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REDEVELOPMENT IS ESSENTIAL their life span of 50-60 years; however, their residents continue to live in them for lack of choice or sentimental reasons, often at great risk to their lives. The need for redevelopment is also evident in ‘newer’ regions of the metropolis; reports last year suggested that at least 500 buildings would be up for redevelopment in Navi Mumbai.

Anuj Puri,

Chairman & Country Head, JLL, India

As the transformation of Mumbai gains momentum under a new and vibrant government, several changes have renewed the hope of residents as well as investors in the city. Geographical expansion to meet the needs of a growing population; infrastructure projects to boost connectivity; business hubs in diverse neighbourhoods offering cutting-edge offices for corporates... there is much to celebrate in this megapolis. Yet, as Mumbai strives to take a more prominent place among global business destinations, it needs to find solutions to several challenges, including a housing shortage, inadequate infrastructure and issues of solid waste management. As Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis recently told media persons in Mumbai, the city needs good governance and a more holistic approach. He also mentioned that rural-urban migration is a fact of life and the only way to tackle this is to create small urban centres such as NAINA in Navi Mumbai, which can act as buffer zones. While ambitious new plans for the future are being forged, there is also the question of creating livable spaces in traditional locations. In such a scenario, redevelopment is an inevitable process. The island city alone has more than 20,000 dilapidated structures; this is the official figure and certainly, many more ageing buildings need to be demolished and rebuilt. Most of these have exceeded

There is no doubt that redevelopment, especially cluster development, is essential for urban renewal. The government has recognised this, and has attempted to put policies and systems in place to ensure transparency, quality and speed of implementation. However, despite the directives issued in January 2009 under Section 79 (A) of the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1960, housing societies often find the experience of redeveloping their properties painful, with plans languishing for years, and being dragged to court. Experts point out if the guidelines are followed meticulously and if society members are willing to cooperate with each other for mutual benefit, the process can go through smoothly. The first step towards this is awareness, which is the primary objective of this edition of Mumbai Makeover. Mumbai Makeover, now in its second edition, offers useful guidelines into all aspects of redevelopment, and JLL India is pleased to partner with YOUNG Media in this endeavour. Among other things, this issue offers insights into the concrete aspects of redevelopment and its implementation, even as it examines larger issues that impact a city in transition. Redevelopment is never easy; it involves massive capital and emotional investment, as people move out of homes they have lived in for decades and wait for new ones to be built. Its benefits, however, are huge – larger living spaces, better amenities, greater safety and an enhanced quality of life. Increasingly, residents of Mumbai are recognising this; in the process, they are not only transforming their own lives, but the image of the city as a whole. 


CONTENTS Follow the Procedures While redevelopment follows the principles of democracy and decision-making may take time, it is vital to ensure that housing societies maintain transparency and work according to the rules, says Ramesh Prabhu ..............7 With a systematic professional approach, chances of failures/ delays in redevelopment can be minimised, says Utkarsh Jani ...........................................................................................................................................................................15 FAQs: Adv. Anisha Shastri throws light on a host of issues that leave housing society members confused .................................17 Help Yourself Self-redevelopment can help housing societies and their members get a better deal, say Anup Gupta and Parinay Sinha .....................................................................................................................................................................................................23 A Good Rental Deal Sandeep Sadh

development process ......32

Think Durability The right materials and a greater awareness of construction techniques are vital to ensure that structures are designed to last, says Vinod T. Harisingani ..........................................................................................................................................35 Own Your Land If your builder does not provide conveyance, opt for deemed conveyance instead .............................................38 usion regarding taxability of redevelopment A Big Relief arrangements, says Adv. K K Ramani ...........................................................................................................................................................42 Leakage-free Lifestyles Prevention is much better than cure, believes Dr Sanjay Bahadur ..............................................................44 Game Changers: Increased Transparency Gopal Sarda, Head – Mumbai Operations, Kolte-Patil Developers believes that recent changes in the rules governing redevelopment have made the process more transparent ..................................................46 Game Changers: ‘We Need Better Urban Planning’ A pragmatic redevelopment policy can go a long way in creating good and affordable housing stock, says Parag Munot, Managing Director, Kalpataru Ltd. ..................................................................49 Game Changers: Transforming Lives An interview with Kaushik More, Director, Omkar Realtors & Developers ...................52 Game Changers: The Only Option Redevelopment is vital to bridging the demand–supply gap in housing, says Chandresh Mehta .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................54 Game Changers: City Of Opportunities Political will coupled with diligent use of technology can greatly boost Mumbai’s growth, says Adi Godrej, Chairman, Godrej Group ..................................................................................................................................56 Game Changers: The Human Touch An acre of performance is worth a whole world of promise, says Umang Kuwadia, Executive Director, Happy Home Group ......................................................................................................................................................58 Game Changers: The Centre of The City Has Shifted Architect Reza Kabul, pioneer of tall buildings in India, believes that cluster development, better infrastructure and a fresh look at land use are essential for Mumbai ................................................61 Game Changers: The New New City Sanjay Bhatia, Vice-Chairman and Managing Director, CIDCO speaks to Raju Kane about NAINA ........................................................................................................................................................................................................64 Game Changers: Building Mumbai’s Public Transport System An interview with Metropolitan Commissioner, UPS Madan, who spearheads several of Mumbai’s most important infrastructure development initiatives. .......................................................67 Game Changers: Single Point Accountability A Single Authority who makes multiple agencies work together is critical for Mumbai, says Narinder Nayar ........................................................................................................................................................................69 Game Changers: Re-imagining Mumbai Nitin Gadkari, Union minister for transport, believes that it is important to develop the hinterland and ensure world-class connectivity to the new townships ...........................................................................................71 DP 2034: A Closer Look The new Draft Development Plan for Mumbai acknowledges the realities of existing developments and densities, says Ramesh Nair ......................................................................................................................................................................76 -planned redevelopment is vital in order A City In Transition to make the city resilient and sustainable as well, says Menka Shivdasani .........................................................................................77 Look East As a new initiative to open up Mumbai’s port lands for development gets underway, citizens are hopeful that it will help to transform the city into a more livable space ..........................................................................................................................82 ibilities to improve the quality of life The Lifeline For Mumbai in the city, provided it is used judiciously, says Dr Lalit Kanodia ..........................................................................................................84

Enhanced Connectivity Transport infrastructure has significant positive implications for real estate, says Ramesh Nair ......86 Those Vital Links Infrastructure projects provide a tremendous boost to real estate both in terms of demand and capital values, observes Sandeep Sadh ........................................................................................................................................................................88 On the Move MMRDA has plans for several infrastructure projects that promise to change Mumbai into a world-class city ....91 A Viable Alternative Recent infrastructural developments have resulted in the emergence of new locations in Navi Mumbai like Ulwe, Kharghar, Panvel and Dronagiri, says Rajesh Prajapati ......................................................................................................93 Think Out of the Box Members of the Mumbai Transport Forum wrote to the chief minister recently, suggesting ways to tackle the growing traffic menace in the city ...............................................................................................................................................95 Ride the Waves A hovercraft is the best option for passenger water transport in Mumbai, says Cdr. Kumresh Sharma .......98 Showing the Green Light As Mumbai’s buildings increasingly get redeveloped, Anuj Puri highlights the importance of sustainable development in India .................................................................................................................................................................101 Small Things Make Great Cities Libraries, cafes, public transport and space are among the things that make a city livable, says Ar. Nitin Killawala .................................................................................................................................................................................103 From Precincts to Sprawl Ar. Kamu Iyer provides a fascinating glimpse of urban development in Bombay’s early days ....105 Sculptures in the Sky ........................................................................................................................................................................................106 Cut the Red Tape Changing government policies are affecting redevelopment, says Suresh Sahu ..............................................108 The PE Potential Private Equity funds can play a critical role in redevelopment by filling the gap left behind by the banking system, believe Balaji Raghavan and Saurabh Gupta .............................................................................................................................111 VAT Clarified CA Deepak Thakkar clears some doubts about the implications of the complex Value-Added Tax (VAT) on redevelopment projects ....................................................................................................................................................................................113 Glossary Here are some definitions of important terms, expressions and related provisions under development control regulations for Greater Bombay, 1991 .........................................................................................................................................................115 Project Management Consultants If you are looking for a project management consultant, begin here! ..................................117 Marathi Section ...............................................................................................................................................................................121 onwards Publisher

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“According to estimates, there are nearly 20,000 buildings in the suburbs and nearly another 20,000 buildings in south Mumbai waiting for redevelopment” Ramesh Prabhu

Chartered accountant and chairman, Maharashtra Societies Welfare Association (MSWA)

FOLLOW THE PROCEDURES While redevelopment follows the principles of democracy and decision-making may take time, it is vital to ensure that housing societies maintain transparency and work according to the rules, says Ramesh Prabhu

Prior to 1980, like-minded persons used to come together to form a co-operative housing society with the main purpose being to provide flats to members in a multi-storeyed building with common services, and to maintain the same. Such societies are called ‘open plot societies’. Members would contribute towards the cost of land and building according to the area of they flat they wanted to occupy. The society would engage the architect and contractor, construct the building and then allot flats to its members. The land and building would be owned by the society. Post 1980, the concept of the developer constructing the building and selling flats to different persons under the Maharashtra Ownership Flats Act (MOFA), 1963, emerged. Thereafter, flat owners register a cooperative society to manage common facilities. Such societies are called ‘flat owners societies’. Once members receive flats under open plot societies or flat owners type of societies, it becomes the responsibility of the society to provide common services to members, such as electricity security, water supply, repairing and maintaining of the building in good condition. For the proper management of the society, members elect a managing committee and the entire working of the society is done as per the provisions of Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1960, MCS

Rules, 1961, Registered Bye-laws of the society, circulars and notifications issued by the registrar and the government from time to time regarding the functioning of the society. The building being a common property, it becomes the responsibility of every flat owner to see that proper care is taken of it and to contribute towards its repairs whenever called for by the managing committee. The members are always reluctant to contribute for common repairs and this is often postponed. Over the last 20 to 30 years, there have been many buildings in Mumbai, where even simple painting has not been done, against the requirement of repainting at least once in five years. Further damage to the building occurs because of encroachments by members in terms of covering the balcony or common areas, shifting of kitchen or toilets to a place other than the original location, renovation once in five to 10 years within the flats or renovation / interiors done by the new purchaser of flats on resale, and leakages being neglected. The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) has made it mandatory for every society or building owner to carry out the structural audit of buildings which are more than 30 years old once in three years and then undertake necessary structural repairs as recommended by the structural engineer and to file the compliance

report within six months of completing the structural audit. However, societies are not serious about such measures, which are essential for long life of the buildings.

This direction having issued by the Government by exercising the powers given to it under Section 79(A) of the MCS Act, 1960 is mandatory.

In order to see that the buildings which have become very old and dilapidated, and for societies to undertake redevelopment, the Development Control Rules, 1991(DC Rules) were amended to facilitate additional construction over and above the existing area. As per the current DC Rules, as against the earlier Floor Space index (FSI) of 1 on the plot of land, now additional Floor Space Index (FSI) of 0.33 by paying a premium to the municipal corporation , loading of TDR (Transfer of Development Rights) of 0.67 by purchasing from the market and fungible FSI of 0.70, making the aggregate built up area 2.70 is possible during redevelopment. This has encouraged societies which were constructed prior to 1995, or on which TDR or additional FSI loading is possible, to plan for redevelopment.

The following steps and procedure have been elaborated by the direction.

Thus redevelopment has become a buzzword in housing society circles. According to estimates, there are nearly 20,000 buildings in the suburbs and nearly another 20,000 buildings in south Mumbai waiting for redevelopment. Nearly 50% of the area in Mumbai is also covered by slums, which are also going for redevelopment in Mumbai city under the Slum Rehabilitation Authority schemes. Though actual redevelopment has started from 2001 onwards, looking at the disputes, differences, complaints and mishandling of redevelopment by housing societies, the government of Maharashtra issued a direction dated 3.1.2009 under section 79A of the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1960 for undertaking redevelopment by housing societies.


Members to initiate the redevelopment process: Minimum 25% of the members of the society are required to give an application to the managing committee to call the Special General Body meeting to decide about the Redevelopment. The managing committee to be duly elected and constituted: In the middle of the redevelopment process, a question regarding the validity of the committee should not be raised by the members, therefore, it is provided that the redevelopment has to be initiated by the committee which is duly elected and constituted as provided under the law. Since 14.2.2013, the election of the managing committee is conducted by the election officer appointed by the Maharashtra State Co-operative Election Authority. In case, the society has any doubt about the constitution of the committee, it is advisable to get the proper election done and proceed with the redevelopment process. Quorum of the meeting: The quorum for the special General Body meeting called to decide about the redevelopment shall be 75% of the members present. As per the provisions of the Act, the members include associate members and therefore, the associate member is permitted to attend and vote for such meeting and their presence shall be counted for the purpose of constituting the quorum.


In the absence of quorum, the meeting may be adjourned for eight days and if the quorum is formed of 75% members of the society, the agenda can be taken up or else, the meeting gets dissolved. The redevelopment decision has to be approved by 75% of the members present in the meeting. The minutes of such meeting should be circulated to the members within 10 days of the meeting. It is recommended that, if possible, the minutes of all the redevelopment meeting including the managing committee is required to be written immediately during the meeting and at the end of the meeting, the same should be counter-signed by the members present at the meeting to avoid any disputes regarding the recording of the minutes.


ďƒź Repairs on flats are often neglected, and further damage is caused by encroachments ďƒź To begin the redevelopment process, minimum 25% members must give an application to the committee for a special general body meeting

The Notice for the meeting: Special General Meeting (SGM) of redevelopment should be called with at least 14 days clear notice. Appointment of Project Management Consultants: The managing committee should collect at least five quotations from the Project Management Consultants (PMCs) who will guide the redevelopment process and appoint one of the PMCs in the SGM. Role of PMC: The PMC or architect is required to carry out the survey of the land, area occupied by each of the members, verify the old plan, obtain the required government documents, ensure that the society has proper conveyance of land and building and then prepare a feasibility report taking into account the potential FSI, TDR, Fungible FSI and already used FSI by the existing building. He must also educate the members about the minimum area they can get in the new building, corpus, rent and other amenities which can be part of the new building. Prepare the feasibility / Project report: The PMC has to prepare the required feasibility report and project report and have a detailed discussion among the society members, get their feedback and clarify their doubts. The PMC should facilitate smooth completion of the redevelopment. In fact, the PMC should be engaged till the occupation certificate is obtained by the developer and the members are rehoused in the new building.

Preparation of the Tender: The PMC, in consultation with the members, is required to prepare a tender document which will have all terms and conditions decided by the society including the bank Guarantee to be provided by the developer during the redevelopment. As per the directions issued by the Government at least 20% of the project cost has to be obtained as the bank guarantee. It is the normal practice by societies to demand the bank guarantee equivalent to construction cost of the existing area of the members. Publication of the tenders: Though the direction does not say explicitly that the tender should be invited by giving advertisement in the newspaper, as a prudent practice and to have better transparency, it is advisable to go for a public notice of the tender in a leading newspaper. At least 15 days should be given for the developer to collect the tender and thereafter another 15 days should be given to the developers to submit the tender. Pre-Bid meeting: The direction is silent about the pre-bid meeting to be arranged with the prospective developer. As a best practice, it is advisable to arrange the pre-bid meeting with the developer who have collected the tenders on the last day of issue of tenders and then clarify the doubts of the developer. Such a pre-bid meeting is to be arranged at the society premises, so that the developer also gets an opportunity to inspect the site. The members also should be invited to such a meeting, so that members who have queries regarding the redevelopment process can get clarification. The minutes of such a pre-bid meeting should be given to all the bidders, so that they will be able to give their offers considering the discussion and decision taken in the pre-bid meeting. Receipt of the tenders and to open the same at the General Body meeting: As per the direction, the tender should be opened in the presence of the joint meeting of the committee, PMC, bidders and the interested members. In order to have proper transparency, it is advisable that such bid should be opened in the Special General body meeting called for the purpose. It is further advisable that the financial offer or the offers given by the developer should be called in a separate envelope to be opened only after satisfying oneself over the credentials of the developer such as their experience, reputation, financial condition, and so on. Developers whom the general body does not approve of should not have their offers opened, and these should be cancelled. This is because, normally, the developer who is new in the line or the contractor who would like to enter as a developer, offer more area and corpus to the existing members to get the contract. In due

Pic courtesy: Pidilite

The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) has made it mandatory for every society or building owner to carry out the structural audit of buildings which are more than 30 years old once in three years and then undertake necessary structural repairs as recommended by the structural engineer and to file the compliance report within six months of completing the structural audit. course of time, the project gets delayed, the rent is not paid on time or the members are forced to occupy the new building without Occupation Certificate etc. Many times, such developers transfer the project to another financer. Therefore, members should not be carried away by the offers given by bidders. Therefore, shortlisting the developers and then preparing their offers would be a proper system. Special General Body meeting to select the developer: The SGM should be called with 14 days’ clear notice to select the developer. The comparative chart of the developer is circulated to the members. The committee should invite the officer of the Registrar to be present at the said General Body meeting. The complete video recording of this meeting is done to ensure full transparency. Seventy-five per cent of the members should be present to form the quorum. The shortlisted bidders may be called in the meeting to give their presentation or this can be held before the General Body meeting. It is the normal practice that shortlisted developers are invited by the society to give presentations much before the final selection meeting, interact with members and if possible, improve the offers to consider them in the final selection. In this meeting one developer should be selected with 75% or more voting by the members present and also such consent for the selected developers has to be obtained in writing by the members, so that there is no dispute or ambiguity in the selection of the developers. NOC from the Registrar: The society has to obtain the necessary No-objection Certificate (NOC) from the registrar by submitting all the documents till the selection of the developer including the minutes of the meeting in which the developer is selected along with the DVD of the video recording of the meeting. The registrar is required to give

the NOC stating that all the procedures as laid down under section 79A of the MCS Act, 1960, are complied with. Execute the development agreement: The society and the developer are required to execute and register the development agreement as per the agreed terms within two months from the date of selection of the developer. For any delay, the same has to be further decided in the specially called SGM in which again the registrar representative has to be called and select the same or the subsequent developer. Developer to obtain the IOD and execute the individual agreement: The developer is required to prepare the new building plan, get it approved by the members and then submit it to the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai for approval. Once the plan is approved, the MCGM issues Intimation of disapproval (IOD) along with the approved plan. The developer and the society need to execute and register the individual agreement with the members of the society indicating the new flat in the new building. This will give a sense of confidence among the society members. Obtain the Commencement Certificate and complete the building: Once all the members vacate the flats, the society is required to hand over the building to the developer for demolition. After the demolition, the developer obtains the commencement certificate and completes the building as per the approved plan. Obtain the Occupation Certificate and hand over new flats to the existing members: The developer, once he obtains the occupation certificate, informs the society to take the possession of the new flats and then hands over the management of the entire building back to the

society. He also gives the possession to the new flat purchasers and requests the society to admit them as members of the society. New members are admitted as members of the society and bank guarantees are released: Once the society building is ready and all the persons, new and old, occupy the flats, the society admits the new flat purchasers as members of the society, issues them share certificates and starts collecting the maintenance charges and maintaining the building. The bank guarantee has to be released

by the society as the building is completed to the satisfaction of the society members. THE redevelopment of a housing society is a boon and can be enjoyed, if the proper process is followed and transparency in the dealing is maintained. The functioning of the housing society is governed by the principle of democracy, the decision-taking process does take its own time but any decision taken without following the due procedure as laid down above would be dangerous to the redevelopment of the project.

DOCUMENTATION FOR REDEVELOPMENT THROUGH DEVELOPER/BUILDER DOCUMENTS NEEDED DURING REDEVELOPMENT 1. Society registration certificate. 2. 7 / 12 extract 3. Form no – 6 from revenue office. 4. Conveyance Deed / Lease Deed / Sale Deed. 5. Search report and title certificate. 6. Index II 7. N.A. Order 8. Development Agreement 9. City Survey Plan. 10. Approved building plan. 11. Copy of IOD 12. Commencement Certificate 13. Occupation Certificate 14. Completion Certificate 15. Agreement for sale 16. Stamp duty paid proof 17. Registration charges paid proof 18. Appointment DOCUMENTS PREPARED AS PART OF REDEVELOPMENT PROCESS 1. Feasibility Report 2. Suggestions from members 3. Public Notice for inviting the tender 4. Minutes of various meeting 5. Correspondence with different authorities 6. Obtaining required permission from Deputy Registrar, BMC, ULC Department, NA Department etc. 7. Tender Form 8. Summary of Tenders received 9. Approval of Tenders in the General Body meeting and preparation of Draft and Final Minutes 10. Appointment letters to advocate, Structural Engineers, Architect, Project Management Consultant etc.

DOCUMENTS TO BE PREPARED BY SOCIETY’S ADVOCATE 1. Redevelopment Agreement 2. Indemnity Bond by the developer 3. Format of Bank Guarantee from the Builder 4. Power of Attorney from society to Developer 5. Agreement for Alternative Accommodation 6. Consent letter from the members to society 7. Consent letter from members to builder /BMC 8. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between society and builder 9. Appointment letter from the society to builder 10. Possession letter from the builder to member 11. Application by new members to society to becoming member 12. Undertaking from New Member to society 13. Format of the Resolution to admit the New Member 14. List of Document required to collect from the Builder 15. Revocation/Cancellation of Power of Attorney DOCUMENTS TO BE TAKEN FROM BUILDER 1. Partnership deed of the developers duly registered. OR Memorandum of Association 2. Copy of registration certificate 3. Name and address of partners along with their PAN 4. PAN card of the firm 5. Income tax return filed for the last 3 years of the partners/ directors and the company 6. Service tax registration number 7. Copy of the Balance Sheet to understand the financial strength of the firm 8. Feasibility report from the developer has to how they will develop the property at the offers given by them.



“The developer should also be treated as an important redevelopment partner; if he does not make profits, then he will end up cutting corners in the project” Utkarsh A. Jani

Project management consultant, Edifice Erection Private Limited

REDEVELOPMENT SIMPLIFIED With a systematic professional approach, chances of failures/ delays in redevelopment can be minimised, says Utkarsh Jani

With limited space on Mumbai Island, redevelopment is the only way out or the only solution to the ever-growing demand for more habitable space in Mumbai. Redevelopment is a simple process of demolition of the existing building and constructing a new one. Here the meaning of ‘redevelopment’ may change with reference to Mumbai city, where redevelopment means exploiting plot potential to the maximum benefits for housing society members and developers. For example, earlier a plot of 1000 square metres (Sq. Mts) would get FSI of 1000 Sq.mts + 10% balcony area; now, for the same 1000 Sq.mts plot, Floor Space Index (FSI) exploitation is up to 2,700 Sq.mts, where the existing old members get extra benefits in terms of additional area and the developer would get the remaining FSI to sell in the open market. Why one should go for redevelopment is a question frequently arising in the minds of housing society members. There are various reasons — some want more space as families are expanding; some want to go above the ground floor due to water-logging problems; some want facilities of a lift, especially fourth floor members; they do not want to spend more on repairs. The reasons vary, as housing societies opt for redevelopment.

One of the main reasons to go in for redevelopment, however, should be seismic retrofitting, as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC) has made it mandatory to consider the additional earthquake load while designing a new building. The other reason should be rainwater harvesting which helps

SHORT TAKES  There are many pitfalls at every stage of redevelopment  A project management consultant safeguards a society’s interests to increase the ground water table. Redevelopment in housing societies is a tricky subject, Prior to 2009, the registrar received many complaints from housing society members, about how their developer was appointed, or how the managing committee selected a particular developer, or on what basis he gave the offer. Also there was high level of dissatisfaction among members as they felt cheated by developers. Hence the Maharashtra cooperative act 79(A) was introduced. The sole objective of this was to bring transparency among members for the entire redevelopment procedure. The best part was to introduce Project Management Consultants (PMCs), a group of subject matter

experts, who would guide society members through the entire procedure. For any building project, the architect and engineer play a major role. PMCs have all the professionals under a single roof — i.e Architect, Engineer, Lawyer and Chartered Accountant; their major responsibility is to educate all members and guide them through the entire procedure of redevelopment. The role of a PMC is very important as there are many pitfalls at every stage of the redevelopment and it is the PMC’s duty to protect the interests of society members.


The first step of redevelopment is to collect data, .e.g Property card, City Survey Number (CTS) plan, conveyance deed, physical plot survey, DP/TP remarks, Executive Engineer Traffic & Coordination (EETC) remarks, approved plan copy of the existing building, carpet area statement of all existing members, and layout

Society members should have a pragmatic approach towards the project and unity among themselves. plan, among other things. Once these documents are collected, the PMC examines these to work out a detailed feasibility study. This gives minute details of FSI calculations, Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) calculations, fungible FSI calculations, income and expense statement along with the profitability of the developer. The feasibility study is the most important, as the understanding of the entire project is given in detail. It provides insights into various parameters considered for feasibility, understanding the major milestones of the redevelopment project and the time taken to achieve those milestones.


