHIlg qacrHbrx Vpane. Ileprrlt, 1914, crp.

rs HTO |ACO,

0. i0,

3axoHoB

tlo

HaAer,reulrrc ropno3aBoAcKo_

roceccuoHHbtx ropHbrx SaBoAoB

132-145.

u

3ene,rsuoe orie;resue, a. gg, ,rn. 4 u

npolrlslc.non na

4

o6.


B oKrr6pe 1897

r. B nocraHosJI.eHHH yKa3blBa,'Iocl:

<<flpu Ha4e-

.4eHHH IracereHl]q BbIfoFIaMH AeI{CTBI,ITeJIbHOe [o,IIb3OBaHI',Ie Hace,{eHl,tq cHMr{ yroAbflMII HI{KaKOfO 3HaqeHHf He }lMeeT, T. K. Ha-

ceJIeHI{ro BbIroHoB BbIAeJIsercr

no 600 KB. ca)K. Ha AyIIry c reM'

qro6u HeAocralouee Ao cero pa3Mepa npocrpaHcrBo

BblroHHol'l 3eMJIH AOtIO,lHq,tOCb I,l3 CMeX(HbIX 3aBOACKHX 3eMeJIb, a He II3 TeX vecr, Koropble HbIHe c,ryxar Anq nacrl6bl cKora>> 20. CoeeuraHne npeAaox{LIJIO yqnrblBarb TOJIbKO BbIIOHHbIe seM,'Ill, pac[o"rlo)KeH-

HHe s6nusH cenennfi. Ce,rlcxue pa6oruuxu AepeBIlH To,'INtaqesoli (A,ranaencxui:r oxpyr) I'{MeJII{ BbIroHHbIx 3eMe,llb 600 Aec', a no

ranot-ty 1893

orKae

r. oHu'Aonxuu 6lt,'ln

<<cH1tMaTb

Ha

[o,rlyqi'Irb ror-IbKo 100 Aec'

nr'IaHbi>> BbItoHHble SeMJrr4, pacflo,1ox{egHble

BEail:a or ceneHufi, BbI3BaJI Bo3lvlyuleHlle Hace,'leHl'ls. K 1904 HapaccMorpeHI'Ie3eMcKl'ixHaqa/'IbHI'IKOBHaXO'II,H"IOCbOKOd'iO 21' 48 r*c. cnopHrrx Ae,'I Ha flpocrpaHcrso n 99 rltc. g,ec'

r'

o6ocrpeune orrioureuHfi lreNay saeoAcxoii a4lui.rHncrpaut'reit

]{BJIaAe''IbIIaMI,I3eMeJIbBbI3bIBaJII4MepoIIpI,rflTufl'npoBoA}IMbIe qTo6LI JiHIIIHTb 3aBoAcKtrMr,I CJIyt(auHMu I4 HaIIpaBd'IeH-H6Ie Ha To, Hnxse-TarLiJIbCKOe, 1892 r. yroAbfl. oceHtro HaceJreHr4e npaB Ha qro B noAfoPen4uscxoe i.I Apyfne saBoAoy[paBJIeHI'Ifl' y3HaB'

3aBOAaMU OCTaIOTCfl TOI'IbKO Te 3eMr'IlI ilo,rlb3oBaHHq HaceJreHr4fl, KOTOpbIe I4N1I{ apeHAy-

TaBJII'IBaeMOM saKOHe

3a

(laxrnuecroto lorcf, lrloA yrp03alMI'I'lnIIleHI'Iq saeoAcxoft pa6oru, T/HI',IqrOlKeH[fi ropo4l6u rl noceeon 3acTaBl',l,'In 3aKJlloqljrb apeHAHbIe AoloBopbt MHOfI4X BJraAe,rrbrleB rroKocoB ri naIlreH. IIocne ony6nrtxoeaHltR 3aKOHa etu suxrnBHbre apeHAHbIe AoroBopbl JII4Ua.III l]JIaAeJIbueBnpaBHa3eM,'II]'tzxIiTed'II]3aBoAoBIIHca,ln)KaJ'IoobIoHe3aKOHHbIX apeHAHbIX CAeJIKaX'

llporecr

BbISL'IBa"Ia MaccoBas

py6xa Jleca' Koropylo npolt3-

BoAI,IJII{3aBoAoy[paBJIeHI-{flHa3eMeJIbHblxy|o'AbqXHaceJIeHIl'.

flepucxoe ry6efHixoe np'cyrcrBtre B Mae 1900

r.

npI4Hflao no-

cTaHoB'IeHI,IeoToM'qTo<<HaceJ'IeHHe..'HaAe,'I'IeMoelnoSaKoHy l9 uas 1893 r. oAHr4Mr{ TOJTbKO 3eMed'rbHbIMI.I yfOAbsMI'I 6ee "tlecHbrx HaAeJIOB, He l{Meer npaBa Ha npol43pacraFoulllfl Ha 3eMeJIbHbrx yfoAbflx d'rec>> 22. VI saso4cKafl aAMr.rHLrCrpaIInfl IIpIICTy[H"Ia Ha yqacrKax xHTefleI;I 3aBo'a'oB' x no.truortly ltcrpe6.leHnto

"IecoB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI4 IIpIiBJIeKaJIncb CyAe6HOri BJIaAeJIbIIbI 3TI1X yqacrKoB' ecJII'I OHI{ ocMe"IvBaJrucb nupv6urr',

B TO )Ke BpeMfl K

xorq 6H o,quo .qepeeo. B

KoppecnoHAeHql{u

ycrpoftcrny uacreponux>r, ony6.nuxosaHHofi

uvfantcxin 20

B

crp. -'"':il-2.

f.

noseivleJlbHolvly

r{TO x{r,tgHb>>, COo6UanOCl: <<Bltqnc,teHo

Matepua.tu K

ceJIeHnff

<K

e l90l r'

BbItcHeHI'Ilo npoAoBo!'IbcrBeHHoM

Bonpoca

o6

3a

B fasere BCe Bpe-

o6ecneqesr.ru ropHopa6orlero Ha-

orsoureuuu. fieprr,rl, 1900. flpu,roxelrne l,

z llUfO |ACO, O. 10, IOpu.d.uuecKoe orae"reHue, t'' 2332, 'r'r' 4-5' Caeuu.3elt,leycrpoficrro

ce,'Ibc*Irx o6nsare'1efi Vpa"ra,crp'43' 73


Ms (r. e. c cocraBd'reHr.rfl ycraBHbrx fpaMor. T.) B o6u1eft -Jf . co6crseHHoro cJroxHocrlr ylKe orcuAe,rro B rropbMax 3a nopy6xn

J'ICCA HCCKO']IbKO TbIC'Iq qCJIOBEK IIOCECCIZOHHbIX KOCCTbflH II ynJraqeHo AeHexHbrx rurpaSoa MrzJrdlrHoH py6,refi> 23.

B Hoa6pe 1904 r. Ceuar nprlHrur yKa3 o 3anpexleHuH 3aBoAoynpaB,qeHzau errpy6arb JIec Ha seMJrflx, HaxoAflrrlnxcr n $ar-

TAqecKoM IroJIb3OBaHI,rV HaCeIeHHq 14 <<IIpeAHa3HaqeHHbIX

B

HaneJ't>> 24.

ro

Msoro cnopHbrx Ae.n 6u,ro cBrr3aHo c o6eaHenr.IeM 3aBoAcKoHace,'reHlrfl B <<caMoBoJIbHoM ceHoKo[IeHr,IH>>, a Ha cyAe6HoNI

3aCeAaHIll4 BbIgCH'fl!'IOCb, qTO CeHOKOC ,IpOBOAI{,'ICfl Ha yqaCTKe,

Noroplrri c AaBr{ero

BpeMeHr.r HaxoAr.rJrcr Bo BJTaAeHHH <<o6Br.rHfl-

To,rtxo no Bepxue-Ca,rAnscxori Aaqe (Hr.rx<ue-Tarrnocxuri oxpyr) senncNzrt Harra/'rbHnK MeraHtes n 4exa6pe 1900 r. 6rtn er,rHyxAeH npeKparurt 250 cilopHbrx AeJr, ocHoBaHHbrx Ha rlporoKoJax necgotl crpaxll o <<caMoBoJIbHbIX 3axBarax>> xltre-

eMoro>>.

r'rflr\{u 3aBoAoB cBoltx 3eMed'IbHblx vqactxog

I( I rHnaps lg06 r. npoerru

25.

orrpaHr{qeHHfl HaAe,rrbHbrx se-

4.la 5 us l13 cenenafi rocecclloHHblx 3allepucrori ry6epuzn26. <<Cro,'rn HeyAoBJrerBopnre.nlHlrft

Me,'Ib rrlIeJIItcL, To,'tbKo

BoAoB

pe3yJrbrar rro3eMeJrbHofo ycrporicrna B noceccHoHHbrx Aaqax>> 3acTaBH,-r y,npaBJrfllouflx InoceccHoHHbIlMr,I IOpHr,IMr.I OKpyraMI{ o6parurlcr K npaBnreJrbcrBy c npocn6orl o ne'peaaqe nceii pa6or IIO COCTaBdIIeHLIIo npOeKTOB OTrpaHl,tqeHafl HaAe,TOB LI npeAbfBJr€Hr.rro HX HaceJreHr.rrc ypa,'rbcKoMy no3eMeJrbHo-ycrpor4TeJrr6Hot!{V orpflAy, xoroptrft- ee,'r geM,rreycrpor4Te,'rbHbre pa6ortr B KaseHHbrx -f.rasHoro ropHbrx oKpyrax2T. ConnaecrHbrM perueHnell yrrpaBJreHr4fl 3eM;reycrporZcrea r.r 3eMJreAeJrrll, MuuncrepcrBa BHyrpeHHtrx 49f-H MuHzcrepcrBa roproBJru H npoMbrurJreHHocru c I rneapa 1906 r. ece pa6ortr no seMJreycrpoficrey B rrocecclroHHbrxoKpyrax nepelxJrrl B BeAeHHe ypaJrbcKoro no3eMeJlbHo-ycrpoETeJIbHoro orpr4a28. !,enapranreHr rocyAapcrBeHHbrx r.ruyutecie frasHoro yttpaBreHrrfl seMJreycrpoilcrea npe4,To)KHJr saBeAyroqeMy ypaJrbcK?rM orpflAoM oKagblBarb <<BcqqecKoe Bo3Moxsoe coAeficrBl4e K .itocrux(eHr{ro cor"naueuHri MexAy HaceJreHlreM H 3aBoAoynpaB,'IeHr.rqMn>>2s. B aupe,le 1906 r. rnasHtrri FraqaJrbHHK ypa.ibcKnx

" ,24

1905.

.,VpanrcxaR )(r.r3Hb>, 1901, Ne 164. K H3yqeHuro rro3eMe,'rbHoro ycrporicrna ua Vpa,re. CfI6.,

Marepua;rsr

cro.

17.

:: HTq |ACO, 0. |ACO, $.

_l-907,

10, IOpuauuecxoe orAer'reHue, t.2427, n.32 o6. l, a. 634, .rr.n. 64-65. InasHoro ynpaBreHuq selr.ireycrpoficrna lr seM,,re16rr.rs)>,

55, on.

'?6 27 <<L1gsecr:ag.

N!.9, _crp. 150; 3anncxa Cosera cr,e3AoB

V^p^a-nrcxofi_o6r'racrn

1906. cro. 7. ze 2e

74

no Borpocy o

{fHA cccP,

S. 48, on.

Tan xe, n. 2 o6.

no3eMerrbHorra

l, t.64, t.2.

fopHonpoMbrrurreHHr.rKoB

ycrpor:rcine

ia

Vpa.rre.

Cfl6.,


3aBOAOB npOCu,'I ynpaBIqIOquX nOceCCHoHHbIMI'I OKpyfaMH IIocrelxr.rrb c SaBeprueHneM pa6or no 3eMJleycTpoftcrBy, <Aa,llbHeliIxee npoMeAJIeHIze B oKoHlraHLI[ no3eMeJlbHoro ycTpol{cTBa 3aBOACKOfO HaCeJIeHI4f MOXeT npI4BeCTLI K Hapy[IeHI4IO HHrepecoB caMHx 3aBoAoB, T. K. Ha rloqBe HeAoBoJIbcTBa Hace,'IeHI'Itl cBoI'INi

3eM,'reycTpolicrnont MofyT Bo3HuKarb CTO,'IKHOBeHnf , rlpenf TcTByrouIHe IIILIpOKOMy H ycneIxHoMy pa3BIlTIzIo-^ropuosaeoAcrofi npoMbIIUJIeHHocrLI B rloceccl4oHHbIX oKpyrax>> 30. l,'iaeHHfi Haqa,'lbHllK ypa,'IbCKIIX 3aBOAOB HaIIOMIIHa,T' qTO <<,'lbIOTbI' npeAOcTaB"ileHHbIe 3aBo.ILaM B oTHOiUelJllI,I K orBoAI'lMbIM I{aCe,'IeHHIO yroAbflM... npeKpa'uarcrcq c rlacrynJleHl.IeM yKa3aHHOro..' cpoKa' r. e. 19 ruaq 1908 r., He3aBHcuMo or rofo, 6ylyr JIh K roivly BOeMeHU OKOHqaTeJIbHO OTf paHHI{eHbI HaAeJIbI MacTepoBbIIvI il

pa6orunxau rlu Her>> 31. C ue,rlrc AocrHX{eHIrr cor,'IalxeHnil uex4,y 3aBoAoynpaBJIeHlIqMu rr HaceJreHlreM ceuar n ceurn6pe 1906 r. npI'IHfd''I yKa3 06 orBoAe JrecHbIX HaAe,'ioB rlo 2 Aec. Ha Ha,[]IqHyo Aylxy My]K' rloJra B noceccnoHHblx fopHo3aBoAcKl'tx oKpyrax32. Xors 3aBoAoce,TbcKnr\I

B"{aAed'IbIIbI HeOXOTHO COI,IaCU,luCb Ha 3aMeHy,lleCHOfO CepBHTyTa' 3aBo,x,,crKI{x }KureJIeii,recHltun MaTepHa,'Ia,M'i,1, HaiAed'IflTb lzx ;1ggfliMtl{, o,lHa'Ko yKa3 3TOT 'CO6'rrcJ,a,'r HHTepe,cbl 3aiEOAqHKOrB. c pOcrora qllcr'la xl',ITe,rleft yBe.]IHr{nBa;'lOCb KOJITXqeTCTBO,'IeCHbIX }IaTepUa,'IOB' nOCTalB"IfleMbIX

T. e. o6fl3arHHocrefi o,6ecneqnearb

u3

3aBOACKUX

Aaq A,'ifi oTonJleHlIfl iI{ll,'II4uI, CTpOhTe,lIbCTBa

I{

pe-

HaAeJIa e6nusu saBoAcKHX noyKa3e, Hace,'leH[e IIoJIyqar'Io Bo3peKoMeHAoBa,'Iocb B ce.rrKoB, KaK r\{ox<HocTb Hcno/'Ib3oBa'l'b ,lleca A,rIg BbIrOHa CKOTa' a rpeooBaHI'Ie o6 yBeJIIIqeHIIH BblfortHbIX 3eMe,1b 6r't.no oAHtlM I'13 ocHoBHbIX l'loTI,IBoB oTKa3a HaceJIeHu'I oT npuH'ITHfl npoeKToB oT|p aHI,IqeHI,i'I

lroHTa AoMoB.

C ornoAolt .lecHofo

HaAe,'lOB. oTp

3a 1906-1907 rr. ypa,rncxuii IIo3eMer'lbHo-ycrporre,'IbHbIIl tA npoAedl ar'I 6o,lluyto p a6ory : 3aBep IUIIJI C'be.MKy 3eMe/TbHbIX

yro4ufi, cocraBI,lJI npoeKrbl orrpaHl'IqeHI'lg Ha Bce I l3 Hace,leHsltr nvHKroB. K ruaro l90B r. npoeKTbl 6u,rlt npe4bflB"Iel{bl Hace,'leHi.rrc, Ho inpllHqro,6lt.uoronlxo 49, a 64'npoerra x<HreJIH orKa3a-

.rilrCb nOAIIIICaTb. llpOexrlt OTfpaHlrqeHHfl HaAe/'lOB nOCTylrll,'ilI lra paccMoTpeHue ry6epucKofo npucyrcrBl']fl. 3eucrHrl H392;lbHuxT-ro yuacrra Bepxorypcxoro ye3Aa e orra6pe 1906 r. ilEcaJ e ry6epucxoe rlpHcyrcreue: <<Boo6ule, xax fl noJlafarc' eABa "Ifi BO3MOXHO Xaroe-.nu6o cor,'ralxeHI.re [o npuHflTl{ro HaAeJIOB, Ii Ha.[.e,,'leHue seNl'Ieft Bo3MOX{HO JII{lrIb B npI4HyAI.iTeJIbHOM nopflA-

HTO |ACO, S. 10, Iopu1uuecKoe orlereHne, .4.. 2808, ;r. 5 o6. 32 M. B. Kyrapernu. C6opuuK 3aKoHoB no IlaAe"IeHI'Irc ropHo3aBoAcKoto Hace,'teHrtf qacTHblx Ii noceccuoHHblx fopHblx 3aBoLoB l'l flpoMblc,'loB Ha Vpa,'re. llepnt, 1914, crP. 126. 30

3l Tau xe.

jR


fie, T. e.

npor.r3BecTr.r oTrpaHr{qeHrle HaAedrroB

cocTaBrrreHHbrx npoeKToB HaAe,rra IIprrcyTcTBr.reM>>

H

no paccxiorpeHl'irt l rlx fy6epHcKuNr

OAO6peHtr]|

33.

O6 ocrpore

nporr.rBopeqhri Me)KAy 3aBoAoylpaB.ileHHrrMrr rl ror $arr, uro 43 us 64 rflocraHoB-

HaceJIeHHeM cBnAereJrbcrByer

neuuii flepucxoro ry6epucroro nplrcyrcrBnfl rro [poeKraM o'rfpaHHqeHr4fl HaAe,rroB 6u"ru o6>NaJroBaHbr e CeHar. @opnaa,rlHo Bce npoeKTbl orfpaHi.rqeszli HaAeJrbHbrx 3eMeJrb 6rr.na npe4tfl B,'IeHbr ropHo3aBoAcKoMy HaceJreHuio roceccrroHHbrx

3aBoAoB Ao Mafl 1908 r., T. e. B cpoK, ycraHoereHHrrrir 3aKoHoxr. nocnegyr,oulr4e roAbr Bce ttpoeKrtr 6tr,ru yrBepxAeHtr Cesaroll u, HecMoTpff Ha lrrpoTecrbr HaceJreHHfl, ,npoBoAHracb nepe.e,a,qa 3eMer'rb B co'6crneggocrb H aceirenl,If c ycra HoB,'teH HeM ll e;xenlrr o6o -

B

gsaqesnii.

flpu usruepeHr.rri yroAufi 6r,r,'ro vcraHoBJreHo o6qee npocrpaflcrBo 3eMe,'Iu QaxruuecKoro Ilod'tb3oBaHrlfi HacedTeHnf B pa3Mepe 376 ruc. Aec. B genrenlulrri HaAer'r )Khrer'rflM trrepMcKHX nocecciroHHbrx 3aBoAoB nocrynaJro 598 rurc. Aec. 14 B necsoil HaAe,.r 183 ruc. Aec.34. flo cpaeueHulo co creuxort [pocrpaHcrBo, r{zr3HaqeHHoe B seMedrrbHbrri Ha4e.l, sa 221 Tr,rc. Aec. ripeBbrcr].to Saxruuecxoe geMJrerroJrb3oBaHHe 3aBoAcKzx xure.neft. CneAoeareJrbHo, orulr6o.{usrnr sBrflercq yrBepxAeHrae IO. lecceHa o rorr}

qTo 3aBoAoBJIaAe"rIbIIbI

IIpeAOCTaBITJITZ Hace,'teHHIo MeHbllee KoJIrirrecrBo 3eMJr[, qeM oHo Morro [o,rryquTb no 3aKoHy lB93 r. He"rrss cofJracnrbcfl H c yrBep)KAeHr4eN{ A. A. Caeuqa'o6 ycryrKax 3aBoAoB,rraAe,rrbrleB B noJrb3y Hace,'reH?rfl 6onturero r{oJrriqec.rBa 3eMd'rn, qeM oHo r.lMeJro Ao 1893 r.35. O6ularr l,irouaAb seMeJrbHbrx yro4rar? HacereHHq yBe,'rfiqnilacs rua 221 Tbrc. Aec., Ho lt3 HLrx 215 ruc. Aec. ,npuxoAaJrocb Ha JrecHbre nupy6xlr, rKoropbre rpe6ona.rn AJrrlre,'rbHoro rpyAa AJrs npeBparrleHr.rfl HX B C€;trbcKoxosqrlcreeHHbre yroAbfl. lloarouy HH o KaKofi ycrynxe saBoAoBJIaAe,'IbIleB He MoxeT 6lrrl n pequ: oHr.r orHflJIH y Hace.rreHnrr rloKocHble H IlaxorHbre 3eNIJIIr, a BMecTo Hr.rx 6tt.rto rrpeAocraBJlel{o 6onruoe npocrpaHcrBo uepaspa6oraHHbrx seMeJrb. 14srsrr{e r{acrll geMeJlbHbrx yro4url y Hace,'reHlrq 3aBoAoBraAe.rrbrlaMlr NrcTI{BHpOBaJIOCb Ha,'rltlrlleM B I4X HeApaX 3OJIOTa I nJIaTr.tHbI, ;l TaK)Ke cfpynnupoBaHr4eM pas6pocaHuux B r'recax He6o,irbrur.rx yqacrKoB noKocHbrx yro4uli e 6oree Kpy[Hbre MaccnBbr. K l9l7 r. MacrepoBbrrlr u ce'rrbcKr.rM pa6orHuxaru noceccnouHblx saBoAoe 6Hro orrpaHHr{eHo 755 rbrc. Aec., unu 96010 Ha3Ha-

fAnO, g. 38, on. l, .u,. 316, ,'r. 8. CCCP, 4,. 37, on.67, a. 784; Q.48, on. l, a.65; 6.5t, on. l, Ufl4A '1 .u" 213, n. 102; g. 86, on. l, t.75,.r.2; |ACO, Q.55, on. l, a.561, t':t: I7J-217: 33

IIOTCqHTAHO HAMII. 35 A. A. C a e

to

il q. Ouepxu Hcropr{}r KpecrbrHcKr-rx eo,rnennrl, crp. 163.


nepeAarle uIouLaAII HaAed'IbHbIX 3eMe,'Ib 36. CneAosaTe,'rbHo, Her HHKaKHX ocHoBaHHIl yrsepx.larb qro 3aKoH 1893 r. ne 6u,r ilpoBeAeH B xLIgHb. 3aron lB93 r. - 6ypxyasuHft eaxoH, a He Kpenoctunvecxltti, KaK cqltraer @. fl. Bucrpux. Haceneuue floceccuoHHblx 3aBoAoB noJ'ryquro npaBo co6crseHHocrl'l Ha nocry[I'lBluIle K HHM 3eMrLI' oHo 1\{or,'lo pac[opffx{aTbcfl I'IMI{ 6es scsxoro pa3peueHHfl 3aBOAoynpaBJreHuq. 3evienlHbie oTHorrreHrlfl nocd're 1908. r. He ycl'lJlllsa,Iu- Xa6a,'rbHyro 3aBLICI4MOCTb 3aBoAcKI4X Xrlreneil oT 3aBoAoB,'IAACJ'IbUCB, A, HAIIPOTHB, CBI'IACTCJ'IbCTBOBAJII'i O J'II'IKBI'IAAqHI'I NC' peX{HTKOB KpenocrHHrrecKux orHoureunfr. llepeAaua B co6cTBeHHocrb Haced'IeHnfl /55 ruc' .qec. 3eMe.IIb' cocraBuBIlJIix 28olo 3eMeirbgblx enaAeHyfi [epMCKIIX nOCecCI]OqepOB, I{M_eJIa _IIOJIS;11H' TenbHoe 3HaqeHHe. B. LL.,{esuu [l{ca'r: <<lso3AeM 6opl6u ro'rr' rorcs KpenocTHr.rqecKze naru$yH4Ha, KaK CaMOe BbI,U.arclIIeecH BonJlo[I.eHI,IeI,IcaMa'IKpeIIKa'IonopaocTaTKoBKpe[ocTHljqecT. ear 37. B peey,'rmare semneycrpoficr;a rrlo 3aKogy 1893 r' saeonoBJraAeJIbqblJII'IIIIHJII',lCbnpI',IMepHorperleiiqacrl'lcBoll-.i qeHHor?

