Yi Zhou Postgraduate Portfolio of MA ISD UAL

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MEMORY THERAPY CENTER Translation of memory in space from the perspective of neuroscience

Sep. 2019 - Sep. 2020

YI ZHOU 19003221

MA Interior and Spatial Design


INDEX - Introduction - Context - Chapter One Researches

- Chapter Two Form Exploring

- Chapter Three Designing


Introduction "Architecture collects a collective memory not individual memory necessarily. And it is necessary to mark collective memory, we also need to mark our moment in time with our architecture. According to Hegelian, everything have a thesis and an antithesis. So the resolution it's never the whole thesis nor the anti thesis. It's partial." - Peter Eisenman

CHAPTER ONE Researches This project is going to design a small building where people can store their memories, in case they have brain injury and forgotten things. As a respond to how memory can be transformed into space, the building would be looks like brain waves from outside. The interior spaces are transformed also from brainwaves lines, intended to give audience a sense of healing to relax then strong stimulation to help recall memories.


CONTEXT

Can I provide a place to store memories for people who have brain memory problems or who want to review their memories in the future?

the memory distribution graph

Studies have shown that people’s memory declines with age. It's not just the elderly with Alzheimer's disease who feel pain when they can't remember things. Young people often forget some things, even important things, and feel helpless.

T h e e p i d e r m i s o f t h e a rch i t e c t u r e h e r e i s transformed from people's memory fragments which construct to the large memory palace. The facade pattern is tranformend from brainwaves.


INSPIRATION - MEMORY OVERLAPPING

COMPARISON Red Brick Museum:

Tate Modern:

The exhibition space is larger, and the circular water curtain was placed in a large square space to guide people walk through the water curtain, stand in front of or behind the water curtain, follow the changes of light and shadow in different positions, and move freely in the space. This spatial design allowing people to participate more in the exhibition and interact with it.

The exhibition space is much smaller than that in Beijing. There was just a single linear water installation inside, which hints at the route of walking, and is hard for people to interact with. This resulting in a single flow of people in the space.

RAINBOW INSTALLATION

Background:

Same exhibition, different museums

The inspiration came from the experience that I went to Red Brick Muesum in Beijing the second time. The first time that I went there was in June, 2018, and the second time was half a year after that. The exhibition presented by Olafur Eliasson and the unique spatial form made me very impressed with this museum. So when I walked into the museum for the second time, the last memory of the exhibition immediately came to my mind, overlapping with the real space in front of me and this reconstructed the space.

Commonality: Both two exhibitions contained the element of mirror and orange light to create atmosphere. 2018.6 Red Brick Museum PHOTOED BY THE AUTHOR

2019.10 Tate Modern


INSPIRATION - LOST SENSE OF SPATIAL DIRECTION Space Trigger Memory - Teamlab Shanghai 2020

Light Community

Based on the Teamlab Exhibition experience in Shanghai, I identified the spatial element in the space that triggers memory. Artworks in the museum were presented without boundaries, and the museum was set without a map.

The light community is composed of hundreds of shining media of light.These luminous media, they have their own rules, they will change their speed according to the state of the surrounding luminous media, and sometimes they will continue to operate while replenishing energy.

Artworks move out of rooms, communicate with other works, influnce, and sometimes intermingle with each other with no boundaries. Immersive ourselves in the art.

These made me lose the ability of spatial memory creating and recalling. Therefore, the clear boundaries are important to memorise a space.

touching behaviours immersive lights sounds colours changing

trigger memory of magic balls

me interactive balls

light up

moving close

orbital

The medium of light, like a slow breath, is on and off.They produce a timbre when people approach them.In turn, the surrounding medium of light will echo it, spreading the light forward.Just like people in the same space, will feel the presence of others.


MIND MAP

INSPIRATION - LIVING INDIVIDUAL MEMORY

Brain-computer Interface

FIELD OF STUDY "Memory Palace" Exhibition

BERLIN MEMORIAL TO THE MURDERED JEWS OF EUROPE

Sherlock Holmes Speak, Memory

Funes the Memories “In this monument there is no goal, no end, no working one’s way in or out. The duration of an individual’s experience of it grants no further understanding, since understanding the Holocaust is impossible. The time of the monument, its duration from top surface to ground, is disjoined from the time of experience. In this context, there is no nostalgia, no memory of the past, only the living memory of the individual experience.” [1]

The Art of Memory Memory in Neuroscience Questions of Preception The Architect's Brain: Neuroscience Crativity and Architecture

[1] https://eisenmanarchitects.com/Berlin-Memorial-to-the-Murdered-Jews-of-Europe-2005

Artificial Intelligence

Black Mirror 24H Memory

Conscious Control Déjà vu

Psychology

Mnemonic

Inside Out

CONSCIOUS MEMORY

MEMORY PALACE

Memory Therapy

Psychosis Disorder PTSD - Memory and Trauma Dadaism

MEMORY MEMORY OVERLAPPING Why can we remember a specific space for a long time?

"Body Memory"?

Neuroscience for Architecture

INVOLUNTARY MEMORY Stream of

In Search of Lost Memory Consciousness

PARALLEL SPACE-TIME Interview to find common things

Perception Senses Emotion Dream inception Multisensory

"Affordance"

"ANFA"

Neuroscience Memory Fragments in Brain

Memory Created in Brain


The Art of Memory, Frances Yates

LITERATURE READING According to the initial mind map, I found some links within researches of literature reading and highlight the keywords.

HISTORY OF MEMORY METHOD

"The Art of memory" is a book that introduces the various ways of memory in the past. Frances Yates mentioned in the book that human memories are preserved in the form of images, sorted by location. A place is easier to remember than others. So when we remember something, and later want to recall the previous memory, this thing always appears in the image of a specific location. There are some interesting links between this book and the journal that I have read before. Both The art of memory and the Neuron Journal mention that only significant things in memory can leave others easy to forget, as it says in the book "things slip from the memory while the striking and the novel stay longer in the mind".


Neuron: The Persistence and Transience of Memory, Blake A. Richards Most of us believe that “perfect” memory means never forgetting things, but perhaps forgetting things can actually help us “manipulate” a random and ever-changing world. Neuroscientists Professor Blake Richards, the University of Toronto, said that memory should not work like a video recorder, but should be like a useful rule that helps us make better decisions. Richards also uses artificial intelligence to illustrate. If you teach computers to recognize faces, just let it remember all the specific details of thousands of faces. Then, when you let it recognize a new face, artificial intelligence doesn't actually know it's a face because it never learns the general rules. It is not a learning face that is usually elliptical, including two eyes, a nose and a mouth. The human brain may also encounter this problem. Richards compared this with Funes the Memories, a man named Funes who gained incredible memory because of accidence. Funes remembers the details, but doesn't understand because everything he experiences is his own personal snapshot moment. To fix the program, AI researchers used a technique called "regularization" to force the system to forget some details until they left the core information they were interested in: what is a face, what is a dog and a Cat, and so on. Due to the nature of semantic memories and episodic memories, our brains tend to forget episodic memories more quickly. The principle of the brain is to forget everything except the remarkable things. Additionally, forgetting old information can make our brain work more efficient.

Funes the Memories, Jorge Luis Borges "Funes the Memories," is a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. Borges, born in Buenos Aires in 1899, was a poet, short-story writer, essayist and the first of the Latin American magical realists. In the story, after having been thrown from a horse, Funes lived physically within the confines of one room. But for him, the changes that had come with the accident were an awakening. The accident that cost him his ability to move his limbs had also given him a gift: infallible memory. When he awoke from a period of unconsciousness, those nineteen years of mere mortal memory were a thing of the past. Every single detail, lost to the rest of us, he retained. Streaks on windows, the patterns of the southern clouds, every leaf on every tree and every moment during which he viewed those leaves.

NEUROSCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INTERPRETATION OF MEMORY

NOVEL AS AN EXAMPLE COMPARISON

Ariticle: https://www-sciencedirect-com.arts.idm.oclc.org/science/ article/pii/S0896627317303653?dgcid=api_sd_search-api-endpoint

INITIAL EXAMPLE

Funes could remember every single event that occurred in one day. The trick was that it took him a whole day to do the remembering. Confined to his room, he inhabited his memories fully. He lost his ability to have general ideas. Everything was detail. Detail was everything. "The least important of his memories was more minute and more vivid than our perception of physical pleasure or physical torment."

Ariticle: http://www.theflickeringlamp.org/2014/04/the-art-of-memoryjorge-luis-borges-and.html


In Search of Lost Time, Marcel Proust Involuntary memory, in Wikipedia This is a novel which recorded the memories of the author in his whole lifetime. This is the subject of stream of consciousness writing, meaning that it is a writing that does not take time to develop as a clue. The author built the whole story involuntarily recalled, and he thought where to write it. In the book of in search of lost time, Marcel Proust is reminded of his childhood by the taste of a madeleine cake dunked in tea. The sense of smell, taste, and touch are reminiscent of the memories associated with the past. From my point of view, such a memory is very subjective and personal, reminding me of the previous case, "MEMORY PALACE." It showed the artist's personal subjective selection of important events in the history of human civilization, and subjectively combines them into a map of civilization history. in the form of sculpture.

STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS WRITING

This phrase in Wikipedia means that memories creep into the human brain without conscious. Marigold Linton first mentioned the concept of precious memory fragments. The fragments of these memories will reappear when the senses are stimulated. For example, if you eat something familiar, you will remember the feelings of the past; or you will smell the familiar smell, and you may recall the place you have been to before. From my own experience, these can also make sense.

PERCEPTION TRIGGER CONTINUOUS MEMORY

STIMULATING MEMORY FRAGMENTS

When I came to London seven years ago, the smell of wet air and rain made me unforgettable. So when I returned to my hometown, when I saw the rain drifting through the glass window or smelling the fresh space when it rained, it still reminds me of the scene in London.

Ariticle: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Involuntary_memory


DIRECTIONS After reading the literature, I conducted further research from three memory-related directions, through ways of case analysis, interview analysis, and conceptual modeling.

• Neuroscience and architecture - Spatial memory • Spatial Experience / Impression in memory • Memory Overlapping


Case Study / Scientific Support Neuroscience and spatial memory


CASE STUDY Neuroscience for architecture

CASE STUDY A SPACE FOR BEING: A NEUROAESTHETICS EXHIBIT FEATURING DESIGN’S IMPACT ON OUR BIOLOGY Susan Magsamen/ Executive Director / International Arts and Mind Lab, Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University /Baltimore, MD

Hotel of Memory - Memory and Neuroscience

The exhibit, called A Space for Being, showcased design’s impact on our biology and well-being. We invited our guests to observe their biological responses to three separate rooms, each curated with different sensory experiences—from lighting, color and textures to scents and sounds. IAM Lab’s mission was to inform the design of each room with neuroaesthetic principles based upon sensory and motor research. To create a baseline experience amongst the three rooms, each space was residential, featuring a living and dining space, and furnishings from the Muuto line. Then, different combinations of sights, sounds, scents and textures were layered in to create unique atmospheres. NY-based architect Suchi Reddy of Reddymade oversaw the interior and architectural design of the installation. Reddy explained, “This was a great opportunity to explore the poetry of architecture, with science as the driver of the design. Knowing that the goal was to create three different moods or feelings, I made particularly conscious choices for every element of the rooms, giving careful thought to the sequence of the experience as well. It was a fine balance of checking the work against published scientific research, and a good old-fashioned gut check of the aesthetic experience.”

IMAGES: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00866/full

The results were three distinct rooms given names to evoke what they offered: • ESSENTIAL – Appeals to our primitive mind for a potentially grounding effect. • VITAL – Sparks our curiosity in a way that may feel uplifting. • TRANSFORMATIVE – A high-contrast yet balanced aesthetic that may prove awe-inspiring.Images:https://anfarch.org/a-n-17/

http://www.alvaroaalvarez.com/hotel

After obsevring and analysing the important factors to make a hotel rememberable, then defining 5 cues within the contexts of neuroscience. Both 2D and 3D diagrams were used to represent the evidence of cues in architecture. ' Spatial Memory ' was mentioned in the project to analyse the results in a more expert way.


NEUROSCIENCE IN MEMORY AREA

How memories been created? What memories look like in our brain?

Important part in brain to create new memories

Memory, Explained - Netflix process of memory forming We know about 50 percent of the details of that memory change in the air The ones that form the foundation of our life story can shift and wrap over even thought most people are convinced they are 100 percent right. time. It seems like the whole purpose of the memory should be to preserve the past. Memory is to mediate our interactions with the world. They remember the gist of the day, but not details like who they were with what they were doing when they heard and what exactly they saw even our most significant memories.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d95dOH-7GHM&t=718s


Memory Palace Training process of "memory palace" memorising

"Memory Palace" is a way of remembering things, using code to represent the digits and make up into unnatural stories, then put them on the road map in our mind. When recalling memories, the strory transformed into words, then the words would be converted into digits according to personal codes.

How dights being remembered

We reconstruct our episodic memory so we paced them back together means that how episodic memories are very flexible.

Transform digits to Personal Code

Code make up stories transform into images

Put images onto the map in mind

Scientists have been able to exploit this felxibility to plant false childhood memories of being left at a shopping mall taking an air balloon riding even having tea with Prince Charles. And another study showed that they even can make teens commits crimines and came up with rich memory details which are completely false by leading questions from scientists in interviews. Recall words Recall digits


When we go to retrieve memory, we have multiple ways of getting into that. Story, place and emotion are the foundation of some of our strongest memories and those same features can be hijacked.

When people remember, a particular network lit up and that same network was engaged identically when people were having to imagine futher events.

When you let your mind wander, you switch back and force all the time remembering and imagining. Your mind is a time machine.


Interviews Spatial Experience / Impression in memory


DESCRIPTION This is a long rectangular space. This is a room where the space is almost completely enclosed. At the entrance, there is an indoor pool. There is a Buddha body on the water without its head. As you enter the space, there is a Buddha head in the center of the innermost. In the middle there is a T-stage, with Chinese traditional flying on both sides. Next-door spaces are divided into various small functional spaces.

INTERVIEWS RESEARCH When we discard those unimportant memories, what remains?

I interviewed ten people and I asked the same four questions to test what lead to construct their Spatial Memory System : Is there a space in your memory that impresses you the most? Why? Can you describe it briefly and draw it down?

REASON Great spatial experience. KEYWORDS experience, immersive, feeling

DESCRIPTION The art museum in our school has an exhibition hall dedicated to video. You can see it by turning in from a small entrance. This is a space that often be overlooked. REASON This space makes me have the feeling of security and mystery.

DESCRIPTION There have been several times in the dream, a super high, transparent elevator in the sky, everyone in the transparent flat ball. The rise and fall of the elevator is not controlled, and people feel particularly heavy in weight loss. (Why do we have real feelings in dream? For example, weightlessness) REASON The feeling of losing gravity was really unforgettable. KEYWORDS dream, lost gravity, feeling

DESCRIPTION Grandma's little black house: When I was a child, I wouldn't listen to my mother. I would lock me in. The little black house was full of debris, cylinders, firewood, old cabinets, farm tools... The cabin was dark and dark, although the house was small, but I always I felt surrounded by cows and ghosts, especially on the second floor, there was a small compartment that felt like someone was watching me. The two-meter-two gate is a mountain for me. REASON I feel impressed by this psychologically horrible feeling. KEYWORDS scary, childhood

DESCRIPTION It is a misty, tens of meters long corridor. The color of the fog is gradually deepening. The visibility is only about half a meter. If you are in front of the fog, you will be impressed by the fact that you can only see the figure and the visibility is very low. REASON The changes of color were amazing and I like the feeling of moving slowly in the hustle and bustle. KEYWORDS experience, immersive

