Page 1

ARCHITECTURE AT ZERO ROMBERG TIBURON CENTER / SFSU

Architecture at Zero Competition

2017

AESTUS Tiburon / CA

www.4240arch itecture.com


TABLE OF C ONTENTS ARCHITECTURE AT ZERO

01

PROJECT INTRODUCTION

02

SITE + SITE FORCES

03

DESIGN

04

MATERIALS

05

NET POSITIVE ENERGY FRAMEWORK

2

Architecture at Zero


THE CHALLENGE

In order to compliment a planned restoration of a pier and wharf with public access on the Tiburon property, RTC seeks to create an adjacent bayside community educational and visitor’s center. This will be a place where the general public, school groups and teachers can visit and learn about the ecology, biology, restoration and oceanography of the San Francisco Estuary and other nearby coastal ecosystems, as well as the environmental and naval history of the property itself. Two buildings will be included in the submission. The first contains an interactive exhibit space and visitors center with adjacent classrooms for visiting school groups or teachers; and an adjacent outdoor picnic/event space to serve visitors, resident faculty, staff and students, conference center users and other special events. Second, a building to support science-on-the-bay nature education kayak and small boat based tours for school groups, university students and other visitors should be included. The challenge will be to develop and energy plan for this two building cluster and associated uses in an approximately 3.5 acre area of the Tiburon property adjacent to a planned restoration of a large wharf and pier and adjacent shoreline to support a variety of aquatic educational programs and operations.

PROJECT TEAM MARC SNYDER / 4 2 4 0 IAN WILSON / 4 2 4 0 SARA MURRAY / 4 2 4 0 PENNY COLE / M K K TOM HOOTMAN / M K K

Architecture at Zero

3


4

Architecture at Zero


01

AESTUS 37o 53’ 30.26 N 122o 26’ 53.95 W

Within Aestus, interpreted as undulating wave, solutions grow from place to provide a site specific project that engages the inherent bioclimatic pattern language of the site and reflects the spirit and priorities of the Romberg Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies (RTC). The design parti for the larger campus and subsequent project site takes on a fractured language to achieve a nuanced approach to shifting natural flows and landscapes and blurs the boundary between the bay and hill. The approach of breaking down the scale of aggregate space helps take advantage of the passive qualities of the natural flows of the site and establish a regenerative campus development strategy which celebrates and enhances the critical connections between the ocean, humans and science. Utilizing technical and biological materials that tie into local ecology, the visitor center and related science on the bay building incorporate living building systems to move towards net positive energy, water and waste solutions which contribute to ecological and human health. These unique building system characteristics are synthesized with broader criteria for habitat protection, campus food production, renewable energy production, visitor education and, ultimately, research success. Additionally, in order to meet net zero energy goals and because heating is the dominant energy load for this project, we took the approach of using passive autonomy design as the primary building systems strategy with rooftop solar panels to fulfill the project’s renewable energy profile. For the larger science campus, we anticipate using micro-tidal turbines to create a shared, 100% renewable energy district. Additionally, by employing the unique, passive HVAC concept of Indoor Weather, the building saves in additional energy consumption by mimicking the outdoor, natural atmospheric conditions inside while still maintaining interior conditions within an acceptable comfort profile. Ultimately, the project embodies influential, iconic, replicable biomimetic forms which strongly reflect the changing nature of the relationship between human society and coastal ecosystems and setup practical education with science on display.

Architecture at Zero

5


6

02

TIBURON CENTER ROMBERG

FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

TIBURON / CA

Architecture at Zero

Edible landscape garden- evoking a renewal of an agricultural past, the naturally low sloped portion of the site is planted with native or locally adapted crops which support the on-site dining services. It is anticipated a program would also be developed around education to use the gardens as a teaching tool on proper growing practices and healthy eating and how this can support a holistic food-cycle which includes the water cycle. This landscape, along with the native plants in the restoration areas and on the roofs, also contributes to increase the site bio-diversity and natural habitats for local flora and fauna.