Once the feasibility report is done, tendering follows. The tender is a detailed document prepared to invite offers from developers. The tender should have all information about the plot areas, consumed carpet areas of existing members, terms and conditions, material specifications, technical specifications, list of amenities expected from the developer, and so on. Tendering is the right way to invite offers from developers, and compare them on common ground. The selection of a developer is the most crucial aspect of the entire redevelopment as it is the developer who will finish the project. The developer should also be treated as an important redevelopment partner; if he does not make profits, then he will end up cutting corners in the project.


Lawyers play a vital role in multiple ways. The first of these is the preparation of the development agreement; once members leave their premises they only have the development agreement to protect their rights and interests. The lawyer’s involvement is important in drafting the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), the development agreement, the power of attorney and individual agreements. Societies must appoint their own lawyer and the PMC keeps a check on such documentation and the process. Depending on the developer for this might compromise members’ interests.


Planning is a tricky subject where all members should approve a particular plan from options given by the developer. The PMC’s Architect must give inputs over the orientation of their flats, whether proper light and ventilation are maintained and the interior layout; for instance, has the developer maintained privacy in the layout/plan of the flat? The architect also should take responsibility of having these plans approved by the BMC without amendments. The PMC’s Architect should track the entire municipal procedure from Intimation of Disapproval (IOD), Commencement Certificate (CC) to Occupancy Certificate (OC) and give detailed reports at every stage in writing with his license number. Society members should also ask for written reports from the PMC at every stage of redevelopment to ensure safety of the project. Before vacating the entire building and handing it over to developer, the society and the PMC must ensure receipt of the list of important documents from the developer. Once the structure is demolished and actual construction starts, then the PMC’s supervisor must report all activities on site to the society once a week. This may include reports of materials procurement, their testing certificates, test certificates of concrete, and so on. Also it is the PMC’s duty to ensure good quality of work on site and the society must ensure that their developer also follows recommendations and suggestions given for the betterment of the structure. Redevelopment is a very critical issue as it involves collective efforts of many, such as society members, developer, the PMC, lawyer, BMC and several others. Smooth and timely development of the project involves proper coordination, supervision and verification. Society members should have a pragmatic approach towards the project and unity among themselves. Also they should have full faith in the professionals they hire. Utkarsh A. Jani is a project management consultant; he blogs at 


“The society should obtain the building plan and the project-cum- feasibility report should be prepared only based on this approved plan.�

FAQs with Adv. Anisha Shastri

Adv. Anisha Shastri throws light on a host of issues that leave housing society members confused What area does the developer consider in a redevelopment project – the area as per the approved building plan, or the area occupied by, and in possession of, the members? In co-operative housing societies, members often encroach upon the common areas of the society and enjoy these for many years without the society objecting. However as per the approved building plan and Agreement for Sale, the area is less than this. Therefore, when a co-operative housing society decides to go in for redevelopment, members consider the encroached areas that they have enjoyed for many years, which is more than the area mentioned in the approved building plan. Owing to this, there is often a dispute in the society and this affects the redevelopment project. However the developer will only consider the area mentioned in the approved building plan. Therefore, the society should obtain the building plan and the project-cum- feasibility report should be prepared only based on this approved plan. If members dispute this, project management consultants (PMCs) need to convince them that the additional area is not part of Floor Space Index (FSI) and cannot be considered at the time of redevelopment. If a member has purchased the terrace with the flat, what area will be considered? Previously developers sold the flat together with the terrace, and the purchaser paid the consideration, stamp duty and registration charges in respect of the flat as well as the terrace and enjoyed these for many years. Therefore when a co-operative housing society decides to go in for redevelopment, members who had purchased the flat with the terrace demand the area of both. However, if this is available in the approved building plan, then flat purchasers have full right to receive the benefits of the terrace, either by way of consideration, or through the additional area that the developer gives to members in the new flats. In case the terrace flat is not mentioned in the approved building plan then the member cannot force or demand that the developer provide the additional area or consideration of the terrace area. It is up to the developer to decide whether to give the benefits of the terrace flat to those who have occupied this area, if it is not in the approved building plan. What are the rights of garage / parking members who use these spaces for office or commercial purposes? Previously, the developer constructed the garage for parking vehicles and sold these to members. Members would convert the garage for commercial use without taking proper permission or following the due process of law. Therefore when the co-operative housing society decides to go for in for redevelopment, garage owners who use these for commercial purposes often demand a commercial unit for the garage area. However, if there is a garage available in the approved plan, then the member can demand the garage area and the developer will either provide parking in the stilt, podium or basement or offer additional area to be included in the new flat or offer a consideration to the member; however the member will not get any commercial unit in the redevelopment. If the garage is not available in the approved plan then the member will not get any benefits of the garage and it will be up to the developer whether to provide the garage area or not. The member cannot force this.

What if some members try to stall the redevelopment process? The co-operative housing society works as per the decision taken by the majority members, which is binding to all the members of the society whether they agree or not. As you are aware there are many buildings in Maharashtra which are in dilapidated condition, and beyond repairs or renovation. In such cases, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai is issuing vacating notices to such societies. As society members often do not have money to conduct major repairs, the Government introduced the redevelopment scheme-cum-procedure for those whose buildings were dilapidated and who wished to redevelop them by demolishing the existing building. Prior to 03.01.2009, there were no rules framed for co-operative housing societies that were planning redevelopment. Members would bring their own developer, and such members were taking huge advantage of the society and the other members. Societies were executing development agreements without any proper authority. However, once the Development Agreement was executed and the building was demolished, the developer would give excuses for the delay. This would lead to redevelopment projects being stalled, and many complaints were filed against the developer before the competent authority in respect of not completing and fullfilling with the terms and conditions of the Development Agreement.

“The co-operative housing society works as per the decision taken by the majority members�

Therefore to avoid such situations, which many co-operative housing societies faced, the Government of Maharashtra issued a directive dated 03.01.2009 under section 79 (A) of Maharashtra Societies Act 1960, laying down a mandatory procedure that co-operative housing societies going in for redevelopment had to follow. Any co-operative housing society planning redevelopment has to follow this so that action is taken by the society and there is uniformity between members. It also helps to choose the best, the most capable and financially stable developer to redevelop the society building in a manner that is smooth and transparent. What about disputes between the old committee and the new committee, where the old committee raises issues and does not allow the new committee to initiate the process? Such disputes, where the old committee raises issues, are because at the time when the old committee was handling the society, members subsequently elected to the new committee would not co-operate with them. However, members should work for the welfare of the society, so that the redevelopment project can be successful for all members. What about disputes between the managing committee and redevelopment committee? Redevelopment of a society is a huge responsibility and the society should have patience. There are many stages and steps that the committee member has to take and observe, owing to which it had become difficult for committee members to take correct decisions and appoint the appropriate developer, who is financially stable and has goodwill in the market. Therefore, many such societies that are going in for redevelopment appoint a redevelopment committee by passing a resolution at a Special General Body Meeting. The role of the redevelopment committee is to guide committee members in the redevelopment process so that the committee member can take appropriate decisions that benefit the society and are in favour of it. However, it is not compulsory or binding for committee members to take decisions, suggestions or guidance given by the redevelopment committee. The redevelopment committee is only formed to guide and give suggestions to the committee members. However, the final decision has to be taken by committee members with the approval of other members of the society. What about corruption by the committee, redevelopment committee, developers or PMCs? Prior to 03.01.2009, there was no rule or circular or directive framed for co-operative housing societies that were planning redevelopment. Owing to this, committee members used to execute Development Agreements without collecting detailed information about the developers. This resulted in other members of the society facing many problems. When the Government of Maharashtra realised this, it issued the


directive dated 03.01.2009 under Section 79(A) of the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act 1960. It is advisable that all societies wishing to go in for redevelopment follow the directive dated 03.01.2009, so that there is transparency in the redevelopment and no scope for confusion or disputes among the society members. Initially the society has to bear the expenses of PMCs, which is worth it as members are handing over flats that they have purchased, and these will be demolished and a new redeveloped building will be constructed. If the society follows the proper procedure under redevelopment, then the corruption which occurs everywhere can be reduced. The developer will not manipulate things and try to create disputes between the members of the society. What steps should one taken against minority members who do not cooperate in the redevelopment? The co-operative housing society works as per decisions taken by the majority members, which are binding to all society members. Whether this is acceptable to all members or not is irrelevant. In the redevelopment of a co-operative housing society, this is mentioned in the Section 79 (A) directive dated 03.01.2009 issued by the Government of Maharashtra under the Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act, 1960. In the redevelopment procedure if 75% or more members have agreed to appoint the same developer and also passed the resolutions in the Special General Body Meeting in the presence of the authorised officer of the Deputy Registrar, then it is binding to the other 25% or less /minority members who have not selected the same developer in the meeting. At the time of giving vacant possession of the flats, if minority members do not cooperate with the other majority members, then the developer can impose a penalty and also has full rights to take legal action against the non-co-operative members who are stalling the redevelopment project. Is it correct for the society to appoint a developer before obtaining conveyance? The main purpose for the formation of the co-operative housing society is to obtain the conveyance of the land together with the building standing thereon in favour of the society within four months of formation of the society. However developers and landowners do not fulfill their statutory obligation of granting the conveyance of the land together with the building standing thereon in favour of the society. This is so that they can take advantage and keep the legal rights for constructing additional floors if the competent authority grants permission. Many co-operative housing societies appoint the developer to redevelop the society building and lay a condition before the developer to obtain conveyance in favour of the society. The redevelopment of the society thus gets delayed and the developer tries to make excuses, which leads to stalling of the redevelopment. Therefore it is advisable for all co-operative housing societies, before going in for the redevelopment, to take the necessary steps to get conveyance of the land together with the building standing thereon in favour of the society. This will ensure the society has a clear title and the chances of delay in the redevelopment project can be reduced and avoided. What about changes in policies and Development Control (DC) rules? Redevelopment is not completed within a year’s time; it is a time-consuming process. Every year there are changes in policies and rules, due to which the redevelopment is stalled. The developer keeps giving excuses and not completing the projects in time, so that he can take additional benefits if there is a change in policies or DC Rules. Therefore it very important at the time of executing any agreement with the developer that the society appoints its own PMC who can guide the society in the redevelopment project. The Legal Advisor of the society will mention in the Agreement the clause which states the steps to be taken when there is any change in policy and DC Rules. It should clearly be mentioned in the Agreement that if there is any change in policy or the DC Rules, and the developer wishes to take advantage of this, he has to take the consent and renegotiate with society members for the rights and benefits provided to the members as a result. What are the different types of redevelopment? The type of redevelopment depends on characteristic land and the existing building. Slum Redevelopment

is done under Slum Rehabilitation Act providing FSI of 3 to 4 depending upon the size of the land. If the land area to be developed is more than 4000 Sq. meters it can be done as a cluster development under section 33(9) giving FSI of 4. Cluster development is presently possible only in south Mumbai providing FSI of 4. The private land, cess building land or Slum land, MHADA building or any other developed as one layout which is known as cluster development. Presently such facility is not available in Suburban. Mill land is developed under separate Development Control Rules 58 under modernisation of Mill land. Then cess building/ tenanted building development under DC 33(7). Collector land development or MHADA societies redevelopment under section 33(5) and so on. By how much would the maintenance costs be expected to increase in the redeveloped building? On redevelopment, the property tax will be calculated SHORT TAKES on the basis of ready reckoner rate applicable at the time of granting of OC. Naturally, the property  It is important for the society to appoint its tax will be at least three to four times of the old rate own PMC fixed about 20 to 30 years when the first assessment  For corpus funds, an estimate of outgoings was done. Secondly, being a new building having should be done based on the nearby society all the benefits like CCTV, Intercom, Fire Fighting or in consultation with the PMC arrangement, Solar energy, Rain water harvesting, separate line for toilet water through boring, one or two lifts, if the project is big, with a gym, swimming pool and so on, it will again increase the outgoings. Thus one can expect the maintenance charges to go up with present amount of `1000/- to at least go up to `6000/- to `7000/- per month. Therefore, at the time of redevelopment, corpus amount is demanded to cover such cost. What is the kind of corpus fund that societies can generally expect to get on an average? What other benefits should they be asking for? An estimate of outgoing should be done based on the nearby society or in consultation with PMC. Assuming that the corpus outgoings shall give at least 6% income on the investment, the corpus fund should be taken to cover such increased maintenance from the Corpus fund. Amenity built up area of 2% is given free of charge and they are used as Gym and community hall. Society office of 200 sq. feet, Solar system, water harvesting, boring, CCTV, Security system for each flat, Intercom, Modular Kitchen, Security cabin and so on can be demanded from the developer. What steps would the flat owner need to take if there is already an existing loan on the property and the building is set to undergo redevelopment? Once the society executes the development agreement and approved plan of new building along with IOD (Intimation of Disapproval) from Local authority(BMC) is received, a Permanent Alternative Accommodation agreement is to be executed with the existing member, developer and the society and get it duly registered. Thereafter the member who has taken the loan needs to apply to the Financial Institution to substitute the new security with old security which is going to be demolished. The necessary NOC from builder and society to mortgage new flat is to be given to the Bank. Many banks agree to substitute the security. If the bank does not agree, the concerned members need to arrange the funds from other sources and clear the same. If the flat is in the name of a deceased parent, what are the steps to be taken if the building is to undergo redevelopment? It is advisable to get the flat and shares transferred in the name of the legal heirs by taking necessary release deed executed from other legal heirs. In case, there is dispute among the legal heirs, the person who is in possession shall be given rent during the temporary construction period and give the possession of new flat to the person who has given for demolition. An undertaking by the society and the developer may be insisted by such person who is giving the flat for redevelopment and the same need to be given. Only the corpus fund may be retained by the society till the dispute among the legal heirs is resolved. 


“In contract/ self-redevelopment, where the society members take charge of the project, with the help of a PMC, they could get 50% more area than otherwise.” Anup Gupta

REX CON COR Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

HELP YOURSELF Contract or self-redevelopment can help housing societies and their members get a better deal, says Anup Gupta and Parinay Sinha

Over the last decade, it has been seen that redevelopment projects often face problems; out of approximately 6,000 society buildings where redevelopment is feasible, more than 70 per cent are stuck because of some unscrupulous builders. To avoid such problems, one solution is contract/ self-redevelopment, where the society members take charge of the project, with the help of a project management consultant. This could also help them to get 50% more area than otherwise.


Step - 1 Appoint a project management consultant (PMC) to do a project feasibility report. When a society undergoes general redevelopment, the entire responsibility is with the builder. In contract redevelopment, only the construction responsibility is with the builder. Step – 2 Make arrangements for the finance. Under contract redevelopment, the society needs to arrange funds only for planning and passing. a. Each member should contribute a fund of ` five to ten lakh, but proportionate to their existing area. Say ` 1,000/ per sq.ft. b. Any 2/4 members may come forward and contribute towards initial planning / passing cost up to Intimation of Disapproval (IOD) against purchase of additional area in advance at a discounted price. c. The society may invite an outside investor (relatives of existing members) and offer only

one flat for sale at discounted price against payment of fund. d. Member may take bank loan of small amount on personal guarantee. e. Any other suitable option. Consultants manages a pool of funds where an individual can invest money with minimum guaranteed return of 15% to 20% depending on the project. The fund from this pool is only for initial planning / designing and approval up to IOD to support self or contract development. Also we have a number of solutions to this unavoidable question. Step – 3 Appoint a PMC / Architect to do all other technical works, including planning and passing up to the IOD stage.

Step - 4 1. Initiate the tender process to appoint the contractor / developer for actual construction. The format of tender should involve the developer being asked the cost of total construction as per the design / plan that has already been put up for passing. 2. The cost and benefit recovery by developers will be by offering proportionate saleable area in exchange of investment and profit. Step – 5 Cost for transit accommodation and corpus – 1-2 units / flats may be offered by the society for sale after the IOD and appointment of developer / contractor. Step – 6 The society must vacate the building and allow the developer to do the construction and also the controlled sale of his part of area only but @ 75% of the investment made by developer till that stage. Step – 7 The entire balance area / unit / flats will belong to the society, which will result in 50% more living area on the builder’s percentage. Step – 8 As soon as the construction is completed the role of the developer is over and he may not remain involved with the POA / DA. Example:- Feasibility report (financial results) of a society at Santacruz–(W),Mumbai.

SHORT TAKE  Contract/self-redevelopment is where society members take charge of the project, with the help of a project management consultant 1. Financial gain under general redevelopment – entire work responsibility with the builder. ` Sixty four crore and ninety nine lakh: Equal in kind as 50% + free carpet area + Nil usable area + ` 2,500/- per sq ft. on existing carpet area as corpus amount + ` 100/- approx. per sq. ft. on carpet area per month (24 months) transit amount + ` 20,000/- transportation charges + stamp duty and registration of individual agreement. Other benefits to each member shall be provided/ offered. 2. Financial gain under Contract Re-development – Only construction responsibility with builder under a barter system. ` Ninety two crore fifty eight lakh, equal in kind as 75% + free carpet area + nil usable area + ` 3,000/- per sq ft. on existing carpet area as Corpus amount + ` 100/- approx. per sq. ft. on carpet area per month (24 months) transit amount + ` 20,000/- transportation charges + stamp duty and registration of individual agreement other benefits to each member shall be provided/ offered. (Under Average and standard working system.)

A CONTRACT RE-DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY OF ADITYA SOCIETY - JUHU. A MHADA society of 40 members at JVPD wanted to redevelop their dilapidated building. In 2003, they invited various developers to quote a financial offer for the project after verifying all relevant title documents and plot area / carpet area. Many builders came forward. They offered 25-30% extra carpet area within 2.4 FSI. After visualising that the redevelopment can happen only once in lifetime, for more possibilities the society invited project management consultants (PMCs) through a newspaper notice. Out of 37 responses, the society appointed Rex Con Cor Consultant Pvt. Ltd. and asked us to explore more technical support / options. In 2004 we advised them contract development, which took them more than six months to understand. Finally, two members from the society took the initiative and confirmed the putting in the required investment. As per the project feasibility, the members – developer agreed to purchase salable area at market rate plus 15 % profit. Accordingly, carpet area equivalent to the total project cost with profit was agreed upon, to be provided to the developer member and the balance belonged to each member of the society. As a result each member got 66% carpet area extra (400 old to new 676 sq ft.) In 2007, Aditya B building got completed. In 2009, Aditya - A, got completed. In 2012, Aditya - C got completed. Conclusion: This is an example of contract development, wherein the basic funding is done by only two members, who were a practising Chartered Accountant (CA) and investor. Now, they are good, reputed builders in the area. They also accepted all technical advice from the PMC. The buildings were constructed as per zone iv, with 50% better strength, quality and 80 years of life.


A CONTRACT REDEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY OF KANDIVALI PRITI SANGAMBORIVALI–(W). A society of 76 members at Sai Baba Nagar wanted to redevelop their dilapidated building. The plot area is 2,000 and the existing carpet area was 3,000 (approx) In 2008, they invited various developers to quote a financial offer for the project. After verifying all relevant title documents and plot area / carpet area, very few builders came forward. They offered 10% extra area in form of flower bed, to be enclosed after the occupation certificate (OC), but no extra carpet within the FSI. They also wanted society members to pay for the construction cost. After visualising no possibilities, the society turned to M/S REX CON COR Consultants Pvt. Ltd. and contacted us for technical guidance. In 2009, we floated a tender through a newspaper. Out of the 18 developers who showed interest, only two remained in the race but under terms of no offer of extra area and no payment from members. This also fizzled out. In 2012, five developers / contractors were invited as per interest shown, under the terms that the society members must purchase at least 100 sq ft carpet in lieu of corpus / rent / no extra carpet area. this worked. After various ground-clearing discussions/ meetings 67 out of 76 member agreed to purchase additional carpet area @ ` 10,000/per sq ft. In 2012 after approval of the new Development Control Rules, the fungible area benefit also came into effect. Members got 25% extra carpet area out of this fungible area. Conclusion: This is an example of contract development, wherein the basic funding is done by members themselves and the project has moved forward. On July 18, the IOD was received and the flat allotment has been done. All members have vacated without dispute, and the demolition of the old building and construction of five floors was completed by November 1, 2014. Rex Con Cor, a project management consultant, offers technical, legal and liaisoning services to housing societies through their NGO, Gruha Sankalp Sanstha.

STRUCTURAL AUDITS MANDATORY In a notice dated June 11, 213, the Municipal Commissioner of Greater Mumbai released a public notice for compulsory structural audit of private buildings According to the notice, it is obligatory on the part of every owner and occupier of buildings in use for more than 30 years to have them inspected through a qualified structural engineer registered with the Municipal Corporation. “The said period of 30 years shall be from the date of i) issue of its completion certificate by the Corporation, or ii) issue of permission to occupy a building under section 353A, or iii) its physical occupation of at least 50 per cent of its built-up area, whichever is earlier. It is also mandatory to get the repair work done as suggested by the qualified structural engineer and submit the completion certificate along with the structural fitness certificate to MCGM”. Action will be taken if the corrective repairs suggested are not carried out within the specified period. 

“As a property renter during relocation, one has to be vigilant about the infrastructure impact and also consider out-of-the-box options for full value of the rent that the developer provides.” SANDEEP SADH

Managing Director and Founder Mumbai Property Exchange

A GOOD RENTAL DEAL When a housing society goes in for redevelopment, members have to move in elsewhere till the new building is complete. Sandeep Sadh has some pointers on finding the right rental home

When a housing society goes in for redevelopment, the process of relocation has its share of birth pangs. While it can be an overwhelming feeling to come back to a brand new home, home owners have to go through the difficult process of relocating elsewhere for an interim period of two to three years. You need to evaluate the time frame depending on the redevelopment of the society and possession timelines declared by the developer in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the society. This is very crucial as the Leave and License agreement which you will sign in Mumbai will be based on the term in which your house gets ready. We bring you a very simple guide which will give you a few insights on moving into a tenanted apartment while your home is being built. 1. Find the Location: The rental market in Mumbai in a lot of locations is still under-valued. For example, any location that is far from a train station or highway or basic infrastructure can get you a great deal, provided you are tuned to travel that extra mile. For example, in Malad West at Marve, there are several high-end apartments constructed with a Spanish theme and are very exclusive. A twobedroom apartment there is available for approximately Rs 25,000 rent and a 3BHK costs `35,000 to 40,000 rent even in today’s market conditions. These locations are off-beat and may suit professionals, consultants or couples who either travel a lot or have need-based or project-based travel. Usually, if you have children going to school or college, relocation to another micro-location

becomes very difficult as it uproots life to an extent and one has to worry about distances and extra travel time, in addition to finding alternate means of travel. Reviewing distances between home and school during relocation, especially, are crucial.

SHORT TAKES  While renting a property during the redevelopment period, it is worthwhile to look at out-of-the-box options  Put all terms and conditions on record 2. Be open to see other locations and not just look at one: Recently, a client was opting for an apartment in Andheri West as his daughter was going to a college in Juhu. They found the prices very high in Andheri West and finally settled for an apartment in Ghatkopar in close proximity to the Metro station. The daughter could travel comfortably upto Andheri DN Nagar and then take a rickshaw till Juhu, and the wife was happy as she got all her shopping, malls and other daily needs at walking distance. As a property renter during relocation, one has to be vigilant about the infrastructure impact and also consider out-of-the-box options for full value of the rent that the developer provides. If you can save some money on this, you can pay for comfortable travel with the savings. 3. Start your search at least a month before your move: When housing societies go in for redevelopment, most people will be looking to

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get an apartment in the same location. So don’t be surprised to see your neighbour in the same apartment, when you visit it. It’s highly advised that you start earmarking the location where you want to be well in advance. 4. Understand the neighborhood, building and apartment: Once you have shortlisted a building or an apartment, do visit it again at a different time, be it in the day or night. It is important to understand all aspects – the location, nearby shopping areas, amenities in the building and what the apartment offers inside. You have to match the items you are bringing from your old flat with what is available in the new one. Make sure you also spend enough time in the apartment to check water pressure, storage spaces, kitchen cabinets, wardrobes, geysers, piped gas and cellphone reception. 5. Let go of old things: Understandably, we do get hooked on to an old piece of furniture or the old bed, and so on. This is spring-cleaning time. Take only what you need in the rented flat and take back only things which are required in the new home. There are many websites today, which allow you to sell or buy furniture online. 6. Understand the Agreements and Exit Clause: Many of us do not see the intricate clauses in the Leave and License agreements. If you are renting for two or three years, and are sure that the builder will give you the possession in the time frame, please insist on a two to three-year lease agreement with a lock-in period from the owner’s side and give the same from your side. This one clause can save you a lot of money and time. Give an escalation – a fair escalation is anywhere between 5 and 10%, depending on the location. Since the owner pays the Society outgoings for the apartment, it is only fair that you should not worry about escalations. 7. Lease Extension Agreement – in Principle: While you move into your lease apartment, you must speak to the owners and appraise them about the fact that you are moving in for a period of two to three years and if there is a delay in the construction by a few months, the owners should agree to extend the lease till you get possession. Hence, it is imperative to have excellent relations with the owners. Give them the escalations, pay rent on time and then the owner should have no reason to say no to you, unless he has other reasons such as moving, or losing another tenant. 8. Put All on Record: These days with emails and so on you can keep all things on record so that there is no grey area of what is agreed upon and not. Draw up a term sheet encapsulating all the terms and conditions of the agreement, the term, the lock-in period, the notice period, rent, and

escalations, among other things. This would help tremendously in the long run. 9. List of amenities/ furniture in the House: Prior to getting possession of the property, do a joint inspection of the flat with the owners, and sign jointly on the List of Amenities, which should be attached to the Leave and License agreement and duly registered. In case anything is not working properly, it should be brought to the owner’s notice in writing beforehand. Remember once the possession is given to you, then there is a huge grey area as to whether it was working or not. If there is anything that the landlord did not agree to fix or you agreed to accept from your initial visit inspection such as taps, windows, missing tiles in the shower, make sure this damage is documented in your lease as pre-existing. 10. What’s Included in the Rent? In Mumbai, typically, the Rent is for the premises and/or the car parking if charged extra for an extra car etc. Please ensure that the last payment of water, electricity, cable, Internet and piped gas is done beforehand. You must pay all bills on time during the term of the agreement. The best way these days is to place all your utilities bills on your credit card to ensure they are paid automatically. Please ensure that you leave sufficient money in advance to the owners at the time of termination or expiry of the agreement to cover the utilities. 11. Know your Notice Period and Circumstances: It’s important that you read the agreement termination clauses, so you understand the implications of breaking your agreement early and your obligation of notice when you choose to move out at the end of the lease term. Be sure to read the agreement well before you execute. 12. Society Rules and Regulations: Please follow the society rules and regulations while you are in the apartment. Prior to moving in, most societies will have a meeting with the new tenant. Complete your bio-data there with your important telephone numbers and so on. Complete your police verification as per the local laws. 13. Stamp Duty and Registration: Ensure that you get your agreement registered and get a few copies notarised as the original remains with the property owners in Mumbai. 14. Paper Work: Do hire an experienced real estate consultant who can help you with all these aspects. Most of the issues you face during your lea se is because you have tried to do it all by yourself. 


