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in the interim a framework for productive neighbourhoods in a temporary refugee city

Liv Grete Strømme Framgard


Liv Grete Strømme Framgard Student no. 2008229 Master Thesis Autumn 2013 Aarhus School of Architecture Studio Regenerative Architecture Tutor: Kasper Guldager Jørgensen


project definition A strategic framework for the development of transitional neighbourhood centres in Zaatari. The aim is to improve refugee self-suffuciency by regenerative design and informal development. This is not an emergency response project but a development proposal for a camp moving into a long-term planning phase, becoming citylike. The project aims add a system that could allow neighbourhood development within the existing fabric of the camp in order to turn away from the organization of consumption towards neighbourhoods of production.

in the interim - thesis report


about

RESEARCh

01. Intro* 6

Part 1: CAMP COMPOSITION 4 01. Responsibilities 6 02. Services 8 03. Built Components 10 04. The Aid Paradox 16

02. Why Zaatari?

10

03. Approach 20 04. Reflection 22 05. Thanks to

24

06. Bibliography

26

07. CV 28

Part 2: CAMP REALITIES 01. Humanitarians 02. Social Fabric 03. Informal Development 04. Shared Functions 05. Shared Space 06. Environment Analysis 01. Refugee City? 02. The Clash 03. Chains of Loss 04. Summary*

18 22 32 42 60 68 72 82 84 86 90 92


STRATEGIES 01. Vision

DESIGN

4

01. Volume Studies

4

02. Urban Thinking

6

02. Concept

8

03. Scales of Impact

8

03. Investigations

12

04. Function

10

04. Additional System*

28

05. Materials

34

05. Social Agenda* 16 06. Economic Strategies*

18

07. Environmental Strategies* 20 08. Site Strategies

34

10. Temporality

42

*essential reading

contents


01.

intro foreword As a student I have the incredible luxuries of time and freedom from obligation that neither architects on a payroll, humanitarians racing time in camps or organizing officials can afford. In the hope that any part of the project might prove useful, I wanted to gain a realistic understanding in order to make proposals as relevant and feasible as time allowed. Therefore, in this case the intentions are as important as the result. Getting inside a camp was crucial, and proved a challenging task in itself as UN protection is hard to come by, and research is usually restricted to insiders or reporters (see Research p.20). Therefore the research has a value in its own, and is not just a preparation for the project, it is part of the project. This report is divided into three equally important sections; a research to document the realities of a camp from an architectural and environmental point of view, a strategizing chapter which creates a framework to respond to observed problems, and a design part which investigates how physical structures could apply the strategies.

process timeline preparation camp research camp management training, finland research trip, zaatari analysis sustainability research and consultation strategies

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project focus As refugee numbers increase globally, aid organizations are constantly pushed to the limit in providing infrastructure on limited budgets. Can architectural solutions help relieve the pressure by making refugees more self-sufficient? The project has investigated the potential of using regenerative strategies to rethink current camp systems. It is my conviction that architecture and sustainable thinking has the potential to create mutually beneficial situations that improve living conditions for refugees while making life easier for camp managers and improving environmental impact. Seeing architecture as a tool rather than a goal, the project aims at connecting environmental, social and economic sustanability. In other words, could rethinking the constructed environment create new environmental, economic and social outcomes? Well aware that this is a tall order, I decided it is a risk worth taking. Refugee camp design is a surprisingly unexplored area, despite the need for improvement.

design and modelling

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thesis background During my 9th term project “HydroLogic Window” I gained a respect for nature’s methods of endlessly reusing water. I discovered that hydrologic processes like biological cleansing and evaporation can be recreated artificially without the use of electricity or membranes. Albeit slow, this approach can be beneficial in poor areas without centralized systems, especially in hot climates. My initial thought was, how can this idea be developed in a place where it is really needed? The potentials of working with microclimatic improvements, bacteria cultures, and food production led to thoughts of extending the system into a larger context and combine water cleansing with other regenerative processes in a specific location. I wanted to “zoom out” and redirect the focus from a technical understanding to a community scale and look at what natural systems can contribute with.

Previous project, working with integrated natural water cleansing

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02.

why zaatari? CONTEXT: war and exile The Syrian conflict initially began as a civil uprising, evolved from initially minor protests, beginning as early as January 2011, as a response to the regional Arab Spring, government corruption, and human rights abuses. Large-scale unrest began on 15 March in the southern city of Daraa, sometimes called the “Cradle of the Revolution”, and later spread nationwide. The government responded to the protests with large arrests, torture of prisoners, police brutality, censorship of events, and some concessions. However, the protests continued to grow. In lateApril, Assad began launching large-scale military operations against restive towns and cities. The operations involved the use of tanks, infantry carriers, and artillery, leading to a large number of civilian deaths.

syria 2011

Results from Google search on “Syrian crisis”

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daraa, syria

aleppo, syria

Who would have thought, 20 years after Rwanda, there would be a Middle East war inferno leaving millions of civilians without protection and with only sporadic access to emergency aid? - Jan Egeland, 19.02.14

iraq

turkey

jordan

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damascus

daraa al za’atari

Amman jerusalem

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s More than 2 million Syrians are currently forced to seek shelter abroad, and over 4 million are internally displaced.

Over 580 000 of them have fled across the border to Jordan, renting flats in Amman, staying with host communities or in organized camps.

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al mafraq

Having no other option than seeking temporary shelter, over 120 000 currently live in Al Za’atari camp, 10 km south of the Syrian border.

Amman

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al za’atari


September 2012 30 000 refugees

November 2012 45 000 refugees

January 2013 90 000 refugees

September 2013 120 000 refugees

Set up in July 2012, Zaatari has rapidly grown from a small camp to be the fourth largest settlement in Jordan, and the world’s second largest refugee camp. During the peak of april 2013, the camp hosted over 200 000 refugees [UNHCR ].

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al mafraq : capital city of mafraq governorate

60 0000 67 0000

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inhabitants refugees


zaatari village

al zaatari camp

120 000

refugees

host community

Zaatari is positioned in Mafraq Governorate which, positioned between Syria and Jordan’s capital Amman, has strained under a constant influx of refugees since the outbreak of war.

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the water problem

The combination of scarcity of water in the region, the influx of refugees and the images of flooding in the camp looked like a situation worth investigating.

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Time World, 06.04.13

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approach

03.

sustainability The ideology of the Cradle to Cradle movement has been important to my understanding of sustainability. The shift in focus of creating “more good” in stead of “less bad” is fundamentally different from that of conventional sustainability and indeed humanitarian aid - which focuses on mitigation. Economy, environment and society are parallel parts of the holistic approach, and as visualized in the “triple top line” the project intention should inform the design process from the start.

c2c optimizing

Combining eco-efficiency and eco-effectiveness, aiming to minimize negative impact while also increasing positive impact.

Regenerative architecture The term “regenerative” describes processes that restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials, creating sustainable systems that integrate the needs of society with the integrity of nature. In regenerative design systems, outputs are equal to, or greater than, inputs.

the triple top line

Breaking down a holistic perspective in order to ask the right questions from the beginning.

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hypothesis Planning for gradual improvements and utilizing natural resources directly, such as natural water purification, the performance of design could decentralize functions, relieve the camp infrastructure, while making life a little easier for residents. The ultimate ideal is that architectural innovation can be economically profitable or at least viable, even in the extreme context of refugee camps. By combining existing low-tech methods, natural, social and economic processes can be enabled in order to allow people the tools to generate the selfsufficiency they crave.

method Having chosen to start with an approach rather than a site and a function I wanted an open-ended investigation. Laying aside architectural aspirations I tried to gain a realistic understanding of what planning and living in a camp means.

Climate, natural and human resources as design input

i have researched the organization and realities of refugee camps and alternative methods that could replace or improve the current system. I analyzed the information collected and looked for voids as a basis for intervention. Defining strategies and finally investigating how they could be implemented in a physical structrue.

areas to study

1. camp planning

researh in light of

society environment

2. camp realities

analyze

voids

strategize

cycles

design

system

economy

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04.

reflection on process and results During the process I have met many kind professionals and enthusiasts from different backgrounds, which has been crucial for this project. I am greatful to have visited Zaatari. This project became bigger and more strategic than initially intended, because the focus was directed to where I felt the camp needs alternative thinking the most. I found some of my presumtions were relevant, others were not. And so the size and scale of the project developed throughout its course, while the underlying focus persisted. In a well-developed camp like Zaatari where the focus is no longer on emergency relief alone, I found that sustainable strategies are very relevant - as long as they are not pure experiments, the situation is too vulnerable for potential failiure. Therefore I wanted to base my suggestions on existing technologies. In terms of design, I would have liked to spend more time on detailing, and experiments with materials and passive heating systems, as well as larger scale adaptation studies for variation. Although the project is conceptual, I hope the ideas have some potential to contribute to camp management. Were this project to be realized, developing an on-site pilot project would be suitable, in collaboration with refugee councils, the UNHCR, relevant NGOs such as the Norwegian Refugee Council and OXFAM as well as expertise on water management and energy production mentioned in this report. Factors like water quality would need further data collection, social issues would be discussed with refugees, economy and building practice with the CCCM/Shelter Clusters and UNHCR.

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on the political scope Having studied Zaatari and camps in general, the most important conclusion is that camps are, and should be, the last resort for many reasons. There are other ways to deal with a refugee situation, and I believe integrating people into existing, functional societies prevents many unforeseeable problems that will arise in a camp. However, in the case of Zaatari a camp is far better than the alternative - no camp. The situation in bordering Lebanon is an example of what might happen - thousands of people living unsupported in the Bekaa valley, vulnerable to exploitation and with little access to medication, education or other facilities. Ultimately, whether one supports the idea of refugee camps is irrelevant as long as they exist. This project is not intended as a political statement, but as a response to a real situation. Dealing with the undesirable situations of war and crisis, emergency response is always about mitigation. The only truly desirable outcome is for the crisis to end, people to return home and the camp to cease existing. However, this is seldom the case, as camps often stay for decades. This is where I believe the humanitarian world needs input and alternatives (see analysis). Another important issue is that you cannot raise the standards in a camp too high (as discussed on page 48) a fact which has been in the back of my mind throughout. This makes planning difficult, yet is a good reason to utilize untraditional resources like waste and refugee workforce.

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05.

acknowledgements Jørn-Casper Øwre, Adviser NORCAP/UN, for believing in me and granting the support of the global CCCM Cluster Ahmad Azzam, Norwegian Refugee Council, for taking me under his wing and introducing me to Zaatari Carlos A. Arias, PhD Plant Biology at Aarhus University, for many consultations, calculations and coffees Kilian Kleinschmidt, UNHCR Camp Manager Zaatari, for allowing my research and taking the time to share his views and experience Khaled Abdel-Fadil, NRC, for kind advice and support Omar Saleh and Suha Almallah, UNHCR Field Officers, for patience and translation during long rounds in Zaatari Robert Trigwell and Jagoda Pietrzak at REACH for access to data, mapping trips and many emails John Simpson, Nicole Haan and Catherine Sherwood, UNHCR, for explaining the planning of Zaatari Johnny Abbas, for sharing his desk and caravan knowledge Ra’ad Daboubi and his family, for showing me different sides of Jordanian culture

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Megan Passey, Corinne Treherne, Carmen Ferrer, David Curtis and all the others at the Red Cross CM Training for informative conversations in Finland Thomas Palo at the Swedish University of Agricultural Science, for kind advice and info My family and friends, especially Ingunn, Maja, Line, Ida, Anne Camilla, and Nicola for feedback and favours Lasse Lind of GXN, for taking the time and last but not least tutor Kasper Guldager, for always sharpening my focus

thank you!