To further support the idea of the site as a factory for research, education and functional support, vertical farming aquaculture will be installed in the bay with the mission to create a new restorative and sustainable system of food production and distribution of sea greens, fish and shellfish. Using the principles of aquaculture, which is growing animals and plants in a water environment, the vertical farms operate “closed,” and “open” systems raising fish, multiple types of seaweed, mussels, oysters and scallops. These vertical farms not only provide food but they help clean the water by reducing the acidity levels while increasing biodiversity. From an education standpoint, aquaculture is a creative and productive way to understand biological cycles by observing how wastes become another’s resource for food or nutrients. The farms also provide significant nonedible benefits as well, such as serving as a stormsurge protector and as a habitat for marine wildlife. To assist in achieving regenerative campus design principles, parking for the Visitor Center and Science on the Bay Building, is relegated to the existing lot off of Paradise Drive next to the Bay Conference Center. The existing lot will be expanded to accommodate the anticipated visitors. The primary access to the Visitor Center will be through an immersive site path which weaves through the natural hillside with ample opportunities to experience the local ecosystem and expansive views of the bay. Alternatively, an allelectric shuttle bus will use the existing access road down into the campus to a drop off near the main entrance for those with accessibility needs or during inclement weather scenarios. Additionally, with the goal for indigenous site reclamation, a campus estuary with tidal pools and phytoremediation plants will act as a campus bio-filter managing the hillside runoff as well as the incoming sea. The estuary becomes a vital research entity as a constructed wetlands for the larger RTC campus and becomes a vital habitat for reclaiming and nourishing sensitive plant and animal species.

Architecture at Zero

7


8

SITE FORCES

The specific site for the project was chosen based on a number of factors. An optimal location for daylighting, wind harvesting, and autonomous passive design were the basic requirements set forth by the project team. Future sea level rise and water flow throughout the campus were also taken into consideration before choosing the project site.

Architecture at Zero

2_SEA LEVEL RISE

1_SOLAR

02


Architecture at Zero

9

SITE PLAN

4_ALLUVIAL FLOW

3_WATER FLOW


MASSING

PROGRAM BOX

PROGRAM ALLOCATION

The final massing form is a result of several studies involving programmatic elements such as the classroom, gallery, multi-purpose, and dining components. The interaction of these programs as well as their orientation on the site with the goal to break down the mass into autonomous forms was the team’s main focus.

EXISTING CONDITIONS

03

CONNECTIVE SPINE

ROOF MASSING ARTICULATION

general program siting

10

1 story circulation integrated with contours

Architecture at Zero

roof corn


SCHEDULED DEMOLITION FLOW ARTICULATED FORMS

existing buildings based on design competition brief

program “fingers” oriented to views / natural site flows

SITE CONNECTIONS

group program into smaller components

ners lifted to capture wind, water and solar income

Architecture at Zero

11


03

M

FLOOR PLAN

12

I G N L

H E

D

K

E

C B

F B

Architecture at Zero

A

J


Bayside Visitor’s Center 8,500 sf

Science on the Bay Building 1,500 sf

K

6

4

5

Lobby / Reception

B

Admin / Office

C

Interactive Exhibit Space

D

Support Space

E

Restrooms

F

Mechanical Below

G

Retail Space

H

Multi-purpose Room

I

Lunchroom / Breakroom

J

Wet Lab Classroom

K

Outdoor Multi-purpose Terrace

L

Dining Terrace

M

Edible Garden

N

Fog Garden

1

Office

2

Check-In

3

Reception

4

Gear Storage

5

Equipment Clean-up

6

Mechanical

7

Showers / Lockers

8

Outdoor Storage

9

Kayak Loading / Unloading

10

Estuary

11

Access to Bayside Visitor’s Center

12

Experimental Research Gardens

1

2

11

A

3

9

7 8 10

12

COMPOSITE FLOOR PLAN

Architecture at Zero

13


14

04

MATERIAL COMPLEX USING MATERIALS THAT REDUCE WASTE + LOOK GOOD DOING IT

One of the goals of the project is to incorporate living building elements which contribute to a regenerative design solution while enhancing place and connection. A large part of this solution is to employ the right materials in the right way; essentially, having material solutions and applications grow from the place. As an alternative to traditional concrete, the primary foundation and site wall construction will use Watershed Blocks – high-strength, low-carbon block material made with the on-site soil which will be dug out for the foundations. The block technology incorporates no colorants, dyes, or artificial pigments, just using the natural color and composition of the soil for aesthetic value. Further, the zero cement masonry which also uses lime, slag and natural aluminosilicates, will not require any harmful surface finishes or coatings. To complement the site specific approach of the foundations, the primary structural material will be structural plastic lumber or SPL.

Architecture at Zero

Given the growing and detrimental problem of ocean plastic, we propose the SPL building components be comprised of 100% recovered ocean plastic, extracted from the bay and Pacific Ocean, helping to improve the very research area for the RTC. Versatile and durable, structural plastic lumber offers an alternative to treated wood and is ideal for heavy commercial coastal projects. This material performs especially well in extreme salt, sun, and corrosive type environments. It is waterproof, impervious to corrosion, non-leaching and toxin free and will be fully recycled at the end of its life. SPL is used as the primary and secondary elements for the roof, walls and cantilevered floors. To help structurally achieve the project’s dramatic cantilevers, SPL components are designed as a composite vierendeel truss diaphragm to give spanning capacity as well as relevant seismic ductility. The primary cladding material is acetylated western red cedar boards which will be installed as a rainscreen system. By detailing the façade with a rainscreen system, water is kept out of the building naturally. Additionally, with durability as a primary objective and given the wet and cool climate profile of the site, it is extremely important from a maintenance and long-term sustainability strategy to use materials that will last a long time with little maintenance. To accomplish this, the acetylated wood is used for all of the exterior wood applications. With a 50 year warranty and sustainable manufacturing method, acetylated wood will serve the needs of the project in the short and long-term.