THINK DURABILITY The right materials and a greater awareness of construction techniques are vital to ensure that structures are designed to last, says Vinod T. Harisingani

Construction materials and techniques have changed with time. The 20th century can rightly be called the century of the reinforced cement concrete structures and that continues to be so even today. RCC is used extensively because of the ease of construction and the ability of the concrete to form any shape. RCC construction also gives speed to the work. But, there is an important issue in using RCC. The issue is regarding the deterioration of the structures. Recently, heavy deterioration had been reported from all over the world. This is also experienced in India. The deterioration is due to the corrosion of the reinforcement steel bars.


Some other reasons:   Use of nominal mixes such as 1:2:4  High ‘water-to-cement’ ratio  Substandard cement  Sand with high silt content


 First: be aware that RCC structures are to be durable and then work towards it. Think durability. Talk durability.  Design to the applicable BIS codes including the earthquake factor. Take good points from American, British and other international codes.  Design for a minimum strength of M-30. This is necessary from durability consideration.  Introduce the concept of ‘life-cycle-cost’ (LCC) at the planning stage. Remember that there is high cost of restoration later in its life. Dharma Pattana, a Global Pagoda, coming up at Gorai, Mumbai, to accommodate 10,000 mediators at a time, a column-free space, is designed for a life of 500 years, with LCC concept.

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 Foundations cannot be inspected during the lifetime. Provide suitable additional protective coat.  bituminous system and brickbat coba with or without china mosaic chips. But, they have a short life. They all have some inherent problem


the structure and is without any joints.  Make chajjas sloping so that water does not stagnate and there is no vegetation growth. Use external plaster that is impermeable and crackles-type. Give a good bond with the masonry.  Use anchor fasteners for all joints. Forget M.S.nails.  Plumbing forms 12 to 20 percent of the cost of the building and is one of the major sources of leakage. Be careful. Use long life pipes, pressure test the joints and keep joints accessible. Remember G.I pipe life is about 15 years. So, for a structure life longer than that, use alternative material, say, copper etc.

 Water should not stagnate at any part.  Water should not seep into the building from any location.  Give access to all units of the structure for inspection, maintenance and restoration.  Use materials with life longer than the life of the structure.  Use blended cement only. Increase the percentage of the supplementary material. Use the ‘water-to-binder’ ratio 0.35 Design and specify a particular concrete mix. Forget 1:2:4,1:3:6 etc mixes.  Use graded, good quality sand with permissible silt content  Use water suitable for construction work. Test the water for chlorides and sulphate. These have  Apart from usual tests, test the concrete at site for in-situ permeability.  Specify mixing in mixers only. Goodbye to hand mixing.


SHORT TAKES  Introduce the concept of ‘life-cycle-cost’ (LCC) at the planning stage  Do not allow water to seep in from any location  Hacking of concrete develops micro-cracks that help deterioration of structure. Through hacking freshly placed concrete, we make the structure deteriorate from day one.  Make reinforcement uncongested for the reinforcement bar.  Start curing as early as possible. Make curing a separate item of work in the bill of quantities.


 Design the formwork to take the service load and make it rigid and water tight, consistent with the safety.  Give attention to construction joints so they do not become a passage for water seepage. Keep the construction joints as few as possible.

For structure durability some other steps will also help. They are:  Development control regulations should make it mandatory to incorporate measures to ensure durability to structures.  durability.  Engineering students should have courses in durability of structures, in their syllabus.  Financing and development agencies should insist on adoption of durability measures.


If built with lifecycle cost consideration and with awareness, any structure will last the life for which it is designed. Think durability. Talk durability. Vinod T. Harisingani is an expert in redevelopment, construction projects,

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NATURE AND LANDSCAPES - Vehicle-free landscaped garden with enchanting water works and a lounge & play area. SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT: Club House, Walking & Jogging Tracks, Table Tennis - Indoor Games Room, Full Size Tennis & Badminton Courts, Skating Rink, Swimming Pool and much more! SAFETY AND SECURITY FEATURES: Power back-up for lifts and common areas, Guard house, Intercom facilities & Round-the-clock security. ECO-FRIENDLY SYSTEM: Sewage treatment plant, water filtration plan, solar water heater & rainwater harvesting. Location advantage: Syngenta bus stop: 1 min, Panjim city: 20 mins, Ponda: 20 mins, Schools: 5 mins, Colleges: 20 mins, Hospital: 10 mins, Petrol Pump: 3 mins, Banks: 5 mins Site Office: Corlim Gardens, 124/1, Opp. Syngenta, Corlim, Old Goa - 403110. Marketing Office: Young Realty, 506, A-Wing, Western Edge II, Western Express Highway, Borivali (E), Mumbai-400 066. Email:; This ad does not constitute any form of an agreement and all purchases shall solely be governed by the terms of the agreement for sale.

OWN YOUR LAND If your builder does not provide conveyance, opt for deemed conveyance instead Deemed conveyance has come as a boon to housing societies, more than 80% of whom do not have conveyance of their land and buildings in Maharashtra. What is the meaning of Conveyance? Conveyance means transfer of title of ownership of immovable property from the original owner/s to the ultimate purchaser/s by executing the Conveyance Deed. What do you mean by “Conveyance Deed�? For the purpose of transfer of ownership, interest, title in an immovable property an Agreement is prepared between the original owner/s and the purchaser/s and such an Agreement is known as Conveyance Deed. In a co-operative housing society whose responsibility is it to execute the Conveyance Deed?

Once the Society is formed, it is the responsibility of both Society and Developers to complete the Conveyance formalities. As per the Model Byelaw No.5, the main object for which Society is registered is to obtain Conveyance of land and building in favour of the Society from original landlord and the builders/developers. As per Bye-law No. 155(a), a duty has been cast on the Committee to obtain the Conveyance and do the necessary things to obtain the Conveyance. As per Bye-law 175(C) (c) it is stated that a Civil Case may be filed in a Civil Court by the Society/ Committee to obtain the Conveyance from Builders/Developers or the Landlord. As per Rule 9 of The Maharashtra Ownership Flat Rules, 1964, the builder is legally bound and is responsible to execute Conveyance Deed within four months of the registration of the Society. What are the advantages of obtaining


Conveyance by a Housing Society? Obtaining Conveyance means transferring the ownership, title, right and interest in the land on which building is constructed along with entire building in favour of registered Society. So long as the Conveyance Deed is not executed, the ownership, right, title and interest in the property would remain with the owner/s/developers as the case may be. What is the meaning of Deemed Conveyance? The Promoter (Builder/Developer) is legally required to convey the land and the building within four months of formation to the Society or any legal body of the flat purchasers. However, it has been the experience that many Promoters (Builders/ Developers) have not conveyed the land and building to the legal bodies. Therefore, Government has amended the Maharashtra Ownership Flats Act, 1963 (MOFA) and provided for the Deemed Conveyance in favour of the legal bodies. Under the provision, Deemed Conveyance means after the expiry of four months of formation of the legal body, the land and building is deemed to have been conveyed to the legal body and to bring the same in the revenue record, a Competent Authority has

SHORT TAKE  Obtaining Conveyance means transferring the ownership, title, right and interest in the land on which building is constructed along with entire building in favour of the registered Society been designated who will hear the parties on the basis of applications received from the aggrieved party and transfers the title in favour of the legal body by passing the necessary order and Deemed Conveyance Certificate and appoint an Authorised Officer to execute the Conveyance Deed in favour of the Society and execute on behalf of non cooperative builder or the land owner. Getting the title of land and building by adopting the above procedure is known as Deemed Conveyance. Is there any further problem/litigation in getting the deemed conveyance, if the builder/ Landowner does not co-operate? Deemed conveyance is a final conveyance. There will not be any problem. Once the Deemed Conveyance Order is passed by the Competent Authority, the Conveyance Deed will be executed by the Authorised Officer in favour of the Legal Body. Further, the same will be registered. There is no appeal provided under MOFA,

against the Deemed Conveyance order passed by the Competent Authority. Once the Deemed Conveyance Order with Conveyance Deed is executed, the Index II has to be obtained and submitted to the Talati office or City Survey office to incorporate the name of the legal body in the 7/12 extracts or in the property card as the case may be. However, every citizen has been given the right under section 226 and 227 of the Constitution of India to file a private writ petition against any orders passed by any authority. Thus an aggrieved party may file a writ petition against deemed conveyance order. The experience is that 99% of the writ petition is decided in six months and such writ petition filed by the developer/ land owners have been dismissed by the Hon’ble High Court. What are the provisions for payment of stamp duty on Deemed Conveyance? Like Regular Conveyance, even on Deemed Conveyance, the Stamp Duty will be only Rs. 100/-, if all the flat owners have paid the Stamp Duty as applicable on conveyance at the time registration of their flat. In case there are some flat owners who have not paid the Stamp Duty or has escaped the duty, the same will have to be paid after the adjudication of the same and at the time of registration of the Deemed Conveyance Deed by the legal bodies and the same can be recovered from such flat owners. In case of chain of agreements, only the latest owner is required to produce the proof of payment of stamp duty on their agreement and chain of agreements need not be produced. No stamp duty required to be paid in case of unsold flats, open spaces and amenity spaces. If the agreement is prior to 10.12.1985, whether the agreement is registered or not, if proper proof of having occupied is submitted to the department, the stamp duty at old Market value applicable as on the date of agreement shall be applied at the time of collection of stamp duty. Only, if there is balance FSI as per the approved plan, the stamp duty on such balance FSI as per the current market value at the rate of 5% shall be collected at the time of adjudication of conveyance deed. How will the Conveyance in favour of the legal body be done in case of a Layout Plot where the builder carries out the construction in phases? In case of Layout Plot, the provision for Part Conveyance in proportion to the FSI consumed for that particular building is possible. The judgment in this regard has been confirmed by the Division bench of Hon’ble High Court and Hon’ble Supreme Court in the case of “Saraswati a Co-operative Housing Society in Borivali”. It has been clearly pointed out that in case of Layout Plot, the legal body will be entitled to get the proportionate undivided

rights, title and interest in the Layout Plot based on the FSI/TDR used for the respective building out of the total development potential of the entire Layout Plot as on the date of conveyance of the land and the building and as per the disclosure made by the Builder. In case the Builder has not disclosed the same, the entire balance FSI/TDR will be transferred to the legal bodies proportionately otherwise it will be available to the Builder. What is the procedure followed by the Competent Authority to give the Deemed Conveyance? Normally, the aggrieved party has to make the application to the Competent Authority in the prescribed form with the documents available against the builder, if he fails to convey the land and building to the legal body within four months of its formation. The Competent Authority shall scrutinize the application, collect the documents from the promoter/ builder or from the authorized officer appointed by him and get the application admitted or he himself executes the conveyance deed, so that he need not be present before the Sub-registrar as he is exempted under section 88 of Registration Act, 1908 from the physical presence before the sub-regitrar. After

“The Promoter (Builder/ Developer) is legally required to convey the land and the building within four months of formation to the Society or any legal body of the flat purchasers” the admission of the application, the Competent Authority shall conduct the hearing and then take the appropriate decision, whether the applicant or the legal body is a fit case for granting the Deemed Conveyance. If he passes a favourable order, then he appoints an authorised officer , who shall execute the Conveyance Deed or executes himself. Prior to get the execution from the Authorized officer or by the Competent authority in place of builder and land owner, the society need to adjudicate the conveyance deed and pay the required stamp duty. Once it is registered, approach the city survey office or talati to change the name in the government record like Property card or 7/12 extract by submitting the conveyance deed and index-II. What documents are required to be submitted along with the application to get the Deemed Conveyance? Out of the following, whatever is maximum,

documents as may be available with the society need to be attached with the application for Deemed Conveyance. i. The registered Agreement for Sale entered into with the Promoter/Opponent party, ii. 7/12 Extract and Village form No.6 (Mutation entries), iii. Property card, iv. Location Plan, v. City survey plan or survey plan from the Revenue Department, vi. Layout Plot plan approved by the local authority, vii. Architect Certificate about the entitlement of undivided interest in the entire Layout Plot, common areas and the facilities by each of the entity or the structure constructed or to be constructed on such Layout Plot, viii. Latest Title and Search Report for last 30 years from an Advocate, ix. Non-Agricultural Order, x. Certificate under Urban Land Ceiling Act, 1976, xi. Building/Structure Plan approved by the appropriate Authority, xii. Commencement Certificate, xiii. Completion Certificate, xiv. Occupation Certificate, xv. List of Flat Purchasers, xvi. Proof of payment of Stamp Duty, xvii. Proof of Registration, etc., xviii. Development Agreement or Power of Attorney or Agreement for Sale executed by the landlord with the Promoter for development or for transferring the right, title and the interest in the land in favour of the Promoter, xix. Any other land or building related documents papers in support of the application, xx. Legal notices sent to the Promoter and other interested parties to execute the Conveyance Deed or Declaration as provided under Maharashtra Apartments Act, 1970 in favour of the applicant/s, xxi. Draft conveyance deed/Declaration proposed to be executed in favour of the applicant. Of all, the most important documents are agreement executed with builder, at least one copy with any member, land records like 7/12 , property card, CTS map as per the details given in the schedule of the agreement, Building details from BMC assessment bill, approved plan, OC, if available and stamp duty details of individual members. Excerpted from ‘Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on Deemed Conveyance’ by CA Ramesh Prabhu, chairman of Maharashtra Societies Welfare Association. He was on the Committee constituted by the Government of Maharashtra to amend the rules for the procedural aspects of Deemed Conveyance. 

On December 11, 2014, the Bombay High Court delivered a very important judgment

Adv K K Ramani

A BIG RELIEF of redevelopment arrangements, says Adv. K K Ramani

In Mumbai, hundreds of co-operative housing societies are functioning in buildings that have become old and dilapidated; these societies lack their buildings. These societies seek the help of a developer to carry out the construction at it’s own cost and pay compensation to the society members in the form of corpus, rent and larger area. Controversy had existed between societies and the Income Tax Department regarding taxability of these amounts. On December 11, 2014, the Bombay High Court delivered a very important judgment on this point. It is hoped that this decision would put the matter to rest. In the case of the Commissioner of Income Tax-18 Vs. Sambhaji Nagar Co-op. Housing Society Ltd. (Income Tax Appeal No. 1356 order of the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) that compensation of Rs. 2,23,25,157/- received by the society from the developer is not taxable. Here are the brief facts of the case. With the promulgation of Development Control Rules, 1991 (DCR), the society acquired right of putting up the additional construction through Transfer of Development Rights (TDR). The society transferred the TDR right to a developer.

usion regarding taxability

holding that this is not a case where extra FSI had occurred due to change in law but TDR already existed at the time of acquisition of the land for society’s building. The Tribunal followed a decision by another Bench in the case of New Shailaja CHS involving a similar controversy and held that sale of TDR does not give rise to any Capital Gains chargeable to tax. The High Court looked into the provisions of Sec. 48 wherein the mode of computation of Capital Gain is laid down, Sec. 49 wherein cost with reference to certain modes of acquisition is set out and Sec 55 (2) clarifying cost of acquisition for the purpose of sec 48 of 49. case additional FSI/TDR is generated by change in D.C. Rules and it is not a case of sale of development rights which were embedded in the land. High Court held that Tribunal has followed its own decision in New Shailaja Co-operative Housing Society which is based on Supreme Court’s decision in B.C. Srinivasa Setty 128 ITR 294 SC holding that society did not incur any cost of acquisition in respect of the right emanating from 1991 Rules. The High Court upheld the Tribunal’s order.

of land includes the cost of TDR rights which right is attached to the land owned by the society. Therefore, there is transfer of Capital asset chargeable to tax. The Commissioner of Income Tax (Appeals) –CIT(A) – upheld the order of A.O.

This judgment will be a big relief for all those societies which have redeveloped their properties. 



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Sales Office & Site Add: Socorro Gardens, Survey no. 402/2, Kamath Nagar, Near Damian De Goa, Socorro, Porvorim, Goa-403 501. Email:; Marketing Office: Young Realty, 506, A-Wing, Western Edge II, Western Express Highway, Borivali (E), Mumbai-400 066. For our other projects visit This ad does not constitute any form of an agreement and all purchases shall solely be governed by the terms of the agreement for sale.


LEAKAGE-FREE LIFESTYLES Prevention is much better than cure, believes Dr Sanjay Bahadur Many countries around the world have addressed the issue of increase in demand of housing by application of sustainable innovation, advanced technology, better quality of raw materials and skilled labour. One such example is Singapore. After 1959, this country faced a serious problem of housing shortages. Housing and Development Board (HDB ) Singapore ensured the inclusion of latest planning and technological innovations, and tested new ideas constantly. Their robust technology and capacity to adapt has transformed Singapore from ‘a country of slums’ to one of the most architecturally beautiful places in the world. Be it their awestruck designs or their quality of construction, it has become a reference point for many contemporary urban spaces. In India, to provide mass housing, aspects like longevity and protection are often compromised in new constructions, leading to costly repairs of the building within a few years of construction. Cracks, leakages, falling parapets, wet walls are some damages that a major chunk of the affordable housing segment faces structure. Are we building vertical slums? Mumbai, in particular, is exposed to hot and humid weather along with experiencing heavy monsoons. Exposure to extreme heat and water can take its toll on a structure. The focus of construction technology, therefore, should be to protect structures from the

Dr. Sanjay Bahadur

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onslaught of water and heat. Unfortunately there is very little general awareness about technologies and products that aid leak and crack proof construction.

newly built property from within. Terrace: This is one of the most common areas to focus in construction today. Terraces and roofs have concrete slabs which have water absorbing done with conventional Brickbat Coba. BBC is not elastic and therefore crack after some time due to thermal expansion and contraction. Re-doing aged solution for this problem area - Dr Fixit’s Blueseal. The system boasts of superior performance in comparison to Brickbat Coba, is much faster to execute, requires less manpower, has better insulation properties and is seamless with good Wet Areas: Using substandard material in the construction of the bathroom is the biggest source of leakages in constructions causing internal wall

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purposes. In order to take care of the softscape podium, Dr. Fixit Extensa and Dr Fixit’s Samshield PS 3500 makes for an excellent product. Its dual product system forms an additional protection of a durable self-adhesive membrane. It is best used a unique spray applied system with over 1000% elongation, seamless and instant setting property. These products protect the structure from the dampness created by the soil of landscape podium and prevent cracks that appear due to roots of certain plants used in landscape podiums. External walls: Like the terrace and roof slabs, the exterior walls too are constantly exposed to sun and rain reducing their durability. They are also prone to cracks within the building causing leakages and water penetration. In addition to climatic conditions, walls leaves a lot of scope for water absorption as external walls is recommended to prevent dampness due to water seepage and also to maintain the structural durability of the wall. Dr Fixit Raincoat will prevent the exterior of the structure. Made of high quality acrylic emulsion polymer in addition to other leakage preventive products, Dr Fixit Raincoat

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coating for exterior walls of the buildings. Raincoat forms an impermeable layer around your building. This product is also water and UV resistant, microbial resistant; ease application and ecofriendly amongst its other qualities If all these areas are taken care of right from the foundation of a building, there will be delayed deterioration. After all, prevention is always better than cure as curing a problem tends to be costlier and more tedious than the preventive measures that can be taken. Apart from the costs, a damp leaky structure is more susceptible to collapsing even

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Regional Head Mumbai, Kolte-Patil Developers Ltd

According to Mr. Gopal Sarda, Regional Head Mumbai of Kolte-Patil Developers, recent changes in the rules and regulations governing redevelopment have made the process more transparent and provide a level playing field for developers Kolte-Patil Developers Ltd. is Pune’s largest developer and has completed over 10 million sq. ft. of landmark developments in Pune and Bengaluru. The company has built projects in multiple segments such as residential, commercial, retail, IT parks, and integrated townships. Kolte-Patil’s projects are known as spaces that blend in with the surroundings and exude vitality and aesthetic appeal. All of them also reflect the core values of the company – honesty, innovation, excellence eco-friendliness, technology, sustainability, value and commitment to time schedules. In the last few years, the company has made a strong push in Mumbai, signing up some upscale redevelopment projects in the western suburbs.

Mr. Gopal Sarda, Regional Head Mumbai of Kolte-Patil Developers Ltd., spoke to Raju Kane about their projects and the redevelopment scenario in Mumbai.

Raju Kane (RK): You have been traditionally present in Pune and then expanded to Bengaluru. What attracted you to Mumbai’s redevelopment market? Mr. Gopal Sarda (GS): The last few years have seen some structural changes as far as the redevelopment market in Mumbai is concerned. The state government has issued several directives under Section 79 (A) of the Maharashtra State Co-operative Societies Act, making the whole process far more transparent and seamless. Prior to these directives, most societies wanting to opt for redevelopment would form a special committee of members who would then between themselves decide which developers to work with and then recommend a few names to the general body. The whole system was opaque and inevitably resulted in a lot of disputes and litigation. But the new directives have mandated societies to appoint Project Management Consultants (PMCs). The PMC has to survey the society’s building and lands, study relevant government policies regarding Floor Space Index (FSI), Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) and after taking member’s suggestions prepared a detailed project report. Once this report is approved, the PMC prepares a detailed tender and once the sealed bids are received the members vote on which developer they want to opt for. The rules also lay down detailed guidelines for the kind of agreement to be signed between the society and the developer. All this has made the process extremely transparent and reduced unnecessary delays that used to arise from litigation etc. These changes coupled with other decisions of the government like the use of fungible FSI in redevelopment have levelled the playing field and made Mumbai an attractive market for developers like us.


RK: So how many redevelopment projects have you signed up so far? What is the key differentiator that you offer societies when you bid for redevelopment tenders? GS: We have signed up projects in Khar, Santacruz, Vile Parle, Andheri, Malad and Goregaon. Besides we are also looking at a few sites in Chembur, Dadar, Prabhadevi and Matunga. Given the benchmarks for Internal Rate of Return (IRR) that we have set for ourselves we are only looking at projects where the going rate is ` 10,000 or more per sq. ft. All told the current projects in hand, we are redeveloping over 1,100 units. Construction work on these projects is still to start as they are awaiting various permissions and clearances. Our deadline is to complete these projects in the next three to four years. The company believes that its record of honesty, innovation and commitment to schedules is its key differentiator. Societies dealing with us know that we will keep all promises and adhere to the letter and spirit of the agreements with sign with them. All our projects are designed to be Indian Green Building Code compliant. But it is not just a matter of certification; very often we go beyond the requirements of a certificate and take additional steps like installing solar panels on top of the buildings to save on electricity and green house emissions. We are committed to making a sustainable difference to Mumbai by offering a good product and this is finding increasing acceptance. RK: Are you also looking at the Slum Redevelopment segment of the market?