K

nnaAenHli.

ijuAe;"""e seunefi no SarruuecKoMy

rloJIb3oBaHIlI'o cnoco6-

crBoBaJro luQ$epeHuvaL\ht4 3aBoAcKoro HaceJIeHI4fl. HeKoropaff qaCTb Xrrre.neft He6Onl[II4X IIOCeJIKOB H AepeBeHb, 3aHI{MaBuIafC{ BcnoMofare,'rbHbrMr{ 3aBOACKtrMr{ pa6orauu no ilepeBo3Ke lpy3oB' 3arOTOBKe ApOB I'I yfJIfl Ar'Ifl SaBOAOB' nOIyrIaIa 3eMeJIbHbIe Hanorpe6uoc' .u,e"nbr B AOCraroqHbIX pa3Mepax Anfl yAoBJIerBopeHIrfl n r AoMatrlAan nhraHl'Iq reil csoHx celteli B npoAyKrax Qypaxe

rreto cKoTa. crae

co6cTBeHHuKaMr{ 3eMeJIbHbIX yqacrKoB,

3aBoAcKfie )KI]Ted'Ii't noJIyqI'ld'IH rlpaBa ua paspa6orKy Iro'IIe3HbIx IICKOIIaeTMbIXHaCB'OI{XH3r,ll€ra'lSXlTenepbrvxMlI'I'3lHbMeHhIIIe

3aBHce.qa oT coKpalqeHus. I|JIH yBe"IHqeHilf 3aBOACKOTO npol'I3BOAcrea. OAHaKo 3aKoH 1893 r. He pasperul'lJl 3eMe'ribHoro Bonpoca'

TaKKaKToJIbKoTpeTbflIIacTb|opHo3aBoAcKoroHace,'IeHI4'Ino. CeCCIIOHHbIX 3aBOAOB [O,'IyqI4JIa 3eMe"IbHbIe HaAeJIbI B AOCTaToqHbIxpa3MepaxAJISyJlyl{ueHl4flMaTepI]aJIbHo|o-IIoJ'Io}KeHH'{. EonlUrunCrsO 3aaOACxOro HaceJIeHLIq HyXAaJIOCb B ooflee Br,IcOKOM Sapa6orxe, H ocHoBHbIM IiCTOqHI{KOM efo cyuecrBoBaHHf 6u,ra pa6ora Ha 3aBoAe. B caqsn c.3aKpbITaeM 3aBoAoB B roAbl nepeoii ultponoft eoftHlt pa6ouue o6paulalncb ,c- npoueHuflMu o HaAe,rreHlrn ux seMreli no 3aKony 3 aexa6pn 1862 r" noKoropoMy nDeAocTaB,,I'UIHcb VqACTKH JII4IIAM, JIHIIII,IBIIII,IMCN PA6OTU EACTYI]AC rl*i'o""" sasoAa."MnHl'rcrp BHyrpeHHI'lx Ae"I npnHflJI e Senpale

so qfilA CCCP, Z-3; S. !8. -on' !'- a. 65' O. 37, on. 67, n. 784, nn.443, 466f r+Jlg'S..p5'on.l' 3?,'r,r. A. oi.zz,'tgoz tzst, rorlr-sd;6. -rn. L., i.-b18,-r. n'o6.; $.43, on. i, r. 1150,;r: 3 o6.; a. 1256; n. 1539, 'n' 196:floacquTaHo Hallu: 37 B. 14. s. flons. co6p. cou., r. 16, crp' 215' 'rl e s u


l9l7 r.

c,'reAyroqee nocraHoBJresue: <<He.nl3r He npr.r3Harb, qro HaCe,'reHHro HaAeJroB I1o saKoFry ^ -TOpHOSaBOACKOMy 19'naaq 1893 r., 'npr.rMeneHr.re 3aKoHa 1862 r. He Ao/rlKHo llMerb

c

oTBoAoM_

Mecra>>

38.

Bropaa Vpa,llcxaa o6nacrnan xonsepenquq pCApn, cocroqB[raqcr B uro/re l917 r., npeAJro)Kr4Jra rrpoBecru <<Koper{Hy}o peQopuy B 3eMeJrbHbrx orHorxeHr.{flx>> 3e. Harluosa.nr3aunfl ypa.Tbcxoil ropuosano4cxoli npoMbrrxr'reuHocrr.r nocJre BenuNofi' Or-ra6plcxorl corlHaJrrrcrHqecroli peBoJrroqrrH co3Aa,'ra ycdToBrrJr A.rrfl KopeHHoro npeo6pa3oBaHur sKoHoMr.rqecroro 6ura HacedTe, Uun Crap efi Ix Hx IIeHTpOB MeTa,{JIypf Hr.teCKOrO npOH3BO.4CTB a.

qfI4A CCCP, :: 3s <Bopr6a

Q. 1291, on. 72, 1902 r., x 278, n 4r2. aa no6e.qy Be,rnxofr Oxra6prcxori coqrrarrrcr.l{qecxoft peeonrcunu n flepvcxoft r1,6epnHu. fioxyveHrlr r.r r4arepuarbr,. flepnl, 1957, crp. 230.


vAK

e47.081/.083

M. 14. VepuaLut BO3H I,I KHOB EHI,I E I,I POCT TIPEANPI,I flTVIVI NO TEXH Hq ECKOH OEPAEOTKE BOJIOKH HCTbIX

BEIIECTB B TIEPMCKOn IyEEPHI,llI B TIOPEOOPMEHHbIH

N EPI4O,U.

BosH,ux'n,oaenne n'peAnptlflrufi lo rexunqecxof't rnepepa'6orxe ce,'rbcKoxo3qftcreeHHHx Bo,'IoKHI{crblx KyJIbryp cbIrpaJIo otrpeAefiruca,t JeHHyIO poirb B pa3rBI'lTI,IH rKa[IiTa,'I'H3Ma. <<,Bo l-x, - Sopu B. 14. IleswH, grolp'ocr rnpeAcraB,rfler Hs 'ce6q or4,ny ua 3eM,'IeAeJ'll{'q' U lnpilTOM I'IMeHH'O TaKyIO pa3,BKTIifl TOp'fOrBO'rO lIIOKaSbIBaeT IIIpeOop'rury, K.oToparfl c ocO6eH'HOIi pe.lle$uocrblo Bp ailreHne BeM/reAeJII{ n B or.r,Hy I,I3 orp acJleft npou uru.ileH Hocrl'I Ka-

2lx, p a3BHITI'Ie'rexHltqecxoit o66H'e aer o6bIKHoBeHilct,geHultx,npoAy.KTOB a'6orx'lr ceJlb'cKoxo3s HO Hepa3AeJIb,HO CBs3aHO C TexHI4'qeCKI'IM IllplorpeocoM ceJlbcKolro xosqiicrrna: ,c 'oAHoti rcroproHbl, 'y)Ke carMoe Ilpol'l3BoAcrBo cblpEfl AJIfl ,Irepep a 6otxu rpe6,yer HepeAKo yr'IyqlxeHaf 'sell,le'4ellla (HanpHMep, floceB KopHerL'IoAOn); 'c gpyroft ,criorpoHbI, ot6'pocbl, rlo,'ryqaeMble'npn o6p a60T,Ke,,HepeAKo .yrI'l!'IH,3HpyIOrC'I AJIq GeM"Ie-

rr,prr,aJrucluqecKoro o6u1eclea. B'o p

AeJI I'I,fl , lflrorB bITIII a fl eI.O

ycfl elxHo oTb... >>'.

B nrapu<cncrcroli,'II.rreparype c

AoLcraroqHoft yf6e4ure,'IbHo-

CTbIO AOKa3aHO, qTO p a3B'H'TIle'IpOMbITCJI'O|B lCO[pOBO)KAaeTCq

rp

a3-

,'IO)KeHI'IeM KpeCTbflHrCTBa U lIIepecer'leH'l{e14 peMeCJ'IeHHHKOB 113 cT a'p brx rp a li o noa,IIp o I.r3'BO,x,cTrB 3 B rtIo,BbI€. AJrq Vpana pagrBI4TI{e flpoMblcloB rB,'Irr,'Io(cb cneqn$nvecroil Sop

uoft BHeBeMJreAeJrbqecKofo orxoAa.

Ilenl Aauuoil,cra'rln noKa3arb

pa'3BLITI4e

ltac"ro6'otiHollo,'Ka-

THaTHO-B€P€BOqHOTO iIpOI4,3rBOICTlBa, rBblpal60TrKH XOJI',CTa I4

'KpaC[,'Ib-

Horo,[poMblcJra, ToproBoro,3eMJIeAe,'IIrfl B flepvcxoft ,ry,6epHun n nop e$o'p ueuurrft ,nepuoA, nporc,'IeAl4Tb rp eEp aIIIeH't{e 3eM,'IeAer'}Ifl B OAHy lI3 OTpaCJ]eI4 lIIp'OMbIIxr'leHiHOCTrl]' a 'Ta'K)Ke yCTa'HOiBHTb Bd'lHflHHe yKa3aHHbIX lIIpOMbIC,IOB Ha IIpOUeCC pa3,'IOIKCHI'Ifl KpeCTbfl'HCTBA.

I

B. I4. ,t e u u n. flo,rs. co6p. cou.,

r.

3, crp. 284.


B llpuypa,rloxori soue (Bnrcraa, flepncKafl

w V$un,cxar rv-

6epHnr.r) InoA ropf,oBbrMH pacreHrirr{}r e lSBl r. '6brJro 3aHlflro 1,80/s ,sgsx ,IIsXorHbIX 3eMe,'Ib (2,1o/s no Poocuz) 2. B a6oo.nrcr]IbIX AalH,HbIX rOprl936le TIIOCeBbI (,'IeH H KOHOIJ'Iq) 3aH1LIMaJI',H rB llepvc,xoft fy6epH'rll,t 45068 .x,ec.'Kpecrbfl,HcKr{x HaAerrrHbrx 3eMeJIb rH 3041 ;feC. IIO,xynlrypaM nO,CeBHbre -,BiraAer'rbqecKux3. rrd'roxlaAa pacnrpeAe,'rfl,'il4,cb c,rre/tyloxll,Ir{'o6paaou: Ha KpecTbfl.HcKLIx ,HaAeJrbHbrx 3eMr'rqx rroA JrbHoxr 3aHqro 34618 Ae,c., ,n,oA KoHon"ueft-9802 .{oc., rloa parcoM u oypenoil-648 Aec.; Ha BJra.{eJrb'e€c,KHX coorBercr,BeH'Ho: 2939; 96 r 6 .q,ec. a 3a l8 Jrer

(1883-1900 r.) c6op I (n,nyaax) 5.

rKoHottJrqTroro

14

r]rbH.rrHoro ceMeHH

orpaxeH

s ra6"'r.

Ta6rr.rua

I

Kononns I tit"{:'t-

t""''

Kpecrlrucxne

679310

B.na,4el ru ec xrae

42476

Bcero

721786

321 314

1000624

1809

54285

333123

1054909

1

B 1895 r. o 'ry6epulrr{,'Ha,rpllMep, 6uno 3a,ceqHo JrbHoM 51590 Aec., rB roM qr.r,cJre ,e OxaHcxot{ ye3Ae-8857 4ec., ,n Oc,us8629 aec., n IIIa4p,n,ncKoM cKoM aec., ,e Exarep'u,u,6ypr- 8603 cKoM- u Kauu,uuroBcKoM cBbr[re 5 ruc. A€c., e Kpacnoy$uru,oxo,u

6o.nee 3,5

ruc.

Aec,, ,B Ll'p'6'","ononn, Kyuryp,cxolr,

flepucxou ,u- Co.,raxaltcx,onr npege.lax 2,1-2,6 rHc.' ,Aec. e -1g lec. Bcero flory'qeno Ka,x{,Aorr, n Bepxo'rypcr(oM-941 6uno no ly'6epuxs 977160 trryA. JrbH,flrH'oro ceMeHu, ,rrpr{qeM e Oxaucxo,M u Ocnscxor,r ye3Aax 66,nee, qelr 215 rbrc. ,rryA. B KaxAoM, n IIIaA. pHHcKoM .rnrus 65,4 Tbrrc. InyA., rB KaMull,rogcKorM r.r Kpacnoyonnrcx'ou 85 rbrc. nyA., e ErKzrgplrn6yp,rcxou oBbrrrre - no 78 ruc. nyA., 'B Kynrypcroru -26,5 rbr,c. trryrA-,-ra fleplrcxolrzu rbrc. nyA. H r. E. 'Ctu*."uvecxfifr BpeMeHHuK. Cepur III, eun.4, CII6., 1886, crp. XXVI, 3 Tau xe, crp. 148-149. B ero Ko.rrlrqecrBo Bxr'rroqeHbr seMJrrr noA no-

XXVII.

ceBaMu panca rr cypeflbr.

a Tau xe, crp. 231. 5 CsoI crarucrfiqecKr.rx cseAeHnr? no cerbcKoMv xosgficrsv Poccuu x xonuy XIX sexa. Bnn. 1, Cn6., 1901, crp. 168. 3td AaHHbre sauuxeurr, rax KaK B Hr.rx He yqreHbr pacxoAbr BHyrpeuHero norpe6,reuur. flepenoA qerBepreri a nyAu npoH3BeAeH HaMH u3 pacrrera: cpe.4uufi Bec J'IbHtHoro ceMeHlt 9,2 nyl,a, KoHon,'rfiHoro-s 7,0 nyAoe. floxaebulr cpe4urze exero4une c6opu. 80


fI'oA floceBa,r{fi KoH,orrJIH B 3ToM ]Ke fo.{,v 6n,r,o 3arrflTo 12133 rAec., B roN{ rr,r4cJre e Irlp6nrcxo}r ye3Ae 3322 ge,c., e OcaHoKolr 2301 aec., ,n [Ila4pzucKor{ 1595 aec., ;s 'K'yHrrypororlr 1394, cerrue rreM {iro rbrcsqe AecflraH n l(pacHoy$i.r,l,rcrou u Ka-

-

-

B llepucNolr 'u- Co,ru,xaM'oKoN{

-

ye3Aax. y$Aax KoHo[Jrfl He BblpaqflBa,'Iacb, n OxascxoM yes,Ae saceea,'roct groft KyJrbrypoft ecero 173 rAec., .B HepAuncxou-258 .nec.'ir in Exa'reprau6yplcNov 4ec. Co6pa,Ho,KolrorrJrr'r{oro ceMeHH Bcefo,no - 752 ry6epHxu 415245 rryAoB, !B roM qHc,'re 170,6 rlr,c. ,nyA. B l4p6ure OczHcxov, 27,3 rbrc. TryA. - a KyHrypcxoll, 100,7 rbrc. [y,{,. crolt, 3l,4 rblc. nyA.- s Kal.rnuuroBcKoM, 25 ruc. rrryA.-e lllaAMbIrur'r,oBcKOM

pu,H,CKOM Ye3,Ae

B

tl'T. A. u.

lB93-1900 rr. npr roceB'HbIX ,nJrou{aor 44,5 (1894 r.) Ao 52,0 (1897 r.) rbrc. Aec. u 12-14 rblc. Aec. BaJroBbre c6opor BoJroKHa'ltpLl p83:

cpe4ueiu 3& rnep'no!,

Aqx noA ,rrr,HoM rroA KoHon,rrek

nHq,uoft ypoxaft,nocri{ ,c ,Aecr'Tuuu (e qe,'roM Mar'ro 'rroABep)KeHHue 'xone6aHnflM: r'ieH- 10-13 ryr. ri KonorrJrrr rryL.) cocraBJrs,'rlr: JrbHa 440-670 rblc. ,ny.{,., KoHorrr'ru-22-24 240-340 rrtc. nyA.7. **:t Pa'cnp,ocTparHeHue uaclo6,oftuor,o fipor,rbr,cJra rIIo yeSAaM ry6epHulr HaxoAnTcrr,B rfipgMoft 3aBr.rc[MocTr.r olBer'ii.rqfi Hbr noceBoB J'rbHa t.l KoHo[r'rr] B H'r.rx. Hanp'nmep, ,a llepucxoM ye3Ae orcyrcrBoBad'r,o 'rr,polr3BoAcT,B.o r(oHol[Jr'flr{oro, ,a KpacuoyQnltc'r<onr ye3Ie JrbHlflHOrO MaCJra, Ta'K KaK JIbHOBOACTBO ye3Aa He AaBaJrO

rlgJ1uruKa ceMrfrH.

B

u

Exarepun6yp,ncrou yesAax iBO,TIOKHa Ha TKaHI'i, BepeBKII l.t tr,Iaclo6ofiu,o'ro ceMeHI{. KpeCruHe oT lrroceBo'B Ma,cJnlqHbrx rKy,'rb'ryp r.r3BreKar'rr,r rpoftnyn,Bbrfo.{,y: yryqixaJracr) cTpyKTyp a lIIOlIBbI,'IaX ;[pO[,]tKIIItf IzOnOJIb3OBa,'Ia'Cb'B AOM aIxHeM xoggficrse (Aouolxanoe lrroJrorHo, N{acJro; BepeBKr{ r.r 'KaHarbr; Hexoropr,rft AoxoA or rrpoAaxr4 Macd'ra lr KyAer.rr4, a )KMbIx?r ynorpe6.rr.rrn Ha KopM crory). B asyx lracro6oftngx 3rHX ye3AoB lpbr}KruKa u ra,6pen. Ma'cJro rnpnr,oroBJrrrJro,cb r{3 cop,Hbrx rpa'B B lB45 f. H,a,cr{HTbrBaJrocb B 'rv'6eDHarl- ,Bcef'o ,rrn'rxb 5 ruac.no6ofrHll,1 saedAeHnri, 3a Aecrrrnflerire i8+5-55 rr. ,so3,Hurno 6 sal,Ipifix1g,KoM

,leH H KO'H'OilJIfl pa3BOAIL'II{'Cb AJIfl fiOIyr{eHHq

6 Ouep4 cocrorrHr.u xycrapnofi npoMbrruneunocru a ilepucxofi ry6epuru. 1896, crp. 169-170. 7 ,II,asslre noJryqeHbr lt3 cJreAyrorqux ucroqur.rKog: <<BecrsuK @liuaHcoe>, 1897, Ne 9, r. 1. crp.595,597. llocesuas nr'rouaAb ga 1895 r.-no AaHHbrM <<Ouepra cocroqHuq rycrapnori ltpoMbrrrrJreuHocra>, crp. 169-170, <<Becrnar SunaHcon> 1898, N'e 6, r: l, crp. 377, 378. O6eop fleprrlcxofi ry6epnun sa 1897 .r., Ilepr'rr, 1898; sa 1900 r.-c6opr,r !'rbHa r{ noceBHbre nJrorqaAu no <C6opHuxy crarr.rcr. cee,4eHllfi rro ce,'rbcxoMy xosaficrry Poccuu r xonuy XIX BeKa>, crp. 49; llepucxaa ry6epnnr B ce!'rbcKoxo3flricreelHoM ornoureuur; 06sop leprvrcrofi ry6epuuu ga 1900 r., fleplm, 1902, crp. 34. floacqeru npou3Belleribr HaMu.

ilepvr,, -

6

Brrnycx

2

8l


a B c,'IeAynulee AecflTl,L'Ierl4e- 14, sarev 24; u 187586 saeeAeHur? 8. 50 a s lBB5-1895 rr. Tarnu o6pa's'o,u, 3a rpnAllarn';letuuft irepuo.r 'llgcne peSopltlt Bo3Hr{KJro 160 easelenuli (ncero HccJIeAoBaHo 185 sane4eHlfi). E ns 22 3atseAeHl4fi ,B'peMrfl Bo3HI'IrKHOBeHIlfl 'He ycra'HoBJIeHo. 3ror pocT oTpa.xa"'r r[porpecc ;B rKpecTbflHcKoM xo3fll'lcTBe, flporpecc v. H a rIar'Ib'HbIX s'orp u'p ars nuTI'I fl Kalil I4Ta,'I n 3 M a B <<Ouepre cocrogHl{s xy'crapu'oft ilploMbIIr]reH,Hocrn>>,'K3K 'H3BEcrHo, rne yq'TeHbI 'gaBeAeHHtt, HaxoAl4Blu'uecs B nopoAax (ncK,'rroqeHr{e rcocra,BJrff er,runrt l(yuryp ),'noarouy 'np uBeAeHrHbl€ BbIrxe AaHHbIe He MoryT cq'urarbcfl roqHbIMlr. B inoc,'Ie.{,}rcru{fle ro/lbI o$uqua,rrns'fl 'or&TI,I'crLIKa raK)Ke ro I,IcK.IIoqa,rla MeJIlKIile 3a'BeAeHI,Ifl, TO lBK,rlloqarfla I4X, {IITO3TOIM'y Col]ocTaBJlrflTb 'i{ cpaBrHH',BaTb 3TU qror6u ,Aara AaHHbre He./IbBr. OAuaro MbI rlpHBeAeM I{x AJIfl Toro, ,Macro6ofi r flep lrHot'o ilpotl3BoAcrBa par3B,I{rLlfl iKap'rlruy o6uryrc croft ry,6epunn ro. BeAeHr.rfi,

1885

rr.