DESCRIPTION This is a section of a very small surface that is filled with free-form surfaces and logic algorithms. This is a good example of using numbers as a logic for constructing the human world. It embodies a further understanding of space in the human history, which helps humans move toward the human universe. REASON It helps humans move toward the human universe. KEYWORDS future, mathmatics

KEYWORDS mystery, security

DESCRIPTION For me, one of the most influential spaces was a house where a family lived as a child. It was an old house from the last century, with traditional eaves and wooden flower panes. After the house was renewed with a new house, it was gradually destroyed, but it was always in my impression. REASON Speaking of reasons, I think it is because there are too many memories. Most of the memories of childhood are related to this house. KEYWORDS childhood, old house DESCRIPTION The most impressive thing was the old house that lived in the alley when I was a child. The gate enters a half-span old tiled room separated by a wall. At the top of the middle beam is a loft with debris. It was very mysterious. I had to climb up from the tall wooden ladder. The house is about 7 or 8 meters deep, and a glass door with a glass door on the left side leads to the patio. The patio is surrounded by walls. The southwest side is home to neighbors. On the east side of the grille door is the master bedroom of my house, a bungalow of 4 meters square. On the top of the bungalow is a large platform that climbs the stairs from the patio. This is my childhood park, drying, watching the scenery, playing games are here. The big platform can straddle the black tile roof of my front house. The light-transparent glass window on the top still has the graffiti of my daughter. When the patio is raining, it will become a water curtain hole. The rain on the four sides will enter the patio. There is a well in the middle of the courtyard. REASON I felt very mysterious when I was young. This is my childhood park, drying, watching the scenery, playing games are here.

DESCRIPTION The exhibition I went with my girlfriend, the scene was beautiful, but my girlfriend cried, and my mood was very unusual at the time. REASON She cried and was very cute, making me think this space was also very lovely, so I remember this space. KEYWORDS emotion

KEYWORDS mystery,childhood, old house DESCRIPTION This is a dream. I was in a bunker, surrounded by quicksand, and my head was covered with blood red eyes and sky. The eyes on the top of the head are almost as big as the bunker. I want to climb but I can't climb out. REASON The very horrible feeling reminds me of this dream. KEYWORDS dream, scary


ANALYSIS

DIAGRAM To sum up, the factors that people remember in these spaces are: psychological feelings, unusual emotions at the time, and specific time periods.

Trying to find Collective Memories / Resonance I investigated ten people. What I didn't expect was that no one mentioned the home where I live now. I think this is the most easily forgotten space. First of all, when it comes to space, many people may think about other places. And home is considered to be a spiritual place, which is more of a container used as living function. By comparing the feedback they gave me, I found that some of them have some commonalities, just like the collections in mathematics, they always have intersections. For example, there are some keywords, fear, emotion, mystery, dreams, childhood. I think the most interesting thing is that two of them mentioned the space in the dream, it is virtual but it is remembered.

KEYWORDS dream lost gravity feeling

KEYWORDS scary childhood

KEYWORDS experience immersive feeling

KEYWORDS mystery security

KEYWORDS experience immersive

MYSTERY

KEYWORDS emotion immersive SPATIAL EXPERIENCE

During the interview, I tried to guess the reasons why these spaces impressed them through their descriptions. In fact, in the process of their narrative, some keywords have been directional, so my guess is not bad.

KEYWORDS childhood old house

KEYWORDS mystery childhood old house

UNUSUAL EMOTION

KEYWORDS future mathmatics HORRIBLE EMOTION

KEYWORDS dream scary

CHILDHOOD

DREAM

FUTURE


Conceptual Modeling Memory Overlapping


MODELING INSPIRATION

SITE CHOSEN

Artworks in site South London Gallery Name: South London Gallery Strokes overlapped on the mirror

Location: 65 - 67 Peckham Road, London SE5 8UH Reason: 1 Why gallery / museum

WHAT IF ARCHITECTURE HAS MEMORIES?

• The exhibitions often change in galleries or museums, and the layouts even routes would be changed to suit the intention of exhibition. How people use their spatial memories to remember a space with slight different layouts? • According to the history, the gallery contained the memory of the function changes during the past.

2 Factors • link new and old • link interior and exterior • transformative

Artworks overlapping with me


SITE ANALYSIS History

SITE ANALYSIS Old and new

Historical Changes

1870s

1890s

1920s

1950s

1960s

Contemporary

https://digimap.edina.ac.uk/roam/map/historic

City Smell Mapping

South London Gallery

Memory Overlapping in site Architectural Memory in site http://goodcitylife.org/smellymaps/index.php


ELEMENT EXTRACTION FROM SITE MODEL MAKING

Spatial experiments with memory fragments

TEXTURE OVERLAPPING

HIGHLIGHT TEXTURE


CONCEPT The aim to this project is to explore the use of memory in space from the perspective of neuroscience (brain) and to reproduce the thought process of memory in brain throught the arrangement of spatial sequences.

EXPERIMENTS This model experiment continued the hole elements of the first model morphologically. Lighter was used to burn acrylic panels, then natural forms were created with crystal texture around, which imitated the complex memory overlapping in my mind. The model assembles the process of recalling my memory seemingly generated at random.

MODELING


Mnemonic

CONCEPT DIAGRAM

Déjà vu

FIELD OF STUDY "Memory Palace" Exhibition Sherlock Holmes Speak, Memory Funes the Memorios

Artificial Intelligence

Black Mirror 24H Memory Inside Out

Psychology

Psychosis Disorder

Brain-computer PTSD - Memory Interface and Trauma Dadaism

CONSCIOUS MEMORY

MEMORY PALACE

Memory Therapy

Conscious Control Cure

MEMORY Memory in Neuroscience

PROJECT EVOLVING

The Art of Memory

Memory is not only about the past, but also affect the forming of future memory. To the people who have brain damaged and forgotten memory, here would be the therapy for them.

MEMORY OVERLAPPING

Memory Created in Brain

Neuroscience for Architecture The Architect's Brain: Neuroscience Crativity and Architecture "ANFA"

forgotten Perception memory Senses recall memory Emotion In Search of Lost

INVOLUNTARY Memory MEMORY

Stream of Consciousness

Spatial Memory

Memory Fragments in Brain

Memory Therapy

brain injury

Questions of Preception

Why can we remember a specific space for a long time?

Interview to find common things

"Body Memory"?

"Affordance"

Neuroscience

Dream

Multisensory


SITE ANALYSIS Plan and spatial memory

Spatial Memory Keypoints

Gallery Space

Link interior and exterior

Transformative Spaces

Images: https://www.archdaily.com/65672/south-london-gallery-6a-architects?ad_source=search&ad_medium=search_result_all

Streamline


SITE ANALYSIS Old and new

SITE ANALYSIS Architecture memory

At the rear of the site, 6a has designed a new education building on the footprint of the original lecture theatre which was destroyed after World War II. Two surviving brick walls provided the natural start for the building which links the Fox Garden on one side and the gallery’s garden on the other. Save this picture!At night the walls and shutters close the whole building down into an abstract dark box.

"It was the building's sound that captured the imagination; it was the sound that gave it a resonance deeper than anything visual." - Architectural Voices Architectural Memory in site

"Architecture collects a collective memory not individual memory necessarily. And architecture is necessary to mark collective memory." - Peter Eisenman


CASE STUDY Old and new

Renovation Volume

Spatial Sequence renovated space

Stairs Hall Beginning

Reopening

Topping out ceremony

Restoration

Invitation

Competition for renovation and reconstruction

Decision to rebuild

Damage

Damage

Open to public

Completion

Completion of shell

Started to build

Neues Museum, Berlin, David Chipperfield

Main Vestibule Transition

1843

1847

1855

1859

1943

1945

1985

1993

1997

2003

2007 2009

renovated space

Greek Courtyard Climax

https://davidchipperfield.com/project/neues_museum

Function renovated space

The main entrance to the Neues Museum is on the east side of the building under the colonnades. Since the house was reopened in 2009, in addition to this historic entrance to the colonnade courtyard, there is also access to the west side of the house. The first step was to develop the New Museum as the central entrance to the Museum Island and to guide visitors via the first floor to the Old Museum and the Pergamon Museum. This would have exposed the most fragile historical spaces to the strongest flow of visitors.