SHORT TAKES  The state government has issued several directives under Section 79 (A) of the Maharashtra State Co-operative Societies Act, making the redevelopment process far more transparent and seamless  Kolte Patil is redeveloping about 1,100 units in projects in the western suburbs and is also looking at areas like Prabhadevi, Dadar, Matunga and Chembur  The company believes that its record of honesty, innovation and commitment to schedules is its key differentiator

GS: At present we are not really interested in the SRA segment of the redevelopment market. The process is too long-winded and often non-transparent. As a company listed on the stock markets, we have to adhere to certain financial parameters and corporate governance norms and the current SRA redevelopment scenario doesn’t allow that. If the rules change and the situation improves, we may have a re-look at the segment at that point of time. RK: Talking about that aspect, what kind of changes would be recommended in the current rules and regulations governing the redevelopment sector? GS: Look, there are several archaic rules and regulations that make absolutely no sense when applied to the redevelopment sector. I will give you a few simple examples. There is a rule that says that a developer has to reserve 20% of the net plot FSI being redeveloped for economically weaker sections (EWS). Incredibly the same applies to redevelopment as well. Now if the society has to give up 20% of the net plot FSI for EWS, why would it even opt for redevelopment? Similarly there is an environmental norm that mandates that 50% of the plot area should be as an open space. You are not even allowed to build anything below this open space. Now most societies opting for redevelopment are by definition old. They were built when private cars in India were a rarity and do not have enough parking spaces. Now if you are going to tell me as a redeveloper that I have to a) leave 50 of the plot open and not even build anything below this open space and b) provide adequate parking to all members, I have little option but to have two or three levels of basement parking. This increases the costs and affects the economic viability of the project. I could do it in micro-markets where the prices are relatively high, but won’t be able to do it in other micro markets. These rules are impeding redevelopment and only doing a dis-service to Mumbai. RK: How important do you think is the whole concept of redevelopment for Mumbai? GS: Mumbai is an island city, and as a result has a very limited supply of land. If it has to accommodate its increasing population and provide them with decent housing, there is little choice but to redevelop. In the last five decades or so, the character of the city as well as the demands and aspirations of the citizens have changed. The only way to meet these aspirations and demands is by redeveloping old properties. RK: One fear that is often expressed in the redevelopment debate is that if buildings are redeveloped and keep going vertical it will soon overwhelm the city’s already creaking infrastructure. Your thoughts?

GS: I think redevelopment of old buildings and infrastructure development have to go hand in hand. These issues are linked. Mumbai needs huge investments in infrastructure – enhanced connectivity, mass transportation, water, sanitation etc. Especially important is more east-west connectivity. Just look at what a huge difference two small projects – the Santacruz-Chembur Link Road and the Andheri-Ghatkopar metro have done. We need far more of these linkages and they need to be multi-modal. Today you can travel 150 kms from Pune to Navi Mumbai in two hours and then spend an equal amount of time getting from Navi Mumbai to Andheri, a distance of about 30 kms. This needs to change. RK: How do you think improved infrastructure impacts real estate? GS: Even incremental improvements in infrastructure have a huge impact on real estate. If BKC has emerged as a financial hub, it is because of the infrastructure in the area and linkage like the Bandra-Worli Sea Link. Similarly if you look at micro-markets like Chembur and Ghatkopar, the impact of projects like the Eastern Freeway, SCLR and Mumbai Metro have been huge. Within a year, rates in Chembur have gone up from about ` 10,000 per sq ft to about ` 18,000 per sq ft. RK: One last question. A theme of this year’s edition of Mumbai Makeover is Iconic Buildings. In your opinion what makes for an Iconic Building? GS: For a building to be iconic in a city like Mumbai, one key ingredient, of course, is the height. As the entire city goes increasingly vertical, an Iconic Building has to have the height. But it is not the only ingredient. I think such buildings have to have a perfect balance between functionality and aesthetics. A building that is beautiful but is not functional would be good as a tomb perhaps but little else. Similarly a building that is merely functional without the right aesthetics cannot become iconic, however tall it might be. But there is a third aspect that also makes buildings iconic; it is the kind of people staying with that building. Take Samudra Mahal for example. As today’s buildings in Mumbai go, it is a middling height. It also does not have several snazzy amenities being offered by new projects. Yet it continues to be among the most desirable addresses in Mumbai, because of the kind of people staying there. That I think is also a key ingredient.

“Mumbai needs huge investments in infrastructure – enhanced connectivity, mass transportation, water, sanitation etc. Especially important is more eastwest connectivity. Just look at what a huge difference two small projects – the Santacruz-Chembur Link Road and the Andheri-Ghatkopar metro has done.”




Managing Director, Kalpataru Ltd.

A pragmatic redevelopment policy by the government can go a long way in creating good and affordable housing stock, believes Parag Munot, Managing Director, Kalpataru Ltd. Established in 1969 by the first generation entrepreneur Mr. Mofatraj Munot, the Kalpataru Group has diverse interests in Real Estate Development, Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) in Power Transmission, Civil Contracting and Infrastructure, Property and Facility Management and Logistics and Warehousing Services. The Group’s hallmark is its flagship company - Kalpataru Limited. Kalpataru Ltd is one of the leading real estate development companies in India, with a strong presence in western India. Pioneering the concept of creating lifestyle living, Kalpataru Group has built more than 93 landmark edifices covering over 16 million square feet of area. The company has over 45 years of expertise in creating landmarks, luxury apartments, large residential complexes and townships and signature commercial projects in the financial hub of the country - Mumbai, Thane and Pune. In an age where architecture is mainly utilitarian, Kalpataru endeavours to combine the functional with the aesthetic and maintains the highest standards of quality in every detail. Re-defining the skyline of urban India, Kalpataru has built landmark residential and commercial projects. The group has been in the forefront of technological advancements; one of the first few real estate companies to start using an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system as early as in 1995, Kalpataru has today successfully implemented SAP SHORT TAKES across the organisation with IBM as the implementation partner. It is also an ISO-certified organisation since 1998.  Kalpataru Ltd is one of the leading real estate development companies in India, Defining their projects as ‘Spaces that Think’, Kalpataru with a strong presence in western India has won several accolades, accreditations and awards  They have been active in the from premium institutions and managing bodies such as redevelopment space, and believe that Construction World, Construction Week India, Realty Plus, it is essential in a city that continues to CNBC Asia-Pacific, CNBC Awaaz – Crisil, Maharashtra attract thousands of migrants daily Chamber of Housing Industry (MCHI) and Accommodation Times. They have also been actively involved in community development initiatives targeted towards the betterment of the society through the Munot F oundation. The Group runs various programs in Education, Healthcare and Environment segments with an aim to contribute towards the development of the society. From Ghatkopar to Goregaon, Santacruz to Thane and in other locations in the city, Kalpataru Ltd has been redefining skylines and upgrading the ambience of traditional neighbourhoods in Mumbai. They have been active in the redevelopment space, and believe that it is essential in a city that continues to attract thousands of migrants daily.

Here’s what Parag Munot, Managing Director of Kalpataru Ltd, has to say on redevelopment and related issues.

MUMBAI MAKEOVER (MM): Kalpataru Group has been active in the real estate industry for more than four decades. How has the city changed in all these years and what is your view on redevelopment and the difference it can make? PARAG MUNOT (PM): The issue of redevelopment has emerged as a major factor in the last few years in Mumbai as the metropolis is critically short of land for new housing. With the rapid development of Mumbai and its suburbs, the demand for housing and commercial establishments has shot up and the supply bottleneck is hurting the overall growth. A pragmatic redevelopment policy by the government can go a long way in creating good and affordable housing stock that can meet the burgeoning demand for housing as well as commercial needs. Kalpataru Group, which has had a prominent presence in Mumbai for the last four decades, has witnessed monumental changes in the making of the city in these forty years. Not only have the city limits been extended, the parameters of growth have been re-defined. Vertical growth has seen a major push Kalpataru Solitaire in these years. Though there is still need to improve the city’s infrastructure, the overall improvement in the connectivity has made the people move into far suburbs. Development of the Sea Link, Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC) and Navi Mumbai are some of the major developments in these forty years which have changed the way we live in Mumbai. In this island city, starved of space and with its limitations of geographical expansion, redevelopment is the only large opportunity. Old buildings are dilapidated and require huge recurring repair expenses. Hence redevelopment is the only option for such buildings/societies. It can also help solve issues like a lack of parking, infrastructure development, security, safety and recreational spaces such as gardens. Earlier developments were short on lifestyle aspirations of people and redevelopment gives them an opportunity to fulfil their aspirations. MM: What it will take to make Mumbai a world-class city? PM: A world-class city basically should cater to the minimum needs of its citizens like good residential houses, adequate infrastructure in terms of Roads, Metrorail including other public means of transport and an efficient environment to conduct business. While the government is working on all these vital issues, project delays and the consequent rise in costs add to the woes of infrastructure bottleneck. There is an imperative need for the government to come out with a pragmatic redevelopment policy as well as faster clearance system to push for growth in the housing sector. To make Mumbai a world-class city, we need a long-term urban planning vision to cater to the infrastructure needs of today and tomorrow coupled with speedy policy implementation. In addition, improvement in public transport systems and increasing the supply, to cater to the ever-increasing housing demand. MM: How does changing infrastructure impact image, demand and values of a particular location? PM: Infrastructure development enhances the ease of commutation, thereby increasing demand for residential properties nearby. Some of the major infrastructure developments/ proposals that have positively impacted property development include the Mumbai Metro service, Santacruz-Chembur Link Road (SCLR), Mumbai-Pune Expressway, widening of the Sion-Panvel Highway and the proposed new international airport in Navi Mumbai. Mumbai Metro has given a new lease of life to congested locations like Marol and Saki Naka. Similarly, SCLR has eased the flow of traffic around Santacruz and Chembur, increasing project demand in the region and valuation. The infrastructure development in Navi Mumbai like the road-widening projects and proposed international airport has increased demand for places like Panvel, Kharghar and Belapur, increasing valuation of properties around this region. The proposed Local Rail Transit (LRT), flyovers, wide roads, flyovers and water-front development projects have converted Thane into an independent city of its own. In the past, the emergence of new central business districts in Bandra-Kurla Complex, Andheri, Seepz and Powai has enabled growth of suburbs like Goregaon.


MM: What it is that makes a building iconic, in your view? PM: It is many factors involved that make a building iconic. In addition to the strategic location, conceptualisation of an architectural landmark, incorporating contemporary art and design are the fundamentals of creating an iconic development. The architectural design must also have efficient and optimal interior space planning along with abundant facilities and green spaces in the development. Any idea is as good as its execution so for the same, it is very important to have a strong execution management team to deliver quality construction to achieve the objective. MM: Tell us about the various Kalpataru projects, particularly those which are being constructed on defunct mill land or locations where redevelopment of old housing societies is taking place. PM: Kalpataru Sparkle – MIG II CHS is a contemporary designed 18-storeyed tower located in Bandra East. The project offers spacious 3-BHK, 4-BHK and 5.5 BHK residences. There are four flats per floor. Some of the exciting features of Kalpataru Sparkle include a grand air-conditioned entrance lobby, clubhouse with world-class gymnasium and state-of-the-art equipment, a large swimming pool and toddlers’ pool with spacious pool decks, landscaped terrace designed on each tower, landscaped garden with children’s play area and four-tier advanced and integrated safety and security system. Designed by renowned architects – GA design and Eco-ID, Singapore – this landmark project is iconic in form and pathbreaking in design. Set in the heart of Juhu, Kalpataru Solitaire is a multistoreyed tower designed by Architect Sanjay Puri with landscaping by Cracknell, Dubai. The development has 3 and 4 Bedroom apartments with decks. Kalpataru Elegance - Yashodhan BOI CHS, Andheri (W) is another project in our redevelopment space.

Kalpataru Sparkle

MM: What do you see as the main challenges involved in redevelopment in Mumbai and what can be done to mitigate these? What would you say about the policies regarding redevelopment? Is there anything you would like to convey to the new government in Maharashtra on this issue? PM: Redevelopment is critical for Mumbai city. To improve the urban living and for redeveloping the city, it is imperative that the government has a progressive policy. The government must give incentives to old and dilapidated buildings with inefficient infrastructure such as parking to go in for redevelopment. The government at the moment has various policies with regard to redevelopment which they must improvise for speedy implementation. MM: How does redevelopment benefit housing societies, especially older ones, and why is it important that they consider going in for it? PM: Redevelopment benefits housing societies which are old or dilapidated. By going for redevelopment they can get new properties with latest amenities and facilities such as parking and clubhouse facilities. Also, buildings which are 30 years or older need continuous maintenance and repair which can be mitigated by going for redevelopment. One can also incorporate new security, technology and green environment in the development MM: What do you see as the other larger issues that need to be tackled? PM: Housing is a major need in metropolitan cities like Mumbai and the state government must come forward with positive policy announcements to augment the housing stock. It is only by increasing supply we will be able to cater to the demand of affordable housing. 


Director, Omkar Realtors & Developers

In the arena of redevelopment, Omkar Realtors and Developers Pvt Ltd, is amongst the most respected names in Mumbai. Combining the core values of integrity, inclusion, equality and excellence, Omkar has gained credibility among all stakeholders, be it the customer, partners, financial community, government authorities or industry experts. The company, which has established its presence in Mumbai’s real estate space, has so far delivered four million square feet across residential and commercial real estate. It is currently working on projects spanning over 15 million sq. ft. area in Mumbai with some of them fast nearing completion; much ahead of the average industry timelines.

Raju Kane of Mumbai Makeover engaged Kaushik More, Director, Omkar Realtors & Developers to gain an insight into the work and vision dynamics which has propelled Brand Omkar as one of the most preferred choices for redevelopment in the country’s premium real estate market; especially residential societies. Raju Kane (RK): Tell us about your redevelopment projects. Kaushik More (KM): Today, we are in the forefront of executing redevelopment projects in Mumbai spanning Slum Redevelopment Authority (SRA), large societies and MHADA. Overall, we have delivered close to 10,000 quality houses across Mumbai and are currently working on a strong pipeline. We have redeveloped societies located at Dadar and Parel. We are working on large societies in Sion, Lalbaug, Parel areas. Our plans include MHADA projects. Incidentally, we are privileged to be ranked as the Preferred Developer of buildings to take up redevelopment of MHADA land having built-up area more than 11 lakh sq. ft. With the consent of more than 70% of the residents of Gaikwad Nagar, Sion, we have submitted our redevelopment scheme to BMC, the land-owning authority, and are in active talks with Abhudaya Nagar which has approximately 3,500 tenants. In case of redeveloping societies, we are in a strong and credible position, to offer quality luxury developments in record timelines owing to our strengths in the areas of construction technology, amenities and project management. Today, with a capacity to deliver 30 lakh sq. ft. of construction annually, we are eyeing projects across the entire MMR area. RK: What were the main challenges you have faced while redeveloping projects? KM: Initially the biggest challenge was to create awareness and win trust. Tenants were hardly aware of the redevelopment process and benefits it could offer them. While MHADA requirements and government regulations did ensure that the developer who takes up the redevelopment project is financially sound and has the capacity/track record to deliver, the tenants still feel insecure. After all, they are vacating their homes. We worked hard on creating a bond with them by educating, guiding and hand-holding. To bridge the trust deficit was a big challenge in the earlier years of our operations. There were issues regarding temporary transit housing too. Most tenants preferred staying together in the same locality and this was a logistical challenge. RK: Has it become easier to convince tenants over the years? KM: Post establishing a credible track record in terms of quality, delivery timeline, bonding etc., and the realisation that redevelopment is an inevitable process, we have bridged the trust deficit over the years. Today we enjoy strong goodwill in the redevelopment market. The current generation is very practical, well-educated and aspirational. They are keen on collaborating with developers who bring a good track record to the table and are highly transparent throughout the redevelopment process.


RK: Redevelopment projects often get stalled because of a handful of unreasonable members/ tenants who oppose the project. How do you deal with this? KM: MHADA rules clearly state that at least 70% of the tenants have to opt for redevelopment. If this agreement is in place and a handful of tenants are not in agreement for redevelopment, MHADA has the legal authority to act against them, including taking help of the police for forcible eviction. But generally we do not allow the situation to escalate to that level and manage to convince reluctant tenants to agree. See, the fact is that most buildings that are covered by the DCR 33(7) are dilapidated buildings that are no longer safe. So even if some people are initially opposed to the idea of redevelopment, they eventually agree. RK: How do you decide which projects to bid for? say in terms of rate per sq. ft.? KM: It is not so much the rate prevalent in the area as much as the financial viability of the project as a whole that matters and this differs from project to project. There may be some projects where the area you need to provide to the tenants free of cost, may be lower, in other more dense locations, this area may be larger, with an obvious impact on the viability. Similarly, depending on the specific micro-location, the market rate could vary. So you might have a situation where the rate for sale portion of a redevelopment in, say, Dadar, could be lower than another project in the vicinity. But we have projects going on across various locations spanning Malad, Jogeshwari, Andheri, Vile Parle, Chembur, Dadar, Parel, Bhoiwada and Worli etc. RK: What are your thoughts on redevelopment?


 In the last few years, people have recognised that redevelopment in Mumbai is an inevitable process.  The new generation is keen on collaborating with responsible developers

KM: The recent Supreme Court judgment on 33 (7) redevelopment which made six meter open space instead of 1.5 meter all sides of the new construction has been a major dampener on redevelopment of cessed buildings. While the Supreme Court was right in laying down these guidelines, in the sense this much space is required for fire tenders to fight fires, the situation on the ground is quite different. Most of the plots that fall under 33 (7) are small. These old buildings stand on plots that are about 1,000 sq. mts. or so. Leaving six meters open space on all sides makes the redevelopment practically unviable. As a result a lot of proposals to redevelop under 33 (7) have been stalled. But there are other issues as well. Very often the owners are different for various plots; the tenement sizes are different, so it becomes very difficult for the developer to satisfy all tenants and landlords. To tackle this, what the state government needs to do is come out with a policy that helps this kind of cluster redevelopment. Secondly, in slum redevelopment, the government policy says that irrespective of the size of the slum, each family will get a tenement measuring 269 sq ft of carpet area. If something similar can be done for buildings under 33(7) where the tenants do not have much of a choice and the compensation to the landlords is also standardised only then cluster redevelopment can take place based on market value according to the ready reckoner. RK: In fact most experts we speak to advocate cluster redevelopment. KM: Absolutely, cluster redevelopment is the ideal solution but how often is it feasible on the ground? If there are ten landlords for a minimum plot admeasuring 4,000 sq mts and innumerable tenants with differing demands, convincing all of them is a challenge. As far as infrastructure development goes, there can never be a debate on that. But the fact is that the government charges development and infrastructure charges to the developer. Shouldn’t that be used to develop infrastructure? RK: Tell about your execution record. KM: So far all the redevelopment is concerned either for MHADA or SRA, once the existing plot is completely vacant, we have been able to deliver new development between two to three years. Most of our work for rehabilitation buildings is done by Larsen & Toubro (L&T) as our contractor. Part of the contract is a bonus that is built in for L&T for before time delivery and a penalty for late delivery. In all our projects, they have managed to earn the bonus. Even for redevelopment projects, Omkar has been in the forefront of deploying very advanced engineering technologies which have raised the quality bar for the industry itself. I would like to add that even as the government and the industry work on further reforms, Omkar has carried on its work in close conjunction with government authorities and stakeholders without ever stepping out of the regulatory framework. Our focus is on servicing our customers and earning goodwill; gains will follow. 

THE ONLY OPTION Q&A with Chandresh D. Mehta

Director, Rustomjee Group

Redevelopment is vital to bridging the demand–supply gap in housing, says Chandresh Mehta

Rustomjee has carved a niche for itself in the ever-growing real estate sector, with a portfolio that includes 10 million square feet of completed projects; 15 million square feet of ongoing development and another 30 million square feet of planned development in the pipeline, spanning across the best locations of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). Their portfolio currently includes two very large townships, residential spaces, office complexes, retail developments, spaces for healthcare and education spread across BKC Annex, Khar, Upper Juhu, Kandivali, Borivali, Virar and Thane. Rustomjee lays emphasis on adding value to the lives of their homeowners through their core business, their CSR initiatives and philanthropy. They have strived to ensure that every blueprint includes childfriendly spaces for parks, playgrounds, and learning rooms and thereby encouraging families to spend quality time with each other. Redevelopment is an important aspect of Rustomjee’s portfolio, under your charge. Tell us about how you first got into the redevelopment space and your learnings from the experience. Rustomjee was amongst the first to recognize the SHORT TAKES redevelopment potential in Mumbai. We first ventured into this space in 2000 with a project in Bandra and  Rustomjee took up a redevelopment successfully delivered brand new apartments equipped project for the first time in 2000. with modern amenities to the sixteen members there.  Over the next five years, they expect to Since 2005, we have also been redeveloping projects complete another 49 lakh square feet of where MHADA has been the land owner. Projects in redevelopment projects Everard Nagar and Model MIG- Gandhi Nagar (BKC Annex) have been successfully handed over, while projects in Rajendra Nagar- Borivali, MIG Group 4 – BKC Annex and New DN Nagar are underway. Apart from this, slum redevelopment project in Rajendra Prasad Nagar – Matunga has been completed and we are in the process of redeveloping Narli Agripada in Khar (W). In the course of our journey, we have redeveloped 10.90 lakh square feet and 23.08 lakh square feet is under construction. Over the next five years, we aim to redevelop 49 lakh square feet. Which are your current major redevelopment projects? We are currently redeveloping societies in MIG Group 4 - Gandhi Nagar (BKC Annex), Rajendra Nagar - Borivali and New DN Nagar where MHADA is the land owner. Approvals have been obtained, societies have been vacated and construction has commenced on these projects. A slum redevelopment project is also underway in Narli Agripada in Khar (W).


Chairman, Godrej Group

Political will coupled with diligent use of technology can greatly boost Mumbai’s growth, says Adi Godrej Godrej Properties Limited (GPL) headed by Pirojsha Godrej, MD and CEO, is a leading national real estate developer and a part of the Godrej Group, which has interests in real estate, FMCG, industrial engineering, appliances, furniture, security and agri care, among other things. GPL added four projects in four cities with 9.6 million sq.ft. of saleable area in Q4 FY14 and its 17th project in Mumbai with 0.8 million sq. ft. saleable area. Godrej Central in Chembur is its first redevelopment project. Mumbai Makeover speaks to Adi Godrej, Chairman of Godrej Group. Some excerpts... What are your views on the imperatives of redevelopment in Mumbai? Mumbai is India’s legendary city of opportunities. Its population is forever on the rise and its infrastructure SHORT TAKES is hard pressed to support this growing population. The linear topography and limited landmass of this  Godrej Properties Ltd believes in joint island city has led to lopsided development and while ventures rather than land banking the city has expanded northwards, the newly developed  Redevelopment fits perfectly within extended suburbs have seen soaring property prices. this strategy, and the company recently Many residents therefore have little choice but to stay in launched its first such project at dilapidated erstwhile developments. In the absence of Chembur adequate space and the ever-rising prices, redevelopment of old buildings is the most viable, long-term solution. This will ensure more inventory, properly planned infrastructure, better amenities and quality homes. Government will need to sharp focus on this area and bring in policies that create a win-win situation for both consumers and developers. Putting together policies and procedures that promote development, encouraging faster approvals/ execution of plans, bringing transparency in all transactions and creating accountability of stakeholders are key to making Mumbai a world-class city. Some of the best cities in the world have an FSI in excess of 5 and an infrastructure that supports the growing needs of its residents. Mumbai not only has a much lower FSI, it has seen huge delays on infrastructural development. Add to that some archaic rules and regulations. These need to be corrected as soon as possible. I am confident that political will coupled with diligent use of technology can greatly fillip Mumbai’s growth. Mumbai has seen many changes in its infrastructure in recent times. How does this impact demand and values of various locations? With the Government focussing on Mumbai’s infrastructure and key projects being undertaken to enhance connectivity between the eastern suburbs with the western suburbs and between several residential areas and CBDs, a lot of new and emerging locations have come up. Chembur, for instance, the greenest suburb of Mumbai, is now connected to all parts of the city. There are three railway stations in close proximity, it


has easy connectivity to western suburbs and airports due to the opening of the Santacruz-Chembur Link Road (SCLR). The recent commissioning of the first phase of Monorail offers an additional route to connect it with Wadala. All these developments have transformed it to one of the most ideal residential locations. Vikhroli is now well connected to both eastern and western suburbs through the Eastern Express Highway and Jogeshwari Vikhroli Link Road (JVLR). Its proximity to the Sion-Panvel Express Highway provides direct access to Navi Mumbai. It also directly benefits from the SCLR. In fact, Vikhroli is now becoming one of the most sought after suburbs in Mumbai and I am confident that in a few years most developments of the city will be centered around it. Considering their huge potential, we have launched or planned projects in these locations. We are currently developing two projects in Chembur – Godrej Serenity and Godrej Central. In Vikhroli, we have already launched Godrej Platinum and we have an upcoming mixed use development – The Trees. Once completed, The Trees will house premium office space, residential towers, high-street retail and five star hospitality - all centered around a large four acre landscaped park. Since inception, we have been following a capital efficient, asset-light model. Godrej Platinum We prefer joint ventures and avoid land banking. Redevelopment fits perfectly within this strategy and we have several redevelopment projects in Mumbai. We recently successfully launched our first redevelopment project, Godrej Central, in Chembur. This project offers 1, 2, 2.5 and 3 BHK apartments and state-of-the-art amenities like landscaped gardens, gymnasium, jogging track, a multi-purpose court etc. How does redevelopment benefit housing societies, especially older ones? Redevelopment projects work in favour of both developers and housing societies. Depending on the understanding between them, societies can get several benefits like additional carpet area, modern amenities and also a corpus fund in some cases which can take care of future maintenance charges thereby reducing burden on existing tenants. The developer benefits by selling the additional free area. Redevelopment offers an opportunity for tenants living in old, dilapidated buildings to shift to buildings that are developed as per modern practices, concepts and technology and offering better space planning and amenities. Redeveloped buildings are constructed keeping in mind the environmental issues and incorporate eco-friendly features like rainwater harvesting, sewage treatment plants, that help in the long run. Last but not the least, there is a substantial increase in the flat’s value and there is the option of purchasing additional area or a bigger flat in the redeveloped building. Sustainable construction is an important aspect of GPL’s projects... We look at sustainability at a larger organisational level. We are one of the founding members of the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)... We have worked hard to have all our recent buildings rated green pre-certified. Through our processes, we also mandate basic green compliance and practices from key contractors and agencies that we work with during the design and construction phases of our projects. In addition to this, we are also in the process of setting up post occupancy surveys for key buildings to study measurable benefits to our end users. We have recently piloted a ‘sustainability manual’ as part of our handover process to guide our residential customers in efficiently using the building (optimization of resource consumption) over its lifecycle to realize key benefits. 

