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From materials to new architecture

From materials to new architecture

Thank you Danish Architecture Centre would

Also, Danish Architecture Centre

like to thank the following material

would like to thank the following

experts and collaborators for their

companies which have contributed

contributions to the exhibition

to the realisation of the exhibition with mock ups and pictures

Graham Dodd Director, Materials Consulting, Arup

Zolverein School Teknologisk Institut,

Blaine Brownell

Cobiax Technologies Group

Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota, School of Architecture

Robotic Manufacturing Teknologisk Institut, ETH Zurich

Els Zijlstra Creative Director, Materia

2012 Expo Pavilion Korea ITKE Stuttgart, soma architecture,

Karsten Bleymehl

Knippers Helbig

Director, Library & Materials Research, MaterialConneXion Cologne

CBW Mitex Mosa, TurnToo, Rau Architects

Chris Lefteri Chris Lefteri Design Ltd

Church of the Holy Cross Fiberline Composite,

Mette Glavind

KHR Arkitekter, Wacotech

Director, Teknologisk Institut Elbphilharmonie Kasper Guldager Jørgensen

Guardian Glass, Gartner,

Director, GXN 

Herzog & de Meuron

Smart Materials 00–19

Smart Materials New materials and particularly the development and harnessing of new technologies in combination with “old” materials are currently changing our notions of what materials are and what they can do. Our use of so-called intelligent materials, capable of changing their own structure or shape for instance, will play a major part in the development of energy efficient buildings in the years to come, for instance by their being able to absorb and release heat at the right times or even to produce energy and thereby contribute to the energy balance. Furthermore, the use of robotics, in the production of concrete for instance, may create new and efficient structures where raw material consumption is reduced to an absolute minimum In this exhibition, smart materials is used as a common term for materials that can change their state or appearance as a reaction to external stimuli. Such materials include those that change their shape, structure or colour and those that generate energy. Another subgroup includes materials that can be utilized in a new, “smart” way, by employing robotics for instance. Conventional materials whose fundamental properties have been altered are also included in this category.

“A wealth of architectural discoveries awaits us as new materials are developed and employed. Dynamic constructions, intelligent façades, and designed surfaces are just a few features of tomorrow’s buildings.” Kasper Guldager Jørgensen Architect Head of GXN/3XN

Smart Materials 00 –19


Bendywood Bendable wood

This material is a solid hardwood that can be bent in ways that seems impossible. In the process of the making blanks of hardwood are steamed to soften the cell walls, then, still damp, they are compressed along their length for about 20 % and finally dried in this compressed form. This allows the wood to be bent as much as to a radius of 10 times its thickness. Thin sections are bendable by hand, larger with the help of tools – far easier and faster than conventional wood-bending techniques.

Examples Of Use Interior decoration, furniture, hand rails.

Similar Materials 01, 14, 44, 50, 51, 68, 84

Material Data Bendywood blanks max size: 120 x 120 x 2,200 mm (beech), 120 x 120 x 1,650 mm (ash, cherry, maple, oak and walnut).

Manufacturer Bendywood,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Naturally curved plank flooring Bolefloor is the world’s first commercially manufactured hardwood flooring with naturally curved lengths that follow. Through a complex process combining wood scanning systems, tailor made digital developments and innovative placement algorithms, Bolefloor produces unique wooden surfaces with a natural feel, while utilising a far greater percentage of the raw material than conventional wooden floor-boards.

Examples Of Use Primarily floors, but also walls and ceilings.

Similar Materials 00, 07, 14, 44, 50, 51, 86

Material Data Bolefloor floorboards run to 3,000 mm in length with widths of 150–300 mm; special orders up to 6,000 mm in length.

Manufacturer Bolefloor,

Smart Materials 00 –19


DuPont Energain Heat responsive thermal mass panels

Phase Change Materials (PCMs), such as water, paraffin, salt hydrates etc. are able to absorb, store and release large amounts of thermal energy at comparatively small changes in temperature by changing their physical state. The DuPont Energain panel is an aluminium sandwich composite whose core material is a mix of copolymer and paraffin wax. At temperatures below 18°C, the wax remains solid, but at 22°C the wax melts, absorbing heat. Upon cooling to 18°C, the paraffin wax re-solidifies, releasing heat.

Examples Of Use PCMs with heat dynamic thermal mass can help reduce heating consumption by up to 15% or air conditioning costs by up to 35%.

Similar Materials 05, 15, 40

Material Data Can Panel measurements: 5 x 1,000 x 1,200 mm; 4.5 kg/m²; Heat storage capacity: 515 KJ/m² at 18–24°C

Manufacturer DuPont,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Self-cleaning and air-purifying tiles The material is made active by applying a layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) during the glazing and before the firing of the tile. This results in permanent self-cleaning and air-purifying properties. An airpurifying effect called photocatalysis that is activated by sunlight (UV radiation) breaks down microorganisms and other organic compounds. The self-cleaning effect is due to hydrophilic behaviour causing water to spread out in a thin, even layer sticking close to the surface as it flows down and washing away dirt easily.

Examples Of Use Pools, hospitals and kitchens where hygiene is particularly important; facades and public buildings in general to minimise cleaning expenses.

Similar Materials 13, 18, 45, 55, 56, 64, 70, 89, 90, 93

Material Data A 100 m² Hydrotect-tiled area cleans the air as efficiently as 7 medium-sized deciduous trees.

Manufacturer Deutche Steinzeug,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Photoluminescent signage The properties of this material are better known as glow-in-thedark. By integrating photoluminescent particles in floors, lights, or facade elements, a discreet emergency signage can be made. The material consists of strontium aluminate (SrAl), which acts as a fairly persistent phosphor. It accumulates light energy under ordinary (day-) light conditions and it slowly releases it over a few minutes or hours in the dark – a process both reliable and maintenance free.

Examples Of Use Lighting and signage on periodically lighted floors, walls, ceilings and facades.

Similar Materials 10, 11, 17

Material Data Complies with DIN 67510 – at least 20 millicandela/m² after an hour.

Manufacturer S. Lövenstein BV,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Latent heat storage materials Rubitherm works with phase changing materials (PCMs) as passive heat storage in building systems and markets a range of these materials. By adding a cross-linking additive to paraffin wax and incorporating it in a secondary, supporting microporous solid, the wax is contained even in its liquid form thanks to the combined strengths of the cross-linking additive and the capillary forces, allowing Rubitherm to remain solid on a macroscopic scale.

Examples Of Use Increased, effective and temperature specific thermal mass properties.

Similar Materials 02, 15, 40

Material Data Rubitherm PCM’s are available as raw materials with melting points from -4 to 100°C or integrated into a microporous solid with a heat storage capacity from 50 to 190 KJ/kg.

Manufacturer Rubitherm,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Monocoque Structural composite skin

This material promotes differentiation of material properties. This is expressed in the construction technique that incorporates loadbearing elements and external skin. Rather than separating structural frameworks and non-bearing skin elements, the Monocoque project promotes heterogeneity. The load is distributed between veinlike elements built into the skin, the size and shape of which are determined through Voronoi calculations. 3D printing is utilised to create the specified mechanical properties.

Examples Of Use Structural optimization for free-form structures.

Similar Materials 09

Material Data Prototype / research project

Manufacturer Neri Oxman,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Relief imaging on building materials The Vectogramm process features a new computer-based method for transferring image data onto sheet materials (concretes, MDF, plastics) by means of milling technology. An image template is scanned and converted into 256 grayscale, then milled into the material as a 2D relief by a CNC milling machine. When viewed from a distance, the image will be visible, but when seen up close it will appear simply as texture.

Examples Of Use Any kind of flat wall or façade elements requiring graphical expression.

Similar Materials 01, 14, 16, 25

Material Data Maximum sheet dimensions are limited to 4,900 x 2,000 mm.

Manufacturer P&P GmbH,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Light Tape Electroluminescent strips

Versatile and energy efficient, Light Tape is a lighting system that may be bent around any surface for hundreds of meters at a fraction of the power cost of traditional light bulbs. Electroluminescence relies on electrical excitation of light emitting phosphors, similar to how plasma televisions are backlit. In Light Tape products, the phosphor crystals are located between two electrically conductive strips, at least one of which consists of a light-transmitting, conductive material.

Examples Of Use Interior or exterior lighting effects – communication, design and interior design.

Similar Materials 11, 17

Material Data Thickness: 1 mm; Energy consumption: 70 W/m²; weight: 1.2 kg/m².

Manufacturer Light Tape,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Digitally crafted concrete formwork Seeking to overcome the limitations of conventional concrete elements and the expensive formwork of unique structures, TailorCrete applies new digital design tools, on-site and offsite robotics, and automated formwork and reinforcement systems to bring concrete technology up-to-date with the potentials of contemporary architecture. TailorCrete is the fullscale continuation of a research project successfully combining robotics-cut polystyrene formwork with self-compacting concrete.

Examples Of Use Complex, curved architectural designs and optimally shaped structural elements.

Similar Materials 06, 16, 24, 49, 55, 61, 83, 92, 98

Material Data TailorCrete originated as a collaboration between the Danish Technological Institute, ETH Zürich and other industrial partners.

Manufacturer Danish Technological Institute,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Philips Luminous Textile with Kvadrat Soft Cells

Luminous textile panels come in standard and customized sizes that can be mounted on walls and ceilings in a variety of ways. Each panel is built up of LED modules consisting of multi-colour LEDs with a 60 mm pitch fixed on acoustic foam. Philips markets luminous textile panels as easy-fit system to enhance interiors with light, texture and dynamic content. The panels are finished with Kvadrat textiles and use Kvadrat Soft Cells’ expertise in controlling sound absorption.

Examples Of Use Light and sound ambience for foyers, auditoriums, theaters etc.