Connection to Altes Museum Ending renovated space

https://davidchipperfield.com/project/neues_museum


WHAT IS OLD AND NEW FOR ME?

Images: https://afasiaarchzine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/David-Chipperfield-.-Neues-Museum-.-Berlin-42.jpg

Materials

The process can be described as a multidisciplinary interaction between repairing, conserving, restoring and recreating all of its components. The original sequence of rooms was restored with newly built sections that create continuity with the existing structure. The restoration and repair of the existing elements of the building were driven by the idea that the spatial context and materiality of the original structure should be emphasised – the contemporary reflects the lost but without imitating it.

Keep Initial Material

Brick

Same Elements

Concrete

New Material white cement + Saxonian marble chips

Under the influence of the epidemic, should we pay more attention to the use of digital media technology like AR / VR?


CASE STUDY Digital media and Spatial memory

CASE STUDY Digital media and Spatial memory HtwoOexpo, 1994-1997, Neeltje Jans Island, NOX Architecture

Science Museum, London Images: YI ZHOU

Display / Watching

Specimen

Interactive Games / Engagement

Professional Symbols

Individual

+ Film

Model

Group

The water pavilion is the first of its kind to combine an innovative interactive interior involving all the senses with a continuous geometry. The design, which has received high international acclaim for introducing a completely new language of form, is one where floors transform into walls and walls into ceilings. The inbuilt exhibition is partly based on existing water technologies like the freezing of a wall, the spraying of a mist, artificial rainfall, jumping jets of water and partly on very innovative real-time electronic interactions. The building contains a wide range of sensors through which visitors can change the sound, light and projections that completely alter

Images: http://hiddenarchitecture.net/htwooexpo/


CASE STUDY Digital media and Spatial memory Melting Memories - Memory and Technology Melting Memories offered new insights into the representational possibilities emerging from the intersection of advanced technology and contemporary art. By showcasing several interdisciplinary projects that translate the elusive process of memory retrieval into data collections, the exhibition immersed visitors in Anadol’s creative vision of “recollection.”

Combined with advanced technology, visualising the memory of smell provides a new way of seeing and experiencing ourselves. By observing and analysing people's behaviour and perception of specific things to trigger memory of smell from the perspective of spatial design.

FOR ME, OLD AND NEW ARE... Space created by classical memory rules "Spatial Memory" Combined with new technology / digital media art

https://www.gooood.cn/melting-memories-by-refik-anadol-studio.htm?lang=en


Introduction of "Spatial Memory"


SPATIAL MEMORY Conecept memory journey Spatial Sequence

memory palace

General Layout

“Spatial Memory”

Spatial Layout

Cognitive Map

Recall Memory of space

“Method of Loci”

mind palace technique

Cue Target Locations / Landmark Orienting

memory enhancement visualise

familiar spatial environments

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spatial_memory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Method_of_loci#:~:text=The%20method%20of%20 loci%20(loci,palace%2C%20or%20mind%20palace%20technique.

enhance

recall of information


Geographical Mental Map

places you notes

memory enhancement

space between the notes

London tube map

ambiguous

a sense of the geography of the places

http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/travel/downloads/tube_map.html

e.g. London tube map

e.g. mental geography of Biennales


Case Study Interviews at White Cube

Q: Have you visited the exhibition? A: Yes. Q: Do you remember which space did you went? A: I remember there was a long corridor. With unconscious, I looked to the left hand side first. Went in and browsed it, and then I walked across the corridor to the hall on the right. After I got out, I went down the hall. I looked around in the left room and then the right. The sequence was first left, then right, before, after. Q: How can you recall your memory of spaces? A: I feel like my brain likes folders. My memories were classified according to the locations. For instance, when I think about rice, the scene of kitchen was shown in my mind.

Her of

White Cube

First Scene Corridor

Memory Palace is named after the classical mnemonic technique, originating in Ancient Greece, which catalogues memories within familiar locations. Devlin identifies the rooms in which significant shifts in human thinking took place and plots them within identifiable fragments of cities and buildings to create a personal atlas of the evolution of thought. The 18-metre-wide sculptural work, carved from bamboo, features mirrored planes that multiply its dimensions to enable a reimagining of time and space. Images: https://www.gooood.cn/memory-palace-by-es-devlin.htm

exaggerate

Cognitive Map

Memory Palace Exhibition, Es Devlin

Second Scene Room Locations

Changes of size, location


Forest of Resonating Lamps When each lamp is arranged in the space so that a line is connected between the two closest lamps, only a unique connecting line will appear. The significance of this configuration is that although the corresponding lights only echo the two closest lights, all the lights will be echoed once and formed in one go to form a light path, and finally return to the starting point of the light.

I was deeply attracted by such a space that deviated from reality. It seemed to have no boundaries and ends and l lost sense of direction and spatial memory ability. When I stands still near the light, the light closest to me will emit a strong light and make a sound. Then, the light will spread to the two closest lights. The light that spreads out will flash the same light and make the same sound, and then spread to the closest light again, and continue to extend continuously.

Memory of Nation, KOLMO The exhibition is designed as a family of three linear objects, each deals with the view by specific form. All three objects are articulated as abstract bodies, their structures are hidden to avoid competition with the Monument. All of them work with extreme dimensions and feelings of distress and discomfort, evoking the minimal spaces of concentration camps and prison solitary confinement.

Images: https://www.gooood.cn/memory-of-the-nation-at-stalin-by-kolmo.htm


CONCLUSION In people's cognitive map of spatial memory, the size and location would be changed according to different notice. The size of the noticed places might be exaggerated, but the details would be ignored. And the place location would be shifted since different walking route.

CHAPTER TWO Form Exploring This Chapter is intended to exploring the spatial form. Finding familiar elements or identifiable fragments which can evoking collective memory. And multiply its dimensions to enable a reimagining of time and space finally to achieve the memory therapy purpose.


DATA COLLECTION Brainwaves as patterns Real-time change

Gamma waves represent emotional memory waves and tension and excitement values. The alpha wave is the degree of relaxation, the beta wave is the degree of concentration, the delta wave represents almost no working in the brain, and theta wave represents the deep relaxation wave. The curve generated according to the magnitude of these values is the feedback of the relaxation and concentration of the human brain.

Actual / Fictional Physical / Virtual

BRAINWAVE SCREENSHOT

https://www.archdaily.com/937051/when-machines-design-artificial-intelligence-and-the-futureof-aesthetics

http://woodstreetgalleries.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Infinity-Room-06.jpg


SPATIAL EXPERIMENTS

SPATIAL FORM Variety needle model toys are used to simulate the dynamic space changes in the project. The two black plates can be seen as the two faces of the wall connecting the two spaces.

side 1

side 2 side 1

Extract within 0 ~ 20s

The wave curve of the brain wave diagram is extracted as the morphological source of the spatial form.

side 2

The wave curve of the brain wave diagram is extracted as the morphological source of the space experiment. When the participant wears the device, the real-time brain wave form will be transformed into a dynamic space. The brainwave sculpture will be presented.

The "positive shape" and the "negative shape" on the back of the variegated needle model change at the same time. This form is applied to the space so that one side of a wall moves while driving the other side.

Brainwave Patterns generated by Rhino

It increases the linkage of the space and makes the space itself interactive. The people in the spaces on both sides of this wall seem to feel existence with each other.

“positve side” / side 1

“negative side” / side 2


ELEMENTS EXTRACTION Brainwaves changing in 1 min


CURVES EXTRACTION Some parts of the curves were extracted and constructed into walls to explore the spatial form.


CURVES SIMULATION

After being tested in a digital way, then the curves were simulated by models to test the forms in reality.

Also, the "negative" shape and "positive" shape mentioned in former pages were explored in these experiments.


Large Pin Toy Experiments Larger pin toy were used also intended to explore the cured walls of spaces. And using full scale to do experiments is more easier to perceiving spatial experience.