Ta6ru\a

2

Kornqecrso eaee,4eHI-rfi

865

49

28040

92

1878

138

85941

280

I

62

1885

1894/e5

207

l90l

350

79000

130

AAHHbIX HCT

506

(n 185 saset. q. 128

,qeHlisx, s

uaeuHux)

-

1905

473687

886

I4s 9rcft ra6.nuurt MoxHo cAeJIarb 'cr'IeAyloqae BbIB'oAbI: {B'oflepBblx, Ha He6o,]Ibrul{x ,rlo pa3Mepy ltacno'6ofinttx saeeAeHll,flx, rKaK rrIpaBI,IJro, pa6oratu l-2 qe.noeeKa H coBceM peA-

Ko-Ixecrb rIe.IIoBe,K; Bo-BTopbIX, e 1878 r. 5o,rr,rue lnoJI'oBIlHbI, a B 1894/95 r. 47010 'Macilo6oeH, wlri 88 v3 185 flcc,le,qoBaHHbIx He LIMe,lH HaeMHbIX Ba6out'tx, T. e. HocH,rIl celreftsuft xapaKrep rr. Cpe.lra ceMeft'Hblx pa6oqux e 1894i95 r)KeHIrlHHbI oocra,eilsnfl 2 0/6, 'noapocriKl'I

ol, r'u.erl'l - f ^

3,3 %

t'.

8 Oqepx cocrotHgs rycrapuofi npoMbll[,'IeHHoctu, crp. 165' e B. 14. JI e s u s. Io,'tg. co6p. cov., r. 2, crp. 345: ro 3a 1865 r.-lIlHA CCCP, 0.20, on.3, er. xp.2349, a.20 (ctp. l5)3a 1878 r.-I-lfI'IA CCCP,0. 20, on. 12, ea. xp. 151 a,,ur. l-188. floacqerur u.pvnn"pou*a HaIrrI.3a 1885 r.-l-llIZA CCCP,0' 20, on. 12, ea. xp.255' a. 35; sa' 1894/95 r.-Ouepx cocrolHur xycrapnor? npoMbtlxJIeHHo-9J-H-' crp'

ioo;'llja 190l-1905 rr.-Mi;rxue

nponr,tru,rennne 3aBeaeH,Hit-, Oqepx cocrofiHllfl xycrapnofi npoMblluneunocru, crp. 166.

12

82

Tau xe.

crp. XIV-XV-


Hau,6orree {[o,'IHoe,np eJ,craB,'IeHne o xa p a KTepe JvI acro6o fr nslx sase,I,eHr4ii ,Mbr M,o)KeM rn,o;ryu'url 'Ha ooHosa,Huu <<BeAort,ocrefi o 1 $/B rfoA>' u fl po \'rbIuIJIsHHbIX rlp eArlp usris,x llep ll'cxofr ry6ep Hfi

q. II. paex,req"""" l1::{:.iift- i:J-::la,T qe n o B"'I a Aer'I bua N{'n'p eAcr a B,t eHo'B T a'or'l 14

"

"u paorpeAe"reH?re

r4x

Ta6,rrua

3

AEJIbUbI

Vegasr

Bepxorypcxuft . Erareprn6yprcxrzfi Hp6nrcruft

----t IIIE IgI l;l

lHli

-e^ H

>

.

KaMrrlraoscKlafi

Kynrypcrnfi flepucrnft LUa.upuucrufi

l4t a,x, rnoAa B,'Iq rcu,ee i6'o,'I brfl I.r HCTB o Bfi a Aer'I bueB - Kp ecrbq H e' Coelr.l B,ra,iteJIbqeB Ma'cJ'Io6oen 1B'flepMroKofi ry'6eprn'n'6 BeTpeqa,oi." *p".tbfl He fopoxoBeUKoro ye3iA, B.na4ultttpcKoit ry6e'p'HI4I4. fl o nolnqecrrBy 3 a BeAeHrr4 ft rB brAerrfl rorca III a4p'LITHTCKI4 ft , I4p 6nr cKHfr, nepMrcKHft , Exarep'ilH6ypr,oKlll1, BepxorypcxrEil yea4u' Ho 3TH AaIxHbIe, KaK oTMeqad'Iocb 'BbIuIe, He MolyT c^I{'HTaTbcfl IIoJI'HbI(JxaHllH xors 6u rnorouy,'qro orcyrcrBylor cBeAeHHfl OchHcKoro, ,fi'oceBbl KOTHOIIJIII lI JIbHa cKoro, KpacuoyQzMcKoro y$lAolB, rAe 6ll.rrn'Joeorugo e,naqurer'IbHbriMr,r r{ r,rMeJra lMecTo fiIep_epa(oTKa ceMtH, o qeM cBHAere,'IbrcTBylor Ap'ylue. 14croqHI'lKI4. Tar, no AagHbrM 3eMCKIiX pacK,'IaAox pocr mac;ro6ollsstx 3aBeAeHVft s ocHucKoM ye3Ae c i872,no 1903 f. rilpocJIex{I'IBaercn no ra'61. 4. T a,xn,M o6p aeolr, 3 a 3O-,'IeTHI'I ft Inep uoA KOJI UI{eCTBO M aC,'I06'oeH B ye3Ae yBe,'I[ql.rJlocb B 2,5 paga.

lt Ufl,IA CCCP, O. 20, on. 12, eA. xp. l5l Haula.

a, ,rn. l-188. fpynnupouxa


Ta6'nnua

414

loAur

;l;l ttl 48

86

'-,noi 88|tl

100

179.1

183,31

Hracro uac;ro6oen

%

yne,lnvenna llx

,no,

2s2,0

O6opyaoaaHrae lrac.no6oeu 6sr,ro mpocrbrM: rrtped6,'raAaro pyqHOe iilpOI43|BO.(CTBO, LI'C['O.,'IbSOBaJIIICb I(O'HOBQ[,KI.I rHZt TO"rIrI€€ hJIII

so4o4eli,cr.nyroulle rro,rrJrflHoe

rr.r

n'prr'BoAbr,. pylrHbre {rpeocbr, KoreJr, crauo,x. KoJrbHqHoe ce,Mfl floK]nnaJrocb s '6,r,fixarlrutzx AepgBrHflx

lt_coceAH'r4x ye3Aax, a raKx{e ua lrlp1'nr,cxoir flpMa,pKe. Ma,c,ryo c6Hear,ocl'Ha Ba'BoAax, rHarrrprlMep, A.u,arnaen,crou, ^ H.-Ta,rn,rlcrom, I(yuu,rncKoM r.r Ap,yrr4x, Ha flp,Map'Kax a rop)KKax.,KoHon,rqHoe ceMq no{Kyna,'rocb no 70-90 rKor[I'rr I py6.rrr nyA (ua naecre), Jrb'HflrH,oe no 50-80 Kq[., ,B. cpeAHeM rno 64 ,ron. iyA. Ha npnroTOBdrreHI{e [ryAa MacJra rpe60nalocb rrrflTb lrryAoB ceMflH. KOirOU.nsHoe_rMacJro rnp,oAaBaJrocb rro 5-6 py6. trryA, Jrb,HflHoe-no 33p.50 K., Bbt6or?rKr4 (Nnruxu) xon.-sa ry4. iflpnne,{eM xa-rnoft l2 p a KTep rrrcrr,r Ky T[rfl]rq'Hbrx g a,BeAerrI,t . Kp ecrts,Hc Koe'u acno6o ft noe

3aBeAeHHe s A. Knenoscxan 6oropoAc,roft eonocrI,t,flep'McKofo ye3Aa,np'r4 N{ eHrr Jro AJrfl To JrqeH'Hq ceM fl,H rr<'ou uo4eft crrByrorr1yn << M a rrla _ Hy>>, crarH. CaNr xos,q{u pa,6oran MacrepoM, pa6o:unnr 1- uecrsuri KpecrbflHr.r,H. Ilglepa0or.a,uo ,6uno lllS'nya. oe","," no I p. lb x.

(na^1282.p. 25 1.). flo.ryueno 221 ,nyA

Ma,cr,ra

rno

6 pii6.

(Ha

1326 py6.) H rsrr6og-835 rrrfA. no 30 r<on. ('ua 250 p.'SO x.y. B 4a'ruuou BaBeAeur.r,l,t Aox'oAbr flpeBbrrxadrru pacxoAbr ('6ee vqera pggxoAoB Ha rorrrrrr.rBo) ua 294 p. 25 x. gnciuft ,AoxoA ,pa,nunlcn

250 py6.

,B Exareptu6ypncrora ye3Ae, ,e Er,rrHnrogcrorl 'so,ro,cru B 3aBeAeHI1IflX Kp€CTbflrH, B KOTOpbrx pa,6'ora,r'a xo3fleBa c o,Analr 0a,6o_

qaM, rnspspa6arlrsanocb Ao 1000 rryA. ceMeHn Ha g00 py6., a au_

jr6 l20py6. {4cyMMy or 60 py6. -260 o M B a x p yuren, s a x{ruToq Hbr fi rxp eciirrun,s O urun,ncxo ji,so -

p_atoorxa cocra,Brrrrrra 200 mya. Mgg{a tI a cruft lAoxoA sAecb c,o crarnns,r

"

220

A's roH

J.IOCTH UCHHCKOIO

.3ABEACHIIC, IICHHOCTb YE3AA, HMEJI {MACJIO6OftHOC

liMyrrlecrBa ,KoTopofo,cocra,BJrs,'ra

9l

py,6. 15. B

Xyp":Isl^Ocurrcxoro ye3AHoro 3eMcKofo ,.-.tn rd/z,r.,.crp. 92-93. (ts

rarux

co6panr.rn,

xos,srlcrsax

3 ouep.

ccccnr, xypHaru OV3C _ aerop). .^_^'" /l\ypHanbt Ucl.rHc.H:ofo ye3,[Horo 3eMcKoro co6pauua, 3 oqep. ceccrrs 92-9u.. (ts AarbHg|^rueM.-)KypHa!,ru OV3C _ anrop), rai!{ )Kc, lo^,,oq_e_p_. l.: crp. rz ceccfif IUEI f., crp. l4g-l4g; raM xe,20 Aa.nlueiureM

crp. 780-781; Clreru AoxoaoB H 1903, 84

crp. 298-299.

0uep. ceccriq lggg r.,

pacxoAoB r.r pacx"ralxa Ha 1903

r.,

O"a,


3€IIIeJ€JIH€ r.{ CKOTOBOACTBO 6brrrro pa3BIiTO 3HaqHTeJrbHO Jryq[e,

y Maccbr rKpecrbrrr.H'cTBa. llo Aa,HHblM lHa \ceperAr,r'Hy 80-x foAOB s OczHcKoNlye3le, s CrenanoscKori Bo,rocrr4 B BocbrMI{ ceJreHrjrrx Hacq[TblrBaJlocn 25 aaBeAeHr.iri, rB Koropbrx ,p,a,6,ota,lo 25 ,cemeiinux par6ou'r.tx,n 24 Hae,MHbrx (ino o,4uon,ty rHzoMHoM! pa,6orueuy rua 3a,Be,{,eHr4e, B oAHoM 3aBeAeHrr4H pa6oral caM r{pecrba'nnn). CyrMa ,rpou'3BorAcrBa ,6u,ua ue6,oilbtxoil: 17 ruc. py6., B cpeAHerM Ha 3aBer,eHr.re npfixoAr.rro,cb or 400 Eo 1000 py6.r6. Paccuorpirl,r Aa'H,Hbre 3a 1887 r. rrflrr.r Mac,1o6oft,Hbrx Batse[eHnil BacunleecKoir BoJrocrn flepucxoro ye3Aa (rplr ns 4. fanpurIeM

ta Aea r.r3 AepeBsHn Apxutnonori ,r.r flr.zureK) 17. B rKa]KAoM BaBeAeHI,lH rLIMe.IIlICb OAHOTKOH,HL'I€ l[plIlBOAbI; B qeTblpex SarBeIeHI{tlX pa6ora,ra caMrl xogflerBa, r.rrMeff no 'oAHoMy,pa6,oqeMy, a B nflToM cbIH SKcn,oHOHT,& H paboqufi. Cr6rrr uacura ,tipon3BoA,lrlcr|B oxpe'cTHbIX cerax, !,o6prHcroM 3aBoAe H a .flepvuls.

uoft

Ta6.nuua

5

*cr F

3rcrogesr

9x >,=

Ilerynnu A. h. Craqxoe Q. n. Kapa6aror

l.

B.

r<

EG o!sl0

egx 6oy tr9:

?pX

1855

300

60

240

180

54

1855

250

50

200

120

Jb

1864

280

65

250

170

51

Kapa6aron h.

1864

260

50

200

120

.JO

Cyxonaeuee JI.

1884

300

70

250

160

48

Taruu o6paaou, Bce paccMorpeHHbre 3aBeAeHr.rrr r4Menr rrr{crblii AoxoA Ao 100 py'6"reft KaxAoe. Taxue )Ke Ba'BeAeHns, 6bwtn y ,II. E. K,ruMoea s c. tr4flruHcKoM, B. A. lpoxoroBa B A. 3acrynona, y Ll. LL Earanosa 'e Cperencxoft 'so,rocttu, y kl. ,f. Eycupe'na B fI,or,aBHH,H,cK,oM Batso4e. 6ycltpe,n, 3aBeAeHHe Koroporo cyxrecrBoBa,Io c 1885 f., rMer'I KoH'HyIo rMeJIgHKy, To,rqelo, 3aropHbIft ,qarr, KoreJr c MyroB,Kofi, pyutu,oir fipecc. Pa6oran ,catr ,c yueunxou. fle16

E. U. KpacuorepoB. Kycrapnar

npoMr,urrreHHocrb, Bbrn.

III,

fleprru, - 17 1889, crp. 74. Pacqe'ru uauru. Tau xe, Bbrrr. II, fleplru, 1888, crp. 22. 18 E. L{. KpacHorepoa. I(ycrapuaq flpoMbrurJ'leuHocrb, Bbrn. ll,crp.22, flepur, 1889. 3ru KpecrbsHe 6unn yuacruuKaMn KycrapHo-npoME[ulneHHoir sncraBKr B r. ExarepuH6ypne

e lB87 r.

85


pepa,6arbrtsarocb 400 [lyA. ceMeHIa. fIo,'Iy'{a,'I B0 rnya. Mac'la Ha bSb pyO. C,6lt,ean {np'o,AyKq}r}o e llonasHaHoKoM' Moroefi,'Iux'l4iIcKoM

r.r

flo6prucroM

3aBoAax.

Bo,rlruu'ucr.B'o KpecrbrttHcK['tx M,a'cJlo6oer pa6orano 2-4, uo He 6onee 6 Mecgqe'g 'e rrorY. B na'cno6ofitHoM 'sa'eeAeH'l4l{' ocHorBaiH{roM B 1898 r. B. A. ftpoxoroBbl'M iB c. tr4rbl'l'HlcKoM -fleplrcxoro ye3Aa, reu,pal6aruea,'Iocb JIbHnHoro '|\,{arcr'Ia rta 37,9 ( 12,6) ruc. py6.,

nrnssoir srtxnm,rn Ha 3,6 rstc. py6. loAoeaq 'lrpol{3BoAI]Ter'IbHocrb 3a'BeAeHrlrfl co'crar,nfl,ila 47,3 (16,2) ruc. py6. flepepa'6arulte. Ba,rrocb Jrr,-HrrrHofo cerMeHr.r l5 ruc. 'nya,. Pa6'ouax t6lt,ro 13 (7) ue.n. floor6opyAoreatHNq. It Mocrl crol4 y,crpofi lt a c.lo6oen cr,no Onuureu MerqeHLIe crouJro or 100 ao 350 py6., Kdn,Hblil rnpneorg, 50 py6., ToJrr{en AepeBrr.HHbre Ao 2 cax. ,AJII4HbI c 'o6'urttu xere3oM 'KoHqaMlr (c,ryxz;r'rE 4,ra ,4po6,reHrtt uJrv drYureHllf ceMeH[ E rl(o;'Io100 py6. (10 py6.sa <<!Koror>>. 9uc,r'ov K'o,{oro'B dr'peJ,e.ce) -ao par3Mep 'lracno6oeH), nrpecc tr qyryllHafl Kor,ola .:Io r,flercfi illo,'to-

20 py6., Mer'r KI,re rl,p HH aAr.'re)KHocrI,I ( cnra, Koue,'IlI, Ko/'toAbt, ror n np.) Ao 12 py'6. tr4rax, crollMocrb KpecrbsHcKofi uac,torr.Ilra paBHttJ'tacb 500 py6., ,He {cqnraq "IIo6oftrsu o6lr,rHo'seHHoro uraAeft 20. TaKue pacxoLAbr 6u.lrn noA cttJly roJIb'Ko 6orarrtlt n gaxr4ToqHbIM,KpecTbgHaM.

3eune,qe,rae y uac,ro6oftrluroe Be,'Iolcb B txtrpolKl4x MacIUra6ax, rnpruueM MHofile'He Aotso,rbcrBo'Ba,'Iucb AyixeBbIMH tHaAe,'Ia i\IH I{

AP

CHAOB

A JI

14 3 CM,'I

rc Y IM A,'IOCI{J] b'HbIX

XO3 fl I,ICTB.

tflo ganHun 'fleperlucr,r 1894/95 r.,

173 saeeAenus,

unu

93010

lpfiHaAJre)KaJrll 3ax{I,rroqHbrrM KpecrbqHaM, uuercil1unt or l0 Ao 25 .qec. geMJIr4, o,coL6e'Hno MHoro'3eMJI,u r{MeJII{ ,Br'r,aAer'Ibubr 3a,BeAeHIrfi s Llla,4pIrru,cxou (no 19,47 aec. ,ua 4rnop), 's ,I(aMbIUr,'Io'BcKoM

rB KyHfyp'cKorrl (19,8 .{ec.) tt 'B I4p'6'ulcro'r,t yeBAax2r. Ha nac.no6oft'Hue ,AB,opbI rflpr4xoAn,rlocb 'B cpeAHeM ,rouraAeri 3,5 ro,rosu, rKopoB 3,3 iro,'r'o'Bbl 22. Eeg,rouraJHblx ,r4 6ecxoponnlrx ArBopots rne'6u,ro. -y 173 Ma,c,'ro6oejB Hacqr{rbiBaJrocb 98 (ro4onux r.r rcporKo,Blrx) sera,re4erbqec,Kr,rx pa,6ouux c rJlarolo 3438 pyL6., r. e. flo 35, 1 py6. Ha oAHofo. <<Bu6oft>>, il,ln x{ M blxlr, lttOJt yr{erlHble 11,pH'u a,CnO6O ft'tt,O M rn p OI4'3IBOACTBS, CJIy)KI.r,'I ]r xop,orxr4M r{orpMoM Anq 'c,xora 23. 'B Ocnucrt<oM yesAe 44 ,nacnd6oft,ulnxa r{,Me,'rn 33 rsaelrsltx ce,'rbcK,r{x'par6ovnx (rog,oeux H cpoKo'Bbrx) ,c nnarorc 1289 py6.,

(,no 16,9 aec.), (12,6

r.

e.

lec.)

ro 35,8 py6.

,Ha

og,uoro

24.

le Cnucox Cnucox Qa6prlr< H 3aBoAoB Poccnftcxoft t4Mllepuu, no.4 peA. B.

E.

Bap-

CII6., 1912, crp. 606. 20 Talr xe, crp. 23.

3apa,

2l

22 23 24

Ouepr cocroxHr.rr KycrapHofi npoulruraeHuocrn, crp. l68.

Talr xe, crp. Tau xe, cr-p. Tana

xe, crp.

170. 16A.

102-103.