THE HUMAN TOUCH Q&A with Umang Kuwadia

Executive Director, Happy Home Group

‘An acre of performance is worth the whole world of promise’ – that’s the guiding motto of the three-decade-old Happy Home Group, which has projects in premium locations like Dadar-Matunga, Bandra and Mulund. The company, founded by Dinesh J Kuwadia, and co-promoted by Naresh Chheda and Mukesh Nishar is recognised as a pioneer in the redevelopment space.

Menka Shivdasani speaks to Executive Director Umang Kuwadia, Happy Home’s secondgeneration forerunner, a civil engineer and MBA who combines his 15 years of experience in real estate with a youthful energy that promises to take the group into a host of fresh successes in the coming decade.

MENKA SHIVDASANI (MS): Happy Home Group has developed two million square feet and over two million more is slated to come up. Take us through Happy Home’s journey over the last more than three decades and how it became a pioneer in redevelopment since 1993. UMANG KUWADIA (UK): Happy Home as a generic brand stands for business processes that were started in 1979. I’m the second generation; the first generation was headed by my father, Dinesh J Kuwadia, founder member of the Happy Home group. He is a civil engineer from VJTI and a Chartered Engineer and Fellow of the Institution of Engineers (India). We are basically a professionally driven company focused on enriching lifestyles with win win for all. Whatever we do is with a focus on long-term planning and durable concepts. We were developing housing projects in Mumbai’s Western suburbs, in Kandivali, Borivali, Dahisar and Mira Road. Then, in the 1990s, we started moving to premium locations such as Andheri, to Dadar, Matunga. In that geoSHORT TAKES graphical expansion we realised that redevelopment was one sector where the government had announced changes  Happy Home is recognised as a pioneer in Development Control (DC) regulations in 1991; and the in the redevelopment space state wanted to promote redevelopment, being the need of  They believe that transparency and the the Society. There are more than 20,000 dilapidated buildhuman touch are vital ings in the island city requiring reconstruction. Between 1993 to 1995 i.e., almost 20 years ago, we were the first group to re construct and complete handover ‘Sneh Samta’ by complying with all lawful requirements. under the 33(7) DC regulation, where an old cessed property was demolished and reconstructed and the tenants were made the lawful owners, the society is formed and conveyance granted in favour of Society. Our first redevelopment project was a sevenstorey building with lift in Dadar-Matunga in place of three storied erstwhile building without lift. It was an pioneering effort and truly win-win for all. This concept of public-private partnership between the developer, landowner, tenants, and MHADA/BMC, which has the authority to grant FSI and the authority to sanction the plans... all this was in the nascent stages. After successful implementation of redevelopment project, we sent representations to the authorities regarding what would be fair policies for redevelopment. It was the pioneering efforts of Dinesh Kuwadia, who not only reconstructed the old building, but also suggested to the government from time to time to formulate policies that would be progressive for redevelopment. There


was no Bible to follow, the rules had to be tested for the first time to decide its effect to various stakeholders and the BMC garnering huge premium required to be reinvested for the improvement in infrastructure. That effort culminated in full fledgedredevelopment orientation of Happy Home in the 2000’s, when we redeveloped eight to nine properties in quick succession like Kalp-Vruksh, Saumitra, Pranav Residency, Ganga Heritage, Garden Panorama, Siddhachal, etc... The latest flagship project of Happy Home Group is Jade Gardens next to MIG Cricket Club, near Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC), which is the redevelopment of nine old dilapidated buildings on a 1.3 acre of plot, housing 80 society members and admitting more than 80 new members. MS: Jade Gardens was completed in record time... UK: The project was conceptualised by the Society on leasehold land of MHADA and after appointment of developer with transparent tender process by following all rules and procedure in an open bid. There were many large developers in the race, but the society looked for a developer with a track record of the maximum completed redevelopment projects and proven experience for handling complexity involved with large number of society/ tenant members. In the final round Happy Homes was unanimous choice from amongst the large banners on the basis of their proven expertise in redevelopment sector. The confidence of the Society increased manifest when the appointed Clockwise from top left: Umang Kuwadia and Mukesh developer put in successful defence on behalf of Society and Nishar, Jitesh Jain, Naresh Chheda and Dinesh Kuwadia paved the way for redevelopment, otherwise stagnated. With design architects Talati and Panthaky Associated (TPA), we created an iconic building called Jade Gardens. It was completed in just 30 months with occupation certificate (OC) and was awarded the Best Redevelopment Project of 2011. There were three towers of 14 floors and we rehoused all 80 society members in apartments of two to three bedroom category, with an additional 40 sale apartments. All this, in a time-bound programme, was achieved because of transparency and support between both ends – the developer and the society members. The project is now a well-known icon in that neighbourhood; it shows that a redevelopment project can be done in two years. It has all lifestyle amenities like party hall, gym, spa, toddlers pool, podium landscaping etc. and we developed each apartment fully loaded so clients only had to invest in loose furniture. On February 14, 2011, we had a programme for them to inspect their flats, do a puja and take over respective keys of new flats with full satisfaction after having joint lunch with 80 families. Balance FSI of MHADA was granted in 2012-2013, so we built the extension with Phase II, adding 40 more apartments to newly occupied society building without least of the disturbance to existing occupiers by providing with technological solution with tower cranes, RMC pumps, temporary service floor including temporary material and labour lifts etc so as to minimize incidence of under-construction activities to the 120 families happily residing in the complex. The new expansion project is on the verge of being handed over and we should have the completion certificate in early 2015. The Jade Gardens project was also unique in terms of marketing since there were no comparison or precedents available in the locality. However it was next to the commercial hub of BKC and attracted lot of clients from the Fortune 500 organisations who believed in our delivery and conviction backed with designs from renowned architect like Talati Panthaky, and also International property consultants like JLL and Knight Frank, who marketed our property in India. All this could happen because the project had a lifestyle quotient and we had the zeal to excel. Once you have transparency and an efficient team to deliver against all odds, anything is possible. MM: Redevelopment projects often get stuck because of a dissenting minority... UK: Societies have right to go with the 70 to 75 per cent who have agreed, but the few who do not give consent have to realise they cannot stand in the way of other members. They must understand that the law is not in their favour. We ourselves have seen that we are able to achieve 100% consent without litigation; and we do not go to the court until the last lifeline of persuasions is possible. For this, one needs conviction, transparency and solid past performance on the developer’s part. You have to create an environment of conviction and truth and belief in each other. MM: What are the benefits of redevelopment? UK: The developer gives societies additional space, a corpus fund for future maintenance, hardship

compensation, rentals equivalent to those of the surroundings and much more. Happy Home also provides the human touch during transition. We provide carpenters, plumbers, movers and packers. at the time of vacating existing buildings. If we are a success in the redevelopment sector, it is because of Happy Home’s win-win philosophy and recognition/ appreciation of human feelings. We take up only three to four redevelopment projects at a time and honour the commitment. All our Jade Gardens (Bandra), Jade Ganesha (Matunga), Siddhachal (Matunga), O2 Commercial Towers (Mulund). completed buildings also have received OC within the time frame and have been handed over to the societies. We go an extra mile for customer satisfaction even after handing over possession to the residents and help the societies for all post-construction issues, including assessment of BMC property taxes and appointing reasonable performing agencies for housekeeping and security. MM: Which are your current projects? UK: In 2013, we completed a commercial project at Mulund called ‘O2’; it has two towers and the O stands for ‘Oxygen!’ This is a one-of-a-kind project in Mulund, with glass facade and elevation of international standard . . It has small and medium enterprise (SME)-sized offices and amenities such as cafeteria, lots of parking, landcaped garden, high-end features for securitisation... in Mulund, at the micro level, there are very few office buildings, but now O2 have provided an opportunity for 75 SME office buyers . In 2014, we also completed Siddhachal at King’s Circle near the flyover and its majestic elevation has a recall value on the main highway location. We are also launching Wisteria, Jade Imperial and Jade Vedant premium residential redevelopment projects in the Five garden vicinity of Dadar and Matunga. MM: The next big project? UK: Mr. Jitesh Jain, executive director, says our new entity Four Pillars Lifespace LLP has associated with an open land development for residential township project named as ‘Nakshatra’ at Mulund next to Eastern Express Highway.. This will be a galaxy of Happy Homes, with 600 apartments of 2, 2.5 and 3 bedrooms. Overall development is of 9 to 10 acres of residential layout, with three acres kept open for parks and amenities like club house including squash courts, swimming pools, health Spa, party/banquet halls. Further there are additional social amenities like a Jain temple and Upashray, ICSE school with playground in the complex... The launch will be in early 2015 and by the end of 2018 we expect to have the first phase ready; both phases together may rise upto four 40-storeyed towers. We have in the recent past completed two-million sq ft of development, and with this mini-township, there will be another two million sq. ft of development. MM: What is your view on the current state of infrastructure in Mumbai? UK: Mumbai’s infrastructure has improved in the last five years, with the Bandra-Worli Sea Link, Santacruz-Chembur Link Road, the Eastern Freeway... These have increased efficiency and cut travel time. Locations near such infrastructure will see a spurt in real estate prices. The chief minister also has a commitment to new projects; by 2019, we should see a new airport in Navi Mumbai and this will boost places like Navi Mumbai, Thane and Mulund. The Mumbai-Pune expressway has also brought the two cities closer. MM: Any suggestions on policy for the new government? UK: What was missing in the last two years’ regime was support and commitment from the government for real estate and infrastructure sector which were constantly kept under pressure with frequent policy shift. Accordingly both sectors failed to give good results to the end user. Frequent change of policies meant that you had to take a break in ongoing construction and go back to get plans re-approved, go to authorities in pursuance of new directives every now and then. I hope the Centre, state and BMC can jointly align to solve all issues and focus on making Mumbai a destination of International reckoning and provide impetus for, rental housing. A Mumbai makeover can only happen if Fortune 500 companies with FDI’s and local investors including land owners believe that the Govt. & local authority wish to increase their revenue through development process and not through unjustified legislations to increase its revenues and that the incremental revenues are genuinely utilised for augmentation of infrastructures. 



Architect Reza Kabul, pioneer of tall buildings in India, believes that cluster development, better infrastructure and a fresh look at land use are essential for Mumbai In 1997, when ‘redevelopment’ had yet to become a buzzword in India, Architect Reza Kabul visited a decrepit neighbourhood at Nana Chowk in Mumbai, surveyed the host of garages and dilapidated chawls in the area and wondered how it could ever be transformed into a locality housing a world-class project. Barely five years later, his creation, Shreepati Arcade, towered over the locality at a stunning 45 storeys tall and entered the Limca Book of Records the following year in 2003 as the tallest residential building in India. The 118,000 sqft of development was a project of many firsts – sensors, four levels of parking to accommodate 300 cars, electricity flowing through insulated wires in a ‘bus bar’ system for safety in case of fire, and much more. Today, though the project is still a landmark in the city, India’s pioneer of tall buildings is working on many more iconic developments, including 100-storeyed twin towers at Parel for the Shreepati Group. His vast portfolio also includes several redevelopment projects, including Teacher’s Colony, a 42-storey high-rise with three wings; Transcons Flora with solar lighting and rainwater harvesting, and a cluster redevelopment at Pimpalwadi in Mumbai. Reza Kabul completed his graduation in 1985 from M.S. University, Baroda. After working with a leading architect, he started his own practice in 1988 with Reza Kabul Architects Pvt. Ltd. (RIBA & AIA recognised). He currently has more than 100 people working with him on a slew of spectacular projects that span the gamut from residential to commercial and hospitality destinations in India, and elsewhere. He has also received a host of prestigious awards, including the 2012 and 2013 International Hotel Awards - ‘Highly Commended - Best Hotel’ for The Landmark Grand, Dubai. Among other things, he has successfully completed interiors of hotel projects and studio apartments in the Gulf.

Reza Kabul speaks to Menka Shivdasani about a city in transition, the growing need for infrastructure and why cluster development is vital in Mumbai. MENKA SHIVDASANI (MS): Your project Shreepati Arcade was recognised as the tallest building in India in 2003 at a time when no one in the country was speaking of redevelopment. Tell us about the challenges you faced at the time and how you overcame them. REZA KABUL (RZ): Shreepati Arcade was the first project that Shreepati Group of Companies came to us with. When we visited the site for the first time I did not believe it would be even remotely possible to build the planned 39-storeyed structure. But the determination of Shreepati Group and days of discussing the various shortfalls and ways to overcome them made it possible. Initially the FSI allowed us to plan only for 39 storeys but with the increase to 2.5 under the redevelopment scheme it gave us enough room to grow to 45 storeys. Who would have then imagined that today it is listed as the tallest residential building of India in the Limca Book of Records 2003! This 118,000 sqft of development was executed over a period of five years with its completion in the year 2002.The initial shortfalls that we experienced included being greatly handicapped by the horizontal space constraints and the fact that it was brimming

with tenements and chawls, with people refusing to vacate. The access road was just 10 feet wide, making it almost impossible for tractors, other machinery and trucks to reach the site. We started a rehabilitation building, got people to move in, and this gave us a vacant space to work. Eventually the tenants were relocated and slums cleared, making it easier for the construction on site to begin. It was the first time that we were working on a project of this height. There were days of research on various aspects of the latest technology and safety norms. We met various international companies who helped us greatly with the various aspects one needs to consider when working on such a large scale, especially for the first time. Eventually the plans were finalised and construction started. Many of the methods and technology used were the first to ever be used or heard of in India. As technology came in, things became simpler; reinforced mixed concrete made it easier, and installing a crane meant that we could bring in materials directly from the road outside. We used a pile and raft foundation which is 15 metres below ground level and thus penetrates through 5m of black rock, the first of its kind in India, with 2.4m thick raft and 140 columns of 1m each. Even the number of joints in each column was minimised to just one joint every three floors, thus giving us fewer joints, enhancing the structure and adding to the earthquake resistance. The seismic and wind forces played a very important role during the designing of this 45-storeyed building.

Shreepati Arcade


ďƒź Architect Reza Kabul is Another technology uncommon in India then was the islanding recognised as being a pioneer of system. Here the water tanks are installed on every eighth floor, tall buildings in India, with one eliminating the need for constant pumping of water from the of his projects entering the Limca ground level. An additional advantage of this is the removal of the Book of Records in 2003 as the use of pressure breakers. Having tanks installed at such intervals is tallest residential structure in the an added advantage in case of any water problem since, if affected, country it would only affect a maximum of eight floors at a time, that too for ďƒź His vast portfolio includes several a short while. This islanding system had been especially imported redevelopment projects, including from Malaysia. It was also one of the first buildings in Mumbai a cluster redevelopment at to have rainwater harvesting. We also had six Swiss Schlinder Pimpalwadi in Mumbai high-speed lifts installed, four for passengers and two for luggage/ stretchers. These lifts travel at the speed of four seconds per metre, so one only travels 35 seconds to reach from the ground to the 45th floor. The 2, 3BHK flats and penthouse are accessed only when one passes the hi-tech security system with sensor controls which allows only coded vehicles into the buildings. The gymnasium is equipped with various facilities like sauna, Jacuzzi and steam, and a health club. In those days, these were not common features. At that time, it was the tallest building at 45 storeys. Today, of course, we are doing much taller buildings. I am now working on structures that are more than 100 storeys tall. MS: In a city like Mumbai, what role does redevelopment play? Are you working on any such projects? RZ: I believe that redevelopment is good, especially in a city that has such a scarcity of land. But redeveloping of single structures is not the solution. Cluster redevelopment has to be encouraged, as in addition to transforming dilapidated structures, it helps to widen roads and bring in facilities such as schools and hospitals. I have seen roads which are only 2.5 to three metres wide, which are full of encroachments. No fire engine can go in, and if someone has to be transported to hospital in an emergency, the person is placed on a haath gaadi and pushed out because the road is not wide enough for an ambulance. Developments like the one at Bhendi Bazar, for instance, must be encouraged. We are currently working on one such project, which is the Shreepati Jewels cluster redevelopment at Pimpalwadi. One of the buildings had a pole blocking the entrance right in the middle, which would make it impossible for a fire engine to come in. This is a 34,000 square metre project, involving the rehabilitation of 2,000 people and because it is being done as a cluster development, a new school will be built and roads will be cleared. As many as 100


cessed buildings involving 40 properties will be redeveloped and one tower, Shreepati Jewels, is ready for residential occupation. There were many challenges; land had to be acquired, and so many approvals obtained. We made a presentation to the government about the kind of changes that are required to smooth the way for such cluster redevelopment projects. MS: So what would it take to ensure speedier implementation of cluster redevelopment? RZ: In our presentation to the government, we spoke of the need for time-bound approvals and single-window clearances, for instance. Why should you need to have approvals for high-rises, or for environment? If you make some things mandatory and the developers follow these rules, they would not need to waste time getting approvals for everything. For example, why do we need an environment committee? You get an appointment for the morning and are kept waiting till 5 p.m. Then you have to have seven sets made of all the drawings – some 50 of them – for the various committee members. What are we doing to the environment taking so many printouts? After that it takes six to eight months. In our presentation to the government, we made more than 20 suggestions for speedier cluster development. They included: 1. Time-bound approval of the Charity Commissioner involving charitable trust properties. 2. Intimation of Disapproval (IOD) without the approval of Heritage Committee/ High-Rise Committee and environment committee and commencement certificate for rehabilitation buildings. 3. Minimum consent of tenants to be brought down to 51%. 4. No other piecemeal development should be allowed on the declared area. 5. Participation of owners in the development to be made mandatory. 6. Compulsory acquisition of non-co-operating property owners by MHADA 7. 100% Incentive F.S.I. on the rehab constructed built-up area. 8. Height restriction should be waived in precinct areas. MS: Could you elaborate on some other benefits of such redevelopment projects? RZ: There are several other benefits as well. For instance, in addition to more open space for access to emergency services, we would be creating 2,000 car parking spaces and 1,000 scooter parking. There would also be increased open spaces around the building, and structures with wide corridors and common passages; better sanitation facilities, a society office, gymnasium, balwadi, welfare centre and planned development of religious structures. There would also be internal amenities such as elevators, marble flooring, concealed wiring and plumbing, and so on. Existing tenants would not need to be relocated, and MHADA gets tenements free of cost without a MHADA fund involved. More housing stock is created and the government also gets additional revenue. Most important, there is no risk of house collapses and loss to life and property. MS: You have worked on projects across the globe and have an office in San Francisco. What, in your view, does Mumbai need to make it a world-class city? RZ: The centre of the city has shifted to Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC), which is closer to the eastern and western suburbs. As planners we should recognise this and re-use Mumbai’s land in better ways. Earlier, Nariman Point and Ballard Estate were the business centres of Mumbai; now, they are practically dead. If you go there on a weekend, you will find them empty. These areas should be used for more residential spaces and even if there are heritage buildings here, there are ways to work around this. In Singapore, for instance, they have kept the facades of heritage structures but use greater Floor Space Index (FSI) for taller structures. We must also find a solution to traffic! We have to think of solutions like double-decker roads, or underground facilities for mass transport. We are redeveloping buildings with 2.7 Floor Space Index (FSI) if you include the fungible area; you also have people getting slum approvals with higher FSI. We are developing buildings but the road space is not increasing and the government is not doing anything about it. We must look at infrastructure like trains or monorails below the existing roads, or double-level railway lines on stilts over existing ones, with the help of private partnership. And citizens have to come up with novel solutions too – reduce cars and encourage travel by bicycle. Today getting a car is so easy, but where do you drive it? Our population is growing and we need to be thinking of the next 50 – 100 years, but our basic Indian mentality is short-sighted. We also need to look at satellite cities to decongest Mumbai, with enough infrastructure and jobs that encourage walking to work. 

THE NEW NEW CITY Q&A with Sanjay Bhatia

Vice-Chairman and Managing Director, CIDCO

After building one of the world’s largest planned cities, Navi Mumbai, CIDCO is now gearing up to build an even bigger city – NAINA In his 1999 bestseller, The New New Thing, acclaimed writer Michael Lewis talked about the never-ending quest of Silicon Valley entrepreneurs to cross the next technological frontier. Established in 1970, the quest for City & Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) can be similarly summarised as The New New City. The corporation is already responsible for building 13 cities/townships across Maharashtra. Its crown jewel, of course, remains Navi Mumbai – one of the world’s largest planned cities, with well planned roads and rail network, residential areas, job centres, wholesale markets and non-polluting industries. CIDCO has now embarked upon an even bigger challenge; building of the Navi Mumbai International Airport (NMIA) and another brand new city spread across the Navi Mumbai Airport Influence Area (NAINA).

Sanjay Bhatia, IAS, is CIDCO’s Vice-Chairman and Managing Director and spearheading these initiatives. Raju Kane spoke Mr. Bhatia to understand these plans.

Raju Kane (RK): Tell us about the plans for NAINA. Sanjay Bhatia (SB): One of the caveats the Ministry of Environment and Forests had put, while giving the environmental clearance for NMIA, was that the airport should not result in haphazard development and the Master Plan of Navi Mumbai should be revised keeping in view the new airport. Various factors were considered while fixing the area where the new airport would have an influen ce — provisions of Airport Authority of India (AAI), requirements of International Airport as per the aerotropolis concept, connectivity as well as existence of Matheran Eco - sensitive Zone. Based on these aspects it was estimated that the Navi Mumbai Airport Influence Area (NAINA) would extend up to a radial distance of about 25 km from the proposed Airport. The total area is about 600 sq kms. To give you a perspective, Mumbai and its suburbs is about 500 sq kms and Navi Mumbai is about 300 sq kms. So NAINA is bigger than Mumbai and about twice as large as Navi Mumbai. In January 2013, the state government appointed CIDCO as a Special Planning Authority for the area, with powers to develop it into an integrated smart city. We are taking up this development in two phases. The first phase is of about 160 sq kms mainly consisting of those areas that are close to parts of Navi Mumbai which are already developing very fast. Out of these 160 sq kms, we have decided to develop about 36 sq kms as a pilot phase. To make land acquisition easier, we have made a new scheme called the NAINA scheme. What we have


proposed is that rather than get into a piecemeal land acquisition, if landowners pool their land to the tune of at least 10 hectares and surrender 40% of that land to CIDCO, for the remaining six hectares they would get an FSI of 1.7 as against the prevailing FSI of 0.1; besides which CIDCO will provide all the infrastructure – water, sewage, transport connectivity, besides being responsible for clearances like environmental clearance and changing the status of the land to “Non-Agricultural”. We should be in a position to submit the plans soon and once we get the approval, we will ask for volunteers to surrender their lands under this scheme. Simultaneously we will also start the work of putting the infrastructure in place. We hope to complete all the infrastructure work for these 36 sq kms in about five years. RK: What is the status of the Navi Mumbai International Airport? SB: The international airport as you know was stuck for a long time because of protests from the project-affected people. The last one year we have been negotiating with people and have now received consent letters from the majority of them.