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bibliography

06.

online resources ACTED (Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development) http://www.acted.org/en/jordan-0

Loowatt www.loowatt.com OpenStreetMap

http://www.openstreetmap.org/#map=16/32.2976/36.3249

REACH

http://syria-crisis.reach-initiative.org/

SOIL: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods www.oursoil.org

UNHCR, Syrian Regional Refugee Response: Inter-agency Information Sharing Portal http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/settlement.php?id=176&country=107&region=77

UN-HABITAT

www. unhabitat.org

literature Agier, M. 2002. Managing the Undesirables: Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Government. Guldager & Lyngsgaard, 2013: Cradle to Cradle i det Byggede Miljø: En Manual til den Danske Byggeindustri. Vugge til Vugge Danmark og GXN. Ilka & Ruby, 2010: Re-Inventing Construction. Ruby Press, Berlin Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)/ The Camp Management Project (CMP), 2008: Camp Management Toolkit. The Sphere Project, 2011: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards for Humanitarian Response. Belmont Press Ltd, Northhampton, United Kingdom. Miazzo & Minkjan 2013: Farming the City: Food as a Tool for Today’s Urbanization. CITIES/trancityxvaliz UNHCR, 2002: Livelihood Options in Refugee Situations: A Handbook for Promoting Sound Agricultural Practices. Atar Roto Presse Sa, Vernier, Switzerland. UN HABITAT, 2012: Placemaking and the Future of Cities, Draft fall 2012

humanitarian reports and documents REACH, June 2013: Key Findings of REACH Camp Sweep in Zaatari REACH July 2013: Key Findings of REACH’s Survey of WASH Facilities in Zaatari UNICEF, 2013: Shattered Lives: Challenges and Priorities for Syrian Children and Women in Jordan UNICEF, 2013: Syria’s Children: A Lost Generation? Crisis report March 2011-March 2013

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UNICEF/REACH, March 2014: Multi-Sector Child Focus Assesment, Camp Sensus Report, Al Zaatari Camp UNHCR, March 2014: 2013 Safety Report, Zaatari Refugee Camp UNHCR, June 2013: Zaatari Governance Plan UNHCR, WFP and UNICEF, January 2014: Joint Assessment Review of the Syrian Refugee Response in Jordan

articles IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), “Syria: women’s role in agriculture” http://www.ifad.org/gender/learning/sector/agriculture/31.htm

The Independent, 24.01.13

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/un-warns-syrian-civil-warn-is-devastating-farming-as-jordan-struggles-to-cope-withrefugees-8465421.html

IRIN, Humanitarian news and analysis, 01.11.13, on Reliefweb. Analysis: “Politics and power in Jordan’s Za’atari refugee camp” http://reliefweb.int/report/jordan/analysis-politics-and-power-jordans-zaatari-refugee-camp

IRIN, Humanitarian news and analysis, 08.09.13. “Haves and have-nots in Zaatari Camp”. http://www.irinnews.org/report/98895/haves-and-have-nots-in-jordan-s-za-atari-camp

Save the Children, 12.04.13. “Lebanon: The Strain Of Living In Informal Tented Settlements” http://blogs.savethechildren.org.uk/2013/04/lebanon-the-strain-of-living-in-informal-tented-settlements/

Time.com 16.12.13. “Ikea Housing for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Gets a Green Light” http://world.time.com/2013/12/16/lebanon-says-no-to-ikea-housing-for-syrian-refugees-because-its-too-nice/#ixzz2nhFAQR83

other documents Alraggad 17.01.13: Groundwater Aquifer Risk Assessment In Zaatari Camp Palo, 2013: Greening of camp village by micro-catchment design for rainwayer collection in the Azraq camp Vymazal 2005: Horizontal sub-surface floa and hybrid constructed wetlands systems for wastewater treatment. Duke University Wetand Center, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Durham, USA

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cv

06.

master School leave

GXN Green Innovation in Architecture, Copenhagen. Internship. Innovation concepts, sustainable design

9th semester

Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, Barcelona. Open Thesis Fabrication research programme. Project based research on water purification and digital fabrication. Faculty: Fabian Scheurer, Mette Thompsen, Luis Fraguada, Javier Peña

7th + 8th semesters

Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, Barcelona Master of Self-Sufficient Buildings/exchange. Responsive, temporary structures, natural processes Faculty: Javier Peña, Rodrigo Rubio

bachelor 6th semester

5th semester

Aarhus School of Architecture Morphogenetic Studio. Analogue + digital processes, “messy computation” Faculty: Niels Martin Larsen Bezalel Academy of Art and Architecture, Jerusalem Exchange semester, In+Formal Studio: planning for East Jerusalem Faculty: Senan Abdelqader

other 2007-2008

Norwegian University of Science and Technology Geography. Natural and human geography.

2005-2006

Oslo University College Art and Design.

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research

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2

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How is life in a camp, and what matters to people there?

research Part 1: CAMP COMPOSITION 4 01. Responsibilities 6 02. Services 8 03. Built Components 10 04. The Aid Paradox 16 Part 2: CAMP REALITIES 01. Humanitarians 02. Social Fabric 03. Informal Development 04. Shared Functions 05. Shared Space 06. Environment Analysis 01. Refugee City? 02. The Clash 03. Chains of Loss 04. Summary

18 22 32 42 60 68 72 82 84 86 90 92

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part 1

camp composition How do you make and run a refugee camp?

contents:

01 responsibilities 02 services 03 built components 04 the aid paradox

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research trip 1: camp management training As preparation for field studies in Zaatari, I wanted to gain an understanding of camp organization. I was lucky enough to be granted a place at a 5 day training given by the Norwegian Refugee Council at the Finnish Red Cross movement in Turku, Finland. The training was aimed at professionals working in Camp Management, and based on the publications Camp Management Toolkit and the Sphere Project: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. Participants were representatives of UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), IFRC (International Federation of the Red Cross), NRC (Norwegian Refugee Council), Shelter Box and Swedish, Kenyan, Ugandan and Finnish Red Cross. Here follows a small excerpt of what we learnt and discussed.

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01.

responsibilities Who is responsible for a refugee camp?

States are primarily responsible for providing protection and humanitarian assistance to internally displaced nationals and refugees within their territories – including those living in camps or camp-like settings. In situations where the authorities are unwilling or unable to provide protection and/or assistance to the displaced population, UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), has an international mandate and responsibility for their protection. Working closely with UNHCR and other UN and/or international organisations, who take responsibility as Sector Leads, the camp management role is usually undertaken by an international or national non-government organisation – (I)NGO.

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camp

ca: Camp administration: national authorities

country

cc: camp coordination camp camp

cm: camp management

camp administration Camp Administration is the role of Governments and National Authorities and refers to those functions of national authorities that relate to overseeing of activities in camp-like situations.

camp coordination Camp Coordination entails the coordination of roles and responsibilities directly relating to the development and support of national/regional plans relating to the establishment and management of communal settlements (incorporating solutions and exit strategies).

camp management Camp Management Is the role of a Camp Management Agency, normally a national or international NGO. Camp Management encompasses those activities in one single camp that focus on co-ordination of services, establishing governance and community mobilization mechanisms, maintenance of camp infrastructure, data collection and sharing, provision of defined services and monitoring the service delivery of other providers.

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02.

services What is provided in a refugee camp?

main camp service sectors: - food distribution and non-food items - wash (water, sanitation and hygiene) - shelter - health care - education - livelihoods

3,5 m2 covered space

40 m2 total camp space per person

Emergency and transitional shelter

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Minimum standard area


wash (water, sanitation and hygiene) Sufficient water needs to be safe for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene. Good sanitation facilities are among the most vital and very first services provided in a camp. A continuous lack of water, insufficient latrines or uncontrolled open defecation, poorly set up waste disposal or drainage systems are all risks that may lead to illnesses and epidemics such as diarrhoea and cholera.

shelter Shelter is more than a roof: it is a means of ensuring the health, security, privacy and dignity of camp residents. To ensure an integrated approach, shelter programmes in camps and camplike settings must be closely linked to other interventions. These include WASH, health, livelihoods, protection and basic camp infrastructure. “In the immediate aftermath of a disaster, particularly in extreme climatic conditions where shelter materials are not readily available, a covered area of less than 3.5m2 per person may be appropriate to save life and to provide adequate short-term shelter.”

livelihoods “Livelihoods comprise the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living linked to survival and future well-being. Livelihood strategies are the practical means or activities through which people access food or income to buy food, while coping strategies are temporary responses to food insecurity.” Positive livelihood programmes and strategies that enhance food security and are commonly facilitated in a camp setting include Garden cultivation or small-scale agriculture, fishing, poultry or small livestock breeding, markets and trade, small-scale businesses, income generating activities, wage labour or Cash-for-work (CFW) or food-for-work (FFW).

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03.

built components What does a refugee camp consist of?

6 9

11

14 15

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13


1 2 3

4

5

7

8 10

1

army, police

2

distribution centre

3

religious space

4

child friendly spaces

5

shelter neighbourhoods

6

access roads

7

wash facilities

8

aid organizations

9

market

10 school 11 agriculture 12 hospital

12

13 water distribution points 14 green space 15 clinics

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Creating a good shelter is not about designing a product. It is about designing a system.

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corinne treherne Senior Officer, Shelter & Settlements, Interntional Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

international emergency shelter experts say;

Interview 23.09.13

What are the most important considerations in shelter design? As architects we want to provide beautiful solutions, but we should not provide people with pre-designed shelters. It has proved more effective to provide them with the tools to build their own home. Remember, refugees and IDPs are people who have been through traumatic experiences, and it is only the poorest and most desperate who end up in a camp. They do not need to be told to live an imported way of life. They want to get back to the life they had, and we should help them regain it. What are designers’ challenges? We need to be humble. We must study what residents had before, and listen to what they have to say - in all stages of development - from design through building to maintenance. Involving residents can also provide economic opportunities for them. Systems like “cash for work� can

give a direct income, and by aquiring skills and knowledge, they can teach others and possibly make a living later on. How can architecture help? Of course, in the beginning of a crisis, we must provide immediate relief, but it is essential that we focus on long term processes. The challenge is to work the camp exit strategy into the design, in order to maximize the long-term positive impact. Where are the potentials for architectural intervention in camps? A smart design is context-specific and provides displaced people with tools, materials and assistance in building a new life. It is crucial that the system is endorsed by its users. This will give a feeling of ownership and self-sufficiency, and provide them with skills and tools which can be useful when they are able to return home.

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carmen ferrer Architect and emergency shelter expert

international emergency shelter experts say;

Interview 25.09.13 What are the most important considerations in shelter design? During my work with transitional shelter design, I have seen numerous design proposals from students and architects. Many are nice - architecturally speaking but unusable. If they are not based on the needs of the population they don’t solve a realistic problem. Working with temporary and transitional shelter options, the technical solutions are actually the easiest part. The real challenge is in the “soft” fabric of the social structures, and getting the community involved. What are designers’ challenges? In humanitarian work, the donor situation creates a design problem. Donors are naturally keen to see that their money will be well spent, and therefore design decisions are often hastily made in the beginning of a crisis. This produces topdown design solutions which can be dysfunctional.An agency needs to provide the basic infrastructure, but if we don’t

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know how people want to live, we should not try to provide the solution in advance. How can architecture help? In a situation of immediate crisis, housing is often not the first priority of a displaced population. Ask a refugee “what are your priorities right now?” and you might be surprised by the answer. Usually people are focused on reuniting their family and finding work. They want to regain their livelihoods and their self-sufficiency. This is why we really need to have an open mind, and listen to the population. We might not be able to provide a perfect solution for camp residents, but we can open a “menu” for them to choose from. Where are the potentials for architectural intervention in camps? To me, a good design should be linked to other camp sectors, like capacity building, economy, agriculture or maintenance. We must be open for anything that can improve residents livelihood and accept that what we build is only the means, not the goal.


ˮ

Ask a refugee “what are your priorities right now?” and you might be surprised by the answer.

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04.

the aid paradox Despite humanitarian aid being precisely aid, there is a limit to how much you can - or should- help people in a refugee situation. One reason is the living standards of the host country and consideration of the local host population. Since camps are the responsibility of the state, it is hard to defend a provision of services the camps’ neighbours might not have access to. The very existence of the camp might also affect the local resources. Another reason is that the host country’s government rarely wants the camp to stay. And lastly, it has been argumented that raising standards can reduce the pressure on international political work to return them to their home country. This is a big problem, because camps usually end up staying for a lot longer than they were intended, some even become cities - without necessarily gaining recognition as such. Clearly refugees usually have no reason to want to stay, but the scenarios change for people who are born and raised in a camp. Also, in cases of political conflict, many who have been involved are hesitant to return. Therefore the chances of having to deal with a long-term situation are high. In response to aid limits, guidelines for minimum standards are followed. These are mostly related to emergency relief, on issues like how much space should be allocated and how much food should be distributed.

ËŽ

Give refugees better conditions, and there will be less international pressure to get them home. - David Sanderson, professor of urban planning at Harvard University

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the last resort Planned camps are widely considered to be the option of last resort, for several reasons. They are seen as:

• drawing displaced away from other transitional shelter options;

• promoting dependency; • requiring disproportionate support compared with other options;

• more difficult to withdraw from than other options; • and as posing more of a challenge to efforts to achieve durable solutions for the population.

permanent temporality Size and time can present major challenges to UNHCR in managing camps, French anthropologist Michel Agier suggests. As soon as the camps last beyond the emergency phase, they transform into spaces with which people begin to identify. “In effect, while developing in material terms, and to a degree also economically, the refugee camps form themselves into social and political milieus,” Agier writes. He describes the “permanent paradox”, a life of refugees in camps “between an indefinite temporality and a space that is transformed because its occupants necessarily appropriate it in order to live in it.”