,


C6Hsa,rH Mac,lo cso'6oAHoii npo4axeir Ha pbIHKax -167 saseu

a"""ri, t. ": 90% , 17 pa'6totano tra 3aKa3qllKo'B-tnorpe6nreneft yTAa) lor"*o o.1Ho (e i.r. iuprty.lbcKoM' E'xarepnn6yprc5ory llaQrHyrbefo ojtirBsr'ro MarcJlo rB ,rIats'KI'I eXarepu'u6ypIrcKHX rKytlqorB 25. 'n t{eprHfiscxot'o

,qzcroro AoxoAa lta'cno6oft'slte sa'BeA€HI{n (Aannue "yt*a r.) naoNuo crpynrrt]lpo'Barb cJle.r.ytouniu o6pa:oM:c qn1895' crbrlr .loxoAoM Ao 100 py6---109 ga'neAennii, hrn b-9% oouleto

ua

n'o

lux Kor'IltqecrBa, or 100'ao 700 py6. -73, ao 1000 py'6.- l,5o/o 'u. T

aru,ir-

Or6p

a3OM,

p

a,3,Br{T}re

Aennli, xar d uyroitno.notrblx,

M

'14n^ 39,50/o rn

'or

700

alcJor6oft HbIX rKpecrbfl HOKI'IX 3aBe-

c[oco6crBoBaJlo 4uQQepenuaaI\wrl

rB,'IaAeJIbuaMI'I' KpgcTbflHcTBa. 3a)KI.tTOqHbre KpecTbrflrHe fBJIflTII'l,Cb ttTop3aBeAeHlI'Iflx' sThx 6eAnue-HaeM'HbIMrl pa,6or,rui<aMI'I'Ha nO'Olpe3AeCb' lOTCfl fl'BJ'Ifl tnpelnpNnr'I4fl fOBOr[pO]IbIIIIJIeHHbIe le,retp:llo B. 14. .Ilesrrarua, cJIeA. TaK Ha3L'IrBaeMblMI'l rexnl'IqecKn-

Mn

I{OTOcer,IbcI{oxoSflircTBeHHbIrMIZ npo,n3{B,oAcTBaMI'I, pa13BI'lTI{eM

pbIX 'BcefAa xapaKrepH3yercfl [porpeac ropfoBoro 27. CTI4

qe,CKO|O 3eM,'IeAefli{q>> llopeQop'raeHnafl glrlox a

aKTep Il'3018 aJI

a

14

KalIIl'IraJln-

cb B ITeJIoM pocroM

^xap pa3ToDroBoro JIbHoBoAcrBa. 3ro llrpoflBJlflJlocb He roJIbKo B JrbHocblpbIX ,ni'r^ uacnQ6'oiluoro \npoMbIc,'Ia' lHo I{ B lflpoAa]Ke I{'Bo-

fIOnOeuHa C6Opa,TbHaLIKOHOIIJIII B BnnAe CeMflH KpecTbflHaMn ocnscxoro ye3Aa'Mac'toI'l or6oilnq M'6,nrpianluHblM 3 alBeAeH r4fl'M IrLl olIITo M cKyrlxlhKa M MluIecT'BeHHO nrpeil nlt' H ft ry6ep br flep'tr,cxo 3 a InpeAeJr nD a Brfl Jra,cb 'Bort, -r<r*oi zs'. Tax, s ia05 r' roJIb'Ko uepes ocuu, "trr."""" oKylo tflpn'crarsl 6lr,ro onlpalBr'IeHo Ha [I'poAq)Ky "IbHf Ho]ro.ceMeHH 174010 py6.vrBorloKHa f+OoS nya' ua42724 py6'2e'

"po^y*r.u. JroKHa'nepeflpoAaBa,'Iacb

114

itiSs+s'nva.na I{ fioB nexompux BoJlocrflx Ocnncro'ro yeqAa "IUHo'BoAcrBo Kyr'IbrMlHorux xogqfrclBax 3epHoBble.. ceBbl ,xorHoIIJIIt BblrecH[r'Il{ Bo nporypbI, paclxnpI4JIca 'ronapultit c6ltr nlsa AJ'II BHyrpeuneft,ryt6epflepuroroft ye3Aa'rz r[peAeJlbl ero,3a lBbr'Bo3 I'tblrxr.reHH,ocrr'r Lr tB HLrr4. o 'po'cre rnoceBnbrx nnoulaAeft TexH[qecKI'IX KyJIbTyp crlero;optlr ye3Ay OcrHcKoMy no saqa.ne 900-x roaos 90-x - rAaHHbIe (n aec.)'o (cvt.ra6"u' 6)' ryrcque Tarnu or6pa,g,ovt, tltocenbl I{oHOrL'u4 I,l ,'IHHa ',Ha I{pecTbgHC{{llIX ]Iar,eJlbHbtx l3eMJlflx 25 26

28

c

1892

f.

pe3Ko yBeJIIiqHJII'Icb'

Tau xe, crP. l7l. Tau xe, crp. 173. B. LI. il e i u n. Ilonu. co6P. coq., r. 2, crp.351; I(a,ren4apu ileplrcrofi ry6epuun ua 1883 roa, crp.

ll.

Il. Cenr-eHos. feorpaQr.ruecxuft t.l crarncrl,t.]ecruii c,lonapl Pocctlii7ll' MnPnsu t.3CfI6.. 1867, crp' crP. 3, Cfl6., crofi uunepun, t. -Auuauut"rsrt,ner'e ilepnncroro xpar' rlepnr'' 30 *"i.E. U:'it H. KpacHonePoe. ; ,"1 ;;;'";o u. AsaAua 29

1887, crp. 183.


T

foAu

a6,rnua

6

% yneluueuna no

Ky,rrrypu

cpaBHeHnlo

r88r raozfrsorlrsoo

c

1892 r.

I

JleH

6396

6749

7518

8668

128,7

KoHon,rq

HeT .4alr-

2344

3879

4267

182,0

HbIX

Bcero

I u*u I no* l,orn,

cm,rae rrop,Hol3a,BoLcKori ,npoAyKqr.rr4 no gycoreori, cHrrse, Kaa raK)Ke fyxeBbre ,nepeBo3,K,H fop,Ho_ :3:-"9{!1"" r.r Kyreqe{cKrrx fpy3oB r.r roBapoB rpe66raa.n,a Arrrr cHa_ Aflfl c6pyu noura4erl vt !.il,fl yrraKoBKr.r fpysoB H roBa_ a._"..I4ou, poB roor'lblUolo Ko.r-il{e€crBa Jb'H,f Hbrx H ne,HbKoBblx rKaHaTo,B Be_ peBot I4,g tneHtxoe,oft rnps)Kr.{ Hg,roToBJrr"rprcb lr pur6o,roenlre iroria_ Me H ApyrlrM peKalr Vpa,ta,

neurxosorl npnx,r.r orinpa.Br,rnd,rr{,cb }r3 ,npe_ lli.^Pg:_l,y:-.!.lp_ir-, tIepMcKoH ry,6eprss1.1 ua flevopy, n Bono,ro.:r,cKyro, ApxaH_

AeJ'ro'B

rer'rbrcKyro ry6ep.nnn.

E'crecrgeH'H., lrrro B ye3Aax, rAe 6u,r'u paolpocrpaHeHbr [roceBbI ,llbHa lI KO'HOII/II], a ,Ha peKax LIJtil Ha r3aBOAaX H B rI\CpOAaX cKar[InBa"IOCl 6o,rtruoe KoJEqecT,Bo rpy3oB, 1BO3|HAjKaJI.I,I KaHaTHO_ BepeBor{Hbre SaBeAeHr.Ifl , AaHHbre o$n'qua;lluoft craracrn,Kr.r o Koro_ pbrx rrpeAcraBJreHbr s ra6r Z.

_^_B ra6;raue ,6o,'Iee lr,'Iu lrg'ee corn,ocTaBlrMbl-*rl'b Aa,HHbre 3a 1865-1890 roAbr, KofAa Ko,,rr{qecrBo 3alBeAeHali, cyrr,ria :nfo"r_ BOACTBa il qwcro rpa'60qHx, ga ue60nrurnM 'H,CK;rIO{eu,veu, ,no,{rl,

co,En zrASrOT C AarHHbIMtr{ tIIeD eII.H'cr{.

flo cne4euao* *orou-1"uxa $a6pzvHoro rzHcrreKropa, s lggg_ rr. a ry6ep'nnn ,Hac,rzrsreanoit 3 rpynHbrx fre.HbKo{npfl.[irJ]b_

1893

3l flauulre sa

t86l r.-sxosoulrirecKoe

coc ri,' b n "' ido _ 862; ;;; :-b, i b; ;"0,';;:i^J,i#? it: '. I l:,iffii"6.tilT 21n"b; n:-le^,o6;-(.*. r+rli s; raz8 il_qTiza ctt"p,'0. zo, ll. ?;"1;.f^ -lo,' g i rF tr 9j, d i;l itlln' i"i' J 5l]iJ ",pr"r"d,, T..ii di t'3 3 on, 12, ea. xp. 2s4, n. 169 o6. iEl' tToi; sa-ieg+/gs ..-ou.r-*'.o.io"", _Q,20, xycrapHofi npoMbrrrrrreHHocrr.r, yp;rro";;fr.';o;;;;;rp"_ _

r,

n.

o

r

r

{

crp.

1570,

sa lggg r.

nr,rur.nesuuri arpec-KaneHAapr, fl-epr,t, 1 g99, or,u. VI I, i;p:-l i6)" iitr', ruzMe;n 3aBeAeHIlfl fleprr'rcxoii ry6epHrl, fleprrlr, 190g,

sa l90l-1903'rr. crp.

88

"tr-ilir.nOoMbl[IIeHHble

dir


Ta6nnqa t{ ucao

flpuueuarrr.rn

pa6our.rx HeT ,(aHHbrx

I 861

7

*

Qa6pur<n n r. flepMH (oasa MaIIrHHHas, o6utas npou3BoA. 45. T uc. py6.), o,[Ha s KyHfypeHo,[Ha BLKaTe-

[se

pnu6ypre

to

85744

24

40095

29*

nyA.) 890

19

'*KaHatgux,

neHbt(oBblx'

npt,lltJrbHblx H neHbKO-

186-199

r66000 (42000

I

qa7

Bo-TpeIIanbHbrx.

232

** flpon:ao4nreJlbHocrb

**

B

ny.4ax

256*

162000

x

B

rou qacle 38

xen-

UIHII

1894/e5 1899

164

HET AAHHbIX

HeT

t7

HCT AAHHbIX

HeT .qaHHbtx

38+

,q,aHHbrx

307

148937

llo rycrapuoii nepenucn * B Co,'rnxalrcrou, flepucKoM, Kyurypcrou, Ocsscxotrl, Kpacuoy'

Qutr,tcxou, 14p6urcxou, Exarepun6yprcKoM ye3-

rax.

Hbrx i4 Ka{HarHbrx ,3aBeAeH[q, Ha HHx pa60rairo 103 qen., B qr.r.cr'Ie

l3 xenun,s n 2

ToM.

ua,r,onerH:'1-x32.

B iKycrapHoft nepenn'cn 1894/95 'r. He pa'3rpaHHrqeHbI 3a1Be.leH'rIfl IIO Tlr4lrraM: peMecJleHHble, <<Ky,crapHble>)'fi $a6pavuo-sa'no.lc'KHe, a ,B 1899 r. nepen[caHbl'6buII4 !'IHIlib KpyrnrHble SalBe.4eHl{fi

grn'Hsn'oJIHbIe. lI. fonyQa6p'lruno-sa,BoAcKofo rntla, ]Io AatHHbte 6ee lcquran, qro KarHaruux <<Sat6pt4K>> 6bL'Io B 70-x IroAax or 15 Ao 3l;re 80-x-or 13 ro29 t4 e 90-x-or 15 Ao 1233.5olstullltcrBo 3aBe,u,eHr.rrl BosHrrKJro B 70-90-x foAax, o 'qeM cBI{AereJIbcr-

Bllor

,4,arlrHble no tr4p6LITcIoMy ye3ly34, a raKlKe AarHHbIe Kycrapneperrcu 1894/95 r.35. Vnaectno 3aMefl{rb, r{ro I4,p6'I.IrcKLIft ye3A saHLIMaJ'I BeAyII{ee IIOJTOX(eHUe B KyCTapH,Ofi,n',pOtUrrxIJIeHHoCTIt ry6epu6s rIIo par3BHT,r.rlo rBepeBoqHoro npo}r3tBoAcTBa. EMy ,colnyTcr'BoBar'I oT'Hocl.ITer'Ib-

Hoft

32 33

lAnO,

on.

S.65; n. f ony6es.

on. l;4.35, n. O.556, sr

35

qfI,IA

l,

p,. 132, n.

I

o6.

Eorareer u,rn 6eAueer fleprrrcr<ar ry6epnur. fAnO,

9.

20, on. 12, ea. xp. 150, ,r,'r. 6l-78. Ouepx cocroqHr.rq xycrapuoft nporrbllxJleHHocrn, crp. 158. CCCP,

0.

89


r.r ac,lo6oft Huli'npouuce,r. O 6 a n pol'I3 BoAcrB a,6 a3u' poBaJrucb Ha 3HaqHTe,rIHHbrx rnorceBax n ,c6opax xoHoll'l'u. B l^878 r.

rro p a3BLIrbIil

llprz ypbxafiHocrl'l 9I^ 29 no (cau 3-4 h'ca]l 7) s lB72 r. c6op palBHtlrlcfl Ild,brblc. ny,a., no,roxua 441 12 rny.l.-'u s-1887 r. l2l,l rbl'c' rnyA' ceMeHlll li 4i,7 TbIC. ilyA. eo,'Io'rHa 36. Ko'uonnq BbICeBar'lacb Ha sa,ceBaro'cb He MeHee 2300 ,rec.

84 rnv.u,.

'tyqlxl4x

yAo6pa eu bIX 3eM,'iqx. LIro npeAcrarB,'Ifl ,rH co6oii KaHarHoJBepeBor{rHble rgalseAeiII4q ? B l87B r.'us 24 saseAeufii]i 21 inpurHarl"re)KaJo Kpecrr'qHaM, 2 xlnrqalr (s ropo4e llepnrr'r) n I uerqaHuHy B r' flepur'r. flo yeag,alt oH'rl p a clpeAe,'tfl ,'r I4rcb ra K: B KyHrypcxo u-ye3Ae ux,6auto BorceMb, e I4p'fix1[6oM - ceMb, llla.1pl'lHcrov u Erarepnru6yprcxoM.- no rp, dt. llpeo6rraganu se6oniulie 3a'BeAeHl'ifl, B Koropux pal6oraru caM xo3rlt'H u tpal6ouuit, rHo r6butt,r Iz KpynHble. Tax., u Vlp6urcKoM ve3Ae, n Cxopo4onacxoti Bo,'IocrI'I, e A. OczHlresoii e sasere<<yABopHbIX>>,

*p*ctoflrHuHa ApAarlerecrofo ye3ra Hraxeropo.qcr<oir ry6epOeo$anoBa, KpoMe xo3flI'lHa-Macrepa' pa6ora.rro eure rrrecrb qeJIo'BeK. flpr.u,euue 3,{,ecb rnpon3rBogl4,'locb BpyqrHylo' lxpyqeHue npa,.qeft-frpu rrloMollrr AByx pyqHblx Ko,'Iec. flepepa6aru-

"r', K. M. urzn

Ba,rrOCb TIIeHbKOBOe BO,'IOKHO, InpHO6peTaelrOe'Y MeCTHbIX )KIIT€;IOiI

no ueHe 1 p. 20 K. 3a \ryA. flpousnog,nnocl 200nyA. KaHaroB ro,'Icrbrx )rIeHbKOBbIX H roHKnx rno 2 p. 80 x.'u rno I p. 60 x,saltryArHa cyN,rMy 400 py6. C6urealcq roBap e't. EKatepI'H'6ypLe, Kavltur.roae,-Trclreilr, ua tr4p'6ulc'xoii qpMapKe tl Ha En,rlur'r6aescxo[a 'N g

Pee.rz'H,cKo,M

atsoAax

38.

,B KynrypcKoM 'ye3Ae Bce 3aBeAeuu's '6stiln cocpeAororleHbl B !-'g16,(nrueprcxoft BoJIocrtl. Eollruuucr,Bo lT3 HHx I'I Mer'lo' rKpox{ e Macrepa, 'no 4 ,pat6o.u{x LI3 MacrepoBblx,; 'BbIAe,'IbIBaJlocb KalHaroB or 50d eo 1000- ry'AoB rsa cYM'MY 1,5-3,1 ruc. py6. Kpecruuu'H f. B. KoenH ,KaHarHyIo Qa6pur<y I'IMeiI B 4. Huaroti, Ha xoropoti pa6orano rpn Marcrepa I4 ABaAuart pai6'ounx H3. MacrepoBblx. 'Bupal6arlrni,ro,cr +200 nya. KaHarHbIX cuacreft ua 14700 py6.3e. B'tr4p,fis1g*oM ye3Ae n Benocny.{cxoil so,'Io'crrl re 1878 f. 'Ha.cqnrbriBa,lrocr 150 cralH'Ko'B c ex{ero.4Hoii'nepepa6orxot? rso,'IoxHa

Ha BepeEKI.I Ao l0 ru'c. ,rIyA.: B 4. tlep,uoil - 120 craHKolB, B B l88l r. sAecb 6u,ro yxe 160'craHxoB.c r{nca. Kpyrnxe-30. -536 (464 nayxuzr*,t n 72 xeurqz:ult) 'ug ceueftsux r'r 106 ua,ron eM'Hbrx pa6ounx. B'cer,o 36

I]fI4A

38

.90

Kycrapnaa npoMbtlureHHocrb, Bblrl. III,

132.

CCCP,

nupoBXa Halur4. 3e

l4'p6v:rcxoM ye3Ae Hacql{rbnBaJldct 177

E. V. KpacnofiepoB.

'crp. 127, 128, 3?

s

+. 20, on. 12, eA. xp.

Tau xe.

f. MaHoxr.{H. Vras.

coq., crp.2906.

150, ;r.

61-78. floAcqeru n

rp,vn-


craiHKOB U BepeBoqHLIM lrlpoll3Bo,u,cTBoM 708 'qe,ro,sex 4.

6lt'ro eaugro {He MeHee

KoHrHo-KaB Kpacnoy$tlltcxo'll ye3Ae B Cyxcyucxou 3aBoAe paHaenuux 8 pa'6ora'lo KoropoM Ha flo'nosa, nut*a Juual""r" B 'x'eucrBl{e Soqux u ltlleJlocb HecKo,-IbKo craHKoB' npHB0AI.{M-blx xoHnoii tlrofi, c inpol43BoAcrBoM Ha 15 rltc' py'6', NlolKer'oblrb x Qa6Pr'rxalt al' flpurrlcJeHo ' B rl]oureereHHblx Bbl[Ie rcrarl'Icrl'{qecKHx Marepr4ailax orcvrcr(iitltti"".-rn voo. oAuaxo r3BecrHo' qro 's Haqa"ue 80-x ,6nuro ,lxecTb 'KaHa'nH,O-nptl,Bo,,,ro,ciqx

"v.t" roaou re J.ByX

.u,r,Id,rbHtlx sa'ee4euufi, ns

3TO,fo ye3Aa xoropltx oAHo

42.

-

$a'6pu'xa' fi'pl'lrHaA'te-

xpecrlawtirY nepen"zcuo 189-4/95 r' n.KyurypcKoM yesAe--9 "ou c a 6ap,crofi ) 6 m,ro 3a p ef rlcrprrlpomavi:rt_ Kuuieprcxofi no"oo'" Be,Ho 95 3aneg,eHuii, u I'1p'6"tanou (ao'rocrrx Kpyrrr'rxuu'croil-u E,xares Oxarnixoltl 16, 3g, ,roc,rvLcxoli) 'e -7, Kpacuovq,McKoM I'r BepxorvpcKoM no 2a3'I4 ;;;6')A;;;;; - 3,' e"-ii*".no,n tO+ saseJ.eurar 16ei ropo'ro.s) e IIIa.1puH'cKoM-ta"ii go"io'rilepenilc-lt 68 ga'seAeHHfr: 38-e rBo ootro 'BpeMtr o6."e;;;io 14o6nrcxort, 16-" O."ti.no*,4l'e KyHrypcro'v' 6-e Oxas.nbr, S-,8 EKarep'nu6yplcxov u l-e lllaapurHcKoM yesAax'

-

)KarBrua,s

kyitup"ot

*""dto 3aH'ro 6lt'ro >xeiruluu-4o 2go/o' paB nqru 3aBeAeHI'Isx HacqllTblBa,'Iocb or l0 u 6o'ree HaeMHbIX B }I 3-2 to Ae4, n AeBflrI{,;-";;, u or"b*-5, B AByx-'no ncro I pa6oue'lty. Taxult o\6pa3oM, 'e 26 ea'eeAeHnlxtr4pxapaKrepHO A'ra "^i"rpya. oco6"""o rrro;]b3o82,.1c" "oB"IaAe"IbqH saseAeHrft "u"*nitii 'y.snou. 3Aecr )Ke A;;&;; " Ky*rypcxoto K'H'IITIII' Jlorua'Aeft rpe'MyxrecrBeHHo 10 ,no""uo, a"..,ao ;;;;;

B

Hr.rx cpaBHI4reJIb"'o

,ilp rrxoAg,,rocb

y uecrr,r xo3geB

B cpeAHeM IIIo

3,5 rononbl'

rKo-poB

-'no i6ecxopog-

2,6 ro;rontlHa xeo,p. 6esse-\4e,'IlHux, -l6e3routaAHblx' Hbrx,BJraAe,,roueu suu"AeuHft noqru He 6uno. cynama 'np'ol'I3EOACTp acqere'co'craBJIrfl JIa ea s o6c,'IeAoBaH'HbIX 3 aBeAeHt,t'qx B cpeAHe-Y tru'crltli AoxoA cocraB3alBeAeHI4e' 1,5 rlIc. PYr6. Ha oAHo ;;;; 200- PY6:' B 100 or 6 lo py6., s 100 Ao saeel'e;Ilrflx "qna'r B +9 py6'' s 2-' n 600 500 uo 2,no 400 pvO"i" l-'g0o pvo., "?n'6oree' py6. 1000 no 900'PY6., s 6-no 3aeei6uilq c KpyIlHbIM AoxoAoM 3l{cnJlyarl{poBa'rl{ B 3HaqlI'i'er'rbHorr norruu.ru" naensllft rpya. E' Ia' Kpi91^olepon' o6parBbIHy)K6arbtsaerxnfi Aa'sHue xycrap'noft lnepeillH'|c'Kl4 l894/95'r'' *E-\4, KpacHonepon. Kycrapuaa npoMbllr'leHuocrb' BbIII' III' crp'

133.135.136. ar Talt 42

f.

xe, crP. 153. 1'ca:a cTpy1ox H H."ieorpa6uuecxuli ouepr KpacHoy$r;nrcxolo g nr,tn. x.

A1 a

npoto't.nar"ncrrr abt xoMHCCHn nO "aan*oouu""fio-*vaiup"ol Cfl6, 1884, mP. 2906.