SHORT TAKES  NAINA will be spread across 600 sq kms  The Navi Mumbai International Airport is expected to be operational by 2019  By 2020, Navi Mumbai is expected to have five Metro lines operational  CIDCO has proposed an FSI of 3 for the redevelopment of over 500 dilapidated buildings

Out of the majority that is required for the airport, the 600 hectares that is still to be acquired, we should get the awards passed by soon. It is a very different package we have worked out. We are giving them land in exchange of their land. This would be developed land with the entire infrastructure in place. This developed land would be equal to 22.5% of the land they surrender to CIDCO and it will be in a specially developed town called Pushpaknagar, close to the airport. Simultaneously we have floated international tenders inviting partners to build the airport. CIDCO will have a 26% stake in the airport and the rest will be put in by the partner. We have also floated tenders for land filling, cutting of a small hill and developing small towns for rehabilitating the 10 project affected villages. It is expected that this shifting of the villages and their rehabilitation should be complete by October -November 2015. By this time we would also have the partner in place. From that time, it is expected to take about three-and-a-half-years for the airport to be operational. So by 2019, we should have the first phase of the airport catering to 10 million passengers per annum operational.

The decision on when to extend it further to 100 million passengers will be taken by whosoever is the operating partner; but the expectation is that by 2030, we should be operating at the full capacity. RK: What is the status of the Metro projects? SB: Right now we have taken up work on Metro Line I. There were some delays as we need to cross the railways and clearances have been delayed by over two years. But we have had interaction with railway officials and they have assured us that clearance in the next month or so. Already a lot of civil construction has taken place. Once the clearance comes in from the Railways, we should be in position to commission Line I by 2017-18.

Survey work for Metro Lines II and III is progressing and we should be in position to start construction work in a year’s time. As far as the final two lines – Lines IV and V are concerned they are in a planning stage. These would be linking to both sides of the airport. We expect to complete all these lines, by the time the new airport is functional in 2019-20. RK: What is the status of the redevelopment of dilapidated buildings in Navi Mumbai? SB: There are about 500 buildings constructed by CIDCO which are over 30 years old. We have proposed that they be redeveloped with an FSI of 3. The entire redevelopment process would be handled in a transparent manner with tenders etc. The proposal is awaiting government clearances.

RK: What are the other projects that CIDCO is planning? SB: Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation is starting a water transport project linking Ferry Wharf, Nerul and Mandwa. This is a ` 600 crore project and CIDCO is contributing 40% of the equity. This should happen in the next two years. We have also offered to contribute to the Mumbai Trans-Harbour Link (MHTL) Project. As you know MTHL is now being taken up as an Engineering and Procurement Contract (EPC) contract and not on a Public Private Partnership (PPP) basis. My guess is that as the new airport is complete the MTHL should also be ready.

We are also taking up a huge Nature Park – about 2,000 hectares starting from Parsik Hill right up to Kharghar. We are working with the Forest Department and contributing about ` 36 crore for this project. The park will have adventure games, rock climbing, waterfall, tree planting. We are making over 60 playgrounds with cricket pitches, a Rajiv Gandhi football ground at Panvel, besides 48 new gardens.

“NAINA is bigger than Mumbai and about twice as large as Navi Mumbai.”




Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA

As the Metropolitan Commissioner, UPS Madan heads Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), the agency that is spearheading several of Mumbai’s most important infrastructure development initiatives. He spoke to Mumbai Makeover’s Raju Kane about the status of various projects. RK: What is the status on various Metro Projects? UPSM: As you know we have already commissioned Metro One, which is Ghatkopar to Versova. Metro Route II which was to be taken on a Private-Public Partnership basis is now being taken up on an Engineering Procurement Contract (EPC) basis. We have merged Metro Two and Four routes which will now go from Dahisar-Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd. Metro Three – Colaba-SEEPZ – has received all approvals and the process of appointing consultants etc. in the process. Metro Five and Metro Seven have been merged and this route will now go from Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavli. Of these Metro Two/Four/Six and Metro III will be totally underground; while only a six- kilometre portion of the Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavli line would be elevated and the rest would be underground. The total outlay on the three corridors will be about ` 75,000 crore. The outlay for Metro Three has been finalised. Of the total cost of ` 23,000 crore, Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) will provide ` 13,256 crore as loan assistance. The rest of the funds will be contributed by the Central and State governments as equity and sub-debt. We will be following a similar formula for the other two lines. As far as time frames are concerned, for Metro Three we will receive the tenders by February, and once a contractor is finalised, getting approvals, importing tunnel boring machines, studying the data on sub-soil strata etc. could take a few months, but I am confident that actual work on the ground, or rather underground, should start sometime in 2015. For the other two lines, Detailed Project Reports have been prepared and alignment fixed, once approvals from the central government come in, financial closure can happen and work can start. I believe that within the next eight to ten years, all three lines should be completed. RK: Wasn’t there a problem with underground utilities, which is why an elevated option was preferred for Metro One? Why are you opting for the underground mode now? UPSM: Tunnelling for the Metro happens at a depth of 15-20 metres. At this depth there is no problem of utilities, which are at a very shallow depth below the ground. It is only for entry or exit from stations that utilities can become an issue, but that is only about a kilometre apart. In fact, utilities become more of a problem with an elevated approach, where you may have to marginally alter the alignment, be the underground utilities interfere with the foundation of the pillars. An elevated option is much cheaper, but in terms of aesthetics, traffic management, pollution while construction, less hindrance to existing businesses, shops, residences etc., underground is a much preferred option. RK: Will there be connections to the airports, both old as well as the proposed new one at Panvel? UPSM: Metro Three will be connecting both the existing domestic and international airports at Santacruz and Sahar. CIDCO has a plan to connect the new airport to Mankhurd via a Metro line, where it will connect to our Metro network. RK: What is the status of the Mumbai Trans-Harbour Link (MTHL)?

UPSM: After last year’s unsuccessful attempt to go the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) route, we have decided to take the EPC mode for this project itself. To tie up the funds we have approached JICA who are studying the technical data. This will be a Design-Build kind of a model, where the successful bidder will decide on the design. Given that part of the MTHL fall within shipping lines, it is quite possible that parts of the link may be a suspension bridge. The project will cost about ` 11,000 crore and once the loan agreement with JICA is decided by the central government, work can start. It would take about five years for the project to be completed. It is critical that this goes hand-in-hand with the development of the Navi Mumbai International Airport; this is because the Airport provides viability to the bridge and the bridge in turn provides connectivity to the airport. It is envisaged that of the ` 11,000 crore, 80% would be the debt component and rest will be equity by MMRDA. The payback period for the loan will be 30 years. As per current traffic estimates, the MTHL will cater to about 60,000 vehicles daily. The toll presently envisaged is about ` 150 per trip. RK: Phase II of the Monorail seems to have been stalled? UPSM: It is not stalled. Phase I is already operational. Phase II is likely to be completed by December 31, 2015. Yes there have been some teething problems, because this is a new technology and the necessary expertise as well spares etc. are not available in the country. But despite this we have maintained a 99% operations ratio – in terms of number trips planned and number of trips operated.

SHORT TAKES  The total outlay on the three Metro corridors will be about `75,000 crore  All three lines are expected to be complete within the next decade

RK: Tell us about the Virar-Alibaug Multimodal corridor. UPSM: This 126 km long Virar-Alibuag Multi Modal Corridor will provide faster connectivity between important highways — NH8 (Ahmedabad), NH3 (Agra-Delhi), NH4 (Pune-Bangalore), NH4 B (JNPT), the Mumbai Pune Expressway. It will also benefit some of the major projects being implemented in the MMR viz. Navi Mumbai International Airport, Revas Port, Mumbai Trans Harbour Link (MTHL) and the Dedicated Freight Corridor. This Corridor will carry all the traffic from JNPT towards Navi Mumbai and Thane outside the city and will help reduce traffic congestion within the city. The travel time between Virar to Alibaug required today will also be reduced by 50%. The alignment of the corridor has been designed in a manner to promote growth centres. It is expected to boost the growth of seven centres in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) such as Virar, Bhiwandi, Kalyan, Dombivali, Panvel, Taloja and Uran. MMRDA has completed the Techno-Economic and Financial Feasibility Studies for the Multimodal corridor. The Corridor is proposed to be commissioned in two phases, phase-I being from Navghar to Chirner near JNPT (about 79 km). The estimated cost of the first phase is about ` 10,000 Cr. Phase-II from Chirner to Alibaug, (about 47 km) is proposed to be taken up subsequently. At present we have started the land acquisition process. But this is going slowly largely because of uncertainty surrounding the land acquisition act. The new government has talked about amending the act and if that is done, the process can gather speed. Once we have a reasonable amount of land, we can start with the work. RK: There has been some talk of a Development Cess which will generate revenues for MMRDA on an ongoing basis. Can you explain this to us? UPSM: There are three ways in which you can generate revenues. The first is to levy a betterment charge. The MMRDA Act allows the Authority to levy this charge across the entire MMR. This will be an annual charge. The other method of generating revenues can be an impact fee. This is where you select an area whose value has gone up as a result of a project and levy a one-time fee, based on the project, its impact etc. This is more complicated to calculate. The third is a transit oriented levy. Under this method, you grant a higher FSI nearer transit points like Metro stations so that it leads to denser development. This mode is followed by several cities like Singapore, New York etc. The higher FSI can be sold and part of the proceeds can come to MMRDA, the municipal corporation etc. The state government is considering all these methodologies and once it decides on the specific one to follow, it will have to amend necessary laws, decide on collection mechanisms etc. RK: Are you looking at developing more hubs like Bandra-Kurla Complex? UPSM: The new government is very keen that more such hubs should be set up. We are studying the issue, but not yet decided on the areas. The BKC was a unique opportunity since the land already belonged to the government and could be redeveloped. The availability of land and how to acquire it will play a role in deciding where such future hubs may come up. 



Chairman, Mumbai First

A Single Authority who makes multiple agencies work together is critical for Mumbai. Founded as a Public-Private Partnership in 1995, Mumbai First (formerly known as Bombay First) is the foremost think tank dealing with the multifarious issues facing Mumbai and fostering partnerships between various major stakeholders. Mumbai First seeks to make the city a better place to live, work and invest in. It aims to serve the city by addressing the problems of today and the opportunities of tomorrow, through partnerships with government, business and civil society. Apart from its efforts at networking, researching and advocacy, Mumbai First also has three touch points with the Government of Maharashtra to share opinions and exchange views. It has the Citizens Action Group (CAG) chaired by the Chief Minister, the Empowered Committee chaired by the Chief Secretary and the Chief Minister’s War Room (CMWR). Direct resolution of points/issues with the GoM through these touch points is the unique feature of Mumbai First.

Raju Kane of Mumbai Makeover spoke to Narinder Nayar, Chairman, Mumbai First, on why Mumbai needs a Chief Executive Officer.

Raju Kane (RK): The newly elected Chief Minister, Devendra Fadnavis, has been talking about a Chief Executive Officer for Mumbai. Why do you think the city needs one? Narinder Nayar (NN): Let’s look at today’s situation; we have 17 agencies which run the city. Some report to the state government, some to the BMC and a few even to the central government. This is a hopeless situation as there can never be any effective co-ordination between these agencies. To use an analogy, you have many musicians, you need a orchestra conductor which can produce symphony from the cacophony.

SHORT TAKES  With 17 agencies running the city, effective coordination is impossible  That’s why it is vital to have a CEO for Mumbai, believes Narinder Nayar  Archaic laws like the BMC Act of 1888 need to be changed to give development of Mumbai a fillip

What the city clearly needs is single point accountability. We need one officer who is in the saddle for four-five years and who is in-charge and responsible for everything that has do with the development of the city and is thinking about it 24/7. You can call the officer the CEO, Chief Commissioner or whatever, the designations are not important. This officer should have full trust and understanding of the Chief Minister and draw his strength from the Chief Minister’s Office. This will ensure that he will be able to push through the measures required.

Let me give you an example. After the tragic terrorists’ attacks in Mumbai on 26/11, we took the initiative and brought in experts from London and New York who were involved with the aftermath of 9/11 and 7/7. Senior police officials who were actually in the Command Room at the time of the attack on 7/7, shared their experiences with the authorities in Mumbai and amongst the many recommendations proposed in order to fight terrorism, an effective CCTV network system needed to be installed in the city. Following these meetings in 2009, Bombay First arranged for a high powered delegation led by the then ‘There is much to learn from cities like London and New York’ Home Minister of Maharashtra and other senior officials to visit London where Scotland Yard shared their experiences and the measures they had taken to fight terrorism. Full details of plans being made for Olympics were also discussed. Following this visit, a committee was formed to finalize contracts for CCTV systems in Mumbai. Regrettably, six years after the tragic events of 26/11, nothing really has been done on the ground. This needs to be changed and will only happen with someone is accountable at the top. In London the single point accountability rests with the London Mayor, in New York with the New York Mayor. Mumbai is different. If you look at the Mumbai Metropolitan region, it is huge; it has multiple authorities – municipal corporations, municipalities and zilla paraishads. If you need to plan and execute projects for the entire region, you need a single point accountability that this CEO can provide. RK: But would this really work? Would our systems allow this CEO to function and will he become one more road block? NN: The systems have to change. The BMC act was passed in 1888 and we are still governed by it. The 1991 development plan for Mumbai was prepared based on data in 1971-81. This just doesn’t make any sense. You need to re-think a lot of these issues. It is not going to be easy. You will need innovative, out-of-the-box thinking, but most importantly it requires political will. I am hopeful that the new government in the centre and the state, this could be done. RK: Several of the projects being talked about – Trans-Harbour Link, new Metro routes, waterways, slum rehabilitation, affordable housing – require massive investments. Where do you think these funds will come from? NN: The problem is not the funding, the problem is implementation. The Trans-Harbour Link has been talked about for close to ten years, yet there has been no progress, similarly with water transport or new metro routes. If we get the implementation right, there are enough funds that are available – within the private sector; as well as other sources like the World Bank, other multi-lateral agencies, even global investors like pension funds etc. who are interested in investing in long-term projects that provide steady returns. Funding is not an issue. But we need to act fast and act decisively. RK: What are you views on redevelopment of old buildings? NN: I believe that redevelopment of old buildings is necessary; only we can’t have a piecemeal approach. You can’t redevelop one building at a time as this would lead to a planning disaster. What is necessary is a cluster-based approach, where you take a large area, create a master plan and then re-develop keeping in mind increased needs of infrastructure, open spaces as well the need for affordable housing. We have seen, in the mill lands case, what has happened by taking a piecemeal approach to redevelopment. This should be discouraged. 


“We need to take action on four or five key fronts, including decongesting Mumbai by building additional satellite townships that are smart and green and improving connectivity by investing in new infrastructure.” Nitin Gadkari

Union Minister for Transport

RE-IMAGINING MUMBAI As migration into the crowded city of Mumbai continues unchecked, the only way to stop it is to develop the hinterland and ensure world-class connectivity to these new townships, says Nitin Gadkari

The last fifteen years has seen massive deterioration in Mumbai’s quality of life. This can be attributed to a combination of corruption, apathy and lack of political will. If this downslide has to be arrested and if Mumbai has to re-affirm its status as “prima urbes inter” – which it is currently close to losing — we need to take action on four or five key fronts – decongesting Mumbai by building additional satellite townships that are smart and green, drastically improving connectivity by investing in new infrastructure, housing, environment and most importantly on project management.

The only way to stop the migration therefore is to develop Mumbai’s hinterland in such a way that people wanting to migrate to Mumbai would find more attractive options in terms of livelihoods, residences and infrastructure.


We need to recognise the fact that Mumbai is surrounded by sea and the city just doesn’t have the space to accommodate more people and vehicles. On the other hand, migration to Mumbai continues unchecked. This needs to be stopped. It is not a religious, linguistic or regional issue, but a simple question of carrying capacity. Mumbai just does not have the capacity to house more people or allow more vehicles. But since our Constitution guarantees the right to move freely within the country, we cannot put restrictions on people coming to the metropolis.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has already announced his dream of building 100 smart cities in the country. I believe two or three of those should come up in the hinterland around Mumbai. One of them could be located across the harbour near Nhava-Sheva. It would be bound on one side by the Mumbai-Goa highway, and the Mumbai-

Pune Expressway on the other side. With the new International Airport also coming in that area, we can develop a clean, green environment-friendly Third Mumbai in this region. We could shift all state government offices, High Courts etc. to this Third Mumbai and build accommodation for government servants, lawyers, judges etc. there itself. Over a period of time, we could also shift headquarters of financial institutions like Reserve Bank of India, stock exchanges, commodity exchanges and banks to this Third Mumbai. This will not only help decongest Mumbai, but act as a growth impetus for this new city.

SHORT TAKES  The only way to stop migration is to develop Mumbai’s hinterland in such a way that people wanting to migrate to Mumbai would find more attractive options in terms of livelihoods, residences and infrastructure  With Prime Minister Narendra Modi having announced his dream of building 100 smart cities, Nitin Gadkari believes two or three should come up around Mumbai  However, newer townships will only work if they have world-class connectivity

Similarly we can look at building small smart cities in Thane district, large parts of which are still quite under-developed. We can encourage several of Mumbai’s industries and business to shift there. The central government is likely to announce a scheme giving a 4% interest subvention to corporates building housing for their employees. This could encourage companies to move to these new areas and build housing for their employees, making these self-sufficient smart townships. They will also act as magnets for new migrants into Mumbai, thereby relieving the stress of the city’s infrastructure. But these plans for decongestion and establishment of newer townships will not work unless we provide world-class connectivity to these townships.


My vision is for an integrated rail and road network for Mumbai that connects Nhava-Sheva to Virar and other parts of Thane district to Nariman Point and Mumbai Port Trust through a combination of sea-links, undersea tunnels, underground and over-ground metro routes as well as water transport. Estimates of the cost of the Sewree-Nhava Sheva bridge have now crossed ` 12,000 crore. I am told that instead of this, an undersea tunnel from Mumbai Port Trust to Nhava-Sheva could be much cheaper since the distance involved is smaller. This undersea tunnel is estimated to cost about ` 7,000 crore. It might then make sense to explore this option and if found feasible to pursue it seriously. This undersea link can then be extended overland to join the Mumbai-Pune Expressway. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is already working on an ambitious plan to link Virar and Alibaug with a combination of rail, metro and freeway links. They believe the cost would be about ` 20,000 crore. If we extend this network of rail, metro and freeways up to Nariman Point and then to

It is essential to create new facilities in extended areas and decongest Mumbai

the Mumbai Port Trust – Nhava-Sheva undersea tunnel, we could get a state-of-the-art transport network loop around Mumbai and the entire metropolitan region. Such a loop will make all these and old satellite townships more accessible. Simultaneously if we move government offices out of Mumbai and encourage businesses to shift out of Mumbai, it would go a long way towards helping decongest Mumbai. But it is not just the connectivity with the hinterland and new satellite townships that needs to improve. Transport networks within Mumbai itself need an urgent upgrade. We cannot have a situation wherein building a single Metro line takes ten years. Apart from having multiple eastwest connectivity through Metro, we also need to build an underground Metro network between North and South Mumbai. If other port cities like Hong Kong and Singapore have metro networks going three levels underground, there is no reason why we can’t have it in Mumbai. Today there are enough Indian companies who have developed expertise in tunneling. Rather than handing over entire lines to corporates, we could get the companies to bid for the tunneling work on a per kilometre basis and have a regional metro


I have already announced plans to free up over 1,000 acres of port land for mixed residential, commercial, recreational use with adequate open spaces. We envisage building of an international convention centre, hotels, floatels, restaurants and cafes in the entire area. Also envisaged is an international cruise terminal and marina. authority building the network on the lines of the Delhi Metro Corporation. The third aspect of transport connectivity is efficient use of water transport. Mumbai must be the only port city in the world which does not use its proximity to the sea efficiently for passenger transportation purposes. One of the things on my agenda as I move towards freeing up Mumbai Port Trust land is to develop an efficient inland water transport network linking South Mumbai to Navi Mumbai, Thane and Kalyan.


We need to tackle the housing issue in Mumbai at multiple levels. I have already discussed the steps to decongest Mumbai, develop new satellite townships so that people move out of Mumbai and influx of new migrants is reduced. Another aspect is to boost rental housing in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). According to Census 2011 data about a million apartments are locked up in Mumbai, Navi Mumbai and Thane. The basic reason for this is because of our antiquated laws governing rental housing. As a result, people have lost faith in the judicial system to protect their property and prefer keeping these apartments locked rather than renting them out. If we address these legal issues, a large percentage of these apartments could come into the market to help tackle the housing shortage. If we recast the legal framework, I am sure that private developers would also be attracted towards developing rental housing. This sounds like a pipe dream till you realise that most of the old chawls in Mumbai were built by the landlords to be rented out. It was the ill-effects of poorly thought out laws like the Bombay Rent Control Act that interfered with the market. It ensured that owners took apartments off the rental market thereby forcing people into buying apartments.

Look at this way; today developers have no problems building malls or commercial complexes where they lease out space to shops or offices. Why don’t they do it in the residential sector? The primary reason are the antiquated laws governing leasing. If we amend the laws and make building housing for rentals easier, it will also attract also billions of dollars of funds from domestic and international institutions that are interested in long-term investments and annuity style of returns. Opening up rental housing may also result in curbing the irrational rise in property values in MMR that is making housing unaffordable to all except a very small section of the population. Increased rental supply will inevitably depress the demand for “owned� housing. Today people opt to own their apartments even though they could perhaps rent one at half the cost of what they are paying as interest to housing finance companies because they believe that capital values will continue to rise. This rise in capital values will be moderated once there is an increased demand for rental housing, forcing people to take more economically rational buying decisions. The other key aspect of tackling the housing issue in MMR is Slum Rehabilitation. In 1995, we had instituted a Slum Rehabilitation scheme that was then hailed as a model to follow for all Indian cities. That time the slum population in Mumbai was estimated to be about four million. The SRA scheme adopted a completely different approach. Rather than trying to forcibly vacate long-standing slums, with the attendant human misery; we sought to use the slum lands as a resource that could utilised to rehabilitate people in decent housing by attracting private sector participation. The idea was to rope in private developers who would rehabilitate the slum dwellers by building proper housing for them. They were to be compensated by more liberal FSI norms so that excess apartment build could be sold in the market for a profit.

Unfortunately its implementation in the last fifteen years has been a nightmare. To quote a media comment, “It is not any more a role model to emulate, but an execrable experience to avoid”. The whole scheme has been blatantly misused. There were no comprehensive surveys of slums carried out or proper photo-identification issued to the allottees. As the Comptroller and Auditor General observed a couple of years ago, The Slum Rehabilitation Authority adopted improper practices – there was no proper evaluation of builders, dues were not recovered and projects were not properly monitored. Apart from poor construction and delays, this has resulted in the very purpose of the scheme being subverted with poor slum dwellers being denied housing. In the last fifteen years, less than 600,000 slum dwellers have been rehabilitated. During this period the estimated slum population of Mumbai has grown to 6.5 million. The ambitious Dharavi Development Project continues to meander, ten years after it was first conceived, despite the state government having spent upwards of ` 50 crore on it. During this period, work on not even one of its five sectors earmarked for redevelopment has started. What needs to be done is to bring total transparency in decision-making, complete disclosure of project details, clear enunciation of specifications and deliverables, undiluted monitoring and periodic public consultation. Above all, slum rehabilitation has to take a ‘people first’ approach and must benefit only the deserving. It can be done, what is required is the political will and project management skills. But revitalising the SRA, making it more transparent and people-centric, is only one aspect of the issue. The other aspect has to do with guarding against further proliferation of slums. One of the oft-repeated criticisms of the slum rehabilitation initiatives is that the rehabilitated slum dwellers often lease/sell their apartments and choose to go an live in another new slum. But can you blame them? After all, the poor chap is only trying to monetize the only asset he has. Rather than using this argument to discredit and stop slum rehabilitation, what is required is beefing up the system to ensure that such misuse does not happen. It can be done in several ways. The first is to have a proper legal framework that plugs the current loopholes that stop the rehabilitation apartments to be sold/transferred for a specified period. Sure it will stop this process completely, but we can put some serious legal dampeners on it.

The second key element is to guard all public lands and open spaces – irrespective of whether they are owned by central or state governments and their undertakings, defence railways etc. adequately to ensure that no new slums can come up. Given satellite and GPS technology, this shouldn’t be difficult; if one has the political will. If moving into new slums becomes difficult, then the tendency to sell or lease rehabilitation apartments would also be curbed. The use of salt pan lands around Mumbai can also go a long way towards solving the housing crisis. Of course, care needs to be taken that while we are using these lands, the ecology of the area is not harmed.