As a natural complement to the wood, all flat roof planes are covered in an intensive green roof system comprised of native living plant material which will naturally adapt to place throughout the life of the project. Additionally, in an effort to minimize construction and resource waste and as a means to move the construction conversation towards a net positive waste stream, the buildings are designed on a two foot building module. With most standard and non-standard primary building components being fabricated in two foot increments, construction waste will be minimized. Further, all waste will be separated into technical nutrients, such as the SPL remnants which will be fully re-purposed into future SPL, and the wood, which will be pulverized on site and used as nutrient fill for the garden soil.

WALL SECTION

Architecture at Zero

15


16

Architecture at Zero


05

NET POSITIVE ENERGY FRAMEWORK PLACE estuary ecosystem, climate, site, culture

WEATHER temperature, humidity, wind, solar, etc.

PASSIVE AUTONOMY daylight, thermal, ventilation

PASSIVE-BASED IEQ

NET POSITIVE ENERGY climate, health, economics, regenerative

ENERGY GENERATION solar, storage, surplus to campus

ENERGY USE annual, seasonal, daily hourly

BUILDING METABOLISM

adaptive thermal comfort

program, schedule, building activity

ACTIVE TUNING

INDOOR WEATHER

supplemental heat and light

dynamic weather-based IEQ

Architecture at Zero

17


05

PASSIVE AUTONOMY

Passive autonomy is the optimization of architecture to provide heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting for as many hours as possible through passive strategies and without the use of active systems. There are three main components of passive autonomy.

Wall U-0.046 Roof U-0.032 Ground Coupling Berm

Lights Off Vacancy Control

Dynamic Glazing Toplighting Skylight

Radiant Heat

Lights Dimmed Daylight Control

Dynamic Glazing

Sidelighting Clerestory

Window Assemblies U-0.258 Heating Coil

BIOCLIMATIC SECTION - HEATING MODE

VENTILATION AUTONOMY The building’s massing, operable window design and integration of a floor plenum under the main program spaces minimizes the mechanical ventilation requirements and eliminates the need for traditional mechanical air system. The only fan-powered part of the ventilation system is the roof exhaust fans in the storage, restrooms and office, which pull natural ventilation from adjacent spaces with operable windows. The building’s circulation spine is cross-ventilated with operable windows on each side. The main program spaces utilize a supply air louver (with damper) on the sea-facing edge of the building’s cantilever that feeds fresh air into a plenum for supply into each space. A heating coil is also located in the ducted intake. Air is exhausted using operable clerestories for stack effect. The operable windows, the outside air louvers and the exhaust fans are all automated based on CO2 readings in each zone. The operable windows can also be manually operated.

18

Architecture at Zero


Ground Coupling Berm

Lights Off Vacancy Control

Dynamic Glazing Toplighting Skylight

Lights Off Daylight Control

Ceiling Fans

Sidelighting Clerestory

Dynamic Glazing

Thermal Mass

BIOCLIMATIC SECTION - COOLING MODE

DAYLIGHT AUTONOMY The project’s massing and glazing minimizes the electric lighting requirements with a very high degree of daylight autonomy. The seasonal change in sun angles and the steady mix of overcast and clear sky conditions created challenges in delivering year-round quality daylight. There are several key strategies used to maximize daylight hours. For example, narrow floor plates allow side-lighting and single story spaces allow top-lighting. Dynamic glazing on key facades accommodates the wide range of external illuminance between overcast and clear sky conditions and no interior blinds are needed for the project. Because daylight is our primary source of space lighting the building’s lighting levels will vary seasonally as well as daily in response to the available sunlight but are designed to stay uniform with good glare control.

THERMAL AUTONOMY The project’s passive design minimizes active heating requirements and completely eliminates the cooling system. There are several key passive strategies used to maximize thermal autonomy. The high performance envelope (wall U-0.046, roof U-0.032, fixed glazing U-0.258), dynamic glazing to reduce solar gain, natural ventilation for passive cooling, thermal mass, and ceiling fans all contribute to the building’s thermal autonomy.