Poc.'lr,

a3OuepxcocToqH!l'IxycraprrofinpoMbllx''IeilHocTl-l'cTp.l57-l6l,BAa,rl-

Hefiruelr Aartllble STofo

Hcror{HuKa'

or


qro <<HeKororpble Im Ta,KHx 3aBeAeHrlrri, rB 'oco6essocrn Bcrper{arcqaxcfl B Vcrt-Kuureprcroft BoJrocrri KyurypcKofo ye3Aa, '6es c,oMueHr.rs, riMeror y)Ke 'BHA Qa6,pnurnolo [rpor.r3lBo,n,CrBa, fAe'3Ha,rr'HTerrUHUil AOXOA npeAfipuqTlIft O6yCnO,e;lrBaercr He "'rHr{'HbrM rpy.roM npeAnpr.rHr.{Mare.neri n iux 'cerrcri, a KarrHTaJroNr, Korop brM ourl o6.t aAal,or H sKc,rrJryara uneft H ae r\{ Horo TpyAa>> aa. KpacHonepoB rpH TaiKr4e <<$a6pzru>> 45 Bxnnqr.n .B.qrz,cJIo KycrapHblx rltpeArl,prvts'rnft rlq,Ixb rl,oroMy (rypnearno, Ho $axr), qr'o BJIaAeJbubl ax <<,KotAa-To 16br"ql4 KycrapflMLr tr4 ntot6unu H r'IIo6slHagu'garo ce6s Kycrap.rrMH>> 46. K xaxofi Inyra,HHrre 9To Be,rer. Mo>KHo cyAr{Tr, Ha ocuorBa'Hrll{ 'c,'reAylorqero. Cyvua Inlpoi4r3,BoAcrBa 96 neo6c,reAogaHHbrx saeeAeg[ii onpered'rq,na,cl e [4 l3 0V,6., a Br{ecre c 68 o6c,re[oBa,HHbrMu p. 30 x.,'npH.re'"'49 ns - s IiOOOO 3TLIX 38rBe{eu'i.rjl 'ue 6u,rn xpynrHbrMtr{. Taxuu ,o6pas,olr, tsK,'rrcqeHHe B qr.rcJro KycrapHbrx 3alBeIeH[]ft uernrpex ..0a,6paxn ,cpa3y r,r3MeHfi,Io <<,cpeAHHe UnSpu>> 47. flo noAcqerau B. U. ,rleur{ua. s 1894/95 f. qerbrpe xpyflHbrx 3aBeAeHufl, trpoAcratsJr,r]our?re co6ofr KarIH'Ta,'IH,crHr{ecKIie r,taHySaxrypbl rIH,croro rlrlta, KorHqeHTpruponanu 5 ceuerislrx pa6o'u'nx u 56 Haevulrx (racero 6l), r.'e. sa 3aBeIeELIe lnpaxo,IruJocb rrto l5 Haet,rHb]x ,pa'6ouux. tflo cpaeneHLIIo c 54 ue,rxuux 3arBeAeHH.gMr4, IIa Kax(,A,oe I,Ig Koro.pL,rx B cDerHeM irlpltxoAl,L'tocb no 4 pa6ouHx, oHI{ HMeJI,I{ r6onlure ,nonoez,Hlr HaeMHbrx pa,6ounx r.r rp'l.t flrrrbrx Ecero rBa.rroBoro Aox,o,Aa, 1t6o npoI{3'B'OAHTeJrb'HOCrb rpyAa oAHofo pa6ouero,B KD}4rrHbIX 3arBe-{eHHrrx roqrr.r Brpoe Bbrrrre, qgM B cpeAHnx (800 n 286) n 6o.tee qeM Brq_ repo Bbrrxe, qeM MerlKr.rx_saBeAeHHfi (800 n 14l py6.). 3apa6orHas. fiilara HaeMrHbrx pa,6ourx ,Ha <<Qa,6pu.Kax>> 3Haqr{TeJrtsHo Bbr_ Ixe, qeM Ha MeJrKr.rx flpeArn,pusrr.rax (84 n 4S). 9ncrtril Aoxo,{ Sa6praxaHroB rcocratBJrsn 6o.rree 1000 pv6. .Ha ceMbro nporr.tB 90 p{9:- y_cpeAHrrx npegrrp_risrr.rft u 60,b py6.-y -ur '*"n,n"i ^ycrapefi 48. ,rlo AaHHbrM 1897 r- ror'rrrKo s ' Vcrl-(n,ureprcxoii AeH ,6bIr'I orMerr4Tb,

cocrorHHrr rycrapnorl npoMbuxreHHoc.rH, crp. l6t. fj puepx B ,(eftc'renre,'lbHocrr.t uersrpe. Cr,l.: B. V. 11 e lr il s. flo,rn.

as

r.2, crp. 370. Ta6,ruqa.

a6 Ouepx cocroflHurr

"

co6p. cou.,

xycrapuoli npoMbrrxr,reHr{ocru, crp. l6l.

u'repK_ cocrosHur x,vcrapuori npoMbrrrrr,reHHocn{, crp. 40, l5g u lgg. - HTorax ra6luqsr ecrr orug6xa lJ uJ'rr{ oleqarKa. Ha 6g raHarHo-eeoeBoqHblx KpecrbfiHcKr.rx SaBeaeHHfx pa60ra,ro 343 pa60uvx (ua nax 143 naenaHnrx) c cyuuoft npoa3BoAcrBa ll5.ruc. py6., 4^6 xosgee- l0l pa6ouzfi (gl naennsrfi) lr cyMMa npor'r3BoacrBa 8l ruc. py6. 3ro rr.rnprqHbre o6pasuuxu oprauuqecxori

uaHyQarrypsl (no Maprcy),

r. e. raxoft uanyQaxrypir, n

xoroilori

pa3Hbre

paooque ucnoJ'tHfltor pa3JII{qHbre onepaqfifi nocneAoBareJrlnofi o6pa6orKr{ cbr_ pbr: t) -rpenaHne neHb-Ku; 2) uecanue; 3) npsaenne; 4) cneprundnue e <<6yx_ rrlHbr>; 5) crrlo;leuue. 6) palvarrrraur.r-e ua '6apa6aue; '7) nionycrina. co craHKa B npoAbrpt3reHHyro aocKy; 8) nponycxaHfie rs{terl-s rryfyHHyroBry!'r"nro*

Kyi

HH

ot

y,

cKpyquBanwe

xfyroB,

cBr.rBaHr.re

KaHaroB

H.-llonn. co6p. cou., r. 3, crp. 396-397). 'co6p. '"r. 4E B. U. JI e n u H. flo,'rg. cou.,

2,

lr

co6upauue r.rx

(8. I4. "t e-

crp. J7O-371. Ta6nuna.


'Ocnnqee,cKoiii so,'r,ocrsx'KyurypcNofo ye3Aa .KsrHZTorB I{ BepeBoI( BF,rAed'rbrBaro,cb Ao 22 rstc. rryr. rHa cyMMy 51500 py6.4e. B 1898 r. s nxuoii qacrr.r I4p6nrcxoro ye3Aa 6uno 40 BepeBoqHo-npflAuJlbHbrx 3aBeAenuii ico 115 pa6oralourliMLI ,cer{et"{HblMLI 'u 87 uaeuilltlra 'pa6ouimrr4 r4 cyMMoft upou,seo4crBa or 56 ao 57 tltc. py6.50.

rlucroro AoxoAa rHa Ka)K,Aoe 3aBeAoH'lle lIIpHX'oAI{,'Iocl,1o 32 I'py6. B ro,x,. llpa.lenrne rBepeBoK trlpor{3'Bo.rrlJo'cb IIpetrMylqecrlBe}nH'o B 3HMHee rBpeMfl Ha Ae'peBrrHHblx cra'HKax rnpocreftruerl xou,crpy,xHa'crarH.Kax c KOIHHbIM InpulBoAoM.

I\Hrr, a'B KpynHblx 3a,BeAeHllflx

Taxux'saeeAeHuri,6u,ro

rpn (e- Cropo4oucxoft .eonocrz). Ha o',u,crtple- BoJIoKB l2ea-

HOM CTaHKe {pa,6OTa,1O He r\{eHbIIIe rpex'qeJloBex. Ho KoHoIIJTH ,Ilprr4roronJrfl,rro'cb B co6crseHjHolt xogqficlse.

ae.q,eHr.rrx ye3Aa

roAoBan rsupa'6orxa co,cra's,'Iqna 805 inyA.

,Ha

cyMMy 2633 py6.

B l90l-1905 rr. EeHr,paMlI

BepeBoqHo-KaHarHoro

as O6sop fleprracr<oft ry6epHur.r

1897

npot4'3rn,or.-

crBa ocraBar'rr.rcb l4pi6'urcxr.rfi, Kyu,ryp'cxuit u llepu'cxufi yesAol, p a3BIlTOe .Bep eB,oqHo- KatH alHoe r[poH'38o,{cTBo H Mer'I',I,I uo,'II.I Ka,M cxr.rii yes,u,. KpytnHue 3arBe.qeunl grHX ye3AoB LIMed'tIr or 17'ao 35 pa,6ounx. TarK, a I4p,6nrcrov ye3Ae, s Cropo4oltcxoft BoJIocrI,I, B J. Mo"roxoBo rB 3aB€Aeutrn A. f. 'flosouapeea pa6orano 35 qeJoBeK, BaBe,IeHLIe rpa6orar-ro rpyrnriit r,o.1; y A. H. fl,ououapesa-20 pa6ovax, par6ora r,Jttuilacb 8 ,raecq'qen; ,I{ y f: A. Monoxosa- l4 pa6ouux, patlaluit rnepruoA- l2 Mecquee5l; y H. tr'L.i[pervruHa B Bbice,'r.Kax !,peuHu Vcrr- Kumeprcxofi Bor'IocrLI Kynrypcxoro ye3Aa pa6ora.ro l7 qe,rosex B rer{eHue B ltecsqee 52. 3Aecr'6ot,'rr4 3aBe.[eH]4s c 6,8, 9 u 56 pa6o'uuulr. B 4. lo,rqupeno Vcm-l(rarueprcxofi Bo,'rocrn B KaHarHo-npflApr,rbHoM 3aBeAeHHII Kpecrbfluusa H. E. lon.4rrpeBa, ocHoBaHH,oM B l856 r.,,Bbtpa6arbnBa,'tocb Ka,Har0B, 6yroH,pruux cuacreli, BepeBo,K, oTBopor Il nreftnore pasHbrx coproB 12 rlrc. nyr,. Ha 5l,B ruc. py6. Pa6ouux 6u,ro 48. B sa'sereHr.ir tI. O. f,o,r,r,br,pesa, oorroBaHHoM re 1825 r., pa'6otaJ'ro 56 H€,i-r. 'Llx foAoBaf rnpoH3Bo[rITe.rbrlocrb cocraBr,qra 32,3 rurc. p"v6. B A. Huexaq, rB KaHarHoM r3&rBeA€HHH H. K. ApeMH,Ha (oouoeauo a 1875 r.), 'nupa6ari'lea,'Iocb K8,H3ToB Ha 40,7 ru,c. py6. H rrrfiarara ua 2,1 ruc. py6. Pa,6'ora,'ro 37 qe;roreer. B eaeereHriru fI. C. KosHHa (ocuonaHo e 1882 r.) artpa6orxa ,r,ocrr.rfra 23 ruc. py'6. Pai6our.ix l6u,ro 44,'n ror't iqtrcJle Ha .4ouy 7. B ga,neAesur{ C. A. A,peuuHa (oc,H,onanHoM s l88l r. rH tHaxo,{HrBlr€MCfi in ,1. !,peunua) raHaron mupal6arllBa,Toicb ua 22,2rutc. py6.v m,nafaroB Ha 1,1 rurc. py6. Pa6oqnx6u,ro34.B.q.Me.uee.c,eso, Ocuriqencxoft Bo,'rocrn B 3aBeAeHar{ r{eqaHuHa M. O. Mer50

sa

r., flepuo,

<Ileplrcrne ry6epncxre Be.[,oMocrur)i, 1898, crp. 5l i{enxue npoMbrrrl"qeHHbre 3aBeAeHl'rfi , crp.151. r'2 Tav xe, crp. 88.

1898, crp. 47

248.

93


BeAeBa 19 pa6o,uuun nlrpa,6artrBa,'rocb_Ka'HaTOiB,,BepeBO.K 1l{ t[rllararolB rB .oa nu 8 ruc. py6. 5t. y 14. 14. Jlanreea ie ;1' Ou"rlua KHracoscxoi'I'Bo,'Iocr[ Co,nuravcro'rc ye3Aa rB KaHarHo-BepeBoqHoM 3a'BeAein'un'6r,tno 24'pa6ouux, pa6ora \[poro,'I)Ka,'Iacs-7 vecrrleB B fo.qy54. y K. E. d,rpa3Hr4Kosa 's A. B.-Byrranosa Vnsu'H'

cxoft so,rocrn flep'ucxoro yesla par6oralo 20 qeroieeK, pa6ouurt

fiepuoA- B'cero 4 ueosua 55. B sateeAeFII'114 tl'H')KeHepa-TexHoi]ora H.^ H. HorB,oKpeueHHbIX B 5,. @po;roea, B.-My,lnn-H'cxofi Bo,ryo'crl'l

flepu,cxono y6saa 6utto 24 pa6our'rx.-B ro4 'nupa6arblea,tocb KaHaroB H tsepeBoK ,Ha 27,3 rirc. py6. 56.

Taxuu o6paeou, KarnarHo-BepoBoerH'o€ lilpo'n3BoAcrBo'Bo'BTopoft no,ronuHe XIX BeKa HaxoAud'locb Ha pa3r'lnqHblx craAllrx coIril aJrbHofo pa3BHTI,Ifl: ,or MeJIKI'IX 'saeeAeHuft rn Qopue KaTIIHTaJIIIcrfi,{eCxOfi Cenreilnoil KOonepaqu14 Ao KpyIIHbIx re QOpirne Ka[Ill'Ira,rr.rcruqecKofr uaHySarrypli (npnloH'Ire I{ cKpyqrfi'Ba'HHe nepenox)

fi

KAilUTArrH'CTI,lqeCKOft $a6pnxu. B,raAe,rlqax{'H'Mer'KI',IX lilpeAnparraii 6u,ru 'no rltpetlMyxrecrBy KpecrbqlH_e, 'MaHyQaKTyp H

Qa,6pux - rop,ryto,uue KpecrbqHe I'I KyrIIrbr. Cpe,1,u lB,'lare,'lbueB I4p6nrcxoro ye3Aa Bcrpeqa,r[cb Kp'ecrbaHe, BL{xoAIrbI saeeAeul.rfi ua ApAaroeoKoro ye3Aa HNxero'poAcxoii'ry6epHran.

Ka'saruo.sepeBoqHoe lnpoH3rBo!,crBo recHo 6bulo cBfl3aHo c

p

agiEI4TI'I€M TOpIOBCTO'3eMJ'leAe,lll'Ifl

/H'KaIII4TaJIll'lCTl{qeCKI'lX O'rHO-

lurenuft ,B KpecrbqHcxolt xo3qftcree. C6llr rtpo,ryKlrrna ocyu{eclBJflroq caM.ocToqTerbHo KpecrbqrHaMH-Kycrap'fMH n qepe3'cKyIIIIIi4KOB Ha topHble 3aBOAbl, Ha qpMapKI.{, KpecTbflHaM, 3aHI',lMaBIIII4MtCfl I.ISBOB'OM, CyAO;BJrale,'IlqaiU. B ro x{e EpeMs pa3MeuleH[e ea'Be,{eHI.{ft rIIo lIIpoimrBdAcrBy KarHaToB, BepeBolK u nepeeo,uuoft

ro, qro roprHo3zlBo.Il,c{Koe Ha3ro eure pa3 AoKa3bt'1Baer ro, o,6ecneqe,Haq .roua,leti LI xopos xop-

c,6py,IE rl'o ry6epHxrn yKar3bltBaer Tia ceJIeHrI{e orofo rlr'poMbr,cJIa iHe 3Ha!'r'o.

rITo, r4Mefl

rcerHoKo,cbr

A,rg

MOM, fOpHO3ZI;B,O.{CKO€ HaCeJreHUe'Ce,'Ib'CI(HM XOSgiiCrg'ON',l, KaK TaKOIBbIM. He 3aHHMad'lOCF,.

[a,u,uul,m rno [por{'3BoAcrBy xo,'Ircra MbI rrror{Tr,I H€ 'pSerlo;'ItraeM, TaK KaK ero eupa6orxa HocrrJra, Mo)KHo,npeAloJrafarb, xapaKTep AorM auHefo I]p o'rr'3BOAcTB a.,f]rp Il geM q a,cTb AoM aIrIH'I.{x 3 a BeAe-

vuir '6rtna rIaJIfi

lr

XOJICTbt 3aBo,u,ax.

it

irIpOAarSau'r'U

V rpecrlflH

cKynu1tIKH rcKy6O,'rU[IHMn lIIapTl4flMrt{ Ha gpMapKaX

)noAqnrHeHa 'cKynIr.1r.IKaM.

fi,rrra xpynuaroqHbrx ]reJrbHltu rno p. I4'cerh e 1875 r. rBJraJLeJbqa,lru ,6lr.no 38'roro'Br'reHo xoJrcra 3930 ruc. ?,orrrnrH. 3ror xo;rcr 53

Cnscox $a6pnx H 3aBoAoB, crp. 104,

sa Talr xe. 5s Tau xe, 56 Cnucor

cro. crb.

45. 68.

Qa6pur<

94

r.r

3aBoaoB,

crp.

105.

105.


3aKyflaflcq rHa flpMapKax lno 5 'Kon. 3a apul'IH 'HA 'CyNlMV 196500 pV6. n y Aolcra'BJlfllBlllux efo Ha Me"IbH'I'lIrbI - oKpecrHr'Ix np".to"it' Ixarepu,n6ypricKoro' Kalllrur,roecKofo'n ILIa^ptl'n'cxoto ye3AoB "'. "B o6sope flep,u,cxofi ry6epnun ea 1897 rr. lrpoMe/Ir,KHyr'Io coo6ureurne o lov, qro iB KatMlru:,ro'scxol4 ye3Ae pacnpocrpaHeHa ,npqxH. l4'3foroB6sI.na Bu"[,eJIlKa AoMalx,Heto xo.rrcTa H3 r'rbHfllHOtr cyN{My OKoJIO Ha a.purl4H rltc. 314 OKOJI'O npoAa>KH ;-reHo A,'rf fipllMI4r'l4B'Hufi. 3Aecl >Ke, otc-o6eHrHo 'B 32 ruc. py6. llpovuce.l Ao 129 qeroeex frn"q^ofi," Karad.roilr ,u Hr.rxonrcNoft reono.r'x, 58' Ha 3axa3 oAex{Ay 'Kpecrb'qH'oKyI'o r.ISroToBntuIu B 1889-1893 rlr. Aefi'crrBoBa,Ila Bcerfo oAHa fit'Ho{fipflAunbHaq MexaHlrqecKaq rKaqKarr Qa6praxa E' T. )Kuparxosoft'npr .1' Koiuourxunofi ExarepNn'6yprcKoro ye34q. Ha $a6puKe . paOora"Io 207 qenoeeK, B Tol/t quc.tre )KeH[luH - 89, noapocrKoB: 4 ltyxcxofo TIIoJI& il l0 xeHcxoto5e. Lo lB93 r. Elacrb 'pyq'Hblx rKaT\KI'Ix cTaHKO,B,6Hna SaMeH€H21,MeX2rHliqegKllMLL Pyunlre ctarsKll 6u,tt't po3Aa,Hbr TKaqarM, rKoTopbre TKailv a,ln sa6pnKH, Inoflyqatl oT Hee qeM Ino'3ilpnxy. lloarouy $a6purxa iBbllnycKaJla 6o,ruue'[o"I'orua' 60. B 1901 r' 'r.rMeB[rrl4ecs craHKI'I T,KaUK]re ,nefi sa 'nasroft Bo,'rqjlr.r

6a6pure, rlpllHaAJle)Kasmeil B. C. XnprKoBy, HacqnrHearocn 188 gSOt pa6oqux. @at6puxa BbIIIycKaJIa ,'IbHflHbIe MeIIKI'I f - oKo"lo' OKor'Io HI4rKH, ,'IbH'HbIe py6., cy,poeble ruc. 200 Ha rrrr. rurb. 800 40 ruc. p6. foaonarr rrporl,3BoAllrerbHocrr Sa655 "u rurc. py6' llepepa6arlrsa,'Iocb 'TbHa J.o b rbl'c' 'nye.240,0 ""i.. pr4KH oKoJIo 25 tot.. py6., xylenn ag^3Q rbl'c. rnyA. rua 80 TlIc' py6'u'' iV". "' Jluronpaaaninaq'rraura's "u Sat6plrra <T-eo <Rf' Xtaxapoelt>> Bltrpa6arunana rr. ,ocuoBaHa r.-E'x-arepuu6ypre. iB e lB98 6u.ira oHa .IIb-HgHbIe,Metu,Kr.r. loAoeaq rIIpot43BoAr.rTer'IbHOCTb sa6puxn 358 ruc. py6., xonunrecrno pa6ouux-48362. co crotl,HHe Kp a ,Il,op].r,coreu n aer Ka p rr.r Hy rn p oH 3'BoACrB a xO Jricra cHJrrrH,oro ,r.rJri{ c?r,Hr.rJrbHofo-,iteJra. ll,po,ratrcul oTOT B lleplacxoft'ry-

oKp a'IIrH 6ep Hnu Hocz JI HCK,rtIoeI{r€r'IbHo p e M ec^Jle5 ur-rft x a p aKrep 63. B KynrypcKoM ye3Ae' 'B BoKpecrbtlH rKaHefi BaH'r4e AoMaTIIIHI{x ,,,rocrrrx AcoecNofi Eepesoncxoft r.r vrcrl-Ku urep rcro it SI4H'H JI bHbI M

-

,

3aqqro 6lt,ro Ao 25 rqe.['oeex 'c qurcrblM AoxoAoM .x,o py6., npu cyMMe .r'porl3'BoAcllea 670^0 Py6.un. flo Aa,nsltu 2'ruc. Ha 1899 r. n yesAe 'eltpa6arunadllolcb ao 1300 apull'IH xo,'I'ureBblx IIDoMbI,c,'roM

57

ilfB,

1876, N9 26. ss O6sop fleprurcxofi ry6epHr'rra sa 1897 roa, se fAnO. S.-65, on. 1,.n. 132, ,'r. o6. 60 Tau xe,-.n. 2 o6. 6r Cnucox $a6pur I'I 3aBoaoB' crp' 105.

I

62

Talr

crp 4l.

x<e.

63 Cu.: B. 14. JI e n u s. flons. co6p. cou., r- 2, crp. 329. 64 O63op fleprrlcxoft ry6epnnr.r ga 1897 r., crp. 46.

95


cKarepreli. C6lreanncr oiHr{ Ha ,flpMaprKax Ky,urypcroro, flep'ucKoro, Octtu'oxor,o u I(,pacuoy$rlucxoro ye3AoB 65. Traqxnfi npo]rbrce,r (ro,r,cra) 6rrn pasenr e LlIa4prnHCKoM yesAe, r4e uu 6u-

,ro 3aHsro oKoJro 1300 qe.lo'sex66. Bo.nee ,no4po6uue cBeAeHr.rrr o oupa6orKe xo.rrcra Mbr Mo)r(eM noqepmHyTb r43 ,,{sHrHbrX o Kpacfi,'rbHbrx 3aBeAerrr{flx iB ry6epHnn. [4x Ha{c.rrirbr,Ba,ro,cb: 67 e l865 r. 9 c ,cynruoft tlpor{3'BoAcrrBa - r.-27 c cyuvoft 6301 py6. 1992 py6..npu l0 par6o,{rx; re 1878 upu 3l pa'6oveu (n ror.l qficJre 27 celreftHtrx B KpacuJrbHbrx 14 Ha6r.rnuux);s 1885 c ,cyr,nroft 5000 py6. fipu 22 pa6ou,nx; s Ocl.rHcxotr ye3Ae Kpaca!'rbHbrM rrpoMblc,'roM 3aur4Ma,rocl 45 AsopoB c qeHHocrbro mpor.r3BoAcrsa re 1820 py6.68. B 1900 r. a Erarepau6yprcKoM ye3Ae Kpacr.rJrbubrM [poMbrcJoM,3aHrrro 6amo20 .4Bopo'B s l3 ce,'reHrrrsx tc cyr.ruoil [porr'3{BoAclna 6489 py6. 6e.

r.-12

B l90l-1905 rr.