Similar Materials 04, 11, 13, 17, 21, 22, 27, 29, 47, 57, 58, 62, 70, 76

Material Data Panel thickness: 130 mm; measurements: 1,200 x 720 mm to 1,200 x 6,480 mm; weight: 15-67 kg; power usage: 60 W-450 W.

Manufacturer Philips,, Soft Cells,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Transparent film with LEDs This material is a polyester-based, transparent and electroconductive film that transmits electricity to light-emitting diodes or other electronic elements on the film through transparent circuits. The thin, flexible sheet may be laminated between glass sheets or added to moulded polymers and then simply be connected to a power source.

Examples Of Use Window-integrated lighting and lighting where a minimum of space is available.

Similar Materials 04, 08, 12, 17, 19

Material Data Voltage: 12 to 48 volts DC; consumption: 0.055 Watts per LED; thickness: 0,85 mm; size: 3,500 x 1,250 mm.

Manufacturer SunTec,

Smart Materials 00 –19



Semi transparent solar cells With a thin layer of power generating solar film based on amorphous silicon, Voltarlux glass lowers light influx while producing electric current. Suitable for larger glazed areas at any angle, the power generating cells continue to produce even if it is overcast or partly cloudy. Each solar energy module consists of solar cells and glass laminated in a process similar to the production of laminated safety glass, and can be either opaque or semi-transparent.

Examples Of Use Glazing requiring shading and self-sustaining houses.

Similar Materials 11, 17, 19

Material Data Conventional glass module sizes, delivered as single pane or as insulating glass.

Manufacturer Isolar Glas,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Gyptone Activ’ Air Air–cleaning acoustical ceilings

A gypsum ceiling tile system that combines clean design and improved indoor air quality with indoor acoustics. Produced from all-natural materials, the tiles are fully recyclable and contain no harmful substances. Gyptone acoustical ceilings can enhance the output of the ceiling by breaking down harmful formaldehydes in a room into harmless chemical compounds. Used ceilings are collected and reused in the process of making new gypsum products. Up to 80 % of Gyptone’s raw materials are recycled content.

Examples Of Use Acoustical ceilings for public buildings.

Similar Materials 03, 10, 13, 27, 29, 40, 55, 56, 70

Material Data Sustainably produced, fully recyclable, durable and non-toxic. The basic module size is 600 x 600 mm with a thickness of 12.5 mm.

Manufacturer Gyproc Saint-Gobain,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Dukta Flexible wood

Inspired by the inherent pliability of thin strips of wood, Dukta turns thick planks into flexible, pliant sheets. A precise grid of incisions cut from alternate sides of the block allows Dukta wood to bend easily at every cut, thus providing great flexibility both lengthwise and crosswise. Although strength is reduced proportionally to the depth of the incisions, the result is a highly functional, flexible and pliant material, achieved by simple mechanical manipulation of natural wood.

Examples Of Use Acoustic panels, interior design, furniture and other objects.

Similar Materials 01, 07, 44, 50, 51, 68, 84

Material Data Different cutting options expand the scope of possible applications, and the simple method is suitable for a range of wood products, such as plywood, fibreboard and solid wood.

Manufacturer Dukta,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Micronal Smart Board Active temperature regulation

These plaster boards include 3 kg/m² of heat-storing material in the shape of microcapsules containing a phase changing material (PCM). When heated to a certain point, the PCM will melt, absorbing thermal energy without any increase in temperature, while the reverse process releases the stored energy as heat, maintaining a pleasant room temperature. The heat storage capacity of a 15 mm PCM Smart Board is equivalent to that of a 90 mm concrete wall or a 120 mm brick wall.

Examples Of Use Reducing shifts in indoor temperature between day and night and reducing the need for air conditioning and heating.

Similar Materials 02, 05, 40, 63, 65

Material Data Two types available with ‘switching points’ temperatures at 23°C and 26°C; thickness: 15 mm; length: 2,000 mm; width: 1,250 mm.

Manufacturer BASF,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Graphic Concrete Patterned concrete surfaces

Graphic Concrete is a product that allows graphic layouts on all kinds of concrete. A surface retarder is applied to a membrane that slows the setting (hardening) of the concrete to the desired depth in specific areas. The unset parts of the surface are usually washed away from the cast the next day, revealing the aggregate contained in the concrete. The washed surface stands out from the surrounding unwashed concrete due to its roughness and the contrasting colour of the exposed aggregate.

Examples Of Use Interior and exterior concrete.

Similar Materials 07, 09, 24, 25, 55, 83, 92, 98

Material Data The membrane used to achieve the graphic effect is 3.1 m wide and can be hundreds of meters long if necessary. The depth of the pattern is 1 mm, but shallower or deeper patterns are also possible.

Manufacturer Graphic Concrete Ltd,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Powerglass Laminated glass with LEDs

Powerglass integrates chip light-emitting diodes radiating light on both sides into laminated glass. Diodes are connected by completely transparent circuit path structures and provide electrical power without visible wiring. The lights can be positioned almost arbitrarily within the glass, which allows the display of information or graphics. The LEDs are supplied with power via invisible circuits on the lamination on the inside of the glass.

Examples Of Use Interior and façade design, lighting for public spaces, buildingintegrated communication.

Similar Materials 04, 08, 11, 12, 18, 19, 25, 31, 33, 34, 94

Material Data Dimensions 1,200 mm x 2,800 mm; weatherproof and heat resistant up to 50°C.

Manufacturer Glas Platz,

Smart Materials 00 –19


Pilkington Activ Self-cleaning glass

Self-cleaning glass is effectively the same as conventional glass, but it has a titanium dioxide-based coating on the outside with two remarkable properties. Firstly, when exposed to sunlight, it acts as a photocatalyst breaking down any organic dirt. Secondly, when water falls on the surface, it acts as hydrophilic adsorber, allowing the already loosened dirt to wash away easily.

Examples Of Use Façades and skylights where cleaning would otherwise be difficult.

Similar Materials 03, 13, 17, 19, 25, 31, 33, 34, 55, 56, 70, 94

Material Data 6 mm: Light transmission: 83 %; energy transmission: 79 %. May be combined with several other glass types.

Manufacturer Pilkington,

Smart Materials 00 –19


IQ Glass

Window integrated heating The inner pane of IQ Glass double glazing has a thin, invisible metal oxide coating, creating an electrical resistance that produces heat evenly when connected to medium voltage. The outer pane has an infrared-reflective coating, that keeps the cold out and the warmth in, while the cavity is filled with non-toxic, insulating krypton. This system allows glazing-integrated heating, although at a somewhat high cost in electricity, while ensuring that windows remains free of condensation.

Examples Of Use Integrated heating where space is scarce.

Similar Materials 11, 12, 17, 18, 25, 31, 33, 34, 94

Material Data Window pane U-value: 0.8 W/m2K; light transmission: 71 %; low solar heat gain; up to 247 W/m² power usage. Using IQ glass as the sole heat source, at least 1/3 of the wall area must be IQ panes.

Manufacturer IQ Glass,

Transparent Materials 20–39

Transparent Materials Ever since the time of construction of the great medieval cathedrals whose builders did their utmost to create spectacular light impressions symbolising the divine light, architects have been occupied with creating the best possible, most suitable lighting in our buildings. Their continual quest to lighten massive walls and replace materials like bricks or concrete with glass culminated in the 20th century with its buildings made almost entirely of glass. The development continues today as architects and engineers continuously attempt to employ transparent materials in new ways in order to improve indoor climate as well as to regenerate architectural design. In this exhibition, transparent materials is used as a common term for materials characterised either by translucency or some degree of transparency. Transparent and translucent materials offer special lighting opportunities and provide an exciting interplay between indoor and outdoor spaces. Also included are materials that disperse sunlight into parts of buildings that would usually require artificial lighting. Finally, luminescent materials belong to this category as well.

“In the context of environmentalism there are many inappropriate materials but even more inappropriate uses of materials in buildings. It is the role of architects to make the best use of all materials.� Chris Lefteri Chris Lefteri Design Ltd

Transparent Materials 20–39



Translucent wooden paneling Wooden paneling made from sheets of coloured, translucent or opaque resin and decoratively carved wood. Resin specifically refers to the hydrocarbon secretions of many plants but today is applied to nearly any liquid compound that will set into a hard lacquer or enamel-like finish, like the synthetic resins used in these panels made from thermosetting plastics that will cure irreversibly when subjected to cooling or to a chemical reaction.

Examples Of Use Back-lit paneling, tabletops, doors, walls, partitions or furniture.

Similar Materials 24, 38, 39, 44

Material Data Inclusion is available in thicknesses of 15–30 mm and sizes up to 1,200 x 2,600 mm.

Manufacturer Lamellux,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Silicon coated glass fibre fabric This material is a high-strength, flexible fabric used for making lightweight membrane structures. The glass fibre fabric is impregnated and coated with specially designed translucent silicone. This technique makes the product strong and flexible and also gives it a number of qualities in terms of good fire retardancy, a soil repellent top coating and a translucency of up to 40 %.

Examples Of Use Large-scale translucent surfaces with no insulation requirements.

Similar Materials 10, 22, 28, 62, 70, 76

Material Data Atex is available in any colour and with a range of specifications customisable for specific. Example: 3,000 TRL; Weight: 595 g/m²; Thickness: 0.45 mm; Width: 2–3 m. Estimated 25-year lifespan.

Manufacturer PD FibreGlass Group,

Transparent Materials 20–39


ETFE film

Ethylene Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene This material is a transparent polymer film that can be stretched to up to three times its own length without losing its elasticity and can carry 400 times its own weight. The foil elements consist of several layers of ETFE film mounted on aluminium frames, inflated with low-pressure air between individual layers of film to provide insulation and resist wind loads. ETFE film does not degrade from exposure to ultraviolet light and can be melted and reused.

Examples Of Use Lightweight roofing structures providing translucency as well as insulation and noise reduction.