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part 2

camp realities How is life in a camp, and what matters to people there?

unfolding zaatari:

01 humanitarians 02 social structures 03 informal development 04 shared functions 05 shared space 06 environment

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research trip 2: zaatari refugee camp, jordan 02.10. - 11.10. 2013

After months of preparations, I was finally to meet the realities of the world’s second largest refugee camp. How do you plan and run such a huge camp? It has been dubbed “refugee city”, but does it function as one? And most importantly, how is life in Zaatari?

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on research in Zaatari Due to crime and instability, it is unsafe for outsiders to enter the camp unaccompanied. Facing huge numbers of refugees, rapidly changing circumstances and economic donor dependency, UNHCR capacity is pushed to the limit, and research exceeding single trips is rare. However, with the support of the Global CCCM Cluster through the Norwegian Refugee Council, I was allowed to stay for almost two weeks. From within “base camp” I could access camp managers and field workers. Not wanting to distract humanitarians from their work, I joined UNHCR field officers and ACTED/REACH mapping teams on their trips around the camp, which were usually planned and executed on the same day. Observing and often stopping to interview, have coffee with or being shown everything from blocked pipes to art by enthusiastic refugees, I got a brief insight into Zaatari’s organization, realities and ways of life. My days were varied, impulsive and highly rewarding in unexpected ways. The most significant impression Zaatari left on me is how most people are surprisingly positive. Despite the war, traumatic events, social instability and the harsh climate, people are intent on having a meaningful daily life. Many refugees were curious, friendly and keen to help. After having spent some time in Zaatari, I was stricken by the amount of problems which kept presenting themselves. It was hard to discuss abstract matters like planning with refugees, and whatever problems I asked about, nobody seemed to hold any suggestions for alternatives. On the organizational side, humanitarians are few and planning capacity is stretched. Administrators are open for input, but barely have time to keep up with responding to the development in the camp. It is my opinion that refugee camps (providing other camps face similar issues) need architects desperately for cross-sectoral thinking and effective design solutions. I could think of a hundred projects that would make a difference while walking around the camp. Searching for a meaningful project direction I found that, rather than focusing on a singular problem, zooming out and finding new connections might make an alternative approach highly relevant.

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sector meetings planning and

Accidental photo by an extatic camera-borrowing child, 10.10.13

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01.

humanitarians administration Zaatari is under the joint administration of the Jordanian Government and the UNHCR. All partners have offices in the protected Base Camp near the official camp entrance.

entering base camp by foot

humanitarian posers

unhcr headquarters

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defined sectors

service providers

agriculture

jhco [jordan hashemite charity organization] unhcr

camp management

[un high commissioner for refugees]

acted adra

child protection

avsi awo

community services

care caritas

coordination

cvt fca

core relief items

gsf hi

education

hrf icmc

environment

icsc

food security

ifh/nhf imc

gender-based violence

intersos iocc

health

iom ird

hiv/aids

irc irw

livelihood

jen jhas

logistics

jica lwf

mental health

mc mdm

nutrition

medair

protection

moe/moh jordan msf

registration

nhf nrc

reproductive health

[norwegian refugee council]

oxfam sc

shelter

tdh thw

transportation

unesco unfpa

wash

unicef unwomen upp wfp questscope

Camp management complexity in Zaatari: the 22 defined sectors and their respective service providers

in the interim - thesis report


field officer overlooking distribution of prefab homes

wash sector meeting

field officers and nrc representative in street leader meeting

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data collection

Data collection is conducted by ACTED/REACH teams using smart-phone and GPS-enabled technology to reduce the incidence of inaccuracies and inconsistencies.

in the interim - thesis report


camp manager on sustainability and development;

Sustainability is responsibility. How do you make people feel responsible? It has to come from personal interest.

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kilian kleinschmidt Zaatari Senior Field Coordinator, UNHCR Interview 03.10.13 What is most pressing in Zaatari now? “Investing in infrastructure and services in a self-sufficient way. We cannot continue pumping 4200 m3 water in every day. Making residents conscious about consumption is important, and I want to remove “the spaghetti”, the wire system where 10 000 households are illegally connected to the electricity network. Controlling usage is about making people feel responsible. We have to make it a personal interest. Now residents are becoming more settled, and most of them are able to pay for services. At the moment, there are no incentives to save energy or take care of facilities. We want to start by giving people cash handouts in stead of vouchers, so they can make their own decisions about where to spend their money. This is about raising consciousness and establishing a social welfare system. To me, waste is another big infrastructural issue. It is such a shame to spend all that money on something which is bad for the environment. There are 2 million liters of grey and black water trucked out every day, overrunning sewage treatment plants. Also a lot of solid waste is taken to landfills - not a very sustainable solution. There is a lot of plastic and organic waste, which could be recycled. The other big issue is preparing people to return to Syria, or integrate into the local comminity. And it’s all about self-sufficiency, making sure people don’t turn into passive aid receivers,

but are able to contribute and manage systems. So we need both Syrian, Jordanese and international capacity.” It seems there is a clash between topdown planning and the bottom-up processes in the camp? “Yes, communal services are being vandalized. There is a gradual ”privatization program” happening now, with people making their own toilets and kitchens, illegally installing private septic tanks and so on. The problem is, humanitarian organizations and residents are going in completely different directions. The organizations are setting up community services, and trying to get people to maintain them. Try to get people to clean public toilets, it’s a nasty business! It is understandable that people want their own, everyone would want this privacy after a while. Things are planned as they happen. How do you adapt to people’s current needs? We must learn from cities, where this development happens all the time. Only here it’s faster. We need innovation and cross-sectoral thinking. Also, we must take the resources of the residents into consideration. People here have different needs and interests, and also money and incentive. They say ”just provide us with a caravan, and we will fix the rest!”. Look at ”the Villa”, a house constructed from 8 reassembled caravans.” What is your vision for Zaatari? “My dream (apart from sending everyone home) is to reach a level of independency where each district could manage their own budget. Then we could have district “competitions” and incentives, for example to save energy and water.”

in the interim - thesis report


6 1

army, police

2

distribution centre

3

religious space

4

child friendly spaces

5

shelter neighbourhoods

6

access roads

7

wash facilities

8

aid organizations

9

market

1

ba

8

4 10

4 10

4 2

4

4

10 school 11 agriculture

9

4

4

4

12 hospital 13 water distribution

4

14 kitchens 4

14

4

7

13 4

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2

4


ase camp

4

2 4 4

12

10

4 4

4 4

4 4 4 4 4

4 4

10

10

humanitarian presence in the interim - thesis report


1

3

2

4

12

11

5

6

10

9

7

8

planning Since UNHCR got involved in the camp, it has undergone heavy restructuring. The division of the camp into 12 separate districts was one of the steps taken to improve management conditions, defined in the Zaatari Governance Plan. The camp management is intending to decentralise formal governance to the district level, which will result in up to eight sub-足committees with refugee participation and also including UNHCR Wield teams, IPs, SRCD and Jordanian civil servants if Winal approval is provided. The decentralisation of the formal governance structure is likely to improve the important communication to refugees.

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12

11

10

9

8

xl: camp 102 000 people

l: district 8 000 - 12 000 people

m: “street� 300 - 600 people

s: household AVG. 5 people

in the interim - thesis report


02.

the SOCIAL FABRIC

decreasing numbers

a border people

In September 2013 the official number of “persons of concern” was 120 000. By March 2014 this number has sunk to 102 000. However there are still people coming in, and it is estimated that around 400 000 have been through in 2013 alone. The population is decreasing as many are going back to Syria in spite of the conditions, or finding other options within Jordan. Due to the unstable situation, the number might quickly change.

Over 90 % of the population is from Dara’a Governorate, just across the border. This was the area where the crisis started, which is said to affect the people in terms of authority respect. A significant but unknown number of men have been involved with the Free Syrian Army, and many still are. A vast majority comes from rural areas, with elementary or basic education. Due to the border positioning, there are many traders.

demography

60+ 0-4 18-59

men

women

5-11 12-17

age

nance

micro finance

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gender micro finance


origin: dara’a The satellite images show the city of Dara’a, in Dara’a Governorate. A city with green parks, varying densities and wide roads surrounded by farmlands.

in the interim - thesis report


women Due to the many men involved in the Free Syrian Army, there are a lot of femaleheaded households in Zaatari. These women are particularly vulnerable as they have to find a way to provide for their children. They are the group most excluded from services, and have to line for food or nonfood items distribution, which are spots for potential violence. Shared kitchens and WASH facilities (at night) are also feared. The population live according to traditional Syrian social norms. Thus range of socially acceptable work for women is narrow. In Syria, farming is largely women’s work, except for marketing and sale, which is deemed unsuitable [IFAD].

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In Syria the legal age of marriage is 16 (18 in Jordan) but girls marry as young as 13. The economic vulnerability causes many families to marry off their young daughters, often to wealthy men who come to the camp looking for young wives. In January 2014, a camp sweep confirmed that 125 girls below 15 have been married in the camp. [Camp Sensus Report, March 2014].


power structures Self-appointed “street leaders” quickly came to power in the chaos of setting up the camp, and they have long profited from the disorder. They were authorities in relation to the conflict in Syria, or they achieved authority in being among the first to arrive. Most have an economic control over to one or two streets, absorbing ration cards from people who are moving back to Syria, and controlling trade. Some have been making a profit from smuggling humanitarian or illegal goods [IRIN]. There are some “super-abus”, who control whole districts or parts of job markets. One family is said to manage the entire stab of 300 unofficial electricians in the camp. Lately, traditional leaders referred to as elders or sheikhs, have emerged - who have social control. Solving family based issues and community interests, they are trusted by their own communities and are also being recognized by the UNHCR.

ˮ

The new leaders will be traditional Syrian authorities, sheikhs, who bring wisdom with them. They don’t need to scream in order to earn the people’s respect. - Kilian Kleinschmidt

in the interim - thesis report


refugee/management relations Many residents have a strong fear of authority because of their treatment in Syria, where some experienced torture. This distrust has influenced the way they interact with the camp management. In the start-up phase there were riots and violent outbreaks. But since the UNHCR took over, the relations have greatly improved, and management strives to establish functional communication, involving refugees in planning. If the complete district governance model is implemented then the role of the street leaders will be gradually rolled back, though they may be incorporated into sub-足 committees [Zaatari Safety Security Report 2013].

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elders on community interests;

We appreciate the interest in planning, and want to collaborate in a more organized way. Our main concerns are the sewage system and electricity supply. We need improved infrastructure in general and more caravans. Aid organizations have to provide these solutions, but residents must help in maintaining them. They should be encouraged to participate, for example by being hired in technical teams to install electricity in each household. - Elders, district 2, development meeting 10.10.13

in the interim - thesis report


children: syria’s lost generation? Although several schools are set up, most children do not attend school. Many are expected to help the family financially. Young boys with wheelbarrows fill the streets, transporting goods around the camp. The war has forced many children to grow up fast, and violence is a problem. Street gangs are often throwing stones at aid workers. “We provided them with ammunition for the next 20 years” sighs Kilian Kleinschmidt on the spreading of a gravel cover in the camp.

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children

57% of zaatari’s population are children, 78 % of which are not attending school

In Syria, children have been exposed to gravehuman rights violations including killing and maiming, sexual violence, torture, arbitrary detention, recruitment and use by armed forces and groups, and exposure to explosive remnants of war. [UNICEF 2013]

ˮ

She is not a child, she is a small adult. She arguments very well on behalf of her family. - Ahmad Azzam, NRC, on an insistent girl named Miryam in the interim - thesis report


family on daily life;

We need kitchens, clean water and schools closer by. Most importantly, we want to work so we can earn some money, but there are no possibilities here.

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KIFEN LEBBAD FAMILY What are your main priorities now? Interview 02.10.13 Having lived in Zaatari for six months, the family aches for a caravan. Three women wanted to be left out of the photograph. Describe your living conditions? “We came from Syria six months ago, and now we are ten people living in this tent. We do everything in the tent, even cooking. Sometimes we use our in-law family’s caravan, who live right next door.” How is life in a tent? “The biggest problems with living in a tent are the insects and rats, it’s not hygienic. And we don’t feel safe, as the tent can’t be locked. It is hard to keep the tent clean, and the temperature makes life here very difficult. It gets too hot in the day, and cold in the night. Noise doesn’t really bother us, except from dogs sometimes. We all know each other here, so we don’t mind hearing other people nearby.”