,Haoqr.rrbrBaJrocl

qLI'croM Pal6oqux 637, ogu oKor'ro 929 rlrc. py6.70.

cnelyer

445

cHHHJrb,Hbrx

saeelegnft,c Ha cyM]ry

npoLr3BoA1L'r'1,1 rnpoAy,Kq,,rrv

3a,Merr.rTb, qTo {B Kpacu,lrbHbrx 3aBeAeH{r4flX o,cyqecTB-

r'rtJlacb clIHbKa xo,rlcTa H IIpgX(lr rB MOTaX. cilglra x,odllcTa oueHr.rBaJracb or 3 Ao 14 xon. 3a apurlH, rrp-rrxrr or I 4o 12 ron. :]_a QyHr. tflounuo c?rHeHufl, n,po,r.r3B,oAr.Jralct ,sa'6ofixa xo,'rcra Ky6o'eoii xpacKorl, nosroMy rB clMM! trr,por{,3BoAcrBa orrlx ea,ee4eHrail BoIIrJra'cro'LlMocrb Bcex'BbItrIo,'IHeHHbIX D a6o,r. O4Horo 6en,o'ro xoJr,cra rno KaMbrrx,'roBcKoMy, KyHrypcrouy, -6u.no O^xau,oxouy, flepu,crouy u ExareprrH6yprcxovy ye:4an n 1878 r. ocHHeHo rr {npou3Be,AeHa ua6dftr<a riy6oeoft xpacroft 188800 apulr,H, np'r.JqeM rB flepn,tcxov ye3Ae, ,B IZrbr.rucx,ofi'sb,,rocrn (5 a;agenlqee), Cpe4He-E'r,arHoxoii rBo,rocrr,r (s. A. Ca4xoeofi) H s Kpi{rBerrr<o.rt so,'rocra (1. KnenrruHa 14 a. Cy66oruHa) (e,cero oKparrreHo xoJr,cra I l0- rsrc. apurrln Ha !^'91aaernt3ee_) 6lr"ro 2970 py6, Pa,6oraln ,caMl.r 'BJraAe,rrbrlblc ceMbrrMrr{ 71. B Oxancrolr ye3Ae 8 snaAe,'rrqeB-KpecrbflH npr4 AByx HaeMHbrx pa6o,uzx oxpacHJ[r ,B rc:,1lt:f'Hit 'U roryi60ri r_kBeTa 22 Tbrc. aprur.rH xoJrcTa fi{a 1207 py6. 3.u,eco rnpoMbrceir t6br,t paanpo,crpaHeu ,s na,sro,Bcrorl,

-tsosHeceHcxoft

H HoeounluHcxofi

Bo,'rocrflx. 3aseAeHaq 6H,,rz

6t Tair xe, sa 1899 r., llepur, 1g00, crp. 43. -^^_lu ^Ojqop_Aeqrer'rbHocrr.r 3eMcrB 1897) Cn6, 1897, crp.90. 67

sa

3a

1878

€qer^br_u

no xycrapHoil

rpor\{buxJ'reHHocru

(1865-

r. IIfHA_CCCP, 0.20, on.3, er. xp.2349, ,r. l9 o6. (crp. 14); CCCP, 0. 20, on. 12, ea. xp.'t51 o6, nn.4l0-,ibl. noarpynrrrpoBKa Harrra; 3a 1885 r.-ldfUA CCCP, 0. 20, on. 12, et. 1865

r.-IlfI4A

xp.255, a.8.

68 lI C. C ll r o e. Ouepx 4na.4qaruneruefi AeqreJ'rbHocril OcrHcxoro eelrcrna. Oca, lB9l, crp. 15. 0e O_6sop flepnicxorl ry6epuuu ga 1900 n., flepnm, 1901, crp. 2O-Zl. /u .A{e,'rKHe npoN!bnrJreHHbre 3aBeAeuur, crp. XIV-XV. 71 II|I4A CCCP, 0. 20, on. 12, ea. xp. [5] 6, ,r;r. 429-4b7.llo,(cqerar n

fp) nnHpoBKa Haun. 96


o6opygoeanbl oAHttM-ABy,laa xy6auu, pe.il,Ko rpeMs' Cpe.uu r'na.l.rlqau BaeeAe'nft 'e Oiaucrou ye:4e-6stnn xpecrs'ue E.na,6yxcKoro ye3Aa Bqrcxoli ry6eprgrx's. rKaK It rKauKHe xoJITaralr 'o6pasou, KpacI'lJIbHbIe 3arBeAgHllf, .p eMecJIeHHorc fi poI,I.3 BoAI-r auHero al{Tep Xap Ao'M IIIoBbIe, HOcI4,,Iu

3aKa3qI'IKo'B I,r Ha .c,oMy Ha 'cKynlr{l4KoB)' C;r6AoearenbHo, I\1ac"'lor6ofi'sue 3aBeAeH'fitl KarK 'B /u-x' raK 'l'I e 90-x fo.u,ax MeJIKHe (c l-2 pa'6our'rir'rn). B 1878 f' K.'H'H3IUeMy pa3pflIy fpynllbl MeJI'Krx {yc^rap!b]ll- {nprl'tr112Ont*aJlo IJb saBe-

crea (par6orbl Ha

x'eucrueuy 2; B 1894-1895 r. Hs 185 rz'cc.rre^oBaHHblx ' saperl{crpI'r'poBa uo 207 ) K HI'l3IxeMy p a3psAy- orHo(acero'6r,tno drno.o 109, x rcf eaHety i'l K 'Bblo'uevy -27 3,rB€A€HI{fi' Macno6oirsue 3alBeAe"HHfl flepurcroil ry6epHur.r, 'B orr'Irnq'I{e or ApyrHX aropoft 'JI.JI'6'''IHbI X IX,sep a riOHoe CTp srHbr, H a nlpbrfl 'neHilH'sceii !Mer.lKAMI4. Ka OCTaBaJII4Cb KauarHux 'saeeAeHuft 6Hno is 1878 r. 24 'c- cyurraoft lnpon'snog'o*ono 136 rtrc. py6.v qHcJroM pa6ouux 311-321. 3 saeeAe"""u Hr4fl flrB,'r,sJrl{Cl Qa,6p,r.rraM'v, 14 sa,eeAeuuft 'oTIIOCI,IJIHICb K CpeAHepa3N{y pa3pqAy Me.II,KHX KycrapHblx- 3a'BeAeHnft u 7 - K 'BbltcileMy oqnv rbii )Ke rpy,rrrbr."B 1894/95 r. roJtb'Ko B'yeeAax 6u,ro sapeirct"prp*a,no i64 3aBeAe'HH'fl 'c cyuuoft lttpol'{3'BoAcr^B^a oKo"lo O6c.n-eaosaHo 6stro 6U 3a'BeAe107 iuc. ,py6. 'np'n 317 pa6ouux. 'r"raHy$axtypuofi craAI4I'I, 49 nuh, us r<bropix 4 - ttusurero pasprAa, 7-cpe4nero n 8-Bblclrero pa3pflAa'rpyilrlbl MeJIKI'IX

len'ut

flpoMblcr'Io'B. B rua'qa.ne XX tcrolerllr rKaHarHo-BepeBoqHoe n,pox,SBdAcTBO COXpaHLtJrorcb H, ;g.aK'6U1O tnora3SrHo DbI-

kyciapuux ure,

m,p u Oi6p

ilpfiA'ivn '

a p a Krep KpyIITHOTO rKal[I,IT a JI H C1II'IqgCKO1O uany'$axrypu n Qa6puru'

eTa JrO x

'o-Qoprrae

ifl p

eA-

He,n'eeCin,O, .CxO.'lxO rKpecTbrrH ,s 1875 rr. i'rPOI{B'BOALIT'IO Ha AO-

My xo,'I'crbl AJIS rrpoAaxn.-lluopa 3930 ru'c. aptu-I'IH xoJl'cra, 3aKln;'IeHHoro AJI'g KpyIIqa'TOrIHbIx MeJIbHI'Iq Ha cyMMy 196,5 ruc' py6', qTo t11poMbrceJr 9TOT f51n rp33BI,Ir AaeT otoHo,BaHne ,n,peAlr,o!]raraTb, ,IL'IO rBbIAe,tKy Cxarepreft, OAe)KAbI. Ha 3HaqnTeJrbrHO. MnOro JIbHa g tAgZ r. ua oAsoit JIbHorKaIrKoft Sa6puxe n ry6epuua s r' Erarepuul6vpre gupa6orano 6u.tto xoJl{cra rnpn'215 pa6or{Hx Ha 27b rui.' py6. KpacuJrbHoe 'r,rJ'rr.r cr.tHr.rJrbHoe InpoHsiBo,u,crrBc Hocl'IJIo peMecJreHrHbIft Xa'p axrep. - Haroueq, MbI 'EnAI'IM, qro rnpoqeoc pa3Bllrl'll rop'foBoro eeM,,'IE,U,ETH'I 'B ,CB'I3'I'I'C EMK?IM IEHYTPCHHNM PbIHKOM 'I''IYOOKO IN'POHII'IK

B KpecTbqHcxy1o o6uuHy coqH

a

,r.r ,BbrS,BaJI

JrbHolIIpoTHrBdII'oJIox(rHbIe

SHaq11TeJllttltfi ee pacKOJI rga

fpyffIbI.

MHorue'KpecTbfllIloKI{e rIIp'oMbIc,'IbI cJIy]Kl'Ll'H Xapa'KTepHbrM npil3HaKoMln|p'oqeccapa3JIoxeHn'IKpecTb'IH.cTBalHaceJlbcKI,IH npo;rerapnaT LI ceJllrcKyro i6ypxya'3Hlo, a ral(xe $opltofi paBEHrrnr 6ypxya3ublx KJlac'coB rB lpaJlbcrKon AepeBHe.

7

Banvcx

2


v,rI,K 930.8

II. A.

Oeu6enuru

HJIbI,IHCKNN TEATP B XIX BEKE OAHo ras cnoeo6pasHefiruux flB,'reHr{rl pyccxori xH3HH XVIII--. XIX sn. npeAcraBrqer co6orl rpenocrHofi rearp. Muc.nl o6 ucno,lb3oBaHu?r 6ecn.narHoro rpyAa KpenocrHbrx AJrfl Tearpad'rbnbrx sareri sosHr{Kaer floqrn oAHoBpeMeHHo c HaqaJroM npoQeccnoua,rrbHoro rearpa s Pocclru. Ho ro,utxo B FraqaJre 1770 roaoe 6ul orKpbrr oAr.rH us paHHHx KperrocrHbr-x rearpon_ (r rrprMoM cMbrcJre orofo cJroBa) rearp -4onraurHrzft rpa0a lI. E. IIIepeMereBa B ero trroAMocKoBHoM HMeHr.rH Kycxoso. A x uaua,ly XIX e. n Poccllrl ylKe <<He 6u,ro Hn oAHofo 6oraroro noMelqlrqbero AoMa, rAe 6u He fpeMed'Ilt opKecrpbl, He ne,Tr{ xopbl ra rAe 6u He Bo3BbIIralrrlcb rearpaJrbnbre noAMocrKa, Ha Koropbrx npuuocl4Jrn [oclrJrbHbre x(eprBbr 6ornssu HcKyccrBa AoMopoqeHHbIe aDTLICTbI>>'.

9rb >xe o6yc.nonnno raKoe rxr4poKoe u

crpeMHTed,rbHoe pa3-

Br.rrue r<penocruori crleHbI?

ocHosHaq npilqr,Ha d'iexa,'ra n canaoli sKoHoMr.rqecKoti c,ucreQeo4a.nnHo-[oMerIIHqbeft Poccun, nossoruerrreft K KoHrrv

Me

XVIII B. cocpeAoroqarb B pyKax ABoprrHcrBa

HecMerHbre 3e_

60rarcrea I{ oKoHr{arenlHo saxa6 aJlLlTb KDeCTbflHCTBO. <<llouecrls HeKoropbrx BeJrbMox-[Ileperuerenux, CrporaHo'nux, fonuubrHbrx, AnpaxcraHux, lloreuxuHsrx, Bopouqo"ir*, er3yM-o_BcKHx r.r Ap. He ycryrraJrH e csoeft pocKotxrj ABopy> 2. Ho rlanHyrc pod'rb, KaK'[I][Ier HccJleAoBare,,rb rrlo I{cropHLI pyc_ Koro ApaMarr.rqecKofo rearpa C. C. AanuJroB, r.rrparr{ coqna,rrb_ Hbre H noJ'rHrr.FrecKre npHr{HHbr: Bo-[epBbrx, HMeHHo s lTZ0 foAax ABopflHcKafl apHcroKparufl BbIHyx{Aena 6lt.na orofiru or aKTr{B_ Hofo yqacrrrfl B rroJruruqecxofi )Kr.rsHr.r crpaHbr, a B cBq3H c srrzM o6ocrplr.nocb ee crpeM.rreHne BceMepHo rroAuflTb 3Har{eHHe poAoBbIX nOMeUIHqbljx <<BOTITHH>>, IIpoTI]BOIIOCTaBLTTb I,IX LrMflepaTOp_ cKoMy ABopy, H, Bo-BTopbrx, c usAaHlreM uaHraQecra <06 yu_ L M. U. flr,l ,rqer. Io;ry6apcKae 3arer{. <<ltlcropuuecxuii eecrnur>, lgg6, MeJIbHbIe

ceHra6pl. 2 3nr.

98

EecKuH. Kpenocruofi rearp. M. -

Jl., 1g27, crp.4.


pex{.qeHIIH .q,'In ynpaB,teHlls ry6epHHflMLt>> (1775) y lnoMecrHoro qro ,lleJlaer ABOpflHCTBa BO3HT.IKJIO TUeCJIaBHOe paBHeHlre Ha ro, <<nepBarr rroMeuIHrIIa>> LIM,rleparpLIqa. Clouol,t, He croJlbKo rfl- cKoJIbKo rd'IaBHbINI o6pa:ou pacr{er.IlilBoe foreHne K ucKyccrBy, )Ke,'raHrie Bo BceM noApaxarb uapcKoMy ABOpy BbI3BaJIO K )Ku3Hrr Kpenocruoli rearp>> 3.

I4ssecreH, xorq I{ qacrl{qHo, pelepryap 22 xpenocrHblx reze 173, :aSuxcHpoBaHHbIX B tlleqarHblx t4 croqHnKax'. arpoB OAsaxo o cytllecrnoBalukr Kpefiocrnoro rearpa ua Vpa,le ue coAepx{Hrcfl cseAeHnli HLI B_ oAHoM KpyrIHoM nccJIeAoBaHI.tIIr IIocBrruleHHoM LIcTOpHLI reaTpa

B oAHoft ua

a.

rtocleBoeHHbIX

crareft lepltcxzft

KpaeBe;l

A. K. IIIapq foBopllr o Bo3HI'IKHoBeHI4I{ e lB25 r' crapeiiruero Tearpa B ce,'le I4.nruucxolr 6, o4HaKo oH He Ae,laer ccbIJIoK Ha [IepBOHCTOqHLIKI'I.

CnepA,roncxul.t co6ltparenerr,t IO. M. Kypour<r'rHuM c-AeJIal{a 11onbITKa co6parl ?l cllcreMarx3I'lpoBarb 6olluroli ir'rarepr.IaJI o rearpaabHoM IIpoIxJIoM Vpala u, B r{acrHocrl{' Tearpa s I,Inrr.IHcxoM, xors pa6ora ero_ I'l He IIpereHAoBaJIa FIa [oJIHory

nepBat

H 3AKOHIIEHHOCTb I,ICCJICAOBAHI,Ifl

'.

B <<I4crop*tu Vpa.na> roBopl4rcn o Bo3HHKHoBeHI'llI e 20 ro.l,ax Koroporo crarla XIX B. Tearpa e tr4rllIHcxotvI, I'IHI4II,I4aropoM 8. 3Aect )Ke orMeiraeTcf , MecTHag KpenocrHafl zsre,l,lurenIlrlg qro B nopb$opueHHufi nepHoa <<'..rearpbl flpuxausa (e rou r{r.rcre n l4.ttrzHcxuir.- il. o.) rroJrb3oBaJrflcb ycnexoM He ToJrbKo y- HHTeJrJrr.rreHqLII4, Ho H y pa6ouero 3putenl>>e. crarle aBrop craBnr nepeA co6oii cJleAyloqre B nacrosuletl

3aAaql,l:HaocHoBeapxI'IBHbIXMaTepI4ar'IOB,MeMyapHoI'IJII{Tepa-

Typbr, nepno4uuecrotl [eqarl'I npo_c_JIer,l'lrb HcropI{rc Tearpa B I,l,rlzncxoir,r Ha nporqx{enI'tlI Bcero XIX e., BbIllBI'Irb xpoHoJIorHqecKlie paMKu ero cyqecTBoBaHHf ' penepTyap ucIIoJIHgeMbI\ npoLIsBeAeHLrft , coctan ucIIo,'IHI'ITeJIeti : axrepoe, xyAoxHI4KoB, My3brKaHToB, a raKx{e u coquaJlbHltft cocras spHre.neft. H3 crapblx inoce,resuli llepnncxoi't Ce.no I4,rurHcKoe - oAHoCrporaHoauru, r6otatblM MeIIeHaraM, ry6epnun 3 C.

-,[pHHaA,rIe>KaJIo a H x Jr o n. Ouepxu flo llcroptill pyccKoro ApaMarlrqecKofo rear-

CA

pa.M.-JI., 1948, crP. 144. ' 4 T. A. AuHHr.rK. Kpenocruoir rearp. M'-JI., 1933' crp.. lll-ll2' 53ru. 6ecKuH.KpenocrHoft rearp. M.-J7.' 1927:' T. A. AbIHHHK' Vras. cou., C. C. A a H I.i JI o s. Vra3. coq6 A. K. III a p u. flyrr rearpa. A.nrltasax <flpuxarr,me>, 1947' Ne l0' cro. 324. ' 7IO. M. KypoqKlrIr. I4s rearpaJ'IbHoro npou,'loro Vpa,ra. CnepAnoncx, 1957.

E B. B. M y x r.r n. Ky,'rlrypa Vpa,ra n nepuoA Kafl'tra,'ILI3Ma. B xn. <I4c:ropul l, fleput, 1963, crp. 223-224. Vpa,rao, ' e Taur. xe. cio. 348. 71'


<<...KOTOpble'6lrn;tv U TnOMeIqLIKaMH

I{

3aBOAIIIIKaMn, OCHOBbtBa.ltt

CBOC TOOTIOACTBO HE HA KAIII{TAJ'IC H KOHKYPCHIIHI,I, iluv Lr Ha cBoeM BraAerbqecrou flpane>> 10.

A HA

},IOHOIIO.

flo npocr6e Crporauoaux, qapcKnM yKa3oM l8l7 r. rlx

rlMe-

n flepucxofi ry6epHrau, npeo6pasoBaHo B 3arroBeAHoe, u.nu uaftoparHoe. Maliopar 6u,t pacflo,rro>Keu e llepir.rcrou, OxaHcrou, ConuKaMcKoM, Kynrypcrou u ExarepuH6yprHr4e, HaxoAflrqeecfl

cKoM ye3Aax.

nnn ocyu{ecrB,rreHr.rrr ynpaBd'reHr.rfl ltaftopar pa3Aeirrlrrcfl Ha rrrecrb oKpyroB: tr4HraeHcxufi, Ouepcxr.rft, Bunrirr6aencxurl,,LI,o6pxHcrurl, Vnnv:e.ct<uf1 Vconlcruri. B nux 6unz ceou ynpaBJlrrrcllJ.ue, oKpy)KHbre npaB,rreHKfl LI 3aBoAcKr.re KoHTopbr I]p]r 3aBoAax. Oxpyra 6u.nu pas4eJreHbr ua 30 6o,ree MeJIKr.rx aAMuHncrparuBHbIX eAHHI'Iq, BeAOMCTB, KOTOpbIMII ynpaBu'ITIJIH CeJIbCKHe

lI

3aBOA-

cKHe npHKa3.IHKH. BeAor.tcrsa AeJrI,rJrl,rcb Ha 3e[IcKr.Ie I.{36H, Hflrt rlpocro <<3eMcKHe>>, KoTopbIMH 3aBeAoBaJrH cTapocTbl, a <<3eMcKHe>>

B

CB,OIO

OqepeAb Ap0,6U,'rHCb Ha rAeCflTHH, BO31I1,'IaBUIflgMble CTapO-

)KI4JIAMV.

s 6gr\ux qeprax

crpyKrypa oAsori us xpynHefturur Crporauoaux 11. - BorqlrHbr CrporaHoeu xl4dlri B cBoltx BorrIHHax roJIbKo Ao KoHqa XVII s., x [o3AHee yx(e [orrrr.r He floceilraJrr ux. floaroMy ynpaTaxoea

ropHogaBoAcKHX BorqaH Vpa;ra

B/I'rcUII,IMI.I I,IMCHI,If,MI,I CTAJIh HA3HAqATbCfl dIIIO.U,I 6O,TCC HJI?I MC. Hee o6pasoBaHHbre, Te xe KpenocrHbre, Ho <<rpoueArxr{e Koe-Ka-

Kyro

BbryqKy>>

n flerep6ypre

r{Jrr.r oKoHq?rBrrrue

raM co6craeuHyxr

crporaHoBcKyro ropH03aBoAcKyro rxKo,'ry.

B uarepuaJrax lrcropura CrporaHoeHx O. A. Bo,'rerona cBeAesrarl o rearpe Her, orcyrcrByror raKxe AaHHbre o AeHexHbrx pacxoAax Ha rearp. llepnuir.r, KTo ocTaB[r fieqarHoe cBnAereJrbcreo o6 r{Jrbr{HcKoM rearpe, 6un IL I{. Me.nnsnxon-flevopcxuft, zsnecruuft nucale.nt, aBTop poMaHoB <<B flecax>> n <<Ha ropax>>. B 1837 r. BoceMHaArlarr.rJrerHuft n. V. Me.lttultr<os oKoHr{u.,r KasaHcrr.rri yHuB_epcr,rrer u 6u.n ocraBJreH npr.{ HeM AJrfl ycoBepIleHcrBoBaHnn. Bcxope, oAHaKo, 3a <<ttpoBl,tHHocrb>> oH 6ttl Ha3HaqeH ye3AHbrM yqr4reJreM B 3axoJryctruft IIIa4pnucx llepnncxoii ry6epuun r{ HeMeAJleHHo <<np}r yHr.rBepcr.rrercKoM coJrAare>> oTnpaBJreH o llepuu t2. ilutut 6.naro4apn <<MZd'IocrH HaqaJrbcrBa)> ero ocTaBHJII{ 3AeCb yI{HTeJIeM HCTOpUH II CTaTI{CTr.IKH B rHMHa1HLI.