Similar Materials 10, 21, 62, 70, 76

Material Data 90–95 % light transmittance for each layer of foil, virtually any size and shape possible. U-value: 1.2 W/m2K and 10 dB noise reduction for 5 layers of ETFE film.

Manufacturer AGC,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Jungbecker Light-directing prisms

Jungbecker Optics manufactures a wide range of standard sheets and injection moulded applications as well as custom-designed project-specific solutions, all offering precision-engineered lighting control. By embossing acrylics, polycarbonate and other transparent materials with cone-shaped prisms optimised by numerical algorithms, it becomes possible to direct incident light. It may be split, reflected and directed to suit the lighting requirements of a given space while avoiding glare effects.

Examples Of Use Lighting, skylights and partial façade glazing where a high degree of light control is required.

Similar Materials 27, 32, 35, 36, 38

Material Data Example: conical anti-glare prism; measurements: up to 1,200 x 600 mm; thickness: 3 mm; cone diameter: 2 mm; refractive index: 1.491; light transmission: 92 % (clear acrylic).

Manufacturer Jungbecker Optics,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Translucent concrete with optical fibres Concrete tiles, panels or blocks incorporating ultra fine optical glass or polymer fibres in predefined patterns, allowing light to be transmitted through the material in the direction of the fibres. Shadows appear clearly outlined on an opposing surface. The combination of structural integrity and translucency allows playful integration of materiality, structure and light, and may point to new ways of working with daylight in structures.

Examples Of Use Façades or interior structural elements where translucency or embedded lighting is required.

Similar Materials 09, 16, 20, 39, 49, 83, 92, 98

Material Data Panels measuring up to 1,250 x 650 x 30 mm; special sizes up to 3,000 mm and thicknesses up to 1,000 mm; line or terrazzo texture; concrete strength class C40/50; density: 2,400 kg/m3.

Manufacturer Lucem,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Bird protection glass Every year, millions of birds are killed from collisions with glass surfaces. As ordinary glass is transparent and reflective, it becomes invisible to birds. Ornilux glass panes have a patterned UV reflective coating that makes them visible to birds while maintaining transparency to the human eye.

Examples Of Use Façades – replacing black and red bird stickers or other traditional measures.

Similar Materials 07, 16, 17, 18, 19, 31, 33, 34, 94

Material Data Standard float glass sizes: 2.0 m x 3.2 m max, or particular dimensions on inquiry. Pattern developed in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.

Manufacturer Arnold Glas,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Pro Tec 7

Fibreglass in window frames This window system is a brand-new take on traditional wood and aluminium windows. Harnessing the qualities of glass-reinforced polyester, Pro Tec 7 provides slimmer profiles and optimal thermal insulation. Due to the low thermal transmission of the material, thermal loss is kept to a minimum, which makes the system one of the most energy efficient on the market. At the same time, the slim window system allows for larger glass areas and consequently provides increased levels of natural light.

Examples Of Use Window systems for places where daylight, insulation and slim design are important.

Similar Materials 28, 73, 84, 95, 99

Material Data U-value: 0.61 W/m²K, edge zone temperatures 14°C

Manufacturer Pro Tec,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Acrylic glass with acoustic comfort The combination of transparency and acoustic absorption is achieved by surface microperforation. Specific ranges of frequency absorption depend on the ç of the material, the distance between individual holes and their diameters, as well as on the distance to the surface behind the panels. Transquieto provides a simple yet effective combination of transparency and acoustic comfort.

Examples Of Use Meeting rooms with transparent room dividers, atriums and theatres.

Similar Materials 10, 13, 23, 29, 38

Material Data Hole diameter: 0.5–2 mm; thickness 3–15 mm; raster with 5 x 5 mm grid equals 40,000 holes per m².

Manufacturer Heinz Fritz,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Fibre-reinforced polymer A composite is a material where two (or more) materials combined obtains constructive qualities that none of them had by themselves. Fiberline produces fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) from glass fibres and a polyester resin to create a translucent high-strength, and lightweight component. The profiles and properties of the composite may be customised to meet specific demands for strength, resistance, translucency and insulation properties.

Examples Of Use Window and façade profiles, large scale construction elements, and wind turbine components.

Similar Materials 21, 26, 73, 76, 84, 95, 99

Material Data Fiberline produces a wide range of standard profiles; maximum width is 1,500 mm. All profiles are non-corrosive and have very low thermal conductivity compared to steel and aluminium.

Manufacturer Fiberline,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Translucent acoustic panel Constructed as sandwich elements with a perforated, translucent cover layer, Makustik panels offer noise reduction through control of reverberation while also letting through 65% of the light. The panels are stiff and lightweight and can create interesting lighting effects depending on the size, variety and number of acoustic perforations required.

Examples Of Use Partitions, back-lit panels, interior cladding for windows, skylights, ceilings, and walls.

Similar Materials 10, 13, 27, 37, 52, 53, 54, 71, 73, 96

Material Data Measurements: 2,500 x 1,250 x 19 mm; weight: 3.6 kg/m³; light transmission: 65 %; noise reduction 22 dB.

Manufacturer Fiberline,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Translucent insulation Okagel is an insulating glass system, in which the inter-pane cavity is filled with a translucent, silica-based aerogel. Aerogel consists of 99.8 % air restrained in nano-size pores. It weighs 75 g per liter, making it the lightest and best insulating solid in the world. The Okagel panels have a high light transmission. They diffuse daylight deep into the room while providing very good sun and glare control. They block IR radiation, attenuate sound and disperse transmitted light evenly.

Examples Of Use The Okagel system is wellsuited for rooms where light diffusion as well as thermal and sound insulation are required.

Similar Materials 63, 65, 70, 79

Material Data Okagel glass system: U-value: 0.3 W/m2K (60 mm nanogel filling) or U-value: 0.6 W/m2K (30 mm nanogel filling).

Manufacturer Okagel: Okalux,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Fusion Glass Structural decorative glass

Specialised in processing ordinary float glass in different ways, Fusion Glass Designs produces a series of decorative glass products with inherent structural strength and architectural qualities. Production methods include kiln forming, sand blasting, laminating and screen printing to give the glass products different colours, patterns and surface decorations. Predesigned as well as customised products available.

Examples Of Use Decorative and informative glazing, structural glazing, LED integration, facades, and interiors.

Similar Materials 17, 18, 19, 25, 33, 34, 94

Material Data A wide range of glass products available. Example: sandblasted surface decoration, up to 3,000 x 5,000 mm, any thickness.

Manufacturer Fusion Glass Designs,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Lumisty Visibility control film

A view-control window film that controls what can be seen and not seen through glass or other transparent products. It works from both sides, and three variants of films are available with four different view angles. The film can block the view of a parking lot while it highlights a city skyline or prevent the view from the streets into an office or meeting room. The film can be used as both functional and decorative part of a façade with or without the view control function.

Examples Of Use Control of privacy and transparency and façade effects.

Similar Materials 23, 35, 36

Material Data Lumisty comes in rolls; width: 1,250 mm; length: 15,250 mm

Manufacturer Glassfilm Enterprises,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Schott - Mirona Mirrored glass

Controlled solely by the lighting level behind the glass, Mirona glass switches between offering unimpeded views in both directions and mirroring. In front of a light background, it appears transparent, while it acts as a mirror in front of a dark surface. This effect is achieved by a coating on either side of the glass (standard float, insulating or laminated safety glass) containing an optical interference layer that provides precisely defined states of reflection and transmission.

Examples Of Use Lamps, partitions, storefronts and interior design.

Similar Materials 17, 18, 19, 25, 31, 34, 94

Material Data Several varieties available. Example: Mirona Standard; coated on both sides; light transmission: 63 %; light reflection: 34 %.

Manufacturer Schott,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Narima Dichroic glass

The iridescent colour effect of this glass product is achieved by applying ultrathin layers of metal oxide coating. Comparable to the way in which oil slicks on water reflect light, so-called thin-film interference, the combination of highly refractive and low-refractive layers on the glass causes reinforcement of certain wavelengths and interference with others in the reflected light. The result is a rainbow effect that changes with the angle between the viewer, glass pane and light source.

Examples Of Use Artistic light and colour effect in or on buildings and light filtering.

Similar Materials 17, 18, 19, 25, 31, 33, 94

Material Data Example: colour effect, glass blue/gold: blue light in transmission, blue-gold transition in reflection; thickness, 4-12 mm; dimensions: 3,770 x 1,770 mm.

Manufacturer Schott,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Microcrystalline lighting control Using a production technique similar to that used in the production of credit card holograms, Ledalite MesoOptics produces lighting control consisting of a layer of microstructures no greater than 5 microns in size, applied to a substrate such as acrylic, polycarbonate or glass. These microstructures allow detailed control of how light passes through the medium, allowing the creation of pure white light free from striations and hot spots and redirection of the light into any desired angle.

Examples Of Use Highly controlled and efficient interior lighting.

Similar Materials 23, 32, 36

Material Data MesoOptics allows up to 95 % of the light that enters it to pass through.

Manufacturer Philips Ledalite,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Daylight Redirecting Film Dispersing daylight

This window film is designed to bring natural light deeper into the interior of a building by changing the direction of light as it streams through windows. It effectively acts as a light shelf and thereby reduces the need for artificial light during the day. Through pyramid-shaped micro crystals, light passing through the film is redirected towards the ceiling while a diffusing film spreads the light evenly across the target surface and thereby provides glare-free daylight even in deep rooms.

Examples Of Use Simple daylighting solution for renovations and part of extensive daylighting systems.

Similar Materials 23, 32, 35, 91

Material Data Reduces glare; no cleaning required; blocks 99 % of UV light.

Manufacturer 3M,

Transparent Materials 20–39



Translucent sandwich panels With its characteristic, elegant appearance and high strength-toweight ratio, the Starlight series of transparent and translucent sandwich boards is suitable for both interior and exterior decoration. The acrylic and polycarbonate plates are put together using a special gluing method binding the transparent birdwing cell core to the transparent or translucent cover layer. This method gives the panel a homogenous appearance. The material is UltraViolet (UV) stable and may be used in exterior applications.