“Getting a caravan! We need kitchens closer by, and clean water. We feel unsafe at night walking to facilities. More schools are also necessary, as the school is too far away, and it is really important that the children to go to school. Most importantly, we want to work so we can earn some money, but there are no possibilities here. Back in Syria we used to work in farms, and there is no farmland here. If we had some land, we would work it.” What will you do with the caravan? “Installing a WC will be first priority! The shared toilets are not nice, and more importantly far away and unsafe, especially for women at night.” What do you miss the most from your house in Syria? “Everything, we had everything there, and now it is all gone. The garden maybe. But what we miss the most are practical things, especially warm clothes and blankets for winter.”

in the interim - thesis report


03.

informal development emergent economy homes in the making rural + urban = rurban

sham- élysées, zaatari In the busy main street named after the Champs-Élysées in Paris and a pun on the popular name for Syria: `al-Sham’, businesses run into the wee hours of the night. It has emerged as a result of an incredible entrepreneurialism among Zaatari’s residents.

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the emergence of an informal economy Businesses all over Zaatari have proven positive for the economy. But beyond the problems of street leaders and mafia-like structures, the economy has created class divisions. People who arrived early and started businesses can now rent out or sell their shops [IRIN]. Economically, the population can be divided in roughly three sections: one-third with a monthly deficit, one- third breaking even and the last making a profit. This is usually from small businesses or black market trade. The provision of goods in the camp os also source of income. An ACTED Livelihoods Survey from August 2013, stated that ‘selling goods from donations inside the camp’ comprised 27% of income generating activities.

At least 800 shops and businesses are found all over Zaatari, including restaurants, tea houses, barbers, wedding planning and laundry services. Most are placed along the main streets, and smaller markets spread in the districts. in the interim - thesis report


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Clockwise: Fruit market, Champs Elysees Food shop, District 4 Shawarma restaurant, District 10 Clothes, Champs Elysees Household shop, District 5

in the interim - thesis report


homes in the making The other main area where initiative is visible is in the private sphere.

illegal electricity tapping

official housing unit

old fire safety extension for tent

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old tent

black market extension

building materials

rodent and insect protection heap

septic tank for private wc

in the interim - thesis report


phase 1: tent A standard double canvas tent has an internal living area of 16 m2, plus about 4 m2 at either end for storage, often used for cooking and washing. Relatives often arrange tents in compounds to create internal semi-private areas.

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unhcr standard emergency tents Life expectancy: 6 months - 2 years Cost: around 200 USD Materials: poly-cotton canvas, polyethylene tarpaulin, mosquito nets, aluminium poles and rope

in the interim - thesis report


phase 2: caravan The so-called “caravans� are prefabricated containers donated from different arab states. Political issues have caused repeated delays and about half the population has a caravan (September 2013). The goal is that everyone gets one before winter. At the moment vulnerable familes are prioritized. The caravans are not locally produced and transported far by truck. They are made from sandwich panels which are difficult to recycle, and often leak at the joints.

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Life expectancy: unknown, estimated 2 - 10 years 2300

5000 3000

Cost: 1500 - 2000 JD (ca. 2100 - 2800 USD) Black market price: 150 - 200 JD Material: steel and foam sandwich panels, steel bars, wood floor panels

in the interim - thesis report


family Members: 10

Caravans: 2

compound 1

compound 2

family Members: 8

Caravans: 4 52

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phase 3: compound

In the oldest part of Zaatrari there are no tents left, and narrow streets are formed between the growing building volumes. Everyone wants to own several caravans - and can, as they are sold for a tenth of the original price on the black market - and arrange them to create enclosed courtyards and front porches.

family Members: 8

Caravans: 5

in the interim - thesis report


phase 4: villa

Several large houses exist in the camp, built to form large internal open spaces. I was allowed to go inside, but not to take pictures.

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Members: 10

Caravans: 7+


common denominator: courtyard Private space is extremely highly valued in Zaatari, and a covered courtyard above all. The courtyard provides a reception space, a safe space for children to play and a protected comfortable place for women, who have few public roles and usually spend most of their time in the home. Even though usually not locked, the visual protection and degree of privacy is enough to prevent stealing. Clothes are dried and water is stored in the courtyards. Allowing ventilation and diffuse light, they create a comfortable microclimatic zone.

This family has two caravans, but managed to make a private courtyard by placing themselves next to another compound.

in the interim - thesis report


private facilities In addition to courtyards, private bathrooms are highly prized. Most compounds have one, at least for washing if not a toilet. The simplest way to create a bathroom is by attaching an extension and dig a hole in the ground for the wastewater outside.

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water storage In order to save tiresome trips to water towers, many have installed some version of water storage at home. The prescence of water also provides cooling and gives a sense of calm. Wealthier people have started building fountains or ponds to remind them of their gardens in Syria.

in the interim - thesis report


rural + urban = rurban

District 2

District 4

We took the soil from a dried out open pit to grow a few types of vegetables and herbs.

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farming in zaatari Agricultural practice is relatively common in refugee camps, but there is no organized farming in Zaatari. However, there are small agricultural projects on a home based scale. But water is scarce and must be carried from water points, and the soil is dry. In Syria, agriculture is vital to the economy, accounting for roughly a fifth of gross dome stic product before the war.

I am growing onions, as those were the seeds I could get. But I want to grow more, I am a farmer after all.

District 12

in the interim - thesis report


04.

shared functions a brief look into decentralized services

child friendly spaces WASH kitchens service buildings privatization

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child friendly spaces

child friendly spaces

proximity maps

service buildings

service buildings child friendly spaces shops

shops

proximity analysis

service buildings

Showing how sevice buildings are centralized, child friendly spaces are decentralized but too few, and shops - the only thing contolled by refugees - are present in nearly every street.

in the interim - thesis report


“youth friendly space� case study The centre has activities until 16.00 every day, but families often come afterwards. It is a safe place and people like to relax in the shade, have a picnic or watch the children play.

Boys and girls have separate activities, girls spending more time indoors. Children in the centre are under the protection of UNICEF and cannot be photographed. Plants are grown for educational purposes, and to protect from onlookers.

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One of the larger “Youth friendly spaces” in the camp are in the outer part of District 12.

“child friendly spaces” - 1: 20 000

in the interim - thesis report


wash

number of residents per cubicle

WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) in Zaatari consists of water storage tanks, toilet cubicles and “showers” - drains over which people wash with buckets of water. In humanitarian terms, standards are all right as minimum standards are mostly met. The standards vary greatly within the districts as they are set up by different agencies at different times. Standards are lower in the old part, where most shared functions are gone. However, people in the old part have privatized bathrooms (see overleaf). Facilities are usually not worn out by overuse, but by misuse - drainage blocks, disconnected drains, stolen materials and vandalism.

toilet cubicle

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“shower”

storage


We use the kitchens because we live close by. Many prefer cooking at home, especially if they have a caravan.

kitchens Series of minimal concrete blocks - single rooms with gas cookers along the middle - are set up at continous intervals along with WASH facilities. They often function as social gathering spaces for women, who otherwise mostly stay at home. Especially in the newer parts of the camp where homes are less developed they play an important role in social life.

in the interim - thesis report


former wash block and septic tanks

former showers

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the “privatization program� Theft of shared facilities is a major problem for camp management. People do not steal from each other, but a lack of community ownership of common facilities has lead to vandalism and theft, especially of WASH and kitchens. Due to social issues private space is deemed more valuable than shared. Materials or even whole buildings are integrated or converted into homes.

former kitchen materials

wash block integrated in home

door from police station

former kitchen, district 1 in the interim - thesis report


05.

shared space

Despite the initial strict grid, the camp is slowly disappearing and creating surprisingly distinct neighbourhoods. The distinctions are not clearly visible in photos, as the materials and colours are so repetitive. But standing in the streets, the spatial differences can be felt - mostly to density and small typology variations. Some areas for example have more tents and free standing latrines while others have mostly caravans and more kitcens. Since there is a very limited amount of materials and building types, these small spatial variations are even more significant.

100 m

But in general, public space is completely ignored and considered nothing but a void between homes. Syrian culture is very family - focused, and noone wants to invest in anything that is not theirs or to their direct benefit, as they want to leave as soon as they can.

100 m

100 m

urban fabric

Density comparison of nearby town Al Mafraq , the old and new part of Zaatari.

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“old camp”

“new camp”

in the interim - thesis report


field officer on arab community;

omar saleh UNHCR Field Officer 08.10.13

Arabs are social, and everyone loves hanging out in the shopping streets or visiting each other. In the camp there are strong neighbourhood relations. Young people hang out at home or in the streets, or playing billiards 70

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or video games around the main streets. Mainly they want to work. There are no active community centres, nor attempts to make any. People have a feeling they will leave soon, so as they say - they just don’t care about Zaatari. In general, public functions like theaters or sports are not so important, most are rural people who want jobs, farming opportunities and if possible, some nice gardens.


private pockets

Shared space is mostly neglected, except for semi-private areas where the private sphere spills into the street.

in the interim - thesis report


environment

06.

Prevailing Winds

345°

W ind Fre q ue nc y (H rs )

Location: AMMAN, JORDAN (31.9°, 35.9°)

Date: 1st January - 31st December Time: 00:00 - 24:00

N OR T H

50 km/ h

hrs

15°

441+ 330°

30°

396 352

40 km/ h

© W e a th e r T o o l

315°

308

45°

Prevailing Winds W ind Fre q ue nc y (H rs )

Location: AMMAN, JORDAN (31.9°, 35.9°)

Date: 1st June - 31st August Time: 00:00 - 24:00

330°

© W e a th e r T o o l

264

315°

220

30 km/ h

176 300°

60°

132

300°

88

20 km/ h

<44 285°

75°

285°

10 km/ h

W EST

EAST

255°

W EST

105°

240°

255°

120°

225°

240°

135°

210°

225°

150° 195°

SOU T H

210°

165°

Ecotect wind analysis shows periodic strong south-east winds Prevailing Winds

345°

A v e ra g e W ind T e mp e ra ture s Location: AMMAN, JORDAN (31.9°, 35.9°)

Date: 1st June - 31st August Time: 00:00 - 24:00

N OR T H

50 km/ h

°C

15°

45+ 330°

30°

40 35

40 km/ h

© W e a th e r T o o l

315°

Prevailing Winds

Minimum W ind T e mp e ra ture s Location: AMMAN, JORDAN (31.9°, 35.9°)

Date: 1st December - 28th February Time: 00:00 - 24:00

30

45°

330

© W e a th e r T o o l

315°

25 20

30 km/ h

15 300°

60°

300°

10 5

20 km/ h

<0 285°

75°

285°

10 km/ h

W EST

EAST

al za’atari

255°

240°

120°

225°

135°

210°

150° 195°

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SOU T H

165°

105°

W EST

255°

240°

225°

210


beirut

damascus

al za’atari

hot semi-arid climate Amman jerusalem

colours according to the köppen-geiger climate classification system

climate Bordering on the Arabian desert, Zaatari is in a small area classified as “Hot semi-arid” climate, characterized by hot, sometimes extremely hot, summers and mild to warm winters. The proximity to the Mediterranean and Red Seas give some rain, on avg. 151 mm falls yearly, mostly between December and March. Due to wind conditions and low height, there is little dew to be collected.

in the interim - thesis report


water

in: 4,2 million l/day $

Water is crucial. Zaatari camp is positioned on pastureland for becuins and farmers in Zaatari town. The area surrounding Mafraq is considered the best pasture in Jordan. Some traditional grain farming is done after periods of rain, but around the camp tomatoes and olives are grown with irrigation. Grazing pressure from sheep and livestock are far beyond carrying capacity, resulting in desertification.