EXPERIMENT PHOTOS ( Curved Spatial Form Exploring )


This experiment was intended to explore the forms of spaces. The bubble glue was used to blow different shapes of bubbles. The forms were unpredictable. When stick them together, the interior space also can be seen through the transparent materials.


EXPERIMENT PHOTOS Media: Water bubbles Place: a warehouse near site Participants: 2 These are some of the sreenshots of my experiments process video. The shape would be extracted from these to reshape the bubble space.


EXPERIMENT PHOTOS Media: Water bubbles Place: a warehouse near site Participants: 2 This experiment was intended to test the relationship of two bubbles which imitates the postions of two spaces. It was attempted to find the way of linking or isolate spaces. Overlapping

Rotating

Moving

Isolated


EXPERIMENT PHOTOS

Media: Water bubbles Place: a warehouse near site Participants: 2 Similar to the brainwaves, the shape of bubbles also keep changing every second. So the bubble was used to explore the cured spaces and to show the changes.


BUBBLE SPACE

Squeeze the bubbles into a whole

SURFACE

Trying to moving the bubbles into gathered form

This initial whole spatial blocks came from the experiments in former pages. The every block would be changed and adjusted according to the water bubble experiments to achieve the purpose of multiple dimensions.

FRAMEWORK

Rotating the bubbles and moving closer


TYPOLOGY - gathered and scattered

On the left, these are the illustrations of surface forms selected from the bubble experiment photos. This represents typological research, these illustrations covered most of the bubble types.

The gathered and scattered of bubbles are trying to find the relationship in the final space.

Gathering

As I mentioned in former experiments, bubbles were used to find out multiple dimensions spatial forms to enable a reimagining of time and space.

Extracting the form outline

The extracted outline would be the foundation of approximate final building, and the facade will be adjusted according to my brainwaves experiments.


SITE CHANGING This part will be introduce the reason for changing the site and the commonality of the two sites.


SITE Location: Tangshan mine park, Nanjing, China

The original site South London Gallery in London was changed into Nanjing Tangshan Mine Park in China after going back to China, because of the pandemic coronavirus.

The commonality between the This place was chosen as the two sites is, they both contain site of my memory therapy the memory of the building. since it was a semi-hidden and semi-underground space. The For South London Gallery, it relatively remote site, Tangshan contained the old memory of mine park, formed by the old the building and combined new quarry piled up waste gravel elements. was hidden among mountains. For Tangshan mine park, it contained the memory of old industry time.


MEMORIES IN SITE

It is a remote place which used to be a huge stone pit then became an abandoned mine in 2004. This history allows this place to continue the function of pervading memory and holding more memories of human being and retreat the ones who have brain injurys and stimulate thoughts in the perception.

"Mine pits were scars from the past industrial period, but they were also memories of the city." The mines show their memories to everyone.


SITE IN SCALE

Tangshan Scenic Area

Tangshan Scenic Area

Southeast of Nanjing

Park Area

1:25000

Southeast of Nanjing 1:250000000

1:250000

Nanjing City 1:2500000000

1:2500000

1:25000000

Jiangsu Province

Southeast of China

1:25000000000

1:250000000000


Wind Green

Water

Roads

Scale 1:2500000

LAYOUT IN SITE


CHAPTER THREE Designing The purpose of this chapter is to design the project based on the previous experimental and research contents, and to integrate it into the environment by combining the site situation analysis.


SKETCHES Memory Therapy

Memory Palace Imaginary Memory World Memory Pool

Virtual Memory World


CASE STUDY

Emotional Cartography, Christian Nold, 2005 It is a successful attempt to show the self by technology. It brought art, psycho-geograph, design, culture, futurism and neuroscience together to explore the political, social and cultural implications of visualising people’s intimate biometric data and emotions using technology. Participant wears the device and creates the emotion spaces, which is a simple indicator of emotional arousal in conjunction with their geographical location. The typical visualisation of Bio Mapping data is shown in Google Earth. The height of the track indicates the physiological arousal at that point. The annotation was made by the participant. Then all the trials are combined to create an emotion map. Therefore, it will be an interesting attempt to convert the data chart generated after wearing the brain wave detection instrument into space. The specific conversion method will be discussed in experiments part.


ELEMENTS IN SPACE

The trial of making interior spatial in section. I was inspired by the process of the bubble being squeezed and leaking air.

The directions of the lines could be coverted into the wave on building surface.

The model experiments indicated the way that brainwaves coverted into wave on building. surface.


FORM GENERATION

Surface Part

Spike Part


SURFACE ATTEMPTS

The principle of this experiment is to simulate the process of balloon leakage and shrinkage, and obtain different skin morphology through the change of data.


FORM GENERATION

Original Geometry

Smooth

Smooth Twice

Establishing a grid

Take points on the grid

Endowed centripetal force

Random reduction points

Create a surface with points

Extract the structure lines on the surface

Pipe the lines


FORM GENERATION

Fold epidermis

Add Spikes.

Move underground

Cut epidermis

Add spikes


SURFACE DETAIL


SURFACE DETAIL

Thousands of spikes are glass tubes, each containing a memory of a person.


Each of them is a piece of memory.


INTERIOR SPACE ATTEMPTS

SECTION


Section


Section at night


Rendering

The light color of the elevator changes according to the thermal response. When people come closer, the color would be darker in shade.


Rendering

Color and size are used to enhance the spatial depth and create a sense of a long corridor.

At the entrance of the third space, numerous small blue squares are suspended in the air, and the nearest few squares light up when people approach.


Rendering

Large and small blue square, emitting a glimmer of light, as if a memory fragments.

At the entrance of the third space, numerous small blue squares are suspended in the air, and the nearest few squares light up when people approach.


Rendering

When people reach the upper space, they see a roof made up of tens of thousands of spikes.

The surface morphology of the spikes is derived from the surface transformed by brain waves.


Rendering

The light that the spikes bring into the interior space is concentrated at the top, like holy light.

The tubes are made of glass and light can be spiked into the interior space.


A rendering of the building on the site. It is hidden in the mountains and echoes the existing landscape installation of the site, and the treatment room is accessible by walking down the stairs.


Memory Control Laboratory in the perspective of neuroscience Index Abstract

Abstract 1 Introduction

Based on the development of high technology, the research on the human brain is gradually deepened. These may bring new possibility

2 Context

to futuristic spatial design of our memory in the context of new era. Machine Intelligence might help to transform science data of

3 Field of study

memories into artistic merit spaces which brings out better meaning to spaces. In the pages that follow, it will be discussed that how

3.1 How spaces trigger memory

space trigger memory in the perspective of neuroscience, and will be explored how spatial memory can be used to construct possible

3.2 Spatial memory and cognitive map

forms of virtual memory spaces in the memory palace of final Memory Control Laboratory design. The field of study contains perception of space, spatial memory, futuristic design, installation art, spatial design. The methodology of research includes small scale and full scale pin toy experiments, brainwaves recordings, bubble sculptures. Key words: perceptions, spatial memory, neuroscience, spatial design, futuristic

4 Precedences 5 Experiments 5.1 Concept Expression 5.11 Memory Fragments 5.12 Memory Constitution 5.2 Thesis Tests 5.21 Drawing and Describing Interviews

1

2


Introduction

5.22 Spatial Memory Experience / Interviews

The relationship between neuroscience and space has been regarded as a new topic aimed at promoting and enhancing knowledge that

5.3 Curved space shape exploration

links neuroscience research to an increasing understanding of human response to the built environment (ANFA, 2003). In this essay, the

5.31 Brainwaves Recordings

relationship of memory and space will be examined through researches on thesis, books, films, interviews and spatial experiments. The

5.32 Brainwaves Transformation

bridge of memory and space is human beings that owning smart brains which control perception and imagination. It will be applied the

5.33 Pin Toy Models (small, full scale)

research and analysis results of the combination of neuroscience and space into interior design, then making a memory control

5.34 Gule Bubble (Spatial Joints)

laboratory, and simulating some possible virtual space forms. The design project will be futuristic design since memory is not only a

5.35 Water Bubble (Interior Space Exploring)

representative of the past, but past memories also help us form future memories.