Examples Of Use Interior and exterior panels; partitions, light walls, furniture, facades, floors and ceilings.

Similar Materials 29, 52, 53, 54, 71, 73, 94

Material Data Measurements: 3,015 x 1,000 mm; thickness: 19-40 mm; various types available.

Manufacturer Bencore,

Transparent Materials 20–39


3Form Chroma Coloured translucent surfaces

Produced from optical grade engineered resin, 3Form Chroma is a highly functional solid surface available in a wide range of colours that can be layered to achieve a wide range of hues and opacities. This monolithic material is rigid, stable and sturdy and offers very high light transmission. It is also great for edge lighting and may be thermoformed into gently curving shapes. Its surface is durable and can easily be refinished throughout its lifetime.

Examples Of Use Interior or exterior surfaces, furniture, interior design, signage, lighting, awnings, tables or canopies.

Similar Materials 20, 23, 27

Material Data Light Transmission: 92 % (average); available in thicknesses of 12.7 mm, 25.4 mm or 50.8 mm; standard and custom sizes up to 1,219 x 3,048 mm; up to 40 % recycled content

Manufacturer 3form,

Transparent Materials 20–39


Microshade Micro structured solar shading

Microshade is a static, micro-structured shading that is mounted in the cavity of two- or three- layer window panes. Microshade offers effective, maintenance-free shading from direct sunlight while maintaining good transparency. The lamellas consist of stainless steel in strips less than 0.2 mm wide, angled so as to reflect the rays of the sun when it is high in the sky. On a typical summer day, when the sun is at its highest, the energy gain from the sunlight is reduced by up to 90 %.

Examples Of Use South facing glass façades, integrated sun screening systems and solar shading.

Similar Materials 20, 24, 57, 78, 85, 94

Material Data Available in rolls 140 mm wide; example: double glazing with Microshade MS-A; solar direct transmittance: 15 % at 45 degrees solar height, 28 % at 15 degrees solar height.

Manufacturer PhotoSolar,

Green Materials 40–59

Green Materials Today, the focus on making architecture more sustainable is very great, and here materials play a significant part. In the materials industry, developers therefore concentrate on developing new, sustainable materials that will not harm our environment and on using existing materials in new ways, for instance by reducing the amount of material needed for a specific product or contributing to a healthier indoor climate by making sure that none of the components of a material are harmful. In this exhibition, green materials is used as a common term for materials that have less of an impact on the environment than that of conventional materials. Such materials include those that have been produced from recyclable natural or industrial raw materials as well as those that require less energy or resources to produce. Also included are materials that last longer, require less maintenance, are easy to recycle or are easily degradable. Materials with air-cleaning properties belong to this category as well.

“Architecture is born out of the shrewd alignment of concept and matter... It is the fulfillment of a spatial premise by way of material substance.� Blaine Brownell Architect, writer and assistant professor University of Minnesota

Green Materials 40–59


Intelligent Clay Panels With phase-changing material

Using clay panels for interior cladding is particularly useful where changing moisture levels could be a problem, as clay is an excellent material for regulating moisture at a pleasant level. Furthermore, clay has excellent sound insulating qualities. Adding Micronal Phase-Changing Material (PCM) microcapsules increases the already considerable thermal mass of the panels and allows extraordinary control of thermal comfort. It can be reused.

Examples Of Use Efficient thermal mass and moisture control for both cold and warm seasons/climates.

Similar Materials 02, 05, 13, 15, 59

Material Data The heat storage capacity of 14 mm PCM-clay panel equals that of 70 mm concrete with a PCM-content of 3 kg/m2.

Manufacturer Lehmorange,

Green Materials 40–59



Sustainable façade cladding Rheinzink roof and façade cladding is made from a titanium zinc alloy. A number of different construction and assembly systems are available for roofs and façades, all of which protect buildings from the effects of wind and weather. Rheinzink is a naturally corrosion resistant material and consequently needs no coating or other chemical surface protection, and its production process is characterised by its comparatively low carbon footprint.

Examples Of Use Façade cladding

Similar Materials 45, 60, 75, 82, 87, 97

Material Data Cradle to Cradle Silver certified, ISO 14025 ECO, thickness: 0.7-1 mm.

Manufacturer Rheinzink,

Green Materials 40–59


Doschawol Wool insulation

Insulation with sheep wool fibres is an environmentally friendly alternative to more conventional insulation materials, and where many wool insulation products contain polyester adhesive or binding to facilitate batt or roll forming, Doschawol consists of 100 % wool. Wool insulation contains no harmful chemicals, has low embodied energy, is biodegradable, naturally fire retardant as well as mould and moisture resistant – all qualities that contribute to the product’s strength as green insulation.

Examples Of Use Wherever conventional insulation materials would otherwise be used.

Similar Materials 43, 46, 48, 49, 58, 59, 63, 65, 66, 69, 77, 88

Material Data Thermal conductivity: 0,035 W/mK.

Manufacturer Doscha,

Green Materials 40–59


HempFlax Insulation Natural hemp fibre insulation

HempFlax Insulation is an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional insulation materials. Hemp processing is clean and low on dust, and HempFlax Insulation is made of 90 % hemp reinforced with 10 % corn. Soda has been added as a fire deterrent, and as hemp fibre does not contain protein, the material does not require chemical treatment against moths and beetles.

Examples Of Use Wherever conventional insulation materials would otherwise be used.

Similar Materials 42, 46, 48, 49, 58, 59, 63, 65, 66, 69, 77, 88

Material Data HempFlax is available in a standard size of 600 x 1,200 mm and in a range of thicknesses between 40 mm and 160 mm.

Manufacturer HempFlax,

Green Materials 40–59



Non-toxic enhanced wood This sustainable alternative to hardwoods is processed in a way that makes it harder and more durable. Kebonisation is an impregnation process during which the wood is soaked in furfuryl alcohol (a byproduct of sugar production) which has molecules small enough to enter the cellular walls of the wood. Subsequent heat treatment causes the furfuryl alcohol to polymerise inside the wood, forming a stable, non-disintegrating polymer that greatly increases the strength and durability of the wood.

Examples Of Use Strong and durable cladding and decking in moist and cold environments.

Similar Materials 00, 01, 20, 50, 51, 72, 86

Material Data FSC certified; durability class 1–2 (the most durable category of the EN 350 European norm).

Manufacturer Kebony,

Green Materials 40–59


Mosa Tiles Sustainable ceramic tiles

The tiles produced contain only clay and sand that are free of hazardous compounds such as lead, mercury and cadmium. By using only natural raw materials in the tiles, Mosa makes them recyclable. In fact, the new tiles contain between 16 and 45 % recycled materials. The company’s stated goal is to do business as sustainably as possible. This includes investments in and long-term policies on energy management, local sourcing of raw materials, closed water cycles, reduced and clean-air emissions, as well as good working and social conditions.

Examples Of Use Interior and exterior applications for walls, floors, and façades.

Similar Materials 03, 41, 60, 64, 87, 89, 90, 93, 97

Material Data A variety of colours, sizes and surface finishes. 0.05 % moisture absorption. Cradle to Cradle Silver certified.

Manufacturer Mosa Tiles,

Green Materials 40–59


GreenSulate Fungi as insulation

In this material filamentous fungi is used to bond seed husks, like cotton burrs and buckwheat hulls, into a strong rigid board. Ecovative insulation is literally grown. The result is a biodegradable insulation material, which is highly fire resistant and free from any hazardous chemical compounds. Greensulate is stronger than many synthetic types of foam, making it ideal for structural insulation panels. Additionally, the manufacturing costs are low since the fabrication does not require any significant heat, light or petroleum.

Examples Of Use Sustainably grown insulation, structural insulation boards.

Similar Materials 42, 43, 48, 49, 63, 65, 66, 69, 77, 88

Material Data Ecovative was developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Manufacturer Ecovative Design,

Green Materials 40–59


Econyl 75 Recycled polyamide fibre

The Econyl recycling system allows for full industrial recycling of polymer materials. The resulting product is a polymer with the same technical and quality characteristics as the product obtained by conventional means. Econyl 75 consists of 75 % recycled content, and the remaining 25 % is virgin polymer to accommodate additives and pigments more readily. In the waste recovering process, plastic is collected through worldwide logistic chains and transported to the production plants.

Examples Of Use Wear- and stain-resistant fibre carpets used in hotels, offices and public buildings.

Similar Materials 10, 57, 58

Material Data 75 % recycled (polyamide) fibre material (70 % post-industrial and 5 % post-consumer), 25 %, and using virgin polymer (Nylon 6).

Manufacturer Aquafil Group,

Green Materials 40–59


Paper Wool Paper granulate insulation

Paper Wool is produced simply by shredding recycled newspaper to a fine granulate and adding 10 % aluminium hydroxide, a fire retardant, and 5 % sodium borate to prevent mould growth. The production process requires approximately a fifth of the energy used in the production of mineral wool, and the finished insulating product can be sprayed onto or into cavity walls or roof structures.

Examples Of Use Insulation for old cavity walls or in new buildings suited for non-batched insulation.

Similar Materials 42, 43, 46, 49, 54, 63, 65, 66, 69, 77, 81, 88

Material Data Thermal transmission: 0,040 W/mK; 400 kg of recycled newspapers = 27 bags of Paper Wool = 135 m² of 100 mm insulation.

Manufacturer Paper Wool,

Green Materials 40–59


Ytong Energy+ Insulating concrete blocks

This material is an autoclaved aerated concrete block solution for the construction of insulating solid walls. A layer of extremely lightweight (115 kg/m3) and highly insulating Ytong Energy+ is sandwiched between a thin outer and a thicker inner layer of denser (340 kg/m3) structural aerated concrete. The company strives for as sustainable a production process as possible, and the blocks are non-toxic, easy to work with and 100 % recyclable as raw material for new concrete products.