One of the factors that is contributing to the poor quality of life in Mumbai is pollution – air as well as water. While enhanced state-of-the-art transport connectivity will reduce air pollution, we also need to take more proactive steps by the curbing the number of vehicles in the MMR region, otherwise all efforts to boost this infrastructure would be soon overtaken by the rising number of vehicles. Singapore has already shown the way by introducing and successfully operating for several years a permit system that make owning of new cars more expensive. What I would ideally like is a system wherein we introduce a permit system for ownership of vehicles in the MMR. Two cars would be permitted. If you want to buy a new car, you will have to first ensure that one of the older ones is sold and the permit transferred to the new car. If you still want to buy a third car, the permit for that will be available through an online auction. The money raised through these online auctions could be used to fund the infrastructure projects. We also need to address the pollution of the sea around Mumbai urgently. Today the sea around Mumbai is highly polluted. The only way to clean this is to clean up all of Mumbai’s rivers and nullahs which flow into the sea. Today the Mithi River is no longer a river but a foul-smelling sewer. The state has spent over ` 1,200 crore on the Mithi River clean-up, but one look at the river and you know that all that money has quite literally gone down the drain. The project has been caught in a classic bureaucratic quagmire of multiple authorities, piecemeal funding and practically zero project monitoring. The whole project needs to relooked at and all the execution loops plugged on an urgent basis. We also need to invest in additional sewerage treatment capabilities for the MMR region. Today a lot of the sewerage being dumped into the sea is

Pic courtesy: MMRDA


untreated. In fact, ideally we should be ensuring that all sewerage in MMR region is treated and then use this treated water for non-potable purposes like irrigation in the hinterland. This will not only help clean up the sea, but also help the farmers in Thane and Raigad districts. We should take a leaf out of how Singapore has managed not only to clean its river systems but has capped it with building the Marina Barrage which now supplies ten per cent of Singapore’s freshwater supply.


If you see around the world – from London to Sydney – creative use of defunct lands belonging to ports has played a great role in rejuvenating cities. I have already announced plans to free up over 1,000 acres of port land for mixed residential, commercial, recreational use with adequate open spaces. We envisage building of an international convention centre, hotels, floatels, restaurants and cafes in the entire area. Also envisaged is an international cruise terminal and marina, an inland water terminal and besides commercial complexes and residential areas. A planned development on such a scale will go a long way towards reviving Mumbai – culturally, socially and economically.


I am often asked about where would the funds for all these projects come from? I do not think that is really a problem. The redevelopment of Mumbai

Port Trust land is likely to fetch us ` 20,000 crore. I am willing to spend every penny of it on Mumbai’s development; after all the money belongs to the city. Similarly, I believe we should institute a property enhancement tax for areas where capital values have increased because of new infrastructure projects. To give you an example, I am told that property prices in Chembur have increased manifold since the completion of the Eastern Freeway. Why shouldn’t a small part of it come to the state government to fund further infrastructure development? If this money then goes to the MMRDA, it will have a steady stream of income which will help in raising debt from the markets. I am also confident of getting soft loans from Japanese and other international and multi-lateral agencies for this infrastructure development.


This finally is the key to everything. Anyone can make ambitious plans, but it requires political will and project management skills to ensure that they are executed in time with within costs. When I was the Public Works Minister in Maharashtra, we built the Mumbai-Pune Expressway in ` 1,600 crore when the private sector had bid ` 3,000 crore. Similarly we built the flyovers in Mumbai for ` 1,000 crore when the estimates were ` 1,600 crore. It can be done. All it requires is political will. As told to Raju Kane 

DP 2034: A CLOSER LOOK The new Draft Development Plan for Mumbai acknowledges the realities of existing developments and densities, says Ramesh Nair, COO–Business & International Director, JLL India

The Greater Mumbai Draft Development Plan (DP) 2034 was released on February 16, 2015, and organisations like Urban Design Research Institute (UDRI) have been mobilising public opinion on the subject. Here is an expert view from JLL India Development Plan 2034 has come up with maximum permissible FSI for each plot in Mumbai. Prima facie, the DP eliminates various premiums such as fungible FSI, staircase and open space deficiency and will creates further level playing field by eliminating many of the discretionary DP exemption powers of Municipal Commissioner and Urban Development department. The development plan encourages office space development by providing FSI of 5, 6.5 and 8 near railway and metro stations and by compulsorily creating new zones including commercial such as RC, CR 5. Freehold plots in South Mumbai will benefit with substantially higher FSI of 3.5, 5, 6.5 and 8. Earlier, the FSI was capped at 1.33 and higher FSI only came through parking infrastructure and in the case of cessed 33(7), cluster 33(9) and SRA 33(10) schemes. The general requirement of 15% for rural godowns appears to have reduced to 10% 7. In DCR 1991, only parking was permitted under open spaces. GDCR 2034, however, adds electric substations, storage of harvested rain water, grey water harvesting plants, sewerage treatment plants etc. to area permitted under open spaces.


 The new Development Plan proposes FSI to accommodate the expected increase in Mumbai’s population. Both the earlier DPs failed to plan for development suitable to a growing population.  The new DP acknowledges realities of existing developments and densities, and proposes a geographic distribution of FSI instead of a uniform FSI across the board.  Transit-oriented development is encouraged by higher FSI being allowed around stations.  It finally removes all ambiguity around calculations of what is counted in FSI; now, there is nothing that can be built and not be accounted for as free of FSI. This brings in much-needed simplicity and transparency, and reduces the scope for manipulation.  The new DP acknowledges that new car depots

near the areas of future population growths are critical for city to remain competitive and hence proposes new car depot at Aarey Colony.


 No clear time-frame for implementation  For the Western Suburbs, higher FSI may be largely impractical because of the civil aviation funnel and road width requirements  FSIs of 6.5 and 8.4 will lead to further crowding of already traffic-congested regions such as Dadar and Andheri. 10% of built-up area in projects over plots more than 2000 sq. meters in area in the form of small tenements is required to be handed over to the MCGM  Developers are dis-incentivized from providing amenities such as swimming pools and clubhouses in their projects, as they are part of FSI to be paid for but do not generate direct revenue


1 Is fungible FSI eliminated? 2 What happens to the circular on additional TDR linked to road width? 3 What happens to parking FSI schemes? 4 How higher FSI around stations would be managed to ensure that problems get solved instead of becoming worse. Would there be urban design interventions that go beyond what happens within a plot? 5 The DP allows for reduced parking norms for residential developments in zones around stations. Without real enhancement of public transport in the form of more railway lines, is this fair to buyers of units in such developments? 6 Will FSI incentives not be applicable for schemes like society redevelopment? 7 If the assumptions made on income levels are correct, how does the DP propose to allow for housing for the majority of Mumbai’s population? Will affordable housing remain a part of the puzzle that remains outside the DP’s consideration? 8 If the population is expected to drop in wards A, B and C which have infrastructure, why does the DP not bring in levers that will incentives people to stay in these wards and make good use of existing infrastructure? 9 How will power, water, road and drainage infrastructure for the excess housing stock be created? 


A CITY IN TRANSITION planned redevelopment is vital in order to make the city resilient and sustainable as well, says Menka Shivdasani

If you think about it, Mumbai is in a constant state of transition, making and remaking itself, remaining reinvention of itself, and Mumbai has certainly never been a stranger to change. As a coastal city, Bombay – as it was then known — was always a magnet for invaders, from the Maurya empire in the 3rd century BCE to the Portuguese and the British in its more recent history. In conquering the region, they brought about a variety of changes, in social systems, cuisine, and physical development of the land. Much of Mumbai’s foundations today goes back to British times; in 1782, when William Hornby became governor, he initiated the Hornby Vellard engineering project, to unite the seven islands into a single landmass, with the intention of blocking the Worli creek and preventing the lowtide. Reclamations at Worli and Mahalaxmi followed; the Sion Causeway was completed by 1802, connecting Bombay Island to Kurla in Salsette. In 1838, the islands of Colaba and Little Colaba were connected to Bombay by the Colaba Causeway. In the mid-18th century, the city emerged as an important town for maritime trade; it continued to develop over time. in 1853, between Mumbai and neighbouring Thane 21 miles away, there was no looking back. As Mumbai grew, new locations began taking shape, and an ever-expanding city made room for them locations like Colaba, Churchgate, Ballard Estate and Flora Fountain, residents of the city considered Mahalakshmi to be a suburb—that’s why it was

chosen as the venue for the 225-acre race course in 1883. Who would have imagined then, that in the late 20th, and early 21st century, it would become a coveted downtown address? Or, to take another planned township across the harbour in 1972, who would have known that these remote lands across the creek would become the hot new investment destinations of Navi Mumbai?

SHORT TAKES  While redevelopment has become a buzzword today, Mumbai down the centuries has never been a stranger to change  As the city moves into a new era, it is vital to ensure sustainability, resilience and a better quality of life for its residents Whichever way you turn in this metropolis, such signs of change are evident. Mumbaikars who grew up in the city in the ‘60s and ‘70s would recall Goregaon and Powai as picnic spots, now, these locations have metamorphosed into upmarket residential areas, with towering skyscrapers.The four-storeyed structures of the ’60s and ’70s – then the norm in urban Mumbai – have begun to make way for buildings that soar into the sky, sometimes of decades ago, there was no real estate sector to speak of in the city; today, our urban spaces have seen such a metamorphosis that some of our buildings could well rival those in Malaysia, Manhattan, or Shanghai.

1800 209 5504 | |

Pic: Shashikant Patil

The transformation of the city has been particularly spectacular in the last decade or two, cutting across both residential and commercial spaces. Nariman Point’s 20 or 30-storeyed buildings, built on land bearers of the city’s status as commercial capital of the country. While it still holds its own in modern times, the downtown commercial district now also Kurla Complex, Andheri, Malad, Belapur and beyond. Development of this nature is never easy, and there will always be people who wonder if so much construction is necessary. When Nitin Gadkari, as Public Works Department (PWD) minister in

being built since the 1960s – the one at Kemps

new locations in all directions. With the pressures of too many people, too few facilities, and a constant need to compete for commercial supremacy against new competitors across the globe, Mumbai is a city that needs to keep rebuilding itself. The question is, how best should it do this?


There is no doubt that in this constant process of transformation, there is much to learn from other cities. For some years, the Maharashtra government had its Shanghai dreams. In 2006, the then Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh told the president of the republic of China, Hu Jintao, about his government’s commitment to transform Mumbai into a world-class city like Shanghai. So what did China do to transform Shanghai into a world-class city? For one thing, it relentlessly followed an innovation-driven transformation, converting farmland and factories into spectacular

– how could anyone imagine motorists speeding across 55 such elevated structures! Today, we take still believe that there is more attention being paid to motorists than to pedestrians, there is no doubt that travel across the city is becoming smoother, faster and more seamless; it is also true that the city’s growing infrastructure has led to the expansion of

town saw a remarkable makeover, converting the haphazard development of the industrial boom into a sleek and shiny urban agglomeration that was said to have more skyscrapers than New York. The pace of development was so frenetic that it is also said that there was a time when one-quarter of the

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world’s construction cranes were in Shanghai. As recently as 1987, in the words of a Bombay FirstMcKinsey report in 2003, Shanghai was just “a Singapore: Even as the Maharashtra government enthusiastically tried to follow the Shanghai dream – with little success, it must be said – attention also turned towards Singapore, one of the world’s major commercial hubs, with the third-highest per capita income globally. Singapore, which shares Mumbai’s problems of high population density and a scarcity of land, has been able to implement city-planning and urban-managehousing programme has been successful and admired for producing low-cost, affordable housing on a mass scale. Yet, at the turn of the century, its rapid growth had produced slums in the central city area.

“We need a holistic model that remakes entire localities, creating better housing and commercial infrastructure for occupants, as well as open spaces, parking areas, wider roads and sustainable supply of water and power.”

Abbas Master,

CEO of Saifee Burhani Upliftment Trust

The concept of a Singapore Master Plan was introduced in 1958 and has undergone regular

For one thing, it has multiple authorities, and eight Municipal Corporations — Navi Mumbai, Vasai-Virar, Greater Mumbai, Kalyan-Dombivali, Ulhasnagar, Mira-Bhayandar and Bhiwandi-Nizamapur and Thane. There are nine Municipal Councils, including Pen, Karjat, Kulgaon-Badalapur, Uran, Alibaug, Ambarnath, Mathern, Panvel and 1,000 villages in Raigad and Thane Districts. There was the other issue – one that most people in our democracy would consider non-negotiable. Unlike in China, the ordinary citizen has a strong voice, and it is heard repeatedly. Much discussion has raged over every aspect of Mumbai’s development – whether a particular project (say, can be done differently (why couldn’t the Metro go underground, for instance); whether alternatives are available or not (wouldn’t a Bus Rapid Transit for cars) and so on. Such discussions have inevitably caused delays in implementation of various projects, but as most Mumbaikars will tell you, they are essential to the development process.


Through all this, experts have been unanimous about one inescapable fact; India is urbanising, and rapidly. As it leapfrogs into a new era, it is imperative to cope with the challenges of urbanisation, and ensure that we not only build cities that are worthy of its people, but that we build sustainable cities that will survive the long term. This fact has been recognised globally. For instance, the Rockefeller Foundation calls this the ‘century of the city’; 100 years ago, only one in every ten people lived in urban areas, they say.

government data. “The Master Plan has evolved land use amendments to one which focuses on planning ahead for future developments,” it says. The key focus of the Master Plan 2014 is to “build townships for all ages that are green, healthy, connected, strong in community interaction and spirit, and to bring quality jobs closer to home”.

cities. By 2050, according to the United Nations, almost three-quarters of the world’s population will call urban areas home. The Rockefeller Foundation has launched a ‘100 Resilient Cities’ (100RC) programme, dedicated to helping cities become more resilient to the physical, social and economic challenges that are a growing part of

Over the years, experts gradually began to recognise that Mumbai could not become another Shanghai or Singapore, because it had its own unique problems.

capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic

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more than 7,000 hectare. In these last few months, towards the end of 2014, Mumbaikars have also been looking eastward, to the port lands, stating that it is the city’s last chance for a transformation. Expanding the geographical boundaries of Mumbai, however, involves a holistic approach to urban redevelopment – the creation of infrastructure, including power, sewage facilities and transport connectivity; new jobs that allow people to live and work in the same vicinity, and other physical and social amenities. And while all this happens, it is vital to also recreate existing spaces to make them more livable – improving infrastructure and Environmental Social Network (MESN) data suggests that roads in the city are used by 800,000 cars, 1500,000 two wheelers, 15000 commercial vehicles and 13000 buses, with a growth rate for vehicles at 9 % pa (vs. 2.5% in population and less than 0.5% in road space.) The total of Greater Mumbai is 450 sq km and road length is 1975 km. Nimesh Bhandari, Co-Founder, Director and Chief observes that infrastructure development in Mumbai is slow and there is lot of pressure on the city to stresses and acute shocks they experience”. Simply put, it enables people to bounce back stronger after tough times and live better in good times. It’s certainly an aim that Mumbai should aspire to, in its quest to reinvent itself. According to the Foundation, resilient cities share certain core characteristics, including constant learning; rapid rebound; limited


There has also been much talk of building a ‘Third Mumbai’, beyond the Navi Mumbai region. Nitin Gadkari, currently Union minister for transport, pointing out that Navi Mumbai – the alternative built to decongest Mumbai – was quickly reaching saturation point. Maharashtra Chamber of Housing Industry (MCHI), Maharashtra’s premier real estate industry body, saw enough potential in the region to set up a separate Raigad unit in 2010 and Rajesh out the advantages of a region that was spread over

infrastructure does not grow at the same pace. “The impact of slow infrastructure growth puts pressure on the downtown and suburban regions,” he says. An important aspect of reinventing the city is through redevelopment of its old and dilapidated buildings. As Ram Makhecha, Director, Vakratunda, remarks: “There is an obvious scarcity of land in Mumbai and redevelopment is the only sensible, viable and available option. On the other hand the problem of dilapidated buildings in the city of Mumbai is becoming more acute, with each passing year. “In my view 80% of the buildings in South Mumbai and the western suburbs are dilapidated,” he adds. “These worn-out buildings are surrounded by new towers that have come up in recent times. If these buildings are ignored, they will not be able to hold up to the environmental pressures with towers looming around them. Moreover, their repair and maintenance will not be feasible. Redevelopment helps in the renewal of the city. It acts as a catalyst to fuel the economic growth of the city’s prime loca-

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tions. Removal of slums, development of infrastructure, betterment of standard of living, employment generation are all by products of redevelopment.” Experts point out, however, that such redevelopment should not be piecemeal; to really make a difference, it should take the shape of cluster development, which would encompass the buildings in the area, as well as the spaces between them, along with other amenities that every good neighbourhood ought to have, such as schools and hospitals. Redevelopment today has become a buzzword in the city and, slowly but surely, old dilapidated

structures are giving way to towers that changing the skyline of the city. Mumbaikars are increasingly discovering the delights of moving into new homes that are larger, better planned and sturdier than the homes that they once inhabited, complete with a host of amenities. The process of redevelopment is no doubt time-consuming and fraught with complexities, but as more than one expert has pointed out to this writer, the government has laid down directives under section 79(A) of the Maharashtra Societies Cooperative Act, and if these are followed meticulously, there is little cause for worry.

A FACELIFT FOR BHENDI BAZAAR One of the most populated and chaotic localities in South Mumbai, Bhendi Bazaar, is undergoing a major cluster redevelopment project.The area, which falls in Ward C, houses the highest number of dilapidated structures in Mumbai.The project spreads across 16.5 acres of landmass comprising 3,200 homes in 250 existing buildings and 1,250 businesses, all of which collectively impact 20,000 people. The Saifee Burhani Upliftment Trust (SBUT), which is redeveloping the area, envisages nine self-sustained sub-clusters with a total of 17 buildings. For the residents’ convenience, they have built a transit home, and also, SBUT says, India’s first and only commercial transit for the commercial tenants to accommodate 200 businesses. According to SBUT, the occupants, who were earlier tenants, (irrespective of caste and religion) will come back as owners and will be provided with a minimum of 350 sq.ft carpet area home (the mandatory requirement is 300 sq.ft as prescribed under DCR 33(9) norm.) SBUT points out that this is the only project of this size where 80% of the land will be used to rehabilitate existing tenants, with the remaining 20% as free sale component. Each Sub Cluster is self-contained and equipped with modern technology that is sustainable.The project has been awarded pre-certified for gold rating by Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). In January 2015, it also received the Intimation of Disapproval (IOD) from the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) for the first phase of the project, according to SBUT. As Abbas Master, CEO of SBUT explains: “Mumbai’s population has burgeoned far beyond the capacity of its infrastructure. Urban development has been uneven, creating pockets of well managed neighborhoods alongside congested and dilapidated areas that lack even basic sanitation and amenities such as water supply, garbage disposal, and fire and safety measures. There is great urban imbalance that needs to be rectified. “This cannot be done one building at a time; we need a holistic model that remakes entire localities, creating better housing and commercial infrastructure for occupants, as well as open spaces, parking areas, wider roads and sustainable supply of water and power.” Mr Master believes that the cluster redevelopment model is the best and the most holistic way to rejuvenate the decaying infrastructure. The Bhendi Bazaar redevelopment project that the SBUT has undertaken, he says, is setting the template for this sort of holistic makeover for other inner-city areas across India. Mr Master also says that regular impact assessment studies have been done by urban development bodies, city planners, and individual organisations to identify and demarcate areas where cluster-based redevelopment is a dire need. “But what is required is to convert these studies and need gap assessments into friendlier policies and serious developments to safeguard crumbling Mumbai,” he observes. 

Politician Meera Sanyal joins enthusiastic citizens as they share their vision for the transformation of port land in Mumbai

Pic: Menka Shivdasani

LOOK EAST As a new initiative to open up Mumbai’s port lands for development gets underway, citizens are hopeful that it will help to transform the city into a more livable space, says Menka Shivdasani

On November 9, 2014, a diverse group of enthusiastic citizens spent their Sunday at an APLI Mumbai ‘hackathon’ at the Marine Engineering and Research Institute at Hay Bunder Road near Reay Road station. They were there to provide their vision of how the city’s port lands could be re-imagined for a livable Mumbai, and as Meera Sanyal, politician and former CEO and chairman of the Royal Bank of Scotland in India pointed out, it was probably the first time many of them had visited this location. For most Mumbaikars, the entire eastern region that encompasses the Mumbai Port Trust lands is a deep and mysterious secret – a place inaccessible to most residents of the city. As Prathima Manohar, founder of The Urban Vision commented: “Five minutes from South Mumbai, there is 1000 acres immediately available for development and so few people know about it!” All that is set to change, hopefully. Mr. Nitin Gadkari, Union Minister of Road Transport, Highways, Shipping, Panchayati Raj, Rural Development and Drinking Water and Sanitation has been instrumental in setting up a Central Government Committee to suggest ways as to how

Mumbai’s port land could be put to holistic use. The area is huge, and the potential enormous. “Let’s not allow the port lands to go the way of the mill lands,” said Meera Sanyal at the hackathon. “We have a narrow window, a unique chance to create an alternate vision for Mumbai – a city in which we need to build hospitals, schools, playgrounds and public spaces.” John Menezes, a participant at the hackathon who had worked with the Bombay Port Trust for 28 years, added: “This can be a modern business cum socio-educational hub, and the new facilities should be selfsubsidised to upgrade the port financially.” The Indian Merchants Chamber has taken to the concept enthusiastically; following the citizens’ hackathon, the IMC’s Urban Development Committee hosted a conference on November 2014 to discuss visions and principles for Mumbai’s port land redevelopment and how it could form the nucleus to making Mumbai a smart city. APLI Mumbai has also done an extensive study of the region and how it can be transformed, dividing the area into 12 neighbourhoods. The document


points out that Mumbai’s port lands are located near major public transport links including the Suburban Harbour Line, the Wadala – Chembur Monorail, and the proposed Metro corridors from Wadala to Thane and Colaba to SEEPZ, allowing for integrated mobility; they also lend themselves seamlessly to water transport. This land also provides a vast opportunity to boost the local economy, replacing the factories and warehouses of yester years with innovation clusters and incubation spaces. Here are some excerpts. Experts project that by 2030 Mumbai will be a megalopolis with a population in excess of 30 million people and with a potential economic GDP in excess of $250 billion. However this will only be possible if our city is an attractive place for entrepreneurs, investors and young people to invest their energy, talent and enterprise. We believe that the redevelopment of Mumbai’s Port Lands offers a great opportunity to ensure that Mumbai regains its place as the most entrepreneurial and innovative in India. Cities that offer affordable and good quality public infrastructure and utilities (such as schools; colleges and health facilities), spaces for recreation, sports and arts and culture and which are integrated sustainably with the surrounding ecology are proven to create a virtuous cycle. The redevelopment of the Port Lands offers a unique opportunity to re-invent our city by creating the much needed public infrastructure, utilities and public spaces that we are so short of. Of the total holding by Mumbai Port Trust of 734 hectare (ha), the land available for development is approx 400 ha (1000 acres) excluding the Docks and operational areas (196 ha) and residential areas (approx 100 ha). A legislative framework to enable these lands to be re-possessed and a financial model to redevelop these lands as a public Private partnership with Mumbai’s Industrial and Corporate Houses using CSR funds has been proposed… Our plans integrate the Port lands, with adjacent city areas such as Sewri, Lalbaug, Byculla, Mazagon, Dongri and Bhendi Bazaar, and provide Mumbaikars much-needed public amenities and public open spaces which are critical for our city’s sustainable growth, as the commercial and entrepreneurial heart of India… We have identified the historical, cultural and ecological characteristics of 12 of these neighbourhoods and applied people-oriented urban planning principles to create distinct and aesthetic spaces with great utility for our city. We believe the New Nadkarni Park should be redeveloped as a mixed use residential area with

SHORT TAKES  APLI Mumbai has done an extensive study of how the port land can be transformed, dividing the area into 12 neighbourhoods.  The document points out that this land is located next to major transport links. the primary aim of rehabilitating Project Affected Persons. We envisage a rich and vibrant tourist and cultural district in the historical Sewri Fort area and an eco-park featuring a flamingo sanctuary and a mangrove conservation site at the edge of the Sewri mudflats. The area in Haji Bunder, Hay Bunder and Cotton Green offers a unique possibility to create education and sports facilities. This area should become the hub of a new Port Lands University for Mumbai. At Lakdi Bunder we envisage a much-needed vocational training hub. We believe that Darukhana should be transformed from a toxic ship-breaking yard into a vibrant water sports facility. Ferry Wharf and Bhaucha Dhakka should be repaired and renovated as a modern fishing jetty along with a coastal ferry passenger terminal. The heritage Princes Dock and Victoria Dock should both be revived and converted into a ship repair facility and a marina respectively. Elphinstone Estate should become the city’s new innovation cluster and should feature incubation spaces for Mumbai’s new generation entrepreneurs. The disastrous OCT Jetty should be re-oriented into a cruise ship terminal on the outer side and on the inner side a ferry passenger terminal for cross-harbour commuter vessels should be created. Sassoon Docks need to be repaired and renovated to provide hygienic and state-of-the-art facilities for sea food auctions, processing and export. The Port Lands re-development offers us a unique possibility to create several new public promenades that will give us all space to breathe, relax and dream. These public promenades may not necessarily be long contiguous stretches but can and should become part of a larger network of pedestrian and bicycling trails. It is critical that the MCGM 2014-2034 Master Development Plan incorporates a series of east- west connecting roads, walkways, cycle tracks and parks that can integrate the Port Lands seamlessly with the central and western part of South Mumbai. SOURCE: APLI Mumbai: A Port Lands Initiative by Citizens to Re-Imagine Mumbai 

THE LIFELINE FOR M The opening up of 1,000 acres of port land offers infinite possibilities to improve the quality of life in the city, provided it is used judiciously, believes Dr Lalit Kanodia

Mumbai is bursting at its seams. It has the dubious distinction of being one of the densest cities in the world with a population exceeding 30,000 persons per sq. km. Today the price of property in Mumbai is amongst the highest in the world. Some properties have been sold even in excess of Rs 1 lakh per sq. ft. If this continues, property will very soon be sold in this city per sq. inch. There are international norms on how much area in a city should be devoted for hospitals, educational institutions, shopping areas, playgrounds and parks, gardens, and so on. Mumbai has violated every single norm. The quality of life in Mumbai leaves much to be desired. For the average couple, the only relief in their busy life is perhaps seeing a movie followed by dinner. Almost all the cities of the world provide their citizens with a variety of ways to spend their free time. Singapore has Sentosa Park, London has its theatres, New York has Central Park while Bali has the Bali Treetop Adventure Park, to name just a few. When the mill lands were made available for development, they released about 600 acres for the citizens of the city. Despite the recommendation by the Charles Correa Committee to allocate 1/3 for open spaces, 1/3 for affordable housing and 1/3 for commercial development these resolutions were overturned. Most of us work and live on the west coast of Mumbai, starting from Colaba to beyond Juhu. We seem to have forgotten that Mumbai also has an Eastern Water Front stretching from Colaba to Sewri and beyond. Many of us have never even visited the Eastern Water Front. This area is owned exclusively by the Mumbai Port Trust. Thanks to JNPT, the cargo traffic in the city of Mumbai has dramatically reduced. The Bombay Port Trust has about 1,800 acres of land on the Eastern Water Front of Mumbai earlier used for ports activities, factories, warehouses and other similar miscellaneous activities. Of this area, the Government of India is considering giving Mumbai about 1,000 acres for the use of its citizens. This is significantly larger than the mill lands that were released earlier. This 1,000 acres can therefore be a lifeline for the city provided they are appropriately utilized. We have the opportunity to create a duplicate of Marine Drive and Worli Seaface on the eastern seafront of Mumbai. We can simultaneously rectify all the norms for large cities such as “Green Area v/s Built Up area�, for the benefit of our citizens. The Prime Minister while campaigning


MUMBAI for Maharashtra, during the elections, spoke frequently about affordable housing. Our new Chief Minister has already committed to creating a trans-harbour bridge. This will give access to five times the present land mass of Mumbai on mainland India. Our senior politicians are clearly seized with the problems of Mumbai.