Conversation with Thomas Palo, professor at the Swedish University of Agricultural Science

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4 million $/year


out: 2 million l/day 2-3 million $/year

$

-

water flow

aquifer

well

transport

storage

consumption

infiltration

-

* ENVIRONMENTAL LOSS

-

* ECONOMIC LOSS

septic tank

transport

pit/surface

evaporation

wastewater plant

waste water

-

* HAZARD

current water cycle

organic flow

4,2 million litres of water is pumped out of local wells and transported around the camp by trucks. This leads to aquifer depletion, which is a huge problem humanitarian transport distribution bins landfill as Jordan is a water-scarce country and groundwater is awastefinite resource. food programmes Treatment has high costs and theconsumption plant is said towaste be overrun. organic refugee trade

transport

sale

septic tanks

* ECONOMIC LOSS

wastewater plant

in the interim - thesis report


WASTEWATER PITS Not every household has private toilet facilities with septic tanks yet, but almost all have a wastewater disposal pit. Water from washing and cooking flushes out and mixes with other types of waste, creating serious hazards for the many bare-footed children, and are breeding grounds for bacteria, deseases and malaria-carrying mosquitoes. They also limit access for cars and pollute the groundwater. Aquifer infiltration is in fact desirable, but measurements have shown that the surface water of Zaatari is polluting the groundwater.

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in the interim - thesis report


-

wASTE

water flow water flow

aquifer

well

transport

aquifer

well

transport

There is no formal recycling, except some plastics being collected for cash. All other waste is unsorted septic tank and sent off to a straining landfill nearby - septic around tank storagem3 every consumption water 1000 day. Waste waste containers are positioned storage consumption water near roads throughout the waste camp and bolted sopit/surface as not to be stolen. Building materials are prized and reused pit/surface in private homes or shops or sold to outsiders. infiltration

-

-

* ENVIRONMENTAL LOSS infiltration * ENVIRONMENTAL LOSS

-

* ECONOMIC LOSS * ECONOMIC LOSS

* ECONOMIC LOSS * ECONOMIC LOSS

transport

wastewater plant

transport

wastewater plant

evaporation evaporation

* HAZARD * HAZARD

organic flow organic flow humanitarian food programmes humanitarian food programmes

transport

distribution

waste bins

landfill

transport

distribution

waste bins

landfill

refugee trade

transport

sale

septic tanks

wastewater plant

refugee trade

transport

sale

septic tanks

wastewater plant

consumption

organic waste

consumption

organic waste

on site on site

material flow material flow

landfill landfill

steel, foam, canvas, bricks steel, foam, canvas, bricks

production of parts production of parts

assembly

transport

use

assembly

transport

use

refugee homes theft theft

refugee homes

black market black market

energy flow energy flow

shared functions

oil and gas import

jordan energy network

oil and gas import

jordan energy network

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shared functions

street lighting

household connections

street lighting

household connections

local homes local homes


bolted waste containers

100o m3 pr day trucked to landfill

Landfill

Caravans from the black market reused as shops

in the interim - thesis report


energy Electricity is provided unofficially through a network of illegal wiring, with UNHCR covering costs. The initial grid only covered steet lighting in main streets. Thousands of households are now connected, tapping electicity illegaly, leaving a tangle of wires hanging dangerously above the roofs of the camp. The old part of camp is well-connected whereas in the newer areas many are without electrictiy. Although every household has an extremely low energy consumption, the collected energy usage gives the camp a monthly bill of 100 000 dollars, far above the budget. The network is currently being extended, and the goal is to connect every household and charge for the electricity. Camp managers therefore wish to encourage responsible consumption patterns.

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organic flow

humanitarian food programmes

transport

distribution consumption

refugee trade

transport

organic waste

sale

â&#x20AC;&#x153;the spaghettiâ&#x20AC;?

on site

material flow

steel, foam, canvas, bricks

production of parts

assembly

transport

use

theft

energy flow oil and gas import

shared functions jordan energy network street lighting

household connections

in the interim - thesis report


part 3

analysis What needs to change? Conclusions and evaluations on Zaatari development

contents:

01 refugee city? 02 the clash 03 chains of loss 04 summary

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in the interim - thesis report


01.

refugee city?

Currently the fourth largest population group in Jordan, Zaatari is the size of a city, and increasingly considered so. But living in the camp is far from life in a city. Apart from the obvious signs; scarcity of functional public space and services, lacking infrastructure and a shortage of nearly everything, there is in my opinion a larger gap between this camp and a well-functioning city.

In terms of visual expression, Zaatari looks more like a shanty town than a city, with its monotonous, single-floor landscape. A lack of personal identity might seem superficial in a refugee setting, where survival and protection is at the centre, but in a city it is essential to have landmarks, visual points of reference and neighbourhood distinction. As you move through the camp, the repetitious forms of tents and caravans add to the feeling of conformity, reinforcing the difference between Zaatari and the surroinding towns. Most people lost their livelihood, their means to provide for their family and thereby their pride and self-realization. With few visual or mental resting spaces Zaatari offers little distraction. A significant part of the camp’s population is rural. This means that to some extent people do not anticipate urban functions and duties. Also, rural people tend to live a more traditional lifestyle than urban

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people in the region, which adds to the social segregation. During research in the camp, I found it difficult to discuss abstract issues like planning with refugees. People often gave answers concerning concrete issues like the delivery of caravans or the improvement of infrastructures when asking about future desires - with the frequent addition that more schools, jobs and farming opportunities would be great. The temporality of the situation is not just a problem because durable solutions are discouraged - it is outlining people’s mentality. In terms of the built environment the temporary mindset is visible in every physical structure, looking haphazard and unstable. Public space is considered an “ownerless void”, which as shown, shared facilities suffer greatly from. This leaves the space somewhere in between the private and the institutional - but not public.


the long term issue Humanitarians are experts on emergency relief. In combination with the fact that nobody wants to stay long, and that the permanency of a camp is highly undesired, planning is hard. Yet Zaatari will stay for a while, and needs to be treated like a city in order to become one. In other words: long term planning is necessary although the reasons for it are unwanted and an uncertain future makes it difficult.

ˮ

We humanitarians focus on saving lives. And we’ve done that. Now we need to look forwards and make Zaatari function like any other city. No city would provide services the way we do. - Kilian Kleinschmidt

prioritized developments; * * * *

humanitarian interests

resident Self-sufficiency Long-term solutions sanitation and electricity Improved infrastructure

resident interests in the interim - thesis report


02.

the clash minimum standards vs. opportunistic individualism The clash of humanitarian organizationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; standards and sectors and the residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; individual interests is the most fundamental development issue in Zaatari, and it is the root of many problems. In my opinion, neither is sufficient to build a well-functioning city, but both are necessary to account for in development.

humanitarian interests; Maximum open space/accessibility Standardized shelter solutions Maintain shared kitchens and WASH Safety in public space Minimize power consumption Sphere standards for use of space Maintain water infrastructure

86

research


resident interests; Maximum private space Dignified shelter solutions Better kitchens and bathrooms Power for every household Sufficient power supply Higher level of comfort Maintain personal water hygiene

in the interim - thesis report


aquifer depleation supply trucks: pollution surface infiltration water

planned infrastructures

electricity

overrun wastewater plants unsafe connections uncontrolled use

waste

unsorted waste landfill lacking job opportunities

work

unequal job distribution uncontrolled building

emerging infrastructures

familiy dangerous pits community

open space safety inhospitable spaces lacking activities

clash problems

The differing interests of refugees and managers cause many problems.

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research


the planning void There is a void in between the strongly opposing formal and informal forces, as the current system creates losses for humanitarian organizations, and an anarchistic chaos arises from the accumulated force of refugeesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; building initiatives. In many areas, a â&#x20AC;&#x153;mediatorâ&#x20AC;? would be useful to utilize initiative and generate positive changes on a camp scale.

top- down planning

bottom- up forces

Implementing large scale systems which everyone has to adopt to.

Development according to own interests, ignoring large scale effects.

in the interim - thesis report


03.

chains of loss In addition to the costs involved in providing and running a camp, management also loses money on generating waste, transporting it out of the camp. Intentions to improve infrastructures and encourage responsible consumption will not change these flows, only their efficiency.

environmental flows

The diagram shows how water, organic matter, building materials and energy move through the camp.

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research


-

water flow

aquifer

well

transport

storage

consumption

septic tank

transport

pit/surface

evaporation

* ECONOMIC LOSS

wastewater plant

waste water

infiltration

-

-

* ECONOMIC LOSS

-

* ENVIRONMENTAL LOSS

* HAZARD

organic flow

humanitarian food programmes

transport

distribution consumption

refugee trade

transport

waste bins

landfill

septic tanks

wastewater plant

organic waste

sale

on site

material flow landfill

steel, foam, canvas, bricks

production of parts

assembly

transport

use refugee homes

local homes

theft black market

energy flow oil and gas import

shared functions jordan energy network street lighting

household connections

in the interim - thesis report


04.

summary urbanizing Both camp managers and residents are showing unusual initiative in making Zaatari as city-like as possible despite the (hopefully) temporary situation. Services are being improved and the camp plans on charging for electricity and water to promote responsible use. The uncontrolled development happening all over the camp is also contributing urbanization through densification and the growing informal economy.

long-term planning: sort of As the camp is no longer in the emergency phase, managers are struggling to apply long-term thinking. Zaatari will most likely stay for some years at least, but the situation is unpredictable and there is scepticism -both external and internal- about Zaatari’s prolongued extistence. Planning is also based on humanitarian sectors and the provision of separated servicers.

social self-sufficiency is key Livelihoods is on everyone’s mind, and in everyone’s interest. When residents work, it relieves camp supplies, increases independency, supports the internal, local and personal economy. Thus improving health and allowing children to attend school. Being busy also creates a sense of normalcy. Supporting development of knowledge and skills is crucial to give people tools to manage when they go back to Syria. Despite the growing trade it is very difficult for most people to make a living, and only people with initial capital are able to start shops.

every man for himself In terms of residents, the incredible initiative described is happening on a personal or family-based scale. There is a huge interest in improved services, and many want to participate. But to most people it doesn’t occur to organize things out of the private sphere, so they wait for the initiative of camp management to arrange services.

private palaces Due to a combination of Syrian social values and the institutionalized camp-setting, creating a comfortable private sphere becomes enormously important. As a result, homes are individual and constantly growing to accommodate courtyards, private bathrooms, water storage and electrical appliances. This development has blown the camp’s budget for running expenses and caused hazardous conditions.

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research


the empty public sphere The problems of individualism and disregard for authority leave all public spaces and facilities - except for the market street, which is lively and active - disregarded and uninviting. Most people don’t invest in shared space or shared functions at all. This does not mean they don’t appreciate nice spaces or notice the lack thereof - but not being in any one person’s direct interest, public space is not taken care of or utilized for the common good. There is no sense of ownership towards public space (except for the shops and market street), no landmarks and few points of visual identity to differentiate districts or neighbourhoods.

socio-economic inequality Street leaders and mafia-like structures have created complex and partially illegal economic structures. These “bosses” are highly problematic but are being addressed by management and the Jordanian police. The economic development has also created “winners and losers”. Women and female-headed households are particularly vulnerable to exploitation and exclusion. Trusted elders have come forth as social leaders, proving the development of a healthier internal power structure. Camp management is making progress in improving refugee relations by collaboration with elected committees.

privatization All the stealing and “vandalism” is not because stealing is normal. Partially things are stolen and sold to outsiders, but mostly theft happens because many consider common functions unworthy in comparison to private ones, and use them as home building materials. However, people don’t steal from each other’s houses, shops or courtyards as private property is respected.

water The unsustainable flow of water through the camp affects both economy, environment and society in a negative way. The huge trucks cause accidents, children carry water every day and still-standing water in pits causes diseases.

agriculture There is much knowledge, skill and a desire for agriculture, but no formal actions taken to support it. Farming attempts, as everything else, happens in a private scale. Most people seem to have little hope as the soil is dry and water scarce.

in the interim - thesis report


strategies

in the interim - thesis report


2

strategies


How can we achieve change?

strategies 01. Vision

4

02. Urban Thinking

6

03. Scales of Impact

8

04. Function

10

05. Social Agenda

16

06. Economic Strategies

18

07. Environmental Strategies 20 08. Site Strategies

34

10. Temporality

42

in the interim - thesis report


vision

01.

social sustainability $

community goal

economic sustainability personal motivation

enabling strategies environmental sustainability

performative architecture Based on my analysis of the camp it is becoming clear that the most important development focus is to increase resident self-sufficiency. I want to intervene in a public scale, in the gap between informal forces and formal planning. Turning the campâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s organized consumption into neighbourhoods of production becomes the main concern of this project. Economic, environmental and social stustainabilty are interconnected, yet social improvement is the main goal. I am interested to investigate whether environmental strategies can be used to enable a higher level of social self-sufficiency while also benefiting camp management.