Examples Of Use Sustainable concrete housing.

Similar Materials 01, 09, 10, 24, 63, 65, 66, 67, 69, 74, 77, 83, 88, 92, 96, 98

Material Data Blocks measure 250 x 500 mm with a thickness of 400 or 500 mm; U-value: 0,11 W/m2K for 500 mm walls. Cradle to Cradle Basic certified.

Manufacturer Xella,

Green Materials 40–59



Nontoxic high technology wood The production process makes fast-growing softwood into a new durable and stable product with the qualities of hardwood. Accoya is wood that has been chemically enhanced by acetylation, a process in which acetic anhydride is used to change the abundance of free hydroxyls into acetyl groups. As free hydroxyls in the wood cells enable wood to absorb water and play an important role in deterioration, water absorption and decay is avoided, which makes the wood extremely durable.

Examples Of Use Outdoor wooden structures.

Similar Materials 00, 01, 14, 44, 57, 72, 86

Material Data Class 1 durability (comparable to teak), lasting at least 50 years above ground and 25 years below ground.

Manufacturer Accoya,

Green Materials 40–59


Superwood Climate resistant softwood

Superwood becomes particularly durable and resistant to the northern climate through a clever low-energy and non-toxic impregnating process utilising the natural properties of CO2: At 74 bar pressure and at 31°C, CO2 turns fluid, yet still retaining the ability of a gas to fill its container – a supercritical fluid. Superwood is impregnated from surface to core in a pressure chamber with supercritical CO2 acting as a carrier agent, distributing fungicides evenly in the material.

Examples Of Use Outdoor wood structures in cold and wet climates.

Similar Materials 00, 01, 14, 44, 50, 72

Material Data Superwood is impregnated with SC200 (propiconazol, tebuconazol and IPB C), certified by The Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

Manufacturer Superwood,

Green Materials 40–59


GreenPanel Wooden sandwich panels

Greenpanel is manufactured from FSC-certified wood and saves material by enclosing a 3 mm HDF grid system of variable height between a 4 mm HDF top and bottom, bound together by nontoxic PVA glue. The material is thus comparatively light and easy to handle and leaves a smaller ecological footprint, while maintaining the strength and stability of comparable conventional boards.

Examples Of Use Structural panels, furniture.

Similar Materials 29, 37, 53, 54, 71, 73, 96

Material Data Available in sizes up to 5,200 x 1,220 mm, thicknesses of 38, 60 or 80 mm and densities of 230, 165 and 130 kg/m³ respectively.

Manufacturer Dekker,

Green Materials 40–59



Biobased composite boards Produced purely from natural materials only, FibriCork is a composite structural sandwich element suited for walls and floors alike. The core material, natural cork form sustainably grown cork oaks, is encased in a composite made from natural fibre flax mats and a sugar-based bio resin. The result is a rigid board with good mechanical properties as well as thermal and sound-insulating properties. FibriCork can be seen as a bio-based alternative to normal composite constructions.

Examples Of Use Light, insulating structural panels; walls, floors and ceilings.

Similar Materials 29, 37, 52, 54, 60, 71, 73, 96

Material Data 1,000 x 2,000 mm max; 4 kg/m2 at 10 mm thickness; thermal conductivity: 0.057 W/mK.

Manufacturer EcoTechnilin,

Green Materials 40–59


Eco Composite Cellulosic structural panels

The manufacturing process behind the ECOR panels is similar to the “wet” process conventionally used to produce paper and cardboard, i.e. creating a wet cellulose fibre “stew” or matrix similar to paper pulp, which is poured into a flat or corrugated mould to achieve a uniform thickness. The result is a strong and lightweight product, manufactured from a broad range of readily available, low-cost and underutilised raw materials recycled from paper and agricultural industries.

Examples Of Use Light structural panels and 3D structures in a dry environment.

Similar Materials 29, 37, 48, 52, 53, 71, 73, 81, 96

Material Data Several component types. Example: WavCOR corrugated panel, 610 x 2,440 mm. Combine FlatCOR with WavCOR for threedimensional structural panels.

Manufacturer ECOR,

Green Materials 40–59


ClimaLife Air-cleaning roof tile

ClimaLife is a concrete roof tile with self- and air-cleaning properties thanks to its titanium dioxide surface coating. Breaking down airborne NOx particles through a photocatalytic process, the tile surface produces harmless nitrates, that are easily washed away along with any other dirt when it rains, thanks to the hydrophilic qualities of titanium dioxide. The reduction in NOx for a 200 m2 roof is comparable to what a family car produces driving 17,000 km/year.

Examples Of Use Roofing for houses in areas with high air pollution.

Similar Materials 03, 09, 13, 16, 18, 56, 70, 92, 98

Material Data 420 x 332 mm, covering 310-370 x 300 mm; 4.7 kg; 9 – 10.5 tiles per m2; Long lifecycle of 80 – 100 years with 30-year warranty; self-cleaning properties.

Manufacturer Nelskamp,

Green Materials 40–59



Air-purifying shingles The core in the shingles is made of a strong glass felt coated with asphalt and titanium dioxide, making it durable, self-cleaning and air-purifying. When exposed to daylight, titanium dioxide functions as a catalyst in a chemical process in which NOxparticles are converted to nitrate, which can then be washed away by rain and serve as nourishment for plants. NOx-particles are one of six recognized greenhouse gases and one of the main components of acid rain. A 100 m² Noxite roof can each year neutralize what a normal car emits by driving 3,000 km.

Examples Of Use Flat and sloping roofs, particularly well suited for areas with high levels of air pollution

Similar Materials 03, 13, 18, 55, 70

Material Data Width 0.33–1.0 m; Length 7.5 m; 10 years product warranty.

Manufacturer Icopal,

Green Materials 40–59



Fully recyclable fabric Resembling natural materials in texture and colour, Ecoveil is a fully recyclable shade cloth system made of thermoplastic olefin (TPO). The material is designed to be reclaimed, recycled, and reused in a perpetual loop. In addition to being recyclable into new shade cloths, the TPO cloth is also flame retardant, UVresistant, and antifungal. Furthermore, its weight is merely one third of traditional polyester screen cloths.

Examples Of Use Interior shading and textiles for screens.

Similar Materials 10, 39, 47, 58

Material Data Cradle to Cradle Certified, Silver; EcoVeil Naturals 8050 Series; 8 colours; 100 % TPO; 163–168 cm wide.

Manufacturer MechoShade Systems,

Green Materials 40–59



Natural non-woven wool Made from 100 % pure, natural wool, Wolvilt provides material for the fashion and design industry. Using traditional felt manufacturing methods, Wolvilt relies on the natural structure of wool fibers. Subjected to steam and pressure, the short strands of fibre branching off along the main core of the wool fibres intertwine and lock together. Subsequent mechanical treatment with rollers results in a natural, durable felt, crafted through a process utilising only steam and mechanical pressure.

Examples Of Use Interior design; acoustic panels, carpets and furniture.

Similar Materials 10, 42, 43, 47, 57, 59

Material Data Available in a wide range of colours and in thicknesses of 2, 3 and 5 mm; several densities available, for example 0.28 g/cmÂł.

Manufacturer Wolvilt,

Green Materials 40–59


KlimaTec Reradiating wall cover

Interior walls and ceilings covered with KlimaTec Pro KV 600 assist in room heating by reradiating a larger portion of the thermal energy transferred to the walls through radiation, than uncovered walls would. The effect is particularly useful in rooms where shifts in temperature occur, such rooms will be warmed up more quickly using less energy.

Examples Of Use Infrequently used rooms – i.e. meeting rooms, club houses etc.

Similar Materials 13, 40, 42, 43, 58

Material Data Roll dimensions: 1,500 x 1,000 mm; weight: approx. 600 g/m²; conforms to DIN 4102-B2, i.e. „normal flammable building materials“.

Manufacturer Erfurt,

Lightweight Materials 60–79

Lightweight Materials In the history of architecture, the development of lightweight constructions or façades has several times led to new types of buildings or to novel building shapes. The weight of the materials themselves, but particularly the way in which they are combined, have immense influence on the construction of buildings. The development and emergence of a host of new, lightweight materials such as composites, and particularly the increasing use of them, are radically changing the way in which we think of construction and providing architects and engineers with unprecedented opportunities to challenge conventional construction methods. In this exhibition, lightweight materials is used as a common term for materials that are themselves extremely light as well as newly developed and significantly lighter versions of conventional materials. Materials with open or foamed textures also belong in this category.

“Innovation in building materials is a must for the energy efficiency and sustainability of future construction projects and for the continued development of architecture. � Mette Glavind Director of Building Technology The Danish Technological Institute

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Alucobond Lightweight composite

This composite panel consists of two aluminium cover sheets sandwiched around a plastic core. The panels come in a wide range of sizes and colours, and can easily be folded, bent and shaped without any loss of rigidity. Alucobond complies with national fire regulations, is weather and temperature resistant, and is very light and easy to transport, handle and install.

Examples Of Use Lightweight façade elements.

Similar Materials 45, 47, 53, 75, 82, 87, 96, 97

Material Data Panels are available in a range of sizes up to 1,750 x 11,000 mm and thicknesses of 3, 4 and 6 mm. Weight between 4.5 and 7.3 kg/m².

Manufacturer 3A Composites,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Lightweight concrete slabs This material consists of plastic bubble creating voids in concrete casting. The Cobiax void formers are positioned between the bottom and top reinforcement layers, displacing concrete. The result is a dead-load reduction of up to 35 %, achieved by leaving out as much concrete as possible while maintaining the full flexural strength of the slab and allowing bi-axial load transfer. The Cobiax slab can be cast as conventional in-situ concrete or combined with semi-precast elements.

Examples Of Use Wherever conventional concrete slabs would otherwise be used.