B flepnrn 6yayurnft rrucarer'rb rrpoxr.lJr r0 B. I4. .II e u u n. flo.nn. co6p. cou.,

, tt @_. C. f o q o a o ft. flaAeslre Vpa"'ra. fleprvru, 1961, crp. 30. t2

n. U. MersHr.rKoB I, 1909, ctp.24.

CfI6, r. 100

L

r.

MeHee AByx Jrer, B 3'l'o

3, crp. 485-486.

xpenoctrofo npaBa Ha roprrbrx saBoAax

(Au.u,pefi flevepcrr.rfi).

flo.rH. co6p. cou. Hep. I[,


Bpellfl BHI{Mare,'IbHo H3yr{afl Kpafi, <<Tax, o}i e3AI'i,'I Ha ypaJlbcK}le 13. 3aBOAbI, Irqa c6,'IHXeHI'1fl c HapoAoM>> Pesy.nrraroM srLIX noe3AoK craJl oAItH II3 ero JIHTeparypHo<<!,opoxHble 3arrllclr.:.z' Ha,nyrl{ I'i3 ny6,ruqucruqecKnx orIbIToB 'I'alr6oscxofi ry6epuull n Cn6upu>, HarleqaraHHble B 1839-1842 foAax B )KypHaJIe <<oreqectneHHble 3aIIHcKH>>. Bor .{io IIH9aJI oH TorAa s eocll{oli rJIaBe <<3anucox>>: <<...O't ,'reKapq r\rbl ornpaBvnucb-KaK BbI AyMaere, KyAa? n rearp!!! Aa, e rearp: s oco6oe sAaHI{e, IlcflpaB,rlqBlxee npex{Ae AoJIx' HOCTb npI{XOACKOTO yqUJII{ilIa' CO CqeHOIO' C OpKeCrpoM' c naprepoM H c KpecJIaMI,t. Illyrnre IA.nluncxolt! B canaofi fleprun Ao cH-\ rrop He BI4AbIBad'In xonaeAufi, 'a s IAnauHcKoM ecrb rearp. tr4- ua HeM Hrparor He crpaHcrBylotql4e cltHu MellrIoMeHbI' Her' aKTepbl HMeror s \4nburcwoM nocroflHHble )KI'ireJIbcrBa II cJlyx(ar <<nncqliKaMu>> B BorqHHHoM rIpaBJIeHuu. Mu Bolllrrn B Tearp' ocBeulegguli ABaA(aTblo caJIbHbIMlI CBeqaMLI r.r AByMq nJIOIIIKaMLI, OT Koropbrx AbrM 14 cMpaA Hocl'i,'Icl ryqerc rlo 3a,'Ie' -Hapo4y 6uno rlHOlKecTBO, rroroMy qTo flycKar'[r B TeaTp aapoM. Mu pasnoxu,lt] HocoBble nJIarKI,t B Kpec,'Iax fi ceJIH. Cnexrax,'tu Haqa,'Icfi.-l4rpaltl O')"' .<CeMeiicreo Crapnvxoeux> (nseca O. O. I4eanoea' -n' Xescrue pod'ILI BbInorHnJIH My)KqHHbl c ycaMu' c He6purofi.6opollyAece qerIIIaX, A CapaQanax I.I ApaAeAaMoBblx IIrarKax' AOtt,'flpuesxze us 11bpnav raflilLr or yaono,nlcrB'fl' xare'rn l4nlio! IIHCKO|O BOCX14IIIaJII,ICb I,I He )KaJIer'IH pyK A,'Ifl anJIOAI4CMeHTOB. H asaA,H Kpt4qailu LI Ap a,'Iucb MyxHKIz, noAry,rqBlxue.. H a, fl pM a pxe' Cnexrax,ni yAunure.niHul?. Xorl 6H H e IepYI raKoft>>.in' Xors e 5rou orpunxe fI. I4. Me.rlHnxog-fleuopcxuft yKa3bIBaJI

Ha orcyrcrBlle rearpantnoit fpynllbl s flepN{u B KoHIre rpi'IAqarbrx foAoB, Ho y>Ke i tg+O r. rpynna fI. A. CoroJIoBa u3 Kasarttr nocerHJra llepml u Barxyrs, 3 c 1843_r. 3ror rearpanlsLtli xo"rr-r€KrHB HaBCerAa nepee3x{aer ua Vpan16.

O6r,lqso oceHblo rpynna lirpaJla e Exarepnu6ypre, o $enpane nepee3xaJra v Vlp6ur, a Jlero [poBoAHr'Ia e fleprrnn. He 6urro 6,recrqqzx Aexopauraft H yMonoMpaqarcuux KocrIoMoB IIpI4t{aAOHH, HO 3aTO pa3blfpblBaJlCfl penepTyap XOpOIxHx

[bec'

dTyqulle

clrnu 6rt.nu KpenocrHble 17. CnyvatiHoe AopoxHoe Bneqard'IeHue fi. Ll. MentHlaxoea-fleqopcKofo Aonor'IHqercg Apytl.rMLI HCTOqHI'lKaMA. 3rO, K IIpIrMepJ,'. 13

Tau xe.

t f7.Vl.

r. ts

1898,

MearHaKoB

(Anapefi lleuepcrnft). Hea. M. O. Bo;rr$, 1897-

crp. 315-316. IO. M. KypoqKItH. 12,

<<Ea6yruxa ypa,'lr,cKoro rearpa-E' A. I'laanoea>>, Ceepa,roscx, 1969, crp. 44. '16 locyAapcrseHiurir apxr.ra flepucxofi o6racru (fAnO), Q. 944, ou. l,

a. 335, .r.

2.

tz [. H. Mausn-Cu6]rpsK. Co6p. cou., crp. 273-274.

r. XII,

Caepa;rorcr,

1951,

t0l


paccKa3 <<Karepuua ArerceesHa>> ypa,rtcrori

A. A. I(upnrulrlxosort qecTBeHHbrx 3aIIIzcoK>>.

Loul

-

corpyAHaqbr

xpenocrHoro, A.

rrr{careJrbHlrqbl

<<ConpenreHHuKa>>

A. I(npnuqnxoBa

AercrBo

x

n

<<Ore-

roHocrb

npoBe,rra B 3aBoAcKll-\ roceJrKax llparaula, rrpeKpacHo 3Ha,rra xiu3Hb H 6ltr HacedrleHnfl grux 3aBo.u.oB n vx otrficaHuro rlocBf r]raf 3 BCrO C BOIO,'t n'rep aryp riyro Aefl TeJI bt{oc'r' b. Ouepx <<KarepuHa A,rexceeeHa>> B[epBbIe Ha[er{araH ero B rasere <<Exarepuu6yprcKafl HeAe,'rfl>> e 1892 r. B ueu Aasa

xapaKrepucrr{Ka orsourenufi, uapr.iBrxux B KpefiocrHoe BpeMrr MelKAy aaeoAcxori rr ylpaB,'reHqecxori apucroKparueh u MoJroAbrMfi C,rry)KarqHMr.l It3 KpenocTHblx, BbIcTyIIaBuIltM14 B KaqecTBe aKrepoB B 3aBoAcKoM rearpe. Ha Qone srHX orHotueHnrl paaurpbrBaercfl Tpafuqecxar r.rcroprrfl Aor{eplr yrrpaBJrrru-,rro6oelcMepTbIo ulefo ll MoJroAofo aKTepa, 3aKoHr{r.rB[Iagct lrocr'teAHelo u cKauAa,rrbHori ceaAo6ofi KarepuHrr AneKceesHH 18. EuorpaQu A. A. Kupnnuruxoaofr, n qacrHocrrr M. M. BepxoBcKag Ie u VL A. !,eprauen 20, yreepxAalor, rrro noA HasBaHHeM ce,ra BocrpeceHcKoe B paccKa3e.onr{caHo ceno trInnlrscKoe-pe3rrAeurlxs fJraBHoynpaBJrflroulero uMeHr.rrrMr.r rpaQa Crporauona

flpuraure. 14 ero BepHo r{e roJrbKo rroroMy, qro cxoAHoe onr{caHr.ie rearpa lrMeercr y ll. tr4. Me,rlnrzxona-lleuopcKofo, Ho H rro MHo)KecrBy 6Hroelrx u ronorpaQHr{ecKr4x Aera,reir, xapaKTepHbI-\ n

To,'rbr(o A.r g tr4,rragcxoro.

<<3ro 6uno AaBHo /rer copoK, a no>xa,ryli, lt c xBocrucrapyulKa-HflHrI, or Jllrqa xoropori BeAercn - ronopuT paccKa3. Ecrn npe4no,'rolKr.rrb, qro A. A. Kupnuuir.rKoBa cdrlylxar'Ia paccKas crapyruKu (o venr oHa H coo6uaer Bo Bcryuleuun) , 4axe 6yAyuu B3pocJrori, s 60-x rf., ro r.r rofAa npocrar apuQlteutKa roAcKa3brBaer, qro BpeMfl 4er.rcrsllR paccKa3a cJleAyer orHecrr.r i{ cepeAr.rue 20-x roAoB XIX s. 22. <<OAHo roJibKo yAoBoJIbcrBHe ...sro Tearp. On y uac cbr3AatsHa BeJIcfl> 23, coo6rqaer AadIIee-paccKa3r{Hl{a, noATBep)KAatr Bbr- B tr4,ryu.rscxolr cyulecrBoBaJr 3aAo,rrfo Ao rroceueBoA, qro rearp Hrrrr ero n. n. Me,rtHuxoeuu-lleuopcxulr. <<llpe4craBJrsJru B HeM KoM...>> 21,

fl.

18 C. 6orocr'roBcKuri. Corpyannqa <CospeMeHHHKa)> n <<OreqecrBeHHbrx sarrlrcox)> nepMcKafl nucarenbHnqa A. A. KtpnulrrKosa. B xu. <<fleplrcxur?.^xp_aene,4recruri c6opHr.rK)>, Bbrn. II, lleprral, 1926, crp. 87. t: A. A. I( r.r p n Ir ut r.r K o n a. rlonecr4 paccKa3bl, ortepKr.t. llepus, 1956, crp. 744. 20 Paccxa3lr r.I noBecru

1956,

crp.

AopeBor'troquoHHbrx

A. Kupnrurr.rKosa. :l A IO.4l.KVpoqKun.

,^__22 1957,

Vxas. cou., crp. 600.

I,Is rearparrbHofo npoutJ'roro Vpa,ra.

crp. 54. A. A. Krprrulrr(ona. Vras. cou., crp.600.

23

102

nlcare,leii Vpa,ra. Ceep4noecx,

483.

Cnepa,,roncx,


ilp14Ka3rIHKr.{ Ir3 BOTTII'lHHOfO }np?BileHI'Ifi, H orleHb xopouo Ii 3aHflTHO [peAcraB,'Iq,'IH. EbUII.r Aa>Ke I'I COBCeM OCO6eHHble aKTepbI' 3a ro roJbKO HM Ll )KaJIOBaHbe rrnarhJrrl, qro oHI'l BTeaTpel{rpa,r1{

tr Ky,'rHcbr pacnHcF,IBaJIu. AKTepoK )Ke Hacrofl[lux cnepBo]Iaqar]r z3oL6pa3IlTb, To He 6uno, a e)KeJIH AeBI4Ily I4JILT AaMy HaAo 24. H3o6pax{a,r>> H c,ryx{aquii noMo,rro)Ke KoTopbrrt Vxe B 3ToM He6orbrxoM orpblBKe MbI HaxoAItM HeKoropble MoMeHrbr, cxoAHble c orIHcaHI4eM I'L'IbHHCKOTO Tearpa y n. 14.Me.ulHhKoBa-fIer{opcKof o.

B rexcre paccKa3a llMelorcfl 6Hroebte Aerad{Il' npeAcraB,IIl-

Iorrlr4e lrgrepec Ar'Iq HCcIeAoBareJIeli IICTop I{rI Kpg[O1THOTO TeaTp a : aKrepa Bacu.rtng Eo6<<...BoJIocbI y Hefo (y repor paccKa3a HocI4JI I'lx A,rlul{Hr'IMII poBa.- il. O.) 6ltnt'r goJHI'IcrbIe, TeMHbIe, A.4q TOTO, I{T06 JOBqCC 6bUIO K AJII4HHbiM BOJ'IOCAM KOCY TIPHNJ'IC' raTb 11 )KeHcKyro npl1qecKy ycrpa].lBaTb. A 6Heano' qro I4 napllK

Ir flapI,IKH y Hac BoAH,rIIlCb, ]I KOCTIOMbI ecfKile25"' Bceny 3roMy (axrepcrortly ucKyccrBy.-il' O.) ona o6yuana HaAeBa,II,

(Karepuna AnexceesHa, repol4Hn paccKa3a' Aoqb yrlpaB/'lqlou.e17. O.) e xonrnaHlzt{ c pex{I4ccepoM, qHHraKoli 6unyoAHoro r43 aKTepoB. 3eanu sTOfO aKTepa Bacu,rneM I4BaHOBUqeM, Ii BCSNI oH B TeaTpe 3aBeAoBarl 14 3aIIpaB,'Ig,'I... t{eIoBex og 6u,r y)Ke IIO)KU.lroli H CeMefiHbIIl, { caM pa3Hblx 6.uarOpOAultx crapl'IKOB I'lfpblBail' Oxory K rearpy 6o,rluryro I'lMeJI H, xora cnyx6y Hec xopolxylo!

io-

TeaTpOll y!'Iyr{a,u BpeMq 3aunN{atlcg>> 26' <<...KaNAylo HeAe,IIn 'no ABa pa3a B Tearpbl Atpailu' B BocKpeCerlbe lI B rIeTBepf, IZ HapoAy B TeaTpe BCerAa MHOIO 6bIBa"IO' Aa27'

saBoAos c'exarl'rcb cMorperb>> ;Ke H3 COCe.ILHHX a"' ' y3Harb TaK)Ke o BpeNIeHu rearpaJlbHoro tr4s paccxasa Mo)KHo ce3oHa: <<...Bed'IHKI]M nocroM TeaTp ilpeKparHJIr4, Ha rlacxe noufpaJlli rreMHoro, a IIOTOM pO3AbIX AaJIH aKTepaM Ha Bce ,rero>> ", o cy_UICCTBOBAHI,IH IIPtI TCATPC IIOCTO'IHHOIO OPKCCTPA, KOTOPbIlI <<My3brKori aceft sanpaB,'IxJI B Tearpe>> 2e, o penerfiqfiqx: <<...KaK

urpalor irro HfpaHHOe, TaK K HaM Ue CO6UparcTCfl, a KaK HOBOe rlro 3aAyMaror, To HenpeMeHHo y Hac BeqepoM penerllUun 6lteadla, a ro H ABe>> 30, o penepryape: <<...A.nerceit l4rHarleeuu (r' e' ynpaBrrredrb.- n. O.) oqeHb ,rro6u.it Bce cepbe3Hoe, To, qro 31, apiruoti HasblBaercn, a BoAeBI'IJII'I 3Tli raK oll I'I He cMorpe,'L..>> ylxe,'l' cKasa"Ia cyQ,rep <<...Aa u BeAb o Haltrrq'Tu cy$nepa: 2a 25 26 27

Talr xe.

Talr >xe, crp. 601. Tav xe, crp. 602. Talr xe. 28 Talr xe. 2s Tan xe, crp. 603. 30 Talr xe, crp. 604. 3l Tau xe. 103


Karepuua A.nerceenna)) 32, o Ha3BaHratz ucflo,rnfleMbrx npon3BeAeHr.rfi: <<... Hy xorb <<@u.rarxy n Mupourxy> (noAenu.nn fpuroprena.- If . O.) flocraBr.r,rr 6sr, cKa3ad'ra Karepuua A.rexceeaHa>> 33, o cyuecrBoBarv.n rearpaJrbHbrx aQraur H errle o MHorou ,4pyfoM.

Ouepx A. A. Kupnuuluxonori noArBepxAaer MHer{}ie o ror\r, qro rearp s llnbvncxoM cy[recrBoBa,'r c Hairadra 20-x roAos, ;r MolKer 6lrrl, r.l eu1e paHbue, qro ou 6u"'r nocroflHHo 4,eficreyrc-

uIHM, HMeJI eCe HeO6XOAHMbre yCJIOBHtt 4nn pa6Ortt H no,rrb3oBar'rcfl nolyJrrpHocrbro oKpecrHofo sace,resas 3a. B crarre <<K ncropulr rearpa e llepucxori ry6epHran> pelKuc-

cep r.rJrbnHcKoro rearpa IL B. Crcses yKasblBaJr na cre4yrcqrtfi flro6onbrrHbrri Qaxr: 3a Becb XIX s. <<...HarruHar c 20-x roAoB TeKyurefo croJrerllfl, y)r(e rpH 3AaHHtr rearpa cfopeJlo e tr4,'Irt.rt{oo.

cKoM.,.>>

n. U. Me.llHrlxosa-fleuopcxoro rearp 3a6rtgtxero [plrxoAcKofo yqu,'rurua, To rro oT3brBailr Apyroro coBpeMeHHnra - A. A. Bo.tor4zua, BrrocJreAcrB[rI,t 3aBerAS/roqero Z.nursc;xnu My3eeM, <<...'B 1850-x roAax rearp cyIIIecrBoBaJr s 6HsrxeM <<croJroBoM>> AoMe, Koroplrft uaxo,1u,'rc,q Hr.rx{e, TaK Ha3brBaeMoro cer.reftHoro AoMa, cfopeBruero s 1874 Ec.nn no BpeMeHa

Hr.rMaJI SAaHr.re

roAyr>

36.

[Io

cBr4lAereJrbc'fBy,

rorlaurHerl

<<...3TO noJrypaSBaJIr{BUreecfl

3AaHlte

lllepnoAr{

qecK,oft [er{artr,

CJryx<}r,'rO KOrAa-TO yrcruot?

rnaprupofi 3AerxHr.rx Me,'rKllx aAMr{Hl{crparopoB, Ho rro coKpaqeHHIZ KOMIIJIeKTa C,IyXaqUX, OHO OCTaJIOCb 3a IXTaTOM I,t rIO BOJIe. TJIABHOTO I,IJIbI'IHCKOIO HAIIAJIbCTBA HCCCT TCNCPb TPOMKOC HA3BA. HI.Ie <<Tearp>> 37,

B

3ToM sAaHlru o6opyaoBaJru rearpa,rrbHbrri sar, 3Aecb x(e Ecnu p aHtrxe 3p HTe,ru rroceuad'rrr crreKTaK,ru 6ecnnarHo, To Telrepb c Hr.rx Bgr,rMaJracb nr'rara or l0 Ao 40 KOn., npHqeM npeAcTaBJreHrif AaBaJIr.Icb ToJrbKo rro BocKpexp anud'rH AeKop arlur.r.

ceurqM

38.

CnexraxJru ycrpauBaJru c,'ryx{au1ne rpaQnur CrporanoBori 3e. cb crrricKa gTHx JrroAeri : rnanHoynp aBJrrrorrluii rp aSuCrpora_uonori llerp LlIapuH, cnyxaulrae- npaBJreHr.rrr:'l/riaw Ir_H I(r,ruuluu, Anexceft Bnacon, Muxaii.rro flauruxrau, A.nexcau4p lle-

^

Uoxp^aHu,'rfi

32 33

Talr xe, crp.

Tan xe, crb.

605. 621.

Vxas. cou., crp.56. :: n- M.KypoqKHH. ry6epncxue BeAoMocrH>, Ne 241, 7 uoa6pa lg99 f. io A. A. Bo,ro14us. Cer.ro I4lruHcxoe. fleprucroro oxpyra. <flepnacxuil KpaeBe.[.qecKufi c6opur.rx>, aun. II, llepul, 1926, cip. 70. oo <llepMcKne

",

<<llepMc(fie ry6epHcKlie BeAoMocrH>, Ne 29, 9 anpe,u 1969 r. Tau'>xe. 3s Tam xe.

3E

104


ne,'rqeB, KpecrbflHlru A6parrr KysHerlos, cnyxaquft Fluxonaii flnorHHxos, KpecrbsHe A,rexcan4p KygHeqog, Earpa$ Cy66oruH, Baculuft Me,rrHnron, Ilerp ,Ilo6oeuxoe, Bacnrnfi Cn3ee, EQulr Cy66orun, Huxo.uati Ky,'Inxon, HapqAqi{K ESuu !,rraurpaeB, qJIeH trpaBJIeHI,rrI I4nrq PoroB, rlncapb Bo,'IocrHoro rrpaB!'IeHHtl fpnropr.rri Cuuauoe, uuponorl ilocpeAHr4K Mrxafino I(ryurtttl, xyneq ESnu flouocoe, rnaeHHli necHIzquIl A. E. Ten.noyxoB, Kpecrbauuu flerp Bora,ron, noMourHHK saKoHoyqHTeJIr cBxlqesuux Aaunno 9eu,ypnH, Maxcizil.t 3aeap'nH, yql,rreJlb Vlsau LII,upranau, KpecrltrrHe: I4tllarvfr CnrvaHoe, A6pau CniuaHon, Xaa-

clBguIeHlHI,tK clryxaulzfi llrarou Mautttx, 3aKoHOyrIurer'Ib'Ilerp lrloau'u Ca,'r,MnH, c.n'y,xauluit,fJaeen Lllyutron, qepxoaHstii crapocra A,rercaH4p Cuuauoe, yqureJlb llerp Cy66orHH, c"Iy)Kailrue: Hnxo.narl Tennoyxoe, flerp fo,ry6ea, Anercau4p t{epHur-

HorB,

rueo, Oannnrn l(oxapooqer, Qenl4ruep Hnxo.raft KonecneB, c,'Iy-

)Karr,Ee Bacnnufi flououapen, !,anu,ro lla4yuee 40. Kar u npe)KAe, >xeHcKLIe poJIH I.IcnoJIHnJrI ltyxvltutt, u6o Bbrcryrrarb xeHIIrHHe Ha cqeHe cqI,ITaJIocb elqe 3asopHuu. Myx-

III]HbI C XCHONOAO6HbIMI.I JIHIIAMI,I )KCMAHHHIIAJII4 V

CTAPAJII4Cb,

yno4o6,narrcfl xeHII{LiHgv 41. I(ax nzuler or{eBi.IAeII lrfpbI HTaJIr,' flHcKr.ix aKTepoB, <<...ny6.tlrra He BcerAa AoBoJIbHa, BepoflTHo, a$$exrauneft aprzcroB, nepepox(AeHl,teM Hs MoAHIzKa aprucra B sTr4KeTHyrO apTrlCTKy... ii I'r3 sTOrO BbIXOAflT Hel]pIiflTHble KapHxarypu>>

42.