4

strategies


sustainability = opportunity Can you force people to take responsibility? Turning the desired changes into opportunities for personal gain allows them to happen naturally, with and by the people in stead of against or without them.

civic duty

personal opportunity

Turning services currently seen as public responsibility into personal opportunities can motivate people to take action. Opportunities can mean economic savings or income but also work as a way of self-fulfilment, local food production, time saving, knowledge generation, increased home comforts or new leisure activities. In stead of trying to implement western ways of communal living, a framework can be set up to allow social forces to create change from the bottom up.

in the interim - thesis report


02.

urban thinking

existing Governance plan The division of the camp into 12 districts is a recent decision, and the Zaatari Governance plan aims to give districts more responsibility in order to decentralize administration. UNHCR officials, NGOs and Jordanian administrators and security will work together with community representatives to control and secure districts.

decentralize responsibility Decentralization plans will allow management to respond more locally to improve security and prevent violence and vandalism. However, it will not create a sense of belonging or improve responsibility. This project aims to propose a further decentralization in order to allow residents to make decisions in their own neighbourhoods. Many smaller interventions will also have a wider impact on the charactrer of public space.

densification Using available space well is important since the number of residents might quickly raise. Increasing density in places will also heighten the sense that Zaatari is an urban settlement, rather than a sprawling institution.

6

strategies


local attractors Allowing residents to influence their own surroundings, creates differentiation, neighbourhood pride and a sense of belonging.

make it locally! Solving problems and creating solutions onsite creates jobs and brings life and money circulation to the neighbourhoods.

Overlap uses Mixed- use environments is an important difference between a city and an institution. They reduce distances and encourage constructive interaction.

huuman resource

human scale in public space Simple ways to increase urban comfort is thinking about small distances, resting spots, shading, lookout spots and protection from view.

capacity

in the interim - thesis report

cultivat


03 .

scales of impact l: camp The collective actions initiated on a neighbourhood scale can amount to infrastructure savings, safety improvements, better collaboration between camp management and residents.

m: centre - my focus Working with regenerative processes in a middle scale can create smaller and bigger scale improvements. Targeting a large enough group to manage a small economy.

s: household The privatiztion process happening in the camp can help in the larger scale picture if the improvements are done safely and included in circular design. Producing home â&#x20AC;&#x153;plug-insâ&#x20AC;? like dry toilets, would save the camp infrastructure costs.

8

strategies


+ Work opportunities Grey water cleansing Fertilizer production Energy production Material options

+ Grey water collection Agriculture

+ Grey water cleansing Biologic waste collection

chain of gain

Locally addressing problems that are usually handled at a centralized camp level. The strategies are explained under â&#x20AC;&#x153;environmental strategiesâ&#x20AC;?.

in the interim - thesis report


function

04.

social + environmental focus

I want to create a generic and simple “recipe” for a collective centre that can grow into what the residents prefer. In this way, the centres only hold functions that are needed by their direct users. Still it leaves room for centres to “specialize” and collaborate. One which is far capacity from schools turns cultivation into a school and one with better soil conditions might become a farming centre. But they should all hold the possibility of multiple functions.

kitchen

1+1=3 centre: more than the sum of its parts

production

office

workshop

The bonus of collecting functions in a centre is, in addition to the synergy effect of overlapping functions, that more intimate and comfortable common areas will occur. Everyone appreciates comfortable socializing areas, but in Zaatari nobody invests enough in the shared sphere to build one for the sake of “the common good”.

social focus areas Important areas of social focus have been identified and presented over the next pages.

bazaar - the attractor in arabic cities

recreation

recreation

10 strategies

cultivation

capacity

production


recreation Providing a better alternative than street roaming for children is essential to prevent gang activities. Existing playgrounds are open, uninviting spaces surrounded by fences. More intimate playgrounds that are connected with â&#x20AC;?adultâ&#x20AC;? functions and integrated in a social context will ensure a lively and less institutional environment. Being connected to agriculture and production activities could also encourage learning in a more informal way, for children who choose not to go to school. Using elements from traditional arabic architecture like stone, water, greenery and symmetry can help create a sense of calm and peace.

in the interim - thesis report


cultivation One of the most significant ways to improve peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s situation is to give them their livelihood back. Farming can save the camp many costs, generate income for refugees, and more importantly give people an activity they love and improve nutrition. Leaving usable soil behind would also improve the relationship with local community. In Syria, farming is largely a womanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job, except from the trade. Therefore farming would strenghten female influence in the camp. Learning effective techniques like hydroponic farming will be highly useful upon return to Syria, where many fields are destroyed.

case: vegetables in daadab People grow fresh vegetables in the arid environment of the huge Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya. Reusing water, channeling through micro catchments, improving soil with animal droppings and reuse of polyethylene sacks as container gardens gave refugees work, better nutrition and income, and even allowed the growing of fruit trees.

12 strategies


production The residents of Zaatari have shown their capability to create and build, and the initiative needs encouragement in a more formalized way, to make room for everyone. A city needs space for those with a more specialized area of expertise than trade - everyone from shoemakers, weavers, programmers and inventors to artists. Therefore simple spaces will be rented against a percentage of the income to the centre. The production of home improvements should also be implemented. New homes should not be produced, but a workshop should be set up to make elements for home use which will be linked to the centre cycles like toilets and water cleansers.

creative upcycling Can City: A mobile workshop that melts used soft drink cans into sturdy furniture with simple sand molds.

in the interim - thesis report


capacity The centre should build on the collaboraton between camp managers and self-organized refugee councils that the Governance Plan intends. If this goes according to plan, residents can set up their own community structure without corruption from street leaders or “mafia bosses”. The centre should therefore have an office for the organization of the centre and as a starting point for capacity building. Education is a major challenge in Zaatari, for children and youth who are missing years of their schooling, thus the expression “Syria’s lost generation” as discussed in the research section. I have chosen to add “classrooms” as a function, intending that in the areas where schools are particularly in need, the community can choose to build it as a small school. Also, skilled refugees or capacity building humanitarians need spaces for developing knowledge. Alternative spaces for learning can promote alternative learning approaches, like evening classes, creative work, adult courses or practical subjects falling outside of coursework. The office should have computers and internet connection for capacity building purposes, and also for the possibility of internet sales of produced goods and the collaboration of centres.

14 strategies


function relations

function relations

playground

workshop

constructed wetlands

bioreactor

add-on:

office

kitchen

compost

crops

greenhouses

library

classrooms

it-lab

workshops

cafĂŠs

shops

meeting rooms

ngos

in the interim - thesis report


05.

social AGENDA

social sustainability

self-sufficiency As shown in the analysis, Zaatari inhabitants prioritize work opportunities, but options are limited, especially for vulnerable groups. The neighbourhood centre should create opportunities for everyone. A “rent-a-space” system allows anyone to profit and lowers the bar for public participation. Allowing people to add functions quickly implies “you don’t have to spend your time investing in something that does not concern you, but you can make your situation a little better while you wait to go back”.

ownership Being resident-run it will create more trust than existing structures. Also, literal and symbolic ownership can help prevent theft and vandalism, as people respect others’ property.

capacity using and building The training requred for building and running the centre should be done in collaboration with NGOs and would give people building skills and organizational knowledge they can use when they return to Syria. When a basic structure is set up, the community can dentify existing skills, knowledge and resources within the community, and create space for people to use them.

safety Community appointed guards will have a space in the centre, and the area should be lit at night, making it safer to go outside and also preventing theft and smuggling.

16 strategies


design strategies:

proximity of functions Proximity between â&#x20AC;&#x153;femaleâ&#x20AC;? functions of farming and cooking to playground allows women to feel safe about leaving their home with children, expanding their social arena.

meeting space Providing small-scale semi-public spaces for informal meetings and relaxation. Shading and garden areas create a comfortable microclimate, and can attract people and bring more life into the neighbourhood.

visual identity Breaking with the one-floor monotony to make landmarks for orientation. Allowing people to directly influence the look of the building will create a much needed visual diversity, and improve ownership.

in the interim - thesis report


06.

economic strategies

human resources If human capacity is taken into consideration, a willing workforce is the most abundant resource in Zaatari. A few are hired to work for the camp in “cash for work” programs, mostly in sanitation, and wages are very low. The Zaatari Governance plan shows intents of including residents more. The residents of Zaatari have shown incredible initiative in creating liveable homes and pop-up shops, but as planning for this development is lacking the black market is thriving. Setting up a community-based framework to allow the continuation of this initiative into a productive market, can lead to improvement of communities.

huuman resource

“planting a seed” In stead of buying solutions ready for use, resouces can be more directly handled by refugee councils. An initial investment is necessary, which will pay off gradually because the investment leads to value generation as well as savings in supply and infrastructure costs. By creating a system of design for disassembly, investors can invest in materials, which will be sold again after use. Furthermore, building on- site will provide work in itself. The systems built will over time relieve camp expenses like water supply, waste water handling and waste management.

micro-finance Currently the flourishing trade only benefits people who can afford setting up a shop and are socially accepted to work in a shop or restaurant. The centre will be resource an opportunity for people who do not have huuman the economy, contacts or social status to set up their business otherwise. The neighbourhood centre is like a physical micro-finance option, renting out materials for a simple place to work in return for a portion of the income generated. In this way, the more unfortunate can set up a small workshop, greenhouse, café or classroom to use, share and gain knowledge. huuman resource

18 strategies

seed

capacity

seed

+

micro finance

cultivati


$

economic sustainability

decrease pressure on aquifer improve microclimate build wind energy NEW MATERIALS

water NODE

WASTE MATERIALS

PRODUCTION NODE

grey water work

clean water

income irrigate

per

son

compost

build

food income

food NODE

improve nutrition decrease supply needs

ne

igh

bo

ur

ho

od

ca

mp

a personal give and take-system

Even though people care about their family, friends and extended community, nobody can be expected to care about the “greater good” of a community in a refugee camp – and espcially not in Zaatari where public space and functions are so neglected and disrespected. Having established that western ideoligies of sharing are not suitable, a neighbourhood centre should only be established on the basis that it provides direct benefits to its users. As economy is largely corrupt and taken advantage of by large families, the mighty so-called “dons” or street leaders, other types of benefits than cash are essential. Local and healthy food, personal sanitation and clean water can be just as attractive as money in this situation. Therefore, my conclusion is that providing the means to generate solutions to their own problems is a motivation that can be expected to work.

in the interim - thesis report


07.

environmental strategies

environmental sustainability

water cycle

20 strategies

waste to food

energy relief

material options


strategy concept Social and environmental focus areas are linked for functional and comfortable purposes. Kitchens should be close to the bioreactor for gas supply, and also not too far away from the clean water. Workshop is closely linked with energy and material strategies, while the office has an organizational proximity to all. Common recreative areas will be occur around water purification and playground.

social + environmental focus

cultivation

capacity

production

kitchen

office

workshop

recreation

recreation

cultivation

capacity

production

in the interim - thesis report


aquifer aquifer

infiltration infiltration

--

--

* ENVIRONMENTAL * ENVIRONMENTALLOSS LOSS

* HAZARD * HAZARD

water cycle affected sectors: septic septictank tank

Natural water purification for irrigation From an environmental perspective, a â&#x20AC;&#x153;closed loopâ&#x20AC;? cycle would be ideal, where is collected on site, purified transport transport storage storageall water consumption consumption waste waste water water and reused. However, there is little water available and it seems impossible to stop the supply demand completely. Rainwater is an underestimated water source - but only for a few months every year. Dew collection is hard to calculate, and although some might be possible to collect it would be scarce and infiltration infiltration unreliable. Therefore the strategy is based on greywater, which is always available.

well well

In order to enable cultivation, the strategy focuses on reusing wastewater for the purpose of irrigation. During many conversations with Carlos Arias, PhD in plant biology at Aarhus University, it was decided that the most relevant and reliable water purification method would be sub-surface horizontal constructed wetlands. Using plants is energyfree, will improve microclimatic conditions and can become beautiful gardens or part of common areas.

transport transport

agriculture environment food security

pit/surface pit/surface

health

evaporation evaporatio

livelihood nutrition wash

channels channels

primary primarytreatm trea

biogas biogas

For drinking water the strategy proposes the production of small home biosand filters for private use. Allowing people to reuse thir own waste water at home saves time and money, as well as decreasing water demand on the camp. Biosand filters only requre sand and a suitable container to work, are simple to use and can be made by anyone.

aquifer aquifer

well well

transport transport

storage storage

consumption consumption

waste wastewater water

home homereuse reuse

decreasing decreasingdemand demand

22 strategies

channels channels


t

wastewater wastewaterplant plant

non

atment ment

secondary treatment Constructed wetlands use biologic processes where the bacteria culture on plant roots slowly remove consumption consumption tertiary tertiarytreatment treatment pollutants. Subsurface treatment is An anaerobic digester, in form of After secondary treatment, the water odor-free and can use local plants. A a covered lagoon, will be used to will be suitable for irrigation by WHO secondary secondarytreatment treatment horizontal system uses only gravity dissolve organic materials as a prestandards, but not for drinking. For to flow. treatment. The more organic material, drinking water, a final process can be consumption consumption irrigation crops crops the more gas the digester can irrigation added - like solar disinfection (above), produce. The gas can be used directly, boiling or recondensation. or converted into energy.

local localflora flora

primary treatment

tertiary treatment

decreasing decreasingdemand demand

local localflora flora tertiarytreatment treatment tertiary primarytreatment treatment primary

potable potablewater water

secondarytreatment treatment secondary irrigation irrigation

crops crops

nutrients nutrients

biogas biogas

in the interim - thesis report


new flow

humanitarian food programmes

transport

distribution

sealed toilets refugee trade

Waterless toilet systems can produce transport fertilizer and potentially energy. LooWatt (image) seals wastes in a sealing unit for hygiene and odour prevention.

sale

composting Ecological sanitation (EcoSan) is a low-cost toilet with a 50 l drum, where wastes are collected, composted and recycled for use in agriculture and reforestation. This project is currently running successfully in Haiti.