Similar Materials 06, 09, 16, 55, 78, 83, 92

Material Data Cobiax Slim-Line: void former height: 100–220 mm, slab depths: 20–35 cm. All Cobiax flat slabs have the same mechanical loadbearing behavior as solid, flat plate slabs.

Manufacturer Cobiax Technologies,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Shape memory textile This textile is used in a number of innovative ways to create any kind of complex lightweight shapes. It consists of sheets of shape memory polymer held in place by custom-made rail systems, and its uses include for example backlit stretch-ceiling systems. Due to its memory molecules, it will return to its initial form and tension after deformation. Barrisol Acoustics consists of micro-perforated sheets well suited for acoustical purposes.

Examples Of Use Stretch-ceiling systems, free-form 3D shapes and light installations.

Similar Materials 10, 21, 22, 70, 76

Material Data Custom made, any shape; non-flammable; sheet thickness: 1–10 mm, depending on finish and properties (classified M1 in France, Bd B-S2-d0 in Europe, Class 0 in UK and Class I in the USA).

Manufacturer Barrisol,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Aerogel insulation blanket Spaceloft combines a silica aerogel with reinforcing fibres to create a flexible aerogel blanket insulation designed to meet the demanding energy conservation requirements of residential and commercial buildings at a fraction of the thickness of conventional insulation materials. Spaceloft effectively combines low thermal conductivity with high flexibility, compression resistance, hydrophobicity, fire retardancy and ease of use.

Examples Of Use Thin and lightweight insulation.

Similar Materials 15, 30, 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 65, 66, 69, 70, 77, 79

Material Data Available in rolls 1,475 mm wide and 5 or 10 mm thick. U-value: 1.4 W/m²K for 10 mm.

Manufacturer Aspen Aerogels,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Lightweight ceramic cladding The lightness, strength and durability of the Laminam facade system is achieved through the use of very large and extremely thin porcelain stoneware sheets produced from natural raw materials subjected to damp grinding, compacting and sintering at 1,200°C. Secured to a lightweight carrying system. Laminam offers a lightweight solution alternative to conventional materials for ventilated façades.

Examples Of Use Ventilated façade systems.

Similar Materials 03, 45, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 98

Material Data Slabs measure 1,000 x 3,000 x 3 mm.

Manufacturer Laminam,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Aerorock Rockwool with aerogel

Aerorock is a series of new, slim insulation panels with aerogel. Aerorock is highly insulating, solid and inflammable material, provided as panels ready to apply to interior walls. Although currently marketed as a niche product particularly well suited for energy renovation of old buildings, it demonstrates a growing drive in the industry towards the development of increasingly effective insulators.

Examples Of Use Easily applicable insulation for new, thin-walled structures; energy renovation of older buildings.

Similar Materials 15, 30, 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 63, 66, 69, 70, 77, 79

Material Data Aerorock standard panel: 1,200 x 600 mm; thickness, 50 mm; U-value: 0.38 W/m2K.

Manufacturer Rockwool,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Vacuum insulated panels Combining the properties of microporous insulation material with the advantages of vacuum insulation technology, Vacupor achieves a very low thermal conductivity of 5mW/m·K. The core material consists of fused layers of microporous fumed silica, which limits thermal conductivity, while vacuumed the material completely prevents any thermal transmission by convection. The material is inflammable, nonhazardous and recyclable.

Examples Of Use Highly efficient insulation where space is limited and flexibility is required.

Similar Materials 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 63, 65, 69, 74, 77, 79, 88

Material Data Thermal conductivity: between 0.005 W/mK and 0.019 W/mK; temperature range from -50 to +120° C, customized components available.

Manufacturer Porextherm,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Alusion Aluminum foam

Using post-industrial aluminium, Alusion markets stiff, incombustible, non-toxic, sound- and crash absorbing and heat resistant sandwich panels. The lightweight stabilized aluminium foam of the core is produced by introducing gas bubbles into a melt of metal matrix composite, in which hard ceramic particles stabilize the bubbles and ensure that the material retains its final shape. Sandwiching the foam between cover layers allows a very high bending strength at comparatively low weight.

Examples Of Use Aluminium foam sandwich panels are used in rail trains and sport cars as crash-absorbing material and in heat-resistant walls.

Similar Materials 49, 69, 72, 74, 88, 96

Material Data Several varieties of foam board available. Example: small-pore; thickness: 25.4 mm; density: 0.41 g/cm³; standard size: 1,219 x 2,438 mm.

Manufacturer Alusion,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Flexible sandwich laminate This material is a lightweight and strong sandwich laminate that can be easily shaped into various single-curved surfaces. The core material of the laminate is flexible, corrugated aluminium, which can be transformed by hand or machine into any given shape and then locked by gluing on glass reinforced polymers (GRP) sheets to complete the laminate and form the structure of various curved surfaces. The laminates can be either prefabricated or made to be individually adjusted individually on site.

Examples Of Use Curved cladding panels and interior design.

Similar Materials 00, 14, 68, 84

Material Data Example: PreBeam 0.15 mm alu, multipurpose profile for lowweight applications; weight: 231 g/m; dimensions, 31 x 56 mm.

Manufacturer MDT,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Amorim Insulation cork board

Using a naturally occurring and regenerating material, Amorim produces 100 % natural insulation with very low embodied energy. Following a period of weather exposure, the cork is granulated, sorted by size for different products and subjected to superheated steam and pressure, which induce expansion and release the cork’s natural resin turning it into an adhesive. Expanded cork granulate is stable, durable and resistant to moisture and functions as a thermal, acoustic and vibrational insulator.

Examples Of Use As an alternative to conventional insulation materials or as filler in lightweight concrete.

Similar Materials 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 63, 65, 66, 67, 72, 77

Material Data Density: 110-120 kg/m³; thermal conductivity: 0.040 W/mK; noise insulation: Rw = 53 dB.

Manufacturer Amorim Isolamentos,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Insulating translucent tensile fabric This light high-strength tensile membrane is a three-layer composite material, made of one layer of aerogel between two layers of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Because of its insulating properties, the material is very energy efficient, and it also provides good light transmission and acoustic qualities. The self-cleaning TiO2 coating keeps the outer layer clean and simultaneously helps rid the air of nitric oxides and other airborne pollutants.

Examples Of Use Insulation with translucent, lightweight and tensile properties.

Similar Materials 03, 10, 13, 18, 21, 22, 30, 55, 56, 62, 63, 65, 76, 79

Material Data U Value: 1.96 – 0.31 W/m²K. Available with a core of Nanogel from 8 mm – 64 mm.

Manufacturer Birdair,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Polycarbonate panels Lexan polycarbonate resin is a highly versatile, amorphous engineering thermoplastic characterised by its outstanding mechanical, optical, electrical and thermal properties. When set in its desired form, it offers impact resistance dimensional stability andtransparency. It may be used in a wide range of projects requiring flame retardancy, scratch resistance, toughness, heat resistance and weather resistance.

Examples Of Use As a strong yet lightweight alternative to glass in facades, and transparent walls

Similar Materials 29, 37, 52, 54, 73

Material Data Wide range of products available. Example: Lexan Resin 143 R; UV stabilised; density: 1.2 g/cm³; tensile stress (yield: 50 mm/min), 63 MPa.

Manufacturer SABIC Innovative Plastics,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Balsa Core Natural core material

Derived from South American balsa trees, Balsa Core is a highperformance, lightweight core material for constructions in sandwich composites. Balsa Core Rigid is dried balsa wood assembled into large panels and is a suitable replacement for flat, stiff sandwich panels; Balsa Core Flexible features a fibreglass fabric scrim on one side and a series of razor thin cuts on the other to allow for curved panels. It can also be supplied pre-cut, shaped and numbered as a Balsa Core Kit used for instance in the construction of windmills.

Examples Of Use Core material in lightweight panels, structural skin or windmills.

Similar Materials 44, 50, 51, 67, 69, 74, 88

Material Data Density, 152 kg pr. mÂł; compressive strength: 13 MPa; tensile strength: 13-4 MPa; thermal conductivity: 0.063 W/mK.

Manufacturer Dura Composites,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Holland Composites Lightweight translucent panels

The panels are made from glass fibre composites and are extremely lightweight when taking into account volume and strength. The sandwich structure is made of glass fibre-reinforced composites around a plastic honeycomb core. This core material gives the panel its strength without adding significant weight. The clear plastic allows light to filter through despite the thickness of the panel. Furthermore, panel and glass fibre layer thicknesses may be adapted to meet customer requirements.

Examples Of Use Façade and roof cladding

Similar Materials 26, 28, 29, 37, 52, 53, 54, 71

Material Data Custom made; flat panels, thickness: 10-100 mm depending on project; may be dyed and patterns added; fire retardant (classified Bd B-S2-d0 in Europe, Class 0 in UK, B1 in Germany)

Manufacturer Holland composites,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Lightweight structural foam Divinycell offers a comprehensive range of polymer foam cores, each product developed to meet specific performance criteria from all-round high performance to aerospace grade, each available in a range of densities as low as 38 kg/m³. Furthermore, Divinycell may be supplied with a range of finishes to facilitate installation, such as grid-scored, grooved or perforated surfaces, and may be ordered as ready-made kits, each piece pre-cut, shaped and numbered to fit exactly into its designated place.

Examples Of Use Foam cores for structural elements in sandwich constructions; compatible with virtually all commonly used resin systems.

Similar Materials 49, 66, 67, 72, 88, 96

Material Data Material data: Divinycell H: density: 38-250 kg/m³; compressive strength: 0.45-7.2 MPa; tensile strength: 1.0-9.2 MPa

Manufacturer DIAB Group,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Web Plate

Lightweight aluminum panels Thin, customizable and with a large range of precisionengineered corrugation patterns, Web Plate aluminum products are lightweight, high-performance panels that may be used to create almost any kind of two- or three-dimensional shape with standard machinery. Graphic designs may be embossed onto the panels before anodizing or dyeing.