6 Site chosen 7 Outcome intention

Context

8 Conclusion

With the development of science and technology, more and more attention has been paid on cross-disciplinary experimental design. The combination of neuroscience and architecture is also in its infancy. As a result, the forward-looking research topic and design project

Reference

would be fresher and expecting.

Bibliography

The mind control technology have come out, which gave rise to interpret brain waves and convert them into effective command information. Similarly, it is not hard to think that in the near future, it will have the technology of reading and controlling memory, and combined with virtual reality technology to build a virtual memory space. The purpose of this project is to provide a place for research and 3

4


experience of future technologies, and to combine existing neuroscience for space knowledge, spatial memory principals, to construct

as graphics, images, models and text. Therefore, more efforts would be put on experimental and imagination in this project which are the

some imagined memory spaces.

two key points of visionary design in accordance to Neil.

In the past, people had many misunderstandings about memory. For instance, some people argued that memory is just a record of what

Field of Study

happened in the past and it is bad to forget things. Also most of us believe that perfect memory means never forgetting things, but perhaps forgetting things can actually help us “manipulate” a random and ever-changing world. The principle of the human brain is to

3.1 How spaces trigger memory

forget everything. Only significant parts of the memory are left, and others are easy to forget (Richards and Frankland, 2013; Yates,

The inspiration came from the experience that when I went to Red Brick Art Museum a second time, then the memory in mind which

1966). Neuroscientists Professor Blake Richards, said that memory should not work like a video recorder, but should be like a useful rule

recorded the first time scenes overlapped with the real space in front of me. After coming to London, the same installations of Olafur

that helps us make better decisions (2013, pp.1071-1084). Especially when memorizing a space, method of loci mentioned in Art of

Eliasson were exhibited in Tate Modern, which reminded me of the memory that they exhibited in Red Brick Art Museum. My memory

memory (Yates, 1966) is often being used. Only familiar elements in the space would be visualised, other

overlapped with each other again. The perception of kind of phenomena “memory overlapping” originated from the stimulation of first

information would be ignored. Then building a cognitive map to enhance the ability to evoke memory

visiting. Explorations in following pages have been done around this phenomenon to figure out reasons for formation.

information. Therefore, it is necessary to design a laboratory space for people to do research, understand and experience their own cognitive maps of spatial memory.

Holl and Pallasmaa take language as a metaphor of architecture, which considered emotions and perception played important roles in architectures (Pallasmaa, 2005; Holl et al., 1994). According to the science documentaries(Netflix, 2019), emotion, place and story are

For futuristic design, Neil Spiller (2007) have mentioned a large number of architectural pioneers in

the foundation of some of our strongest memories. The sound, the smell, the light and shadows all come to mind when recalling memory

Europe and the United States had the concept and fantasy of architecture in the 1980s, as well as their

of joyful cities (Pallasmma, 2005). Pallasmaa (2005, p. 80) identified that memory, senses and imagination all affect on each other. When

attempts and explorations (see left). Among them, many ideas in free-form structural system architecture

entering the space where the sensory experience is extremely rich, almost all the feelings are evoked simultaneously.

are derived from the architect's research on these far-sighted forms. They are hardly restricted by materials and allow the imagination of futuristic design. They are expressed through different media, such 5

6


and then navigating a path (Kahana et al., 2006). Similarly in spatial design, Zumthor (1999) pointed out that images were presented in 3.2 Spatial memory and cognitive map

mind when rethinking of architectures, which means the process of imitate scenarios is figurative and like forming cognitive maps. Spatial

Most of us believe that perfect memory means never forgetting things, but perhaps forgetting things can actually help us “manipulate� a

memory evokes familiar scenes is based on similar interior frames (Mou et al., 2006).

random and ever-changing world. Neuron-Scientists Professor Blake Richards, said that memory should not work like a video recorder, but should be like a useful rule that helps us make better decisions (2013, pp.1071-1084). The working principle of Artificial Intelligence exemplifies that details can be the core to memory in human brain. Artificial Intelligence also can be used to develop a better aesthetic meaning when combining design with technology. American philosopher John Dewey (2006) states that science states meanings; art expresses them. The principle of the human brain is to forget everything. Only significant parts of the memory are left, and others are

Precedences 4.1 Neues Museum - past and now

Neues Museum is one of David Chipperfield’s projects(see right) which is one of the most representative works of old and new, past and present. The core of the reconstruction of the old building is to retain the memories of the past, combined with new technology to give the building new memories. The restoration and repair of the existing elements of the building were driven by the idea that the spatial context and materiality of the original structure should be emphasised, the

easy to forget (Richards and Frankland, 2013; Yates, 1966). Spatial memories mean that the general layout of a particular space and "cue target locations" in the setting of space were remembered by people and become a cognitive map (see above) in human mind (Chun et al., 1998). Individuals must follow in an ordered scale of features intended to recall their cognitive maps(McNamara et al., 1989). Two features of a cognitive map, general layout and landmark orienting, in human brain are needed for collecting spatial details 7

contemporary reflects the lost but without imitating it. The new elements were inserted to fit the current cultural background and in harmony with context. The process can be described as a multidisciplinary interaction between repairing, conserving, restoring and recreating all of its components. The original sequence of rooms was restored with newly built sections that create continuity with the existing structure. Then I was thinking if I could give consciousness to a building 8


by using new technology. Based on the knowledge of spatial memory and brain principal, I started to consider to encode my brainwaves

The design notion in Memory Palace (by Es Devlin, 2019, see right) exemplifies the

into shapes of spaces by digital media. Because it is believed that the past memory in mind have impact on forming future memories.

Ancient Greece Memory Method emphasised in the Art of Memory (Yates, 1966, pp.1-26). It is a personal atlas of the evolution of thought, exhibited at Pitzhanger

4.2 Hotel of Memory - spatial memory application

Manor Gallery & House. This manor is a typical neoclassical building designed by Sir John Soane. He loves collecting the cultural memories of ancient Greece in the form The example Hotel of Memory (by Alvaro Alvarez, 2016, see left) also

of ruins. Similar to the notion of Sir John Soane’s, Devlin uses iconic cities and

demonstrates how spatial memory can be studied and applied to new

buildings to show human thoughts have changed significantly. This exhibition

designs. The spatial memory rules are used when recording a new piece

showed the artist's personal subjective selection of important events in the history of

of memory in our mind. In spatial memory, our thinking is extremely

human civilization, and subjectively combines them into a map of civilization history in the form of sculpture. Yates states that memories

important-whenever we enter a new place, our brain will explain our

are retained in the form of images, which are classified according to place, easier to remember than others. Therefore, things always

environment and use physical cues to assemble a mental field diagram.

appear as an image of a specific place want to recall the previous memory (Yates, 1966, pp.1-26). In accordance with Proust, smell, taste

The map remains deep inside our mind, and if we enter the same space

and touch are reminiscent of memories of the past (Proust, 1913-1927). Similar to the core of this example, these memories are

again, the map can be retrieved. Therefore, the representative elements of remembering a hotel space listed above in the diagram were

subjectively remembered and recorded by the author. The memory palace provided a visualised huge personal cognitive map, a memory

collected from the site. Then these patterns were utilized into new hotel design intended to make the place rememberable.

journey.