24 strategies

humanitarian food programmes

transport

refugee trade

transport

distribution

sale


compost

crops

cooking

consumption

organic cycle Composting for agricultural use Making fertilizer from human waste - also referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x153;humanureâ&#x20AC;? is becomong well known in many parts of the world. People in Zaatari want home based sanitation, but water closets are expensive to install and require septic tanks that need desludging by trucks. Therefore the strategy proposes a production of simple home based dry toilets. consumption

organic waste

compost

crops

cooking

The resulting decomposting waste and other organic household wastes can be collected in a simple dry compost, which after a few months (depending on technique and conditions) is safe to use for fertilizer. At a later stage toilets can be connected to the anaerobic digester used for grey water cleaning, this will produce more gas.

consumption

The fertilizer is spread on designated areas close to the centre, where participators can receive an area for growing their preferred vegetables.

consumption

organic waste

compost

crops

cooking

consumption

in the interim - thesis report


energy relief Investing in local, off-grid energy production in order to relieve pressure on current supply. Because energy generation involves expensive and vulnerable systems (even though they save costs for the camp), the energy strategy does not necessarily aim to make the centre self-sufficient. For a serious improvement of the energy supply system, large scale off-site production like a wind mill park or solar plant would be the most appropriate. However, my focus is on small, on-site solutions that residents can create and maintain without a degree in engineering. In terms of energy efficiency, solar energy harvesting would likely be the best. Still, it would also be the worst option for on-site energy production because of theft. They are also socially non-engaging systems which will give little in terms of ownership and participation. However, low-cost organic panels could be made available for a household scale, which would save costs for the camp over time and be a good suppliment for the return to a country with broken infrastructure. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Energy playgroundsâ&#x20AC;? are being used in poor off-grid locations for lighting. They are not very efficient, but could be integrated into the playground to provide basic lighting for the centre, and promote sustainable practice to children. Since a biodigester is set up for water treatment, it seems natural to use for energy production. However, a generator is needed, and grey water alone is not dirty enough to generate a lot of gas. But as a second stage, if more toilets are set up and the users receive further training, biogas is a viable way of making the centre generate its own energy.

26 strategies


shared functions jordan energy network street lighting

household connections

shared functions jordan energy network street lighting

household connections

gas energyplanned grid The methane gas from the anaerobic digester can be used to create electricity for the centre.

PLAYING CHILDREN

organic solar cells

energy playground

WIND Small printed solar cells are currently Energy generating eqiupment is used becoming inexpensive, and producing at festivals or small playgrounds in windpower little energy - but enough for an off-grid areas, harvesting kinetic average Zaatari household. energy to charge batteries for lighting or charging devices. main of workshop pop-up workshops

KINETIC ENERGY

sunpower sun

shared functions source

jordan energy network street lighting

household connections

planned grid centre PLAYING CHILDREN

sunpower

KINETIC ENERGY

household

sun generator

in the interim - thesis report


material options Investing in adaptable on-site systems

adobe bricks Much of the local traditional architecture is made from adobe, and the soil in Zaatari is suitable for adobe bricks.

Unfortunately, there are few or no materials onsite which can be reused, except for soil and sand. Caravan frames would be great as building material, but as they are produced far away and pre-assembled that is not an option. Materials will have to be imported - thus the importance of local fabrication increases. If the building is pre-designed but assembled on site, materials can be stacked tightly to save transportation costs. Although the building will be temporary, its components should be long lived. Therefore, it should be design for disassembly so the parts can be current flow resold and reused.

steel, foam, canvas, bricks

productio parts

Should the camp turn into a long-term situation, the production of home improvements should be set up within the workshop structure. Insulation and imple panels of fireproof wood could be produced to gradually replace the leaking caravan panels.

scaffolding Strong, durable and found everywhere in the world, scaffolding can be used as a building shell for temporary structures. wood, scaffolding, polycarbonate sheets,

transport main workshop

sand and clay

28 strategies

adobe bricks

production of parts


seed

huuman resource

capacity

design for disassembly Designing smaller parts that can be removed allows the structure to be reused, adapted, repaired and resold into capacity the local community when camp closes.

cultivation

micro finance

cultivation

production workshop

r

on site

any material A simple framework might have joints which allow any material to be added, allowing users to make the most of any assembly transport use available materials

on of s

landfill

refugee homes local homes

theft black market

on site

dry compost: cath utsagn + albert

reuse in host community

wetlands assembly

disassembly add- on program

sale production

required materials

dry compost: cath utsagn + albert

mic

dry toilets

home improvements biosand filters

plastic + metal waste solar panels

bring to syria

playground

in the interim - thesis report


water

organic

materials

aquifer

transport

humanitarian food programmes

transport

refugee trade

transport

wood, scaffolding, polycarbonate sheets,

sand and clay

energy

well

source

transport

adobe bricks

jordan energy netwo

environmental synergy By collecting environmental strategies they reinforce each other. The diagram illustrates how the strategies are interconnected.

PLAYING C

* local resources 30 strategies


decreasing demand

local flora tertiary treatment

t

storage

consumption

channels

waste water

anaerobic digester

potable water

constructed wetlands irrigation

nutrients

home reuse

decreasing demand

biogas

distribution consumption

organic waste

compost

crops

cooking

consumption

sale

reuse in host community

wetlands main workshop

assembly

production of parts

disassembly add- on program

sale production

required materials

dry toilets home improvements biosand filters

plastic + metal waste solar panels playground

shared functions

ork

CHILDREN

street lighting

household connections

planned grid centre KINETIC ENERGY

sunpower sun

generator

in the interim - thesis report

bring to syria


development stages

stage 1

stage 2

setup

production

household

Make household plug-ins for water cleansing dry toilets insulation improvement energy production

neighbourhood

Setup basic structure Build wetlands

Establish gardens and compost Select centre community services

district

Locally adjusted water trenches Define farmland areas

Farmlands irrigation

camp

Charge for electricity consumption Charge for water consumption

Water supply decrease

water cycle

32 strategies

waste to food

energy relief

material options


stage 3

stage 4

care & maintenance

closure

Reuse, purify greywater Fertilizer production Home growing vegs Reduce energy need

Caravan reuse Device reuse

Pop-up program Street markets Electricity production for centre use Care for wetlands plants

Materials sold or reused locally Wetlands left behind

Swap materials Agriculture

Electricity supply decrease

Governorate operated farming

in the interim - thesis report


08.

site strategies where to build? The centre setup should be adaptable enough to fit in different parts of the camp. However, the districts are very different in terms of density and functions and I wanted to choose a starting point to have a concrete site to base the design on. Therefore I compared data from the districts and found that three were quite representative to the oldest and newest parts of the camp - and those in between.

district 2

district 10

district 7

Oldest area High density Big homes and narrow streets Broken WASH facilities but private options Close to entrance, shopping and schools

Medium old Average density Most Child Friendly Spaces in camp Many facilities Schools, hospital etc on either side

Relatively new and “organized” Just below average population Low density Hardly any functions Far from entrance, shopping area, schools (everything)

12224 inhabitants 10% of total population

= more like a town than a camp

34 strategies

10729 inhabitants 9% of total population

8706 inhabitants 7% of total population

= relatively “well off” area = a good representative of general camp setup


“old city”

“new city”

new camp I have chosen to focus on the “new camp” mainly because this makes up the majority of the camp. The older part has grown into a more urban fabric. The new camp therefore has a greater potential for “urbanizing”, and additional functions are needed in this area as both informal trade and provided services are more concentrated in the old part. Lastly, as the new camp follows a standard layout more rigidly, a centre is easier to fit within the existing structure, and is more transferable, both within Zaatari and for other camps following a similar layout. District 7 is quite representative in terms of population, but new and underdeveloped in terms of services and building density. On the border of the camp, it is far away from literally everything.

in the interim - thesis report


investigating range of centre The number of centres should be high enough to support a local neighbourhood atmosphere while low enough to be managable. These are investigations of â&#x20AC;&#x153;rangeâ&#x20AC;? of centre and positioning.

1 centre per neigbourhood or 400 people. 24 centres pr district. Many small centres could give a high degree of flexibility and a strong sense of ownership - but 400 inhabitants is probably too little to create a micro- economy and value exchange.

1 centre per 2 neigbourhoods or 800 people. 12 centres pr district. This configuration keeps distance from larger access roads but eliminates many existing WASH or kitchen facilities. An oblong shape would be applicable most places in the camp.

36 strategies


1 centre per 3 neigbourhoods or 1200 people. 8 centres pr district. The surrounding areas have a lot of space for expansion. However they are very exposed to surrounding roads (theft and outsiders).

1 centre pr 4 neigbourhoods or 1600 people. 6 centres pr district. Chosen size because the population seems suitable for one centre, without covering too long distances. The central positioning needs to be reconsidered.

in the interim - thesis report


How does the centre relate to the site?

4 “streets” contain approximately

70 000 m² surface area 300 families or 1600 people = 960 children, 640 adults 18000 litres grey water per day only public functions: 4 kitchens and 6 WASH facilities

38 strategies


using humanitarian space

topography

The space surrounding roads - where NGOs usually place Child Friendly Spaces or offices will be used as it is mostly free, and ensures easy access by foot and car and fits well with humanitarian planning.

Each neighbourhood centre should be positioned at the topographically lowest point of the site, to use as much grey- and rain water as possible.

surface runoff network

crop irrigation

A surface water network that fits with camp setup and topography will be set up. The water trenches will be simple, but carefully planned so the water masses are controlled. The grey water network for one centre does not necessarily correspond to its covered area in terms of inhabitants.

The area directly below the centre (according to topography) will be naturally irrigated due to the continually functioning wetlands. Other smaller crop areas will also be identified according to residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; wishes, and will be watered manually.

in the interim - thesis report


collaboration

adjustment to plots

As centres can choose their own “focus” they can also choose to collaborate, by for example creating one which is mainly a school and another which is mainly a farming centre. In places where two are placed closely, they can grow into one larger centre if desirable by residents.

Although the standard camp grid layout makes the simplest plots, the overall shape of the centre plan should be able to adjust to differently shaped plots.

centre plot

centre plot kitchens

wash facilities

“child friendly spaces”

water storage

absorbing functions

relieving functions

The centres will have the space to include functions like surrounding Child Friendly Spaces, NGO offices and kitchens, which is might encourage a closer collaboration between humanitarians and refugees.

Provided functions like WASH and water storage will not be directly replaced, but relieved as the centre will provide more water and the possibility for production of home WASH devices.

40 strategies


program on site Starting up with the minimum, the surface area amounts to around 1500 m2. The expansion area should be large, and positioned where there is space - in this case to the right of the plot. The possibility of vertical expansion should also be investigated.

workshop 50 - 15o m² kitchen 50 - 15o m² office 50 - 15o m² compost 50 m² playground 100 m² wetlands 600 m² covered space 300 m²

50 m start-up plot size 1500 m²

expansion area 1500 m²

30 m

in the interim - thesis report


rough site layout Based on above mentioned strategies, the layout of one centre will look like this. Blue likes represent water collection trenches to replace the current pits. Wastewater thus flows to the centre, which is positioned in the topographically lowest point and close to a road. The minimum size of to accommodate the desired functions and space for expansion is marked and fits within the â&#x20AC;&#x153;humanitarianâ&#x20AC;? space along the road. Since the centre cleans water continously, an irrigation area is positioned topographically below the centre. Other crop areas can be set up in addition, but will need manual watering.