Examples Of Use Primarily interior design, lightweight partitions, acoustic walls and furniture.

Similar Materials 47, 60, 78, 82, 85, 87, 97

Material Data Large variety of products available; example: Web Plate type A12; height: 4.0 mm; thickness: 0.5 mm; measurements: 450 x 1,160 mm; weight, 1.23 kg/m².

Manufacturer Fielitz,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


CENO TEC Flexible, coated glass fibre

This architectural fabric is durable and non-combustible and is generally used for permanent, weather-resistant membrane structures. While the glass fibre fabric provides high tensile strength, the PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) coating provides a very light and low-friction surface, which is also chemically inert, and consequently almost impervious to dirt. PTFE is a stronger, but non-translucent, alternative to ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene).

Examples Of Use Architectural textiles, lightweight membrane ceilings; large spans possible.

Similar Materials 10, 21, 22, 28, 62, 70

Material Data Thickness: 0.127-0.25 mm; heat and cold-resistance: -190°C to + 260°C; life expectancy: 25 years +.

Manufacturer CENO TEC,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79



Vacuum insulation panels With their core of microporous fumed silica board sealed inside a gas barrier film, va-Q-tec insulation panels offer noncombustible high performance insulation. The panels were specially developed for insulation applications where space is scarce but high thermal resistance is necessary, and they are also available in a range of custom-cut shapes.

Examples Of Use Thin-walled structures and extreme climatic conditions.

Similar Materials 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 63, 65, 66, 69, 79

Material Data Dimensions: 1,000 x 600 mm; thickness: 10–50 mm; density: 180–210 kg/m³; thermal conductivity: < 0.0043 W/mK (at 20 mm thickness).

Manufacturer Va-Q-tec,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Architectural Wire Cloth Woven sun protection

Manufactured from high-quality, stainless steel with molybdenum, architectural wire cloth may be applied to the exterior of a building as efficient sun protection. Incident solar radiation is filtered and, as a result, the heating of the façade is greatly reduced. The mesh has a distinctive interplay of transparency and reflection of light and colour, but allows clear views from the inside as well as outside. It may also be dyed and/or combined with LED lighting.

Examples Of Use Façade cladding as a second building skin; solar shading: also well suited for ceilings and space dividers, railings etc.

Similar Materials 39, 75, 85, 94

Material Data A range of different mesh types available. Example: Multi-barrette 8123; weight, 6.6 kg/m²; open area, 64 %.

Manufacturer Haver & Boecker,

Lightweight Materials 60 –79


Lumira aerogel Lightweight, translucent insulation

Aerogel is a lightweight, translucent insulation material that only weighs 75 g per liter, making it the lightest and best insulating solid in the world. Aerogel consists of up to 99,8 % air restrained in nano-size pores, the size of which hinders movement and collision and thus transfer of thermal energy from the air molecules. It also absorbs sound and disperses light, making it ideal for daylighting evenly lit spaces. Lumira aerogel is safe, non-hazardous, recyclable and environmentally friendly.

Examples Of Use Daylighting systems as skylights or façade

Similiar Materials 30, 63, 65, 66, 70, 77

Material Data Lumira translucent silica aerogel; thickness: 25 mm; light transmission: 55 %; U-value: 0.64 W/m2K; Cradle to Cradle Silver certified.

Manufacturer Cabot,

Strong Materials 80â&#x20AC;&#x201C;99

Strong Materials Architectural history is full of examples testifying to the importance of strength in materials, since strength is essential to the construction of buildings. Strong materials can provide new architectural opportunities i.e. as when the invention of concrete by the Romans made possible the construction of the Colosseum, an edifice hailed as an architectural masterpiece to this day. The industrial development of iron and hardened steel made possible the construction of skyscrapers that dominate big cities across the globe today. In such ways, the development of strong materials may lead to significant changes in architecture. In this exhibition, strong materials is used as a common term for a selection of widely different materials including woven metals, geo-textiles, fibre concrete, structural tape and composites. However, many of these materials will add more significantly to the strength of a construction when used together than when used singly.

“In the beginning there is always a dream – great architecture and design starts with a vision, a concept or a feeling. Between dream and reality architects, designers and engineers need materials and processes they can use to turn their ideas into buildings, interiors or products. Our founder George Beylerian created the claim “Every Idea Has A Material SolutionTM” and made it the guiding principle of Material ConneXion.” Karsten Bleymehl Director, Library & Materials Research Material ConneXion Cologne

Strong Materials 80 –99


Kraftwell Corrugated cardboard

Produced exclusively from strong first generation fibers, Kraftwells double layer of reinforcing fluting makes for a cardboard of impressive strength - a full pallet size box can withstand a stacking load of 4 tons. It can be treated with waterresistant surface coating as well as prints, and could in many applications make for a strong, durable, cheap and lightweight alternative to wooden boards. It can be recycled after use.

Examples Of Use Light structural elements for temporary interior installations, packaging, and exhibition design

Similar Materials 29, 48, 52, 53, 54, 71, 73, 81, 96

Material Data Available in a wide range of qualities, from very thin to extremely heavy duty and durable corrugated board; sustainable forestry is an important part of Stora Enso’s brand. Approximately 50 % strength at 93 % humidity.

Manufacturer Stora Enso,

Strong Materials 80 –99


Cascade Paper composite

Richlite’s Cascade product series consists primarily of paper treated with phenolic resin and baked to create a strong material. During the production cycle, the layers of paper are gradually cross-linked with each other to create solid, durable sheets. Once the curing process is complete, the structure of the product is permanent and cannot be altered. The final product is exceptionally strong and still maintains a warm and natural look.

Examples Of Use For interiors, as a heavy-duty alternative to wood, plastics or other composites.

Similar Materials 48, 54, 64, 80, 86, 89

Material Data Tensile Strength: Up to 132 MPa (oak averages 60 MPa) Density: 1,21 g/m3.

Manufacturer Richlite,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Vault structuring of sheet materials A vault-structured surface increases rigidity and stability, which means that PowerStruct components may be built up to 30 % lighter than unstructured components. It also increases thermal stability, noise reduction and glare-free light reflection. A gentle shaping process makes it possible to enhance a wide variety of materials, including sheet metals, plastics, paper and cardboard, and ensures that the surface and integrity of the material is undamaged.

Examples Of Use Façade elements, roofing, light reflectors.

Similar Materials 47, 60, 75, 87, 97

Material Data A variety of structures are available in sizes from 17–50 mm; maximum sheet thickness: 1.0 mm for steel and 1.2 mm for aluminium.

Manufacturer Dr. Mirtsch GmbH,

Strong Materials 80 –99


Concrete Canvas Fabric with uncured concrete

This material is a flexible cement-impregnated fabric that hardens on hydration to form a thin, durable, waterproof and fireproof concrete layer. Essentially, it is fibre reinforced concrete on a roll hardening to 80 % strength within 24 hours of being hydrated. Concrete Canvas can be draped, making it easy to construct strong, complex surfaces including double curved concrete structures.

Examples Of Use Landscaping, curving concrete surfaces, concrete shelters, or construction site preparation.

Similar Materials 09, 16, 24, 49, 61, 92, 98

Material Data Concrete Canvas is supplied in rolls, 1.0 and 1.1 m wide, in lengths of up to 200 m and thicknesses between 5 mm, 8 mm and 13 mm.

Manufacturer Concrete Canvas,

Strong Materials 80 –99


SplineTEX Freeform structural tubes

This composite material is derived from a flexible technique used to mould fibre reinforced plastic tubes. The construction method allows the realisation of strong double-curved spline structures of various sizes and functions but without any need of costly moulding procedures. In their flexible stage, the tubes can be easily free-formed. In their second stage, after the tubes have been hardened with resin, they can be used for structural purposes.

Examples Of Use Pavilions, façades and nonlinear construction modules.

Similar Materials 00, 14, 26, 28, 68, 95, 99

Material Data For SplineTEX Carbon Ø 20mm. Tensile modulus: 55.000 MPa; density 1,12 g/cm³; weight 126 g pr. m; max length 5 m and min bending radius 60 mm (3xØ).

Manufacturer SuperTEX,

Strong Materials 80 –99


Creative Weave Metal textiles

This material takes the shape of a wide range of flexible architectural metal meshes that may be formed into protective and aesthetic veils for buildings, walls, ceilings or floors. The textile structure is supple and adaptable, and the woven metal provides a characteristic interplay of transparency and reflection. Functioning as a transparent and permeable barrier, it may be used as a projecting screen or fitted with inter-woven LED panels as a transparent media façade without losing its high strength and durability.

Examples Of Use Exterior façade screens, light filtering curtains, wall coverings and media façades.

Similar Materials 39, 75, 78, 94

Material Data Stainless steel with a maximum width of 8 m; weatherproof, corrosion resistant and non-flammable.

Manufacturer Creative Weave GKD,

Strong Materials 80 –99


Durapalm Bamboo Durable flooring

Bamboo is an attractive alternative flooring material, both because of the ease with which the fast-growing raw material can be sustainably sourced and because of its high strength, durability and resistance to moisture and insects comparable to that of hardwood. While other laminates often contain phenol resins, resulting in the off-gassing of formaldehyde, Durapalm Bamboo flooring is formaldehydefree, sustainably sourced and has a hardness equivalent to that of oak planks.

Examples Of Use Alternative to hardwood flooring.

Similar Materials 01, 44, 50, 81

Material Data Made from 100 % rapidly renewable bamboo. Its Janka hardness – the force required to press a 10 mm steel ball 5 mm into the material – is 6.140 kN, equivalent to white oak.

Manufacturer Smith & Fong Bamboo,

Strong Materials 80 –99


Architectural Titanium High-performance skin

Titanium is a lightweight, high-strength metal used in a variety of high-end products e.g. racing cars. Commercial-grade titanium is more than twice as strong as aluminium. It is non-toxic and when exposed to atmospheric air, it forms a thin layer of highly adherent oxide film effectively protecting it against corrosion. As a façade cladding material it provides high strength and durability under any environmental conditions.