B apyroft Tearp.aJlbHoti peueusuu, Hao6opor, noAqepKuBaercl yAarrHafl r.rrpa MecrHbIX aKrepoB: <<19 Senpa.rrq l869 roAa ,rrc6lr-

ienqivru 6sr.rrra crrrpasrt: l. KoMeALIfl <<Tsxensle 4Hu>>, cou.Oct6a,laryp>, co!IpoBcKoro u 2. HapoAHrrri BoAeBI{'rb <<Co,'IAar l'puropleea. flrecu grl,r, B o6ureu, He BxoAl B- uacrHocru, 6ariltt cblrpaHbI olreHb xopouto>>

a3.

Penepryap 3roro BpeMeHu AonoJIHnlor BocnoMHHaHI'Ifl A. A. Boloullsa: <<...Oco6eHHo s tvIoAe 6ulu rorAa BoAeBI4j-Ifi

c

neHHeM. Mysuxy AJIfl BoAeBlr.[eti nocraeJltlJl MecrHbIIi MyqryKaHT r{ BMecre xyAox{HLIK IOIuron, TaJIaHT,'IHBbIil tlerbsex... Ha clreHe ITIJII,I He oAgu <<(DllJt arKl,1' u Muporuxn>>, Ho craBHr'Il{cb Ir aa. rrbecbr O,crponcror,o, H <<Xenurl6a>> u <<Pee'ilrsop>> fonofis>>

HeAaeHo IIorBLLIII.Icb HoBbIe cBeAeHl'lfl o KperlocrHoM C. n. IOuxose. On yunlcn y cBoero o4,Ho$aIr'ru.nsqa fanpunu IOuxona, 3areM cJIyx{I.IJI pereHToM xopa e I'L'Iruucxotr't, 6un yqrrreJleM My3bIKLI h pIICOBaHl'Iff, B CepeAHHe fipolllJloro BeKa [I]caJI rroprperbl, IrKoHbI, oQopunn.u crIeKTaK,'I[ 40

1l 12 43 44

s

I4nsnucxoM Tear-

Tanr xe, Ne 39, 14 Maq 1866 r. A. A. B o r o r A li u. Vxag. cov., crP. 70. <Ilepucxue ry6epHcrue Be4oMocrll)>, Nb 29, 9 anpe,:a 1869 r. Tau xe, Nb 19, 5 ruapra 1869 r. IO. M. K y p o q K I.t H. Vras. coq., crp. 56-57,

r0s


pe. B llepucxorl xyAox{ecrBeuuoii ra.nepee HaxoAr.trcs nrrrb )KnBorrrcHbrx pa6or C. fI. iOruxoBa, ABe xpaHflrcfl a Cnep4,roncxon KpaeBeAqecKoM Mysee, eue oAHa npr.rHaAdrre)Kur 14nluucxonrv KpaeBeArlecxouy lryserc

B

1874

45.

f. B cBfl3r.{ c

no)Kapot{ Tearpa, yHuqro)KuBtlprM

Bce

ocTaBrxr.recfl erlle oT Kpe[ocTHbIX BpeMeH KOCTTOMbI, AeKOpaqr{[

u_ 6yraQopuro, a raK)Ke i4 caMo 3AaHr.re, nocroqHnHrl reatp Z,ranucxolr flpeKparr.r,'r cBoe cyuecrBoBaHr]e, Ao lBBS r. cleKraxnefi s tr4nr'uucKonr ue 6st,ro a6. To.luxo n Senpa,'re 1888 r. 6un cHoea orKpbir nto6urenlcr<uri Tearp B 3AaHaH 6trntrero nptrxoAcKofo yqu,'rriu,a Hanporr.tB Tofo Ne <<ceuertgoro>> Aolra a7. Cocrosnacb lroAnxcKa Ha repBoHaqa.rbHoe o6saeeAeHHe rearpa, <(AaBurafl c6opy Ao 50 py6neri>, xoropble rJ 6Hnz sareNr r.r3pacxoAoBaHbr r{a BHyrpeHHee ycrpor2crec u npno6peresne ue6e,ru 48. Bo eper,rr rearpaJrb,Hbrx rflpe,u,craBnesufi KaK cqeHa, raK rr gajl ocBeura,rucb rerrepb creapLlHoBbuvrn cBeqaMn, <<o6crauoBKa, xoTf H He B3bICKaTeJIbHafl, HO BCe CAeJIaHO, KaK B HaCTOqilIeM Tearpe-ecrb naprep, Jrox(H h Aaxe paeK... Zrpaer B rearpe Kpy.xox ,rrc6ttre,reii Hs N4ecrHori I,tHTe,'IJIIITeHuHII I{ To,rtbKo suN{oii. llrara AocryllHafl, rlyrb rH se c 5 KorI; a norol\{y spure,ulusrri

13

3a,r HuKorAa He nycryer...>>

B

4e.

re,reHLre HecKo,rlbKLIX !'rer l,t/'tbI,rHubI rrpoBoAr,rJrn cneKTaKJIII

rr c 6urarorBopr.rreJrbHoii ue,rlro. Tax, 6 u 27 pexa6pa

l89l r.

n

rroJlb3y ro,rloAalouux oHlI AaJIri ABa cneKTaK,rrfl, qncruli ocraroK, nepeAaHHbrrl e t4ecrHtrrl 6.laroreopnre,rluuft KoM]lrer cocraBu,t 64 p. B0 x. llpu sroM pacropsAnreJrn cnerrax,reri A. A. Bo.nor-

4nH, M. H. t{yAunoe H B. 3anapaee ilpocr.rd'rr{ nepeAarb 6,naroAapHocrb rar .rrc6uredrlqM, yr{acrBoBaBlrluM B cneKTaKJIqx, TaK Ii trpHcyrcrnoeaeruefi ny6.tuxe 50. 6 .qexa6pa 1896 r. B rnoJrb3,y crpoaqeiicfl nrKoJrr,r B AepeBHe KneHonori craBz,'rucb ABe rrrbecbr: <<B ce.rye 3nal,reucxoM>> - cqeIrbI u3 uapo4Hort xr{3Hu H BoAeBH,rrb <<flpocryruxa }.r Bocrurraunas>>. Oi6e firbecbr rrpou,]u, no or3brBaM fiepMcKoit rleqaru, oqeHb xopouo, n lp6ure,rtr HeoAHoKp arHo Hafp a)KAaJILtcb ai[,'IoAHctMeHTAM14.

P,o;tl

Pa6yuxuHa

Ky3Heua

, A. 'O. ll.lrocHlrH, xarx4ufi

oco6esHo yAarrHo

xAaJIcfl oBarlr4flMu. Xopotuo

<<flpoBeJri.r

a5 <Beueputn flcpvu>, N'q 209, 6 ceura6pn 46 A. A. -B o,r o r'a rz H. Vxas. coq., ctp. 70. a7 Tart xe. a8 <ileplrcxue ry6epucxue BeaoMocrn>, i\b as Tarr xe, Nb 75, 18 ceurn6pn l89l r. 50

106

rrfpa,'r

BbrxoA-Koroporo Ha crleHy cofipoBo-

Tarr xe, Nb 5, 15 rrHBapfl 1892 r.

cBor]

portru>> EeccoHos,

l97l r 14, 17 $eapa.nr 1888 r.

.


Jl. Vl. Ten,royxona, A. lL llarocunna ra Ap ut. 29 4era6px lB98 r. B TIOJIb3Y MCCTHOTO }I(CHCKOIO YqHd'IHIIIA I,IJIbHHIIbI IIOCTABHJII{ I(OMeAlrlo <<Xeuux r{3 Ho)KeBoit nunun>> H BoA€Br.rrb <<Ilpe4.noxeHHe>> 52. flonroAa cnycrr, 20 urons. cHoBa Ar'rs roro xe yr{r4lurqa 6u,ru curpaHbr rrbecbr .,BeAa or He>xHoro cepArra>>, <<MolqaHne>> u <<,Ilernue Kaprr{HKH>>53 n, HaKoHeq, 23 a[ped'rfl 1900 r. B lro,rlbay QoH1a c6opa cpeAcrB ua nocrpofiKy [aMtrHIIKa ocHoBareJlio pyccKoro rearpa @. [.. Bo.rxoay ,rn6nre.ru I4.rluncKa nocraBuJltl KoMeAnro <<JIec>> A. H. OcrponcKoro 54. Kax u paHbrrre, Tearp oxorHo noceuaJlcfl 3pllreJllIvtil. B oAHot:i perreH3ur.r <<llepivrcxne ry6epHcxue BeAoMocrH>> ncrpevaelr coo6UIeHIle O COIII{aJIbHOM COCTaBe IIpICyTCTBOBaBII]l{X: <<3pnTe,'lH COcrof,JrH nor{Ti.I HcKdrIIOqxrerbHo r13 npocroHapoAbfl, uecra 6yt<-

BaJrbHo pacxBaraHbl ny6,ruroro, JIogex>> 55.

-

Bcefo 6lt,ro 6o,lee 200

qe-

I4nrepec K cIIeKTaKJIqr\4 6Hr Hacro,rlbKo BeJII.lt(, qro iia I{I'lx

IlpH€3)K2r-l2 IIHTeJIJIHfeHIIhfl h3 OKpeCTHblx Ce,'I s6. I4rpa H.rutHcKlrx aKTepoB HacroJlbKo gaxBarblBaJla, r{To noc-

Jre KalKAofo AeficrBLifl pa3AaBa,IIrlcb Apyx{Hble an,toAl'lcMeHrbl

l'l

<<MHoroqllc,reHHble BbI3oBbI ltp HcyrcrBoBaBtlInx>> 57, .tro6ulrue arTepbr BbrsbrBalrr4cb Ha cqeHy, H lIM AapHJIIz IIOAapKt'I 58. Kar no

XoAy nbec' TaK H B aHrpaKTaX nOqTII BcefAa I4rpa"I CrpyHnuii 5e. MecrHblx nio6ure,'refi noA yrlpaB,'IeHI{eM Hay-u_o_ea opKecrp lloc,.re ortesAa O. A. fl,rrocunHa n flepltl s lB97 f. Ha el-o Mecro B Kpy)KKoM MecrHbIX nn6ure,'reil ApaMarnqecKoro vcKyccrBa pe)KuccepoM 6ttfl HasHa'reu naeer Bacn,roeshq Crcsee, BnocJreAcrBuH npo$eccop flepntcxofo yHIlBepcnrera. VAa,rocl (npaa4a, ueno,'luocrtrc) BbIflBHrb penepryap rearpa u l4nr'uHcKoM c 1896 uo 1900 r. I4cnonHqJlllcb c.lleAyloilrl4e npousee4eHur: <<JIec> 60, <<He raK )KI'IBI{ KaK xoqercq>> 6lA. H. Ocrponcxoro, a raKxe Apyrue KoMeAI4t'I sTofo aBropa, <<Xesurl6a>>

A. II.

H. B. fororq

62, <<Me4eegl>> 63

rlexonq 6a, <<Llyxoe 4o6po BnpoK He

tl

<<llpeg,roxeuuer>

I''lAer>>

A. A. llorexn-

5r <<Ilepncxue ry6epncrne BeAoMocrll)>, Ne 268, l7 .lera6pl 1896 r. xe, Ne 4, 6 aneapq 1899 r. xe. Ne 157, 24 Hro,rq 1899 r.

52 Tar,r 53 Tau

5a Tanr >xe, Ns 91, 28 anpe.rrn 1900 r. 55 Tau xe, Ns 32, Qenpa,'rn 1896 r. 56 Tau xe, Ne 268, 17 aexa6ps 1896 r.

ll

57 58 5e

Taiu >xe, Nl 270, 14 aexa6px 1897 r. Tau xe, J\b 50, 4 uapta 1897 r. Tau >xe, Ne 4, 6 lHBapq 1898 r. 60 Tau >r<e, Nb91, 28 anpenn 1900 r. 6r Tau xe, Nb 268, 17 sexa6pr 1896 r. 62 Tau xe, Ne 241, 7 uot6pn lB99 r. 63 Taru xe, J\b 275, l9 aexa6pq 1898 r. 6a Tan xe, Ne 4,6 rHoapq 1899 r.

107


ua 65, <<6o6sl,tu>

fI.

A. llras[nbulr.tKoBa, <<B ce,rye 3Haniencnt_rnn>>, <<B crapue-roAbr>>, <<Mzpcxax BAoBa>>, <<Marioprrta>> LL. B. lllnaxlrHcKoro 66, <<CefrKr.r>> Craxonuqa 67, <<Xesui Hoxeeori jrlrHaIa>>

A. A. KpacoecKoro6s,

xeHuri>>

us

n <<Cyxeuurl-pxTuxoHoea 70, <<flpocryuKa rr Bocrrr4raHHa i" A. T. II'eH<<tlepea xpari>6e

cJreAaM>> lpeccepa 7t, .,He suan 6po4y, He cyftcr B Bo,ry>> MaHcSell4a 72. t{eu x<e o6rscuurt cro,rrb Ao"rrfoe cyqecrBoBaHrre rearpa B I4nurscxou KaK Ao pe$oprr,rlr, TaK 14 nocJre see? Eo,rrur4HcrBo

cKofo, <<llo rpoedebrM

Kp gnOCTHbIX TeaTpOB B rIOC.lel.qHLIe AeCfl TLIJIeTETfl CliUeCT'BOBaHnq KperrocTHofo npaBa HcqegJrn KaK pa3HoBr.rAHocrb nomecruux 6apcxux sarefi Ans co6crseHHoro yAoBo,'rbcrBlrs. <<BnaAe,'rbrl,br KpenocTHbIX TeaTpoB Harrl4Harn llpeAnoqt{Tarb cAe,'IKI{ c npoBnHuua,llbHbIMH aHrperrpeHepaMH, IIepeAaBafl B HX pacnopfl]KeHtle oTAeJIbHbrx aKTepOB r{ rleJrbre rpyrrnbr, COXpaHrrrr ga co6Oit ,ruul o6qnft KoHrpo,'rb i[pr] rrroMoula crleufiar'rbHbrx HaA3r.rpare.lIeii>> 73.

OAuaxo Ha Vpa,re cBfl3r.t MeN(Ay rearpoM KpefiocrHbr\ eILnu-

n

npOQecci.roHaJrbHr,rM TeaTpoM n llepun ue ua6,rro4ar{ccJreAoBaHzu- <<fopoA,a Vpa,ra>> rroAqepKuBaJr c,'reAyrcrqufi uoruesr: <<Oarr o6rosa 3aBoAcKHMir ce,rreHr.rsMn aAMr.{Hrrcrp arHBH brx $eo4ansuux ropoAoB no BeJrliqrrue, 6.naroycrpoftcray H Ky,'Ibrype 6br,r, KoHe.rHo, 3HaMeHr{eM BpeMeHH, rroKa3areJreM Bo3pocuxx BHyrpeHHr.rx cuJr npoN{brrrrJreHHocTH,.. ypaJIbcKIle 3aBoAcKI,re pa6ouue, conpr{Kacarcb B TeqeHtle prrAa noKorenlzri c npoMbrlil,'IeHHofi re-ruuxot2, o6orua,'rtr B Ky,'rbI.{HcKoM

,rocl. HeAaporu JI. E. IrIoQa B

TypHoM OTHOITIeHI,tH He TO,rrbKO KpecTbfH, HO r1 TOpOACKTTX MeIIIarr; npn saBoAax co3Aadlacb y>xe 3Har{r.ITerbHan npoc.rtoirKa BbtcoKoTa,TaHTJIr4Boil r:exsuqecxofi usren,rufeHrlur.l, croqsrtrefr B Ky/rbrypHOM OTHOIUeHI]H, KOHeqHO, MHO|O BbrUIe fOpOACKOfO TTHHOBHpI,recrna>>

7a.

3ra xpenocrHag ?tHTeJLIIhreHqHq, rro/ro)KuBruar B ABaAuarbrx roAax lporrrJroro BeKa HaqaJro cBoeMy rearpy, 6ttna tax x{e, Kar{ r.r Bce KpeflocrHbre ropHo3aBoAcxoro Vpa,la, npr.rBflgaHa K 3aBoAaM npaBJreHr.reM CrporaHonux. Ee yaep)KHBa,rra Ha Mecre npnBbIqHafl pa6ora, 4om, xosallcrBo, ceMbfl. 65 66

67 68 6e 70

Tau xe, Ne 32, ll $enpa;ra 1896 r. Tau xe, Nb 241, 7 uoa6pa 1899 r. Tau xe, Nb 50, 4 r,rapra 1897 r..

Talr xe, Nb 91, 26 anpe,rs 1898 r. Tau xe, Ne 270, 14 a6xa6ps 1897 r'. Tau xe, N! 4, 6 qHsaps 1898 r. 7r Tam xe, No 268, t7 a-exa6pn 1896 r'. 72 Talr xe, Ne 270, 14 aera6bs 1897 r.

73

C. C..[,aua,ron. Pyccxnil Apavaruvecxufi rearp XIX n.

XIX e., r. I, M. 74

108

crp. 147. - JI., 1957, il.E. 14oga. fopo.aa Vpa,ra.

q. I, trl.,

1951,

crp.313-314.

I NOTOBHHA


Heclrorpn Ha crrxarluue 6eAcreHs (noxapu,

yHur{ro)KuB-

rxr4e rpn TearpaJrbHbrx s4aHun), xorrr H co sHaqr4Ter'rbHbrM nepepbrBoM (e 14 ner), HaqriHar c lB88 r. HJrbHHcKrre Jro6nreru reaTpadlrbHoro IIcKyccTBa BHoBb cTaJILl AaBaTb CneKTaKJIIl, KOTOpbIe Ha Bcervr npoTg)KeHHH BeKa oxoTHo noceulaJrHcb He ToJrbKo MecT-

HbIMII )KHTe,'ItlMIrl l4g <<npOCTOHapoAbfl>>, HO npr.re3ixaBrxer.i us orpecrHbrx ceJr u fopoAoB.

Il

I,lHTe,'lnnreHqneit,

Penepryap IrlnrnHcxoro rearpa cBHAere,'rbcrByer o nocrorHcrBe rrocraHoBoK nbec B nepByro oqepeAb pyccKr.rx ApaMarypfoB, raKux xax @. O. ZsaHos, A. H. Ocrponcxur?, H. B. foro.ll, A. lI. Llexoe 14 Ap., r4 gHaqareJrbHo pe)Ke-r.rHocrpaHHbrx aBTopoe. flpueeAeHHbre Bbrrrre cBeAeHHfl rrpo,rlr4Bar,or cBer Ha uav6oJree <<reHeByrc> npo6neMy B r.r3yqeHus r.icropr4r.r rearpa s Vnsuupenepryap, LI3yqeHLIe Koropofo 3arpyAHflercfl orcyrcrBl]cKoM €M Aocraroqubrx ceeAeHarl. Mex4y rent aHaJIlrg ero xpafiue BaxeH, raK Kar( r{MeHHo penepryap onpeAeJrffer rBopr{ecKyr,o AeqretbHocrb rearpa. I4nruscrne aKTepbr, nucqHKr.r, cJryxaqHe rl HHTeJrJIllreHqHfl, HeCMOTpq Ha TpyAHbIe yCflOBI{q ]KLI3HH, LI Ha TO, qro MarHarsr ctporaHoBbr He BbIAeJrrrJrI{ cpeAcrB A,rIs rearpa, HecJrH B HapoAHbIe Maccbl uAeH flporpeccuBuoii pyccxoit xy.noTypbr, re yrj].efi, KOTOpbre oHH npoilaraHAl.IpoBa,ll4 c noMotqblo raxoli 6o,nruofi clrd'Ibl. KaK Tearp.


COAEPXAHHE A. C. tl_epKacona. O xapaxrepe saKpenlreHur ropHo3aBoAcKlrx KaApoB Ha Vpa"re s I no"tosuHe XVIII sexaB. B. .M y x H H. Bceso,'Io,{o6naroAarcKlre 3oJrorble rDoMbrc,,rbr B nepnori nor,oBune XIX nexa (us ucropuit go,roroAo6ursarcuqeft nporrnuru,reHHocrlr Vpana) C. 4.

aauus

Op

l

<<3ev.nN

o_B

u

a. .(enr-enuuocrt M.

Bo,ru>> 1860-x roaos

[.

MypancKoro B nepuoA co3-

fl. 6. Pa6Huoeuq. P_eso.'loquoHHaq nporaranAa cpegu pa6ouxx Vpa,ra r 70-80-x roAax XIX sexa .rI. A. TpeQunoaa. llpaxruqecKoe ocyurecrBr.reHr{â&#x201A;Ź saroHa tgg3

o no3eMeJrbHoi\r yc'rpoficree fopHo3aBoAcKoro Hace!,teHur B nocec_ oKpyrax fleplrcr<ofi ry6epnrzu M I! U_e p H br ril. BosHr.rxHoseuue lr pocr npeAnpurnrrl flo rexr{rr_ uecxori o6pa6orKe Bo!'roxnr.tcrbrx BeutecrB e llepilcxoii ry6epuuu u nopeQoprr.reHunii neplioA fl. A. Ort6esuH. I4,rtuscr<nr? rearp s XIX sexe

3 20 33

'4&

foAa

cHoHHhrx

:

u_

67

79 98

*_.r;_..*..


,rlnreparypusttl peAaxrop H. B. flerpona Texurqecxuii peAaKrop 14. @. lloproH

Koppexrop B. H. AH.l.pefiueHxo

floarucauo K neqart 25ll 1973 r.

JIE020I8 3axas 2042

Tupax 600

Kuuxsas runorpaQux

Nb 2,

ere.

tDopnar 6vlrarn 60X90r/16. O6iem 7 ri. ,r. lleria 80 xon

flepltl, Kouuysucruqecr<a4

57

Исследования по истории Урала. Вып.2. (Пермь,1972)  

Исследования по истории Урала. Вып.2. (Пермь,1972)