Architecture at Zero

19


20

1 Outside air supply to underfloor distribution with heating coils and radiant heat at perimeter zone

4 Retail

2 Underfloor air distribution

2

7

3

4

3 Clerestory windows for stack ventilation

8

5

6 Radiant floor heating (in restrooms, storage and office)

Exhibit Storage

5

6

W

M

3 7

Heating with internal loads, passive solar and ground source heat pump (using a heat exchange closed loop in the bay)

7 1

4 6

3 2

Lobby

Underfloor delivery + clerestory exhaust

2 Exhibit

8

5

5 Office

Natural Ventilation Types

1

4

4

HVAC

Natural ventilation (no AHU)

7

8

5

5

8 Perimeter radiant heat at glazing

2

Multipurpose

7

5

7 Concrete floor (thermal mass) and night flush cooling

Passive cooling (no active cooling)

3

4

1

7

4

4 Operable windows for cross ventilation 5 Exhaust fan (in restrooms, storage and office)

Dining

5

Classroom

4

7

Operable windows

1

Louvers to adjacent space and exhaust fans

01

HEATING COOLING + VENTILATION DIAGRAM VISITOR’S CENTER

4 Operable windows for cross ventilation 5 Exhaust fan (in restrooms, storage and office) 6 Radiant floor heating (in restrooms, storage and office)

4

7 Concrete floor (thermal mass) and night flush cooling

6 5

8 Perimeter radiant heat at glazing 9 Central heat pump serving Aquatic Center and Visitor’s Center with a heat exhange loop in bay

5 6

5

6

9

7

6

Heating with internal loads, passive solar and ground source heat pump (using a heat exchange closed loop in the bay)

4

Passive cooling (no active cooling) Natural ventilation (no AHU) Natural Ventilation Types Operable windows Louvers to adjacent space and exhaust fans

02 Architecture at Zero

8

4 8

HVAC

5

HEATING COOLING + VENTILATION DIAGRAM AQUATIC CENTER


WEATHER = SUNNY + WARM

IEQ = BRIGHT, WARM + BREEZE

WEATHER = OVERCAST + COOL

IEQ = DIFFUSE LOW LIGHT, COOLER TEMPS

INDOOR WEATHER This building is deeply connected to nature. The life of the building takes on the same patterns and metabolism as its estuary ecosystem. To further strengthen the building occupant’s connection to the project’s site and ecosystem we are using a biophilic based indoor environmental quality concept we call Indoor Weather. Indoor Weather fully leverages our passive autonomy and adaptive thermal comfort approaches to create indoor environmental conditions that “mirror” the current weather at the site. While indoor environmental conditions will vary seasonally, daily and hourly, the building is designed to not be over-lit, under-lit, over-heated, under-heated, over-ventilated or under-ventilated. But with those high-level comfort constraints we are letting the building conditions flow with the weather conditions. Indoor Weather is a key strategy in our net positive energy framework but is also valuable in the way it engages occupants and shapes their experience in the building.

Architecture at Zero

21


Roof-mounted PV zones

8.3 kW

(163) 345 W modules

56.3

12.1 kW

kW

Battery storage for load balancing, backup and resiliency

80

16.9 kW

kWh

19.0 kW

RENEWABLE ENERGY DIAGRAM

kWh 12,000

kBtu/sf 1.5

kWh 5,000

DHW 1.25

10,000

4,000 1.0

8,000 3,000

0.75

6,000 4,000

Energy exported to campus

2,000

Roof-mounted solar energy

22

0

MONTHY ENERGY GENERATION

TOTAL GENERATION

0.50

1,000

83,595 kWh/year

Architecture at Zero

0

Exhibit Lighting Pumps

2,000

0.25

Grid electricity Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Equipment

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTHY ENERGY END USE

Fans Cooling (N/A)

Heating 0 TOTAL ENERGY USE

39,186 kWh/year


DHW 9.0%

18.1%

Exhibit Equipment

36.2%

11.07

Lighting Pumps

kBtu/sf/year

Fans

14.2% 5.4% 16.4%

Cooling (0%)

0.7%

Heating

ACTIVE TUNING (Heating)

COMFORT ZONE

PASSIVE-BASED IEQ

COMFORT ZONE

OUTDOOR WEATHER

COMFORT ZONE

COMFORT ZONE

ANNUAL ENERGY USE BY END USE

INDOOR WEATHER (Adaptive Comfort)

Architecture at Zero

23


MAIN ENTRY

24

Architecture at Zero


Architecture at Zero

25


SCIENCE ON T

26

Architecture at Zero


THE BAY Architecture at Zero

27


www.4240architecture.com

Architecture at Zero - AESTUS  
Architecture at Zero - AESTUS  
Advertisement