Examples Of Use Façade cladding; strong, durable, and lightweight structures.

Similar Materials 41, 45, 60, 75, 97

Material Data Ultimate tensile strength of approximately 430 MPa – equivalent to low-grade steel but 45 % lighter. Available in sheets 1.2 m wide as well as coils and plates, 0.4–3 mm thick. Fully recyclable.

Manufacturer Architectural Titanium,

Strong Materials 80 –99


FoamGlas Cellular glass insulation

Foam glass is a lightweight, opaque insulation material, which, in addition to its insulating qualities, has high compression strength and durability and is water- and diffusion proof. It is produced by adding a carbon foaming agent to granulated glass, which when reaching the temperature at which the glass becomes soft enough to cohere, releases a gas, which is entrapped in the glass forming a closed-cell structure that remains after cooling – a process similar to using soda as a leavening agent in bread.

Examples Of Use Façade insulation.

Similar Materials 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 66, 67, 72, 74, 96

Material Data Various products available, for instance T4: density: 120 kg/m³; thermal conductivity: 0.035 W/m.K (at 0°C); compressive strength: 0.7 MPa (7 kg/m²).

Manufacturer Foamglas Nordic AB,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Polymer composite facade panels Steni products are a range of glass fibre-enforced polymer composite panels, with a variety of surface finishes, colours and textures from natural stone aggregate to brightly coloured, smooth surfaces of electron beam cured acrylic. Steni panels are 100 % water, moist and weather resistant, very strong and durable and suitable for exposed façades as they handle blows as well as UV radiation well.

Examples Of Use Sturdy, durable façade cladding with a wide range of finishes.

Similar Materials 03, 45, 64, 81, 90, 92, 93, 98

Material Data Standard width: 1,195 mm; standard length: 85-3,500 mm; 25 year guarantee.

Manufacturer Steni,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Acrylic polymer composite Scratch-resistant, maintenance-free and completely nonporous, Corian is a highly customizable surface material well suited for extensive wear and tear as well as for environments with special hygienic requirements. Composed of acrylic polymer and alumina trihydrate, it is thermoformable at a comparatively low temperature (150°C) and can be seamlessly joined and shaped into almost any design while maintaining a perfectly solid, non-porous and non-stainable surface.

Examples Of Use Interior applications; particularly useful in environments with high hygiene standards, such as bathrooms, kitchens, laboratories or hospitals.

Similar Materials 03, 45, 64, 89

Material Data 6 or 12 mm thick; heat resistant up to 100°C; NSF/ANSI 51 certified for food contact; available in a wide range of colors.

Manufacturer DuPont,

Strong Materials 80 –99


3M VHB Structural tape

High-strength bonding tape is a proven alternative to screws, rivets, welds and other forms of mechanical fasteners. Designed for bonding glass to metal frames in glass curtain wall systems, 3M VHB structural tape consists of a two-sided pressure sensitive adhesive acrylic foam tape. Unlike screws or rivets it achieves its bonding strength by spreading the stress load across the entire length of the joint. Structural tape offers a fast and efficient method for mounting windows or façade elements.

Examples Of Use Fast-build façades, temporary structures and building skins.

Similar Materials 36

Material Data Bonds metals, plastics and painted materials. Thickness: 0.4–1.55 mm; normal tensile strength: 0.62 MPa (0.4mm); dynamic shear strength: 0.62 MP (0.4 mm); peel adhesion: 210 N/100 mm (0.4 mm).

Manufacturer 3M,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Fibre-reinforced concrete Through a special extrusion process, layers of glass fibre are incorporated into a concrete matrix. Sandwiched between a top and bottom layer of scattered and undirected fibres, the middle layer is strengthened with fibre bundles, resulting in thin concrete elements with very high flexural strength. The production of these thin and light elements also allows for almost any imaginable shape, colour and surface texture.

Examples Of Use Interior and exterior cladding; flat concrete slabs in any shape.

Similar Materials 09, 16, 24, 49, 61, 64, 83, 89, 98

Material Data Standard element: thickness: 13 mm; size: up to 3,600 x 1,200 mm; bending strength: > 18.5 MPa; weight per unit area: 26-31.5 kg/m².

Manufacturer Rieder,

Strong Materials 80 –99


Cast Basalt Melted stone

Pouring molten basalt (at 1,300°C) into moulds of varying sizes and shapes, Eutit creates a near indestructible, high-density product that is resistant to most chemicals and non-porous, shockproof and frost-, hydrocarbon- and heatproof. As tiles, cast basalt is used for industrial floors, but it is also suitable for urban infrastructure where extreme durability is important. Cast basalt retains the characteristic iridescence of basalt in its naturally occurring form.

Examples Of Use Highly durable surfaces, industrial floors; also used for piping and sewage systems.

Similar Materials 03, 45, 64, 89

Material Data Compression strength: min. 300-450 MPa; bending strength: min. 45 MPa; Weight: 2,900-3,000 kg/m³.

Manufacturer Eutit,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Laminated glass with metal mesh Manufactured from extra clear glass to emphasise the aesthetic impact of the metal mesh, Crimetal combines the visual and shading qualities of metal mesh with the air-tight climate barrier of glazing. The metal mesh may be tailored to allow exactly the required amount of light, while the glass may be either tempered or double-insulating glass. Either way Crimetal combines into one solution the strengths of both glass and metal mesh.

Examples Of Use Solar control façade systems, accented security barriers and window-integrated shading.

Similar Materials 17, 18, 19, 25, 33, 34, 37, 39, 78, 85

Material Data Measurements, 2210 x 5,790 mm (maximum).

Manufacturer Cricursa,

Strong Materials 80â&#x20AC;&#x2030;â&#x20AC;&#x201C;99



Braided carbon fibre This material is unique due to its triaxial braided fibre architecture and its drapability and its consistent fibre orientation. QISO is a single-layer, quasi-isotropic carbon fabric providing drastically increased damage tolerance and improved energy absorption. With its uniform geometry and perfectly balanced single layer of braid, QISO is thinner and lighter than most laminates and also reduced interlaminar stress when multiple layers of QISO are used.

Examples Of Use Composite materials for free-formed high performance surfaces where high strength is needed.

Similar Materials 26, 28, 84, 99

Material Data QISO medium fabric: width: 889 mm; weight: 405 g/m². QISO laminate with E862 epoxy resin: Tensile strength: 805/800MPa (longitudinal/transverse).

Manufacturer A&P Technology,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Aluminium foam sandwich panels Alulight panels are made purely from aluminium alloys from their cores to their metallurgically bonded cover sheets. The pure metal composition of the sandwich panels with metallurgical bonding allows them to be joined, treated and recycled like conventional aluminium. A variety of specialised alloys are available, offering specific high-end performance in areas such as damage tolerance, energy absorption and thermal and acoustic insulation.

Examples Of Use Strong, lightweight and 100 % recyclable structural panels

Similar Materials 29, 37, 49, 52, 53, 54, 60, 67, 73, 74, 77

Material Data Measurements: 2,500 x 1,500mm (max); total thickness: 9-80 mm; cover sheet thickness: 0.6-20 mm; example: 25 mm panel with 1.2 mm cover sheets; weight: 10.5 kg/m²; tensile strength, 120 MPa.

Manufacturer Alulight International,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Copper façade surfaces TECU markets a range of copper products, some of them preoxidised and pre-patinised and others coated with fluoropolymer to highlight and protect their metallic shine. Common to all these products is their highly controllable and hardwearing aesthetic appearance. As testified by centuries-old green copper roofs, copper is extremely durable in any climate. 100 % recyclable.

Examples Of Use Distinctive interior and facade cladding and detailing available with varying degrees of natural patina.

Similar Materials 41, 45, 60, 75, 82, 87

Material Data Several alloys available, from copper and classical bronze to copper-aluminium, for instance TECU Classic; thickness: 0.6-2.0 mm; measurements: 1,250 x 3,000 mm (max); UV- and chemical resistant, easy to clean.

Manufacturer KME,

Strong Materials 80 –99



Ultra high performance concrete Reinforcing concrete with polymer, glass or steel fibres allows great tensile and compression strength. The concrete consists of a mix of white cement, marble powder and reinforcement fibres, and the die casting process makes it possible to produce thin shells in three-dimensional moulds. Compared to conventional concrete, fibre reinforced concrete is very dense, but its high strength and homogenous structure makes it ideal for thinner and lighter structures.

Examples Of Use Lightweight and weather resistance facade systems, thin and freely shaped concrete elements.

Similar Materials 09, 16, 24, 49, 61, 64, 83, 89, 92

Material Data Thickness: typically 10-15 mm for façade elements and 10-30 mm for balcony floors; fibre concrete can be dyed by adding acrylic paint to the mix.

Manufacturer Lafarge and Bouygues,

Strong Materials 80 –99


Spectra Rope Fifteen times stronger than steel

Wound from Spectra Fiber, a bright white polyethylene fibre that performs stronger than steel, Spectra Rope is a high-strength and cut-resistant rope for use in tensioning systems of almost any size and strength. Although dense for a polyethylene product, it is still light enough to float, and it is highly resistant to chemicals, water and ultraviolet light. Furthermore, it has excellent flex fatigue and internal fibre friction characteristics. Its only weakness is a comparatively low melting point.

Examples Of Use Lightweight tensioning systems

Similar Materials 28, 73, 84, 95

Material Data Example: Spectec-12; diameter: 3-30 mm; weight: 0.8-53.8 kg pr. 100m; tensile strength: 726-49,940 kg; density: 0.97 g pr. cm³; melting temperature: 150°C.

Manufacturer Novabraid,

Profile for 3XN_GXN

Material World Catalog  

From Materials to New Architecture

Material World Catalog  

From Materials to New Architecture