42 strategies


natural irrigation area

25 m

50 m

1250 m2

water trenches

1: 1000

1:2000

in the interim - thesis report


9.

temporality The centre should be thought as a temporary structure. This is important for political reasons - nobody intends to make Zaatari permanent. It should also be fast to build, it should be affordable, built on site by nonskilled labour and possible to disassemble and sell again. Therefore it has to be simple, and very flexible.

flexibility: additive or adaptable?

The Centre Pompidou by Piano + Meyer and Habitat 67 by Safdie represent two main approaches to flexibility that can be recognized in contemporary modular archutecture. One is a strict external framework with internal flexibility, the other a modular set of building blocks stacked on top of one another.

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design


2

design


How can the strategies be implemented in a temporary system?

design 01. Volume Studies

4

02. Concept

8

03. Investigations

12

04. Additional System

28

05. Materials

34

in the interim - thesis report


VOLUME STUDIES

01.

How should the building volume relate to the surrounding site, and create access and open and enclosed space? Should the functions be separated or mixed? Based on the minimum size, these are simple investigations for what kind of volume the centre could grow into.

“street” configuration

“village” configuration

An oblong distribution of built space with a “front” and “back”, creating public and private spheres. An inner street could provide a covered space with varying degrees of openness and smaller intimate zones.

Separating spaces into production, cultivation and recreation might support the existing segregation. Centering around a garden space allows for a more informal shared space.

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design


“slab” configuration

“pixel” configuration

Raising the whole space one floor up will create a covered space underneath, while offering a natural protection from theft. Expansion towards middle.

A free expansion in any direction allows use of rooftop space, and will give a distinct character to each centre.

in the interim - thesis report


height and porosity

One of the simplest yet most effective architectural measures that can be taken is to raise a part of the building volume, even just one floor above the ground. Due to the flat topography and the repetitive height of the tents and prefabs, positioning yourself one floor above ground will give an incredible view. Lifting volumes will provide cooling during hot summer months as the ground underneath will be shaded, and the lifted volumes will be ventilated by the wind. The open space underneath can create a â&#x20AC;&#x153;freeâ&#x20AC;? communal space that is easily accessible, while being above ground provides protection from onlookers, which is an issue for a large part of the female population.

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design


visual connections

view

to see and not be seen

accessible open space

in the interim - thesis report


CONCEPT

02.

How to create a framework for growth?

some initial concept sketches

Experiments with subdivision, addition and frame systems lead to the conclusion that a simple additive system is most appropriate as it requires the least material and has potential for great visual and physical variation.

8

design


conclusions from concept talk with kasper The “ingredients” and “recipe” is becoming clearer. In terms of the concept: This is a modular system, something that should be emphasized. If all parts are included into the modular system, it becomes truly flexible, and I can cultivate the “anarchy” of a selfgrowing system. The programme is divided into two or three parts, the basic programme to start out with, the “pop-up” programme that can be added as needed and the ground pixels. It is unclear whether these should be visually and constructively distinct. Maybe the start programme should be more stable, eg. consisting of reused shipping containers, and the pop-up programme can be made with local, deconstructible materials. A frame around the whole building seems like overkill, but maybe it is actually a good idea to have a partial frame as constructive starting point? Not to cover the whole structure, but as a starting point to build from. It is not pretty, but it shows people “you can build something here!” and gives structural stability. Like Tschumi’s grid sculptures in Parc de la Villette. This project is first and foremost about logic. The concept can be deconstructed to a series of simple elemnents you can build “anything” with. What are they - stairs, floor, walls, passage, windows, benches? They should define the grid sizes and how things are assembled. Ground elements: water, crops, playground: why not make them into a “blanket grid”? Continuing the grid from the building, breaking up spaces. The self-assembled aspect should be visually important. Look at the favelas, they are selfassembled but colourful. Somehow a pattern evolves, due to similar plot sizes and materials, and the stacking effect. Colour variation is also an extremely simple way to achieve distinction.

stability vs self-assembly

Tschumi’s sculpture in Parc de la Villete and favelas of Rio, Brazil.

in the interim - thesis report


Layering reflections on sharing and time As shown, more could be achieved from collecting services and processes in a centre rather than separating them. However, people in Zaatari cannot be expected to immediately embrace a sharing-based centre culture. In order to encourage ownership and participation, the concept must have a high degree of flexibility and allow people to create things the way they want.

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design

The basic programme will be the first thing to arrive. It should therefore be protected from theft and possibly feature a stair system to secure access to upper floors. They should also be able to function on their own. Ground pixels should be simple to build and contribute to spatial improvements. The add-on program should feature simple building techniques and allow expansion in several directions. They need some variation in sizes to hold different functions, and increase visual distinction.


greenhouse greenhouse workshop

additive pixels

cafe

shop classroom

kitchen/greeenhouse

circulation

main workshop

main office

basic functions

crops

energy production compost

ground systems

water cleansing

in the interim - thesis report


investigations

03.

There is a lot of information in the layers of the centre, and yet the outcome should be constructively simple. I started visualising abstract ideas through models to break the issues down. The main priorities became; where and how can the structure expand, how to connect the different functions, dimensions for a human scale and how to create functional, comfortable space.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;structural towerâ&#x20AC;? for vertical access?

how to secure access while allowing expansion? intimate shaded areas for rest

proximity to wetland gardens

12

design


water build 2m 4m 8m

offset for flexibility and access

gardens separating building volumes

in the interim - thesis report


water flows in tubes below the ground

columns: OPENNESS, EASE OF FLOW

surfaces: ENCLOSED, DEFINED SPACE

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design

SHARED COLUMNS FOR STRUCTURAL SUPPORT


open air vs volume The â&#x20AC;&#x153;total flexibilityâ&#x20AC;? idea is challenged by the technical components - especially the water system. Purification requires a certain area and so the start-up size is large in relation to the initial built volume. As plants need direct sunlight, the areas cannot be covered. This becomes a very important design element in terms of zoning. The positioning of the wetlands areas can be used to determine the possible expansion sites and control the future layout of the centre.

internal or external

Should the building body should have the possibility to grow into one continous body or be separated by the wetlands? Top: surrounding wetlands makes for internal expansion. Bottom: internal wetlands and surrounding building body.

in the interim - thesis report


starting point water

play

water kitchen

workshop

water

office w.shop

play

starting point

expansion area

total expansion area wetlands playground

ground access

basic functions max ground floor extension max 1st + 2nd floor extension open space

access

basic zoning

wetlands

basic functions

max 1st + 2nd floor extension

playground

max ground floor extension

open space

Dividing the plan into six areas and mixing open and closed space. Expanding building area in all directions and saving space for internal access underneath. The disposition is simple and functional, but â&#x20AC;&#x153;solidâ&#x20AC;? and could be more varied.

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design


kitchen

water kitchen

play play

water

w.shop w.shop

office office

starting point

total expansion area

access

max 1st + 2nd floor extension

open space

internally positioned wetlands

Left: continuous string of wetlands creates a barrier between functions. Right: gaps between wetland areas makes a denser centre with vertical shafts or courtyards.

in the interim - thesis report


Top view of developed mass of the dispositions. The bottom figuration does not work well - there is too little space surrounding water bodies and it seems “cramped” rather than airy. The top configuration looks the most flexible, but looks “heavy”. Volume and open areas should be mixed more. Further investigations should be based on the top two options.

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design


internal pedestrian street In order to secure access and connect functions I had the idea of starting with the void, and creating a connective walking path. Even though the centre is expanded in all directions, the internal path will still retain the same logic. Also, if the path is covered, it creates a shaded â&#x20AC;&#x153;patioâ&#x20AC;? like an internal market street.

in the interim - thesis report


evolution investigations Draft conceptual plans looking into how a starting point can create maximum expansion areas and grow into a continous structure. 10 000 = 20 cm 1:500.

480000

599000

start up program and path

EXPANded version

MAXIMUM EXPANSION AREA

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design

541000

570000

481011


539742

540011

541000

540000

in the interim - thesis report


540000

541000

Option 3 is chosen as the strongest plan. The path itself is not the most interesting space, but it is the most efficient way to connect the spaces that matter. The built area is “zoned” around the basic buildings, but can be connected into one building. This is constructively stronger, and saves material as connected rooms can share walls. It also creates a sense of continuity without feeling repetitive or “institutional”.

540011

simplicity

Aligning wetland areas makes it easier to expand them outwards. The calculated size should be more than enough, but having the possibility is good, should the population suddenly increase. 540000

541000

540011

road access

choice of separation or connection

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design


organized expansion

Top: the central path is the starting point for positioning and connects to functions outwards. Bottom: Dividing the plan into aligned sections allows wetlands to expand outwards and gives a clean simplicity.

in the interim - thesis report


adaptability studies The internal relationships between the elements have been established, and they are the main parameters for the layout. However, the setup should be generic enough to adapt to different sites without compromizing these relationships. This model represents the main elements, connected by the central path. The underlying grid shows the space in between that can be used for extensions.

wetlands

playground path basic functions expansion areas

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design


in the interim - thesis report


wetland system The centre collects greywater at the top of the site, and irrigationapproved clean water comes out at the bottom. The wetlands should be divided into smaller areas, both because a greater distance makes water cleaner and smaller beds are easier to control, but also because they should come close to the building volume to create more intimate gardens.

anaerobic digester wetlands

wetlands wetlands

aeration pond storage pond

irrigation

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design


organized expansion

Top: the central path is the starting point for positioning and connects to functions outwards. Bottom: Dividing the plan into aligned sections allows wetlands to expand outwards and gives a clean simplicity.

in the interim - thesis report


additional system

04.

Adding a unit should be intuitive. If it is “impossible to go wrong” anyone can understand it, and building mistakes can be avoided. Three basic unit sizes in a 3x3 m grid can be connected by choice. Openings for windows and doors cannot be blocked, and in combination with construction this creates the basis for expansion. Simple 1:1 “rules” makes the overall design emerge on its own, and makes sure that everyone has a minimum of daylight. Together with the surrounding wetlands as barriers, the building growth stops naturally by “saturation”.

basic unit sizes

where to add

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design


in the interim - thesis report


construction frame

scaffolding frame

A sturdy construction material, scaffolding can be found anywhere in the world. Can create differently sized rooms within as well as circulation. Combined with horizontal and vertical cross- support the structure is stable enough. The structure is thus shared by neighbouring rooms, which saves material - and when more units are added the stability increases.

30

design


structure potentials

Adding joints gives an enormous flexibility and allows the structure to adjust to slopes. It also opens for internal variation like integrated furnishing, rails and cladding materials. By making the joint a hinge, panels can swing to add doors or windows.

in the interim - thesis report


COLUMNS

opening areas

internal connections

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design


vertical expansion

When the ground floor has reached a certain size there is space for vertical expansion, which will occur close to vertical access.

in the interim - thesis report


materials

05.

The minimal starting point is a bare frame supported by diagonal bars and crossing wires. Clad with canvas it makes a simple protected room (the same system could be used to make homes which grow from tents into more solid transitional housing).

34

design


structural panels

Due to the need for diagonal support, the cladding should be structural. A simple way to do this is â&#x20AC;&#x153;clip-onâ&#x20AC;? full-length frames that could be clad with almost any material.

in the interim - thesis report


flooring

corrugated steel

wood panels

Locally available, cheap and sturdy

Recyclable and cheap plywood

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design


in the interim - thesis report


cladding The frames are simple enough that a multitude of materials can be added. However, some basic options should be provided as there is little material available. Flooring panels could also be used as cladding.

polycarbonate paneling

wood boards

metal mesh

canvas

caravan panels

plastic sheets

Stronger than both glass and acrylic, recyclable. Can be a substitute for windows as they provide light and hinder view.

For shading, shared spaces and temporary practices.

38

design

Strong, recyclable and cheap - also as upcycled material.

Have the same size frame and can be reused if they become available when people start moving.

As a simple physical barrier and for the growth of climber plants

For greenhouses


in the interim - thesis report

In The Interim  

Thesis project from GXNs master studio at the Aarhus School of Architecture; Studio Regenerative Architecture. All material is created by Li...

In The Interim  

Thesis project from GXNs master studio at the Aarhus School of Architecture; Studio Regenerative Architecture. All material is created by Li...

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