4.3 Memory Palace - representation of spatial memory

4.4 Melting Memories - sculptures of memory

9

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Melting Memories (by Refik Anadol, 2018) is Refik Anadol’s new

intimate biometric data and emotions using technology. Participant wears the

attempt to combine new technology with spaces and illustrated how

device and creates the emotion spaces, which is a simple indicator of

data being converted into art works through algorithm (see left). In

emotional arousal in conjunction with their geographical location. The typical

Melting Memories, donated memories were transformed by algorithms

visualisation (see right) of Bio Mapping data is shown in Google Earth. The

and become both three dimensional paintings and audio tracks. The

height of the track indicates the physiological arousal at that point. The

idea is what would happen when we have the chance to see our own

annotation was made by the participant. Then all the trials are combined to

memories. Melting Memories offered new insights into the

create an emotion map. Therefore, it will be an interesting attempt to convert

representational possibilities emerging from the intersection of

the data chart generated after wearing the brain wave detection instrument

advanced technology and contemporary art. By showcasing several interdisciplinary projects that translate the elusive process of

into space. The specific conversion method will be discussed in experiments

memory retrieval into data collections, the exhibition immersed visitors in Anadol’s creative vision of “recollection.” Combined with

part.

advanced technology, visualising the memory of smell provides a new way of seeing and experiencing ourselves. The sculpture of the thinking process can be seen as showing a changing spatial form, analogous to the memory space, maybe you can try to use the brain

4.6 Present Continuous Past(s)

wave data to memorize the sculpture and convert it into space.

Present Continuous Pasts (by Dan Graham, 1974) is about exploring other ways of looking at and understanding yourself. This artwork contained a room with a mirror wall, a camera and a screen below the camera. When the mirror reflects the current time, the camera

4.5 Emotional Cartography

attaches the object immediately in front of it and the reflection the whole image to the opposite mirror wall.

Emotional Cartography (by Christian Nold, 2005) is a successful attempt to show the self by technology. It brought art, psycho-geograph, design, culture, futurism and neuroscience together to explore the political, social and cultural implications of visualising people’s 11

12


5.11 Memory Fragments The artworks in my initial site South London Gallery inspired me to anthropomorphic and assume architectures have memories. The first model has been done to show memory overlapping, invisible space overlapping with real spaces. The layers of traces cause by nature and time on surfaces of architectures assemble the memory of architectures. The mottled walls and stacked traces are like overlapping architectural memories. Then the elements have been extracted from the photos of architectural facades (see right). And papers with specific shapes of holes are stacked up to The screen plays the content 8 seconds after recording. As people can see the reflection of the screen in the mirror, it plays what

creating a sense of layering. After a second time cut, the inner parts combined with some

happened 8 seconds before. Perception usually occurs now. Therefore, we cannot perceive the past or the future. Graham built a space

materials with different colors and textures is to imitate the sense of breaking through and the

that allows people to experience continuous phenomena by visualizing the time and distance in the space. This provides a good point for

three dimensional surface of architecture.

my subsequent design concepts, visualizing the scenes in memory, and enabling people to experience the virtual memory space transformed by the human brain.

5 Experiments 5.1 Concept Expression 13

14


5.12 Memory Constitution

5.2 Thesis Tests

This model experiment continued the hole elements of the first model morphologically. Lighter

5.21 Drawing and Describing Interviews

was used to burn acrylic panels, then natural forms were created with crystal texture around, which imitated the complex memory in my mind. Apart from the acrylic panels and burned ones, the metal mesh is cut into elongated strips to achieve a state of easy bending, twisted and wrapped around the entire model. The soft cotton at the bottom is a metaphor for fuzzy memories. The mirror is used to express the inner reflection and response. The model assembles the process of recalling my spatial memory seemingly generated and reconstructed according to my cognitive map.

After understanding the memory rules of the human brain, I interviews with ten people about what spaces left them deep impression and why (see right). First of all, when it comes to space, home come up in my mind, which his considered to be a spiritual place, which is more of a container used as living function. Therefore, I began to think about the reason why we can get to bathroom without turning on the lights at night. This is because of our spatial memory of home. The familiar elements represented in our memory can construct a map of the routine even in dark environment. Whether people can easily produce spatial memory or not depends on the person's familiarity with the spatial sequence and layout of the space. The familiar details help to form cognitive map in mind.

Additionally, there is an experiment called Y maze aiming to test the rats ability of navigating in space, which also called spatial memory. The diagrams (see next page) show the process and the result of experiment. A rising trend of correction can be seen in the diagram that the mice without memory condition can make the right choice by more and more spatial training and practices.

15

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Similarly, our daily activities at home enhance our spatial memory for home, and training us to enter different functional spaces to get specific basic needs. During the interview, the way they narrative the spaces have linked with their own cognitive map. By comparing the feedback interviewees gave to me, I found that some of them have some commonalities, just like the collections in mathematics. Some elements have a common memory for the public, and they always have resonance. For instance, there are some keywords, fear, emotion, mystery, dreams, childhood can link some of them. It is easy to think of that most people would be impressed with some memories of childhood, and usually remember the things we fear. But the most interesting thing is, two of them mentioned the space in their dreams, they are virtual but remembered.This remind me of that virtual space in our mind often distorts the facts of reality to meets some expectations that cannot be fulfilled in reality, but they did affect our memory, sometimes

5.22 Spatial Memory Experience / Interviews The other experiment had been done when I visited the exhibition at White Cube. The reason why this place was being chosen is that it is not overly complex enough to make a cognitive map. The diagram (see right) illustrated the cognitive map of the exhibition space according to interviewee’s statement. To sum up, according to my analysis, the factors that help people remember these spaces are: psychological feelings, unusual emotions at the time, and specific time periods. Besides, the cognitive map is established as a three dimensional space with spatial layout and sequences when the space have clear guidance. This coincides with my argument that the core of memory have relationship with emotion, perception, and psychology and the way of remembering spaces is according to the cognitive map formed by specific positions of landmarks and familiar elements.

5.3 Curved space shape exploration 5.31 Brainwaves Recordings

even being mistaken for real things.

The following experiments were exploring the spatial forms of Memory Control Laboratory. The core principle of the existing idea control technology I mentioned above is that humans generate electricity when they perform various physiological activities, and through the two metal contacts on the brain wave device, the brain potential activity can be visualised as lines and displayed on the screen. Also inspired 17

18


by melting memory, the memory sculpture also can be seen as spaces of our inner reflection. Curiosity makes me want to explore what my brain waves are like when I evoke memories. Then the brainwaves testing device was used to test the fluctuation of brain waves and

5.33 Pin Toy Models (small, full scale)

generate unique drawings of mind when recalling different types of spaces. Research shows, when a person is highly concentrated under

The wave curve of the brain wave diagram is extracted as the morphological source of the space

a certain pressure, the frequency of the brain wave is at a higher level, which is the brain wave of the "consciousness" level. When I was

experiment. The pin toy (see right) is often used as an abrasive tool to present the shape of our

thinking of a space that I had gone in the past, the value of brainwave slightly fluctuated at a high level.

hand or face for fun. Appealed by its potential of changing into any free form, so I chose it as my model prop. It was used to simulate the shape of the surfaces extracted from lines on brainwave diagrams.

5.32 Brainwaves Transformation The brainwaves were recorded within one minute to make sure the line was long enough. Then the line was extracted from

Then I started to test how them look like in reality. Larger pin toy (see left) were used also intended to explore the cured walls of spaces. And using full scale to do experiments is more easier to perceiving spatial experience. The natural curvature of the body was used to shape the model into curved surface.

the brainwave lines. Then link every vertex in Rhino to transform it into a smooth curve. As the image shown below, some parts of the curve were extracted and constructed into walls in Rhino to explore the spatial form. 19

20


5.34 Gule Bubble (Spatial Joints)

continues the characteristic of freedom and without restrictions. Bubble water can form a plenty of different spatial forms instantly, and Based on the previous research on the surface morphology from the

these forms are unpredictable.

perspective of 2D, the research shifted to the perspective of 3D. This

Even if the radius of the bubble blowing bubble tool is fixed, the shape it created would change with the direction and speed of the wind.

experiment was intended to explore the forms of three dimensional spaces

In the process of doing experiments, many free but smooth curved surfaces generated. In the meantime, lots of small bubbles were

and to find some types of material to create an unconstrained surface space.

made by my partner to create the feeling of floor-plan that contained a main space and other small spaces.

The bubble glue was used to blow different shapes of bubbles (see left). The

6 Site chosen

forms were unpredictable. Interior space also can be seen through the transparent materials. Attempt to combine them to explore the connection of space nodes. When they are randomly sticked together, some parts of the naturally formed mass groups can be used as spatial junctions.

At the beginning my site was the South London Gallery. I collected memory fragments(see right) near the site, such as stains on the wall, peeling wall skin, etc., can be regarded as the memory of the building. After studying the case of the Neues Museum in Berlin, I began to explore the new and old in the site. For me, the new is not just to keep the old elements to modernize it, and use new materials to make it. It is a good point to retain the old culture and make it conform to

5.35 Water Bubble (Interior Space Exploring)

the characteristics of the new era. The implantation of new technologies in the present is also a manifestation of our acceptance and creation of new memory. Especially in the case of an

The large bubbles are still used to test the flow of interior space(see left). As

epidemic situation, virtual reality technology is beneficial to maintain social distance and during

Neil's argument I mentioned above, it is essential to explore the free form of

the block-down period, it is possible to visit different places as if staying in the situation.

space for futuristic design. The reason for choosing this material is that it

Therefore, new technologies such as virtual reality will also become one of the tools for the

21

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future realization of this project. The original site South London Gallery in London was changed into Nanjing Tangshan Mine Park in China(see left) after going back to China, because of the pandemic coronavirus. It is a remote place which used to be a huge stone pit then

The final project would be designing a semi-underground laboratory for memory control research and experience. The project mainly designed for the scientists to read, experience and analyse the behaviors of owner of memory cube. The spaces are for the people who have memory problems would lose memory like Alzheimer’s to experience the memory world, or someone had bad memory would like to change or delete. People can store their memory in the memory pool, and dozens of blue cubes in the pool represent pieces of memory.

became an abandoned mine in 2004. Mine pits were scars from the past industrial

The whole space would be in harmony with the natural environment in site Tangshan Mine Park. The original appearance of the

period, but they were also memories of the city. Thus, this design project allows it

environment will be retained to the greater

to continue the function of pervading memory and holding more memories of human being. This place was chosen as the site of my memory control laboratory since it was a semi-hidden and semi-underground space. The relatively flat site, Tangshan mine park, formed by the old quarry piled up waste gravel was hidden among mountains. It was inspired by the scene(see left) in Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse(Marvel, 2018), the dark secret underground space, serving as Peter Parker and his uncle’s memory secret base, is full of mystery and makes people curious about it. Therefore, such a secret location is full of expectations for the interior futuristic spatial design.

extent, and the rendering of the entrance will be presented in portfolio to show how it coped with the remains. There will be a general control center (see sketches on the right), a memory pool for storing memories, a number of memory “experience cabins” and other spaces. The overall spatial morphology evolved from the initial brain wave lines. The brain wave lines are first converted into two-dimensional smooth curves, and several interesting parts are intercepted and converted into curved surfaces. Then use the model to simulate the shape of various curved surfaces from the perspective of small size and full size. Then, through the experiments of small glue bubbles

7 Outcome 23

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and large water bubbles to explore the three-dimensional curved surface space, some interesting spaces will be intercepted as the final

In conclusion, the topic was quite shifted from the first beginning, but all pointed to the keyword “memory”. The direction memory

architectural space form. Part of the final building will be underground, and the large-scale space will give people a mysterious feeling.

overlapping was evolved into how space trigger memory intended to link neuroscience with architecture. Then after many literature

There will also be several virtual memory spaces imagined and constructed following the rules of spatial memory. For instance, the reconstructed upside-down space(see sketches) represents the spatial sequence of subjective thinking when evoking spatial memory. The very high wall surrounding the synthesized space, surrounded by a ring-shaped waterfall, represents the fear emotion resulting from the invisible unknown nightmare that can never escape. All in all, each imagined virtual memory space is based on elements that everyone has in common and can resonate with.

research have been done, a more interesting point “spatial memory” was found. Before defining my final project, some experiments about figuring out the rules of spatial memory have been done as well. Finally, after synthesizing many theories and cases, and finally determine my project to be a futuristic design as the function of Memory Control Laboratory. During the research, there can be serious difficulties in exploring the plan of site to lead better understanding and site analysis. Interviews and recording appear to be a good way to get datas and feedback, but how can researchers conduct the questions and avoid leading interviewees to ideal result need to be considered. And the experiment materials should not only be the common model materials we used, but also any useful things else in our daily life which are easy to get. Given the restrictions outlined above and the situation of designing project, this paper cannot provide a complete project of how spatial memory can be applied in later design in more detailed. The good point is always bear the scale in mind

8 Conclusion

and do experiments from different scales to test my ideas. For future research, there are more details and more in-depth connections As this paper has shown, spatial memory is the rule for people to remember space and build personal cognitive maps. It is also a

between neuroscience and space awaiting discovery.

breakthrough point for interdisciplinary research and a bridge between neuroscience and space. The content of this project is mainly the Word Count: 4818 words

research and application of spatial memory in space. The design method is to translate the brain wave curve, find a similar curved space form through experiment and exploration, and apply it to the final spatial form design. Following the rules of spatial memory, virtual memory space scene in the memory palace would be constructed.

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Reference

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Wilson, C. (2015) “What does a memory in my brain look like?”, Humans, Available at: https://www.newscientist.com/article/ Netflix(2019), Memory, Explained, the mind, explained. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d95dOH-7GHM

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Papale, P., Chiesi, L., Rampinini, A.C., Pietrini, P. and Ricciardi, E. (2016) When Neuroscience ‘Touches’ Architecture: From Hapticity to a

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Tolman, E. C. (1984) Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, pp. 189-208.

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present-continuous-pasts/

Borges, J. L. (1964) Funes the Memorious, Labyrinths, pp. 107-115.

Holl, S., Pallasmaa, J., Pérez-Gómez, A. and Nakamura T. (1994) Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture, p. 41.

Chipperfield, D. (2009) Neues Museum, Available at: https://www.smb.museum/en/museums-institutions/neues-museum/home.html

Kahana, M.J., Newman, E.L., Caplan, J.B., Kirschen, M.P., Korolev, I.O., Sekuler, R., et al. (2007). Learning Your Way Around Town: How Virtual Taxicab Drivers Learn to Use Both Layout and Landmark Information. Cognition, 104 (2), pp. 231–253.

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Es Devlin (2019) Memory Palace Exhibition. Available at: https://www.gooood.cn/memory-palace-by-es-devlin.htm (Accessed: 29

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Marvel(2018), Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeTSVWD_8Y4

Papale, P., Chiesi, L., Rampinini, A.C., Pietrini, P. and Ricciardi, E. (2016) When Neuroscience ‘Touches’ Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain, Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00866/full (Accessed:

McNamara, T.; Hardy, J.; Hirtle, S.; et al. (1989). "Subjective hierarchies in spatial memory". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 15 (2),

09 June 2016)

pp. 211–227. Richard, A.B. and Frankland, W.P., (2017) The Persistence and Transience of Memory, Neuron, 94(6), pp.1071-1084. Mou, W., Zhao, M., Li, X. (2006) Human Spatial Memory and Spatial Navigation, Advances in Psychological Science,14 (4), pp. 497-504. Scott, F. (2007) On altering architecture. London: Routledge. Netflix(2019), Memory, Explained, the mind, explained. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d95dOH-7GHM Tolman, E. C. (1984) Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, pp. 189-208. Nold, C. (2005), Emotional Cartography. Available at:http://emotionalcartography.net/EmotionalCartography.pdf Wilson, C. (2015) “What does a memory in my brain look like?”, Humans, Available at: https://www.newscientist.com/article/ Proust, M. (1913-1927) In Search of Lost Time, 7(5).

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Yates, F. (1966) The Art of Memory, pp.1-26, 368-389.

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Zeki, S. (2001) Artistic Creativity and the Brain, Science, 293(5527), p. 52.

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Zumthor, P. (1999) Thinking Architecture, p. 7. Wong, J. (2010), The text of free-form architecture: qualitative study of the discourse of four architects, Design Studies.

The End of the portfolio. Thank you for all your help!

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