Some of the aspects that are being considered for development of the eastern sea board include: a. Incubation Centre for Entrepreneurs b. Promenades c. Marina d. Marine Museums including the Vikrant e. Ferry Wharf f. Development of the Sassoon docks

Pic courtesy: APlI Mumbai- A Port Land Initiative By Citizens To Re-imagine Mumbai

Today this entire area around Sewri, Cotton Green and Reay Road is in shambles. Almost all the factories located therein which include Hindustan Unilever Ltd., the erstwhile TOMCO, Modistone, AdvaniOerlikon, etc. are not in production. The warehouses lie empty. Large areas are heaped with garbage. Several kilometers of the water front are used for unloading coal which is dumped in the open on the jetties, in utter disregard of international norms. Much coal dust spreads over the city of Mumbai and has become a grave health hazard. Most of the leases for the land have expired but the occupants refuse to vacate the premises. The only way to accelerate the development of the area without extensive and prolonged litigation is by passing a suitable act of Parliament and if necessary, compensating some of the occupants who will be affected. Indian Merchants Chamber believes that the port lands must have a unifying architectural theme. All great cities of the world such as Paris, London and Rome have distinct architecture. Similarly, though one may not subscribe to it, New York city and Hong Kong, too have a distinct architecture. Similarly, Dubai and Abu Dhabi have also ensured that there is an underlying motif that pervades the city. One of the problems of the city of Mumbai is that there are multiple Government agencies which include MCGM, MMRDA, etc. which makes it impossible to co-ordinate activities. Therefore the initiative of the Chief Minister of appointing a CEO will go a long way in solving this problem. There is a need to create a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) mandated with the development of the port lands, whose Chief Executive can report to the CEO of the city. There is a school of thought that advocates the conversion of Vikrant to a floating museum which is an iconic ship. Many cities of the world have anchored similar ships for similar purposes. E.g. London has berthed the HMS Belfast on the Thames River. Flamingoes visit Mumbai every year, but most of its citizens are not even aware of this. Many of us travel all over the world to watch Flamingoes, when they can see these in our own backyard. Another very important opportunity is the development of water transport. Whereas the monsoon affects the west coast, there is very little effect on the east coast which is sheltered. Large ferries such as those that run from Manhattan (New York) to Staten Island, and in Hong Kong can reduce travel time, currently in excess of two hours, to about 20 minutes! There are infinite possibilities that will open up with the availability of port lands. The citizens of Mumbai can be gifted the equivalent of what we have on the west coast of the city, provided all of us are committed to pursuing this opportunity to enhance the quality of our life and not pursue mere financial gains. 

“Properties close to transport infrastructure tend to command a premium”

Ramesh Nair

COO – Business & International Director, JLL India

ENHANCED CONNECTIVITY Transport infrastructure has significant positive implications for real estate, says JLL India’s Ramesh Nair

Metro projects across the globe have had significant positive implications for the real estate market by changing the contours of transit within the cities. The success of Mumbai’s first metro railway link, which connects the north-western suburb of Versova-Andheri with Ghatkopar on the north-eastern fringe, has resulted to be a game changer for the megapolis realty landscape. State governments’ clearance of setting-up two major metro routes worth ` 45,000 crore comes as a major boost to the Mumbai’s transport infrastructure. DCBM Metro which will connect Dahisar to Mankhurd via Charkop and Bandra through a 40 km long underground route with 36 stations is estimated at a cost of ` 25,605 crore. While the eastern route of 32 km long Metro line with 24 underground and six elevated stations will link Wadala to Kasarvadavli via Ghatkopar and Thane is estimated to be built at a cost of ` 19,097 crore. In another infrastructure initiative to unclog traffic jams, State government has approved the proposal of constructing four flyovers and a road at a cost of ` 227 crore to ease the traffic at Kalanagar junction that caters to approximately 12,000 vehicles every hour. The project will be jointly developed under the Private-Public Partnership (PPP) model. MMRDA,

which is going to provide 30% of the finance required, will probably release additional land in BKC for development in order to raise funds for the projects. This will mean additional supply in SBD and BKC. The impact of transportation infrastructure economics has always proven positive on the real estate map. In a city like Mumbai where residential and commercial properties are located close to transportation infrastructure tend to command a premium over the localities situated away from such establishments.

SHORT TAKES  The impact of transportation infrastructure economics has always proven positive on the real estate map.  Mega projects like the metro have an impact at various stages of construction Mega-projects like the metro have impact in three stages – first when the project is announced, second when the work starts, and finally when the project is commissioned. Once construction starts, another spike is expected in the prices of these catchments. Developers have already started incorporating the


planned metro systems as a locational advantage point for their projects. Many micro-markets, especially Ghodbundar Road and Thane, will witness a lot of industrial plots/complexes turned into commercial buildings by developers. The areas where the rental and capital values have bottomed out for commercial spaces can expect a revival in terms of more commercial projects being planned by developers with a view on the future projects. However, existing projects with vacancies along these metro lines will see increased activity, especially in micro-markets like Malad, Kurla and Thane. With these major infrastructure initiatives the connectivity between Western Suburbs and Harbour line railway locations will improve dramatically, boosting the much needed east-west movement in Mumbai. For certain destinations like Dahisar, Ghodbundar Road and Mankhurd where there is limited connectivity presently, metro will not only enhance the intra-connectivity but also lead to further development of the real estate market in this region. As witnessed in Andheri, supply and demand will pick up dramatically in these micro-markets, especially the areas around the metro stations. The Western and Eastern suburbs, SBD, BKC and Thane will have positive impact on rental and capital values. This will even lead to the emergence of new commercial real estate destinations such as Ghodbundar Road, Wadala (MMRDA has land there) and Dahisar.

Due to the enhanced connectivity the demand for commercial spaces looks imminent. The areas around the Metro stations, especially interchanges, where there would be connections with the existing transport systems, will be the preferred locations for the corporates. However, with limited supply in stock, the rental and capital values of these areas are bound to appreciate as the project commences. With the metro in place, the surrounding areas which are predominantly residential centres will see mushrooming of new commercial hubs. New retail avenues will develop around the metro stations and the residential market of Western and Eastern suburbs will receive the maximum impact in terms of real estate development as the project will cover this region almost entirely. Interestingly, the metro, monorail, Eastern Freeway, SCLR and now the addition of two metro routes are all the marquee projects of Mumbai that have a connection with the Eastern Suburbs. With such infrastructure projects developed to simplify the growing commuting issues of the Mumbaikars’ will not only help in decongest the traffic but also provide them an opportunity to trade in their current lifestyle for one that gives them more choices and flexibility. Given all of the above, these infrastructure initiatives will definitely prove to be a game changer for the real estate sector in the city. 

“Since most people would like to reside as close as possible to their offices, any good residential complex in any vicinity with infrastructure and connectivity sees the maximum traction in terms of sales.” SANDEEP SADH

Managing Director and Founder Mumbai Property Exchange


Infrastructure projects provide a tremendous boost to real estate both in terms of demand and capital values, says Sandeep Sadh

The year 2014 has been very important for Mumbai from the perspective of infrastructure. Though this is a matter of pride, the fact is that we are late by 20 years in our infrastructure development, keeping in mind that we are India’s financial capital and one of the most important cities in Asia. An under-developed and a densely populated city like Mumbai deserves many more such projects. Here are the best five projects that have been thrown open to the public in 2014 and have shown that what infrastructure can do. Since Mumbai is an island city and has limitations, any infrastructure development in terms of road connectivity will surge the capital values in some locations or even rationalise them in others.  Mumbai International Airport and the road connecting to the Western Express Highway.  Mumbai Metro  Eastern Freeway - Ghatkopar loop connectivity.  Santacruz-Chembur Link Road.  Mumbai Mono Rail Whenever we buy or sell real estate, we always refer to the locational infrastructure impact in the pipeline and justify the current price or the future appreciation. The appreciation happens generally because of better connectivity and infrastructure development, making a location suddenly attractive; hence the traction begins and prices rise.

Let us look at the impact on the real estate market due to these projects on the whole:


The new Mumbai International Airport, firstly, has given superb connectivity to Sahar Road and therefore, has boosted the demand in locations which are closer to Marol, Saki Naka, Saki Vihar Road and surrounding areas. The rates till last year in most of the under-construction projects were in the range of ` 10,000 to 12,000 PSF and are now quoted 20 to 30% higher, if not more. Andheri East has always been seen as a business district and it is one of the most popular Central Business Districts (CBDs) in Mumbai with lease rental values ranging from ` 70/ to ` 140/- per square foot, giving the office renters a great choice with good complexes with renowned names. Since most people would like to reside as close as


SHORT TAKES  Since Mumbai is an island city and has limitations, any infrastructure development in terms of road connectivity will increase capital values in some locations and rationalise them in others  The new Mumbai International Airport has given superb connectivity to Sahar Road and boosted demand in locations closer to Marol, Saki Naka, Saki Vihar Road and surrounding areas  The Mumbai Metro from Ghatkopar to Andheri West has triggered off a spark in the Eastern suburbs possible to their offices, any good complex in any vicinity with new infrastructure and connectivity sees the maximum traction. Vasant Oasis at Marol, Kanakia Rain Forest and Kanakia Sevens are among the projects which have gained maximum sales and traction in the past with many buyers relocating themselves to be near their places of work. This is going to be a new trend in Mumbai going forward. If developers, within their means, are able to follow the basic rules of Relocation - “Kids First, Wife Second and Husband Third” and provide schools, malls and basic infrastructure around their complexes, then they can be winners all the way. An average Mumbai citizen does not want to travel and any complex providing a better quality of life outperforms compared to the others. Hiranandani Gardens – Powai, Oberoi Garden City and Goregaon East are current examples as to how the prices have surged in these complexes compared to the others in the vicinity.



The Eastern Freeway is one of the best things that can happen to people residing in Ghatkopar, Chembur, Vikhroli, Thane and even Navi Mumbai. Once you are at the loop, you can reach South Mumbai in the most convenient and effortless manner cruising in your new car. This has given an impetus to the entire eastern suburbs and prices have gone up in the suburbs pretty steadily owing to this. However, I would focus more on the number of transactions than actual pricing. Locations like Kanjur Marg, Bhandup and Vikhroli have seen roaring business and at an estimate, around 1,000 units have been sold between the new launches by Wadhwa, Runwal, Lodha, Godrej and a few other developers, which surpasses the numbers in the Western suburbs by leaps and bounds, thus confirming the growing demand for Eastern suburbs.


The Santacruz-Chembur Link Road (SCLR) has again been a boon to the office-going commuter from the Eastern Suburbs towards Bandra or Santacruz and vice-versa to a commuter going to Thane, Navi Mumbai and Chembur or even South Mumbai through the loop at Mankhurd to South Mumbai. If you have better connectivity, the horizons expand and this is exactly what has happened with the SCLR, which has given home buyers a lot of options suddenly to be in any part of Mumbai without worrying about traffic woes. Prices in Chembur have got the maximum impetus and the Santacruz East belt is the next belt to watch out for in terms of maximum price appreciation. It’s amazing how with better connectivity, every

Pic courtesy: HCC

The Mumbai Metro has been the best of the lot as it has decreased commute time from Ghatkopar to Andheri West to nearly 20-odd minutes. This has triggered off a spark in the Eastern suburbs since people do not like three-tier connectivity – from home to station, station to the destination station and destination station to the office. The connectivity that the Metro provides has cut down difficult commutes, reduced travel time and provided air-conditioned comfort in one of the legs of the journey. There has been a spark in the Eastern suburbs because home buyers who could not afford the western suburbs have now found an alternative in the east, where connectivity is also far better thanks to the Eastern Express Highway. Prices in Ghatkopar and Chembur have surged by at least 15 to 20% in locations abutting the Metro throughout. However, since prices were

in any case higher in Andheri West, we have not witnessed a significant increase in this belt.

from Goregaon to Mulund through the National Park. This would give a boost to both locations equally from the travel perspective. Also, this road links further to the Airoli bridge connecting Navi Mumbai, which would mean much better connectivity to reaching Airoli and Navi Mumbai. Recently announced projects, which will take anywhere from three to ten years.  Metro – Phase 2 and 3: This will seamlessly connect the city.  Coastal Roads: This will reduce the rush from the Link Road and S. V. Road in the Western Suburbs from Borivali to Bandra, which is one of the most densely populated belts. second location starts looking like a city centre and an epicentre of growth.


The Mumbai Mono Rail is still to be completed. The Wadala - Chembur link currently is ready and once the connectivity is done till Parel, we shall surely see better results than now. The Mono Rail, once fully operational, perhaps will help in decongesting the traffic from the roads in these locations and especially in the case of taxis. A few infrastructure projects to look forward to, which are at different stages today. These will again be the game changers for the real estate sector: Lokhandwala to Jogeshwari Vikhroli Link Road - Connectivity This is one of the most important connectivity linkages of the future. Once ready, it will decongest the entire Link Road going to the Highway, Bandra and so on, through SV Road, Juhu-Tara Road and Linking Road. The impact of this would be a jump in prices in Andheri West for sure. Goregaon S V Road/Ram Mandir Road Western Express Highway. This road is half ready and still at least a year or two away. This would connect the Highway to S V Road, Goregaon, and all the adjoining locations within minutes. There are several ongoing projects in Goregaon, Malad and Oshiwara and all these will get a shot in the arm. Presently, the sales are sluggish in these locations owing to the fact that most of the top developers who have similar projects are in competition with each other and prices are high. I don’t see a major price rise, but surely traction – what we need more is sales rather than more price hikes. Mulund - Goregaon Link Road Once this happens, this would be the finest connector

 Better roads: If the Government or Corporation fixes the roads and makes an effort to improve their quality, traffic can move faster by at least five to ten kilometres per hour.  Bridges over key junctions: A lot of bridges are yet to be made on key junctions. For example the Kherwadi Junction at Bandra East has only got its South arm developed so far. The North arm is under construction; this was supposed to be done 20 years ago. We need a lot of bridges; for example, a flyover at Juhu-Versova Link Road can ease heavy traffic coming in from Andheri going towards Juhu and Andheri Station.  Trans-harbour Link: This has been in discussions for years and till now, we have no sign of it, barring talk. Once this bridge comes up, the prices in South Mumbai can be rationalised greatly as people will get enough opportunities at one-third of the price across the bridge.  Ghatkopar – Koparkhairane Link Road: This was announced a year back but there is no sign of it being done as yet. Presently, Mumbai connects well with the Airoli bridge and Vashi bridge towards Navi Mumbai. Commuters going towards Dombivali and Kalyan have to take this route all the way and taking a detour of more than 10-15 km to pass through the MIDC exit at Koparkhairane and Ghansoli. The bridge, which will be identical to the Airoli bridge, can shorten the distance from Ghatkopar to Dombivali by 30 minutes at least. If the Government has a vision for Mumbai 2020, then it should work very quickly towards completion of these infrastructure projects and make Mumbai one of the best Asian cities in which to live and work. 


ON THE MOVE MMRDA has plans for several infrastructure projects that promise to change Mumbai into a world-class city

Spread over an area of over 4000 kilometers, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is one of the biggest urban centres in India. Besides eight Municipal Corporations and nine municipal councils, the region also includes more than 1000 villages in Thane and Raigad districts. Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), which is a part of the Urban Development Department (UDD) of Government of Maharashtra, is engaged in long-term planning, promotion of new growth centres, implementation development of this region. MMRDA has already completed projects worth `10, 635 crore, Eastern Freeway – one of the biggest elevated freeways in India connecting South Mumbai with

Colaba in South Mumbai to Seepz- a business hub in western suburbs - which will be completely underground. Metro Line 3 Colaba – Bandra SEEPZ is 32.50 km long with 27 stations. The authority has completed the construction of Santacruz-Chembur Link Road – 3.5 km – ` 428 crore which provides the crucial East-West connectivity to millions of motorists. More than 75,000 vehicles are already using the project for

SHORT TAKES  MMRDA has completed projects worth ` 10,635 crore.  country, Eastern Freeway, Rail Over Bridges,

and 36 skywalks.


One of the biggest projects implemented by the authority has been the Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP). Executed on the loan granted by the World Bank and Government of India, the project is divided into two parts- road and railway component. While the railway component in MUTP-I is completed, the road component was also completed recently with the commissioning of Santacruz-Chembur Link Road. MMRDA has also conceived a master plan of nine metro corridors for Mumbai. between Versova and Ghatkopar via Andheri is ready, constructed by Reliance Infrastructure as a part of the Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) MMRDA is also planning another metro between

their daily commute. More than 5,000 project affected families have been resettled and rehabilitated during this project- which is a record by itself. MMRDA has also opened the ` Eastern Express Highway.


 Cost of the Project: ` 2356 crore  Project Scope: 11.4 km fully elevated with 12 stations   Will reduce travel time from 70 to 20 minutes  Improves connectivity between Eastern and Western suburbs and connects Western Railway at Andheri and Central Railway at Ghatkopar Stations  Passenger carrying capacity (4-Coach) – 1,178  Daily ridership – 8.0 lakh (2031)

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Based on the Comprehensive Transportation Study (CTS) conducted by M/s. Lea Associates Rail Component

Road Component Santacruz-Chembur Link Road – 3.5 k.m. – ` 428 cr

101 rakes in service

Will provide East-West connectivity

Financial and Demographic progress – 80% complete

Will help about 50,000 vehicles easily


 Cost of the Project: PIB approved Cost ` 23,136 cr  Project Scope:  32.5 km. fully underground  27 stations (26 u/g + 1 at grade)   Serves areas not connected by rail  Complements suburban railways and other Metro corridors  Daily ridership - ` 17 lakh (2031)  Present status:  PQ for civil works submission done  RFP for GC issued to four shortlisted consortia


 Virar-Alibaug Multi Model Corridor – 126 k.m. – ` 12,975 cr  Phase-I – Virar (Navghar) to Chirner (JNPT) – 79 k.m. – ` 9326 cr  Phase-II – Chirner (JNPT) to Alibaug – 47 k.m. – ` 3649 cr  Eight lanes with separate lanes for BRTS, Metro etc.  20 Flyovers, 15 interchanges, 45 underpasses  Will connect NH-8, NH-13, NH-4, NH-4B and NH-17  Detailed project report ready  Mumbai Trans Harbour Link – 22 k.m. – ` 9630 cr  Direct access to Navi Mumbai, new International Airport  Convenient gateway to Pune Expressway and further Southern India  Helpful to develop main land  Project referred to Government of Maharashtra for decision  Taloja Integrated MSW management – ` 3000 cr  Project to come up at Taloja

 Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste in six Local Bodies in MMR  Concession agreement to be executed  Water Resources – ` 1100 cr  Bulk water supply from Surya River to VasaiVirar, Mira-Bhayandar and Rental houses  88 k.m. long pipeline required  Detailed project report completed  Project submitted to GoI for funding under JNNURM  Bandra-Kurla-Chunabhatti (EEH connector) – ` 400 cr  1.6 k.m. connector, 2+2 lanes  Crosses Mthi, LBS road, Central, Main and Harbour Rail tracks  Journey will be reduced by 3 k.m. and journey time by 30 minutes  Sion-Dharavi area SOURCE: Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)

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“New nodes like Dronagiri and Ulwe are emerging fast in Navi Mumbai for investment and home buying.” Rajesh Prajapati,

Managing Director Prajapati Constructions Ltd & former president, MCHI-CREDAI Raigad

A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE Recent infrastructural developments have resulted in the emergence of new locations in Navi Mumbai like Ulwe and Dronagiri, says Rajesh Prajapati

To decongest Mumbai the decision was taken to build a new city on the mainland across the harbour. Navi Mumbai today has become a realty magnet for both residential and commercial development with a slew of modern residential complexes, shopping malls, Information Technology (IT) Parks and Special Economic Zones (SEZs) dotting the landscape. Excellent infrastructure, lower pollution levels, less traffic, 24-hour water supply, educational facilities and reasonably priced commercial and residential real estate are the key elements that attract the buyers towards Navi Mumbai, especially from western and central Mumbai. Navi Mumbai stands out as a viable alternative to Mumbai, which faces severe land shortage. Major infrastructural projects are underway in and around Navi Mumbai which are likely to completely change the demographics of the region and make it the most promising real estate destination in the country. Several nodes in Navi Mumbai such as Vashi, Belapur and Nerul have reached their saturation point. The recent infrastructural developments have resulted in the emergence of new places like Ulwe and Dronagiri, which are in the vicinity of

these development zones, have seen realty prices skyrocket in the recent past. Another advantage that Dronagiri has is the sea route to Mumbai from Uran which can be developed as a picnic spot and a great weekend getaway for Mumbaikars which is just 40 minutes away from Ferry Wharf, Mazagaon, Mumbai.

SHORT TAKES  As locations like Vashi and Nerul reach saturation point in Navi Mumbai, new destinations are opening up thanks to a host of infrastructure projects  These include a metro rail, a trans-harbour link, a railway to Uran for commuters and an international airport


Navi Mumbai Metro Rail: The Navi Mumbai Metro Rail has been envisaged to improve the connectivity within the Navi Mumbai Region. The corridor being developed connects Belapur - Pendhar - Khandeshwar – New Proposed International Airport Corridor. Maharashtra Government has authorised CIDCO as the MRT

system administration Implementing Agency. The total length of the corridor is approximately 21.45 km and will have 20 stations. Metro connectivity will lead to an increase in demand for commercial, residential and retail real estate in Panvel and Navi Mumbai Market along the metro corridor. Sewri-Nhava Sheva Trans Harbour Link (MTHL): Development of Mumbai Trans Harbour Link (Road and Rail) aims to augment the capacity of arterials linking Greater Mumbai to the rest of the MMR. This link would connect Sewri on the Island city side to Nhava Sheva. The project consists of construction of a six-lane bridge across the deep sea through the Mumbai Harbour. The total length of the link will be 22 km. The project is slated to be commissioned by 2019. This infrastructure development will Improve the connectivity of South of Mumbai with Navi Mumbai. Real estate development along this alignment, as well as in the locations in the vicinity (like Ulwe and Dronagiri areas towards south of Navi Mumbai) are expected to benefit with this development. Navi Mumbai International Airport: A greenfield airport development has been proposed near Panvel to cater to the future increase in

passengers travelling in and out of Mumbai city. This new international airport for Mumbai is destined for the Kopra-Panvel area in Navi Mumbai. This project will have a positive impact by significantly increasing the importance of Navi Mumbai and its neighborhood. This will lead to an increase in demand for commercial, residential and hospitality real estate in and around Navi Mumbai and placing it on the domestic and international air traffic route. Seawood - Uran Commuter rail link: Seawood – Uran Commuter rail link which is under construction is one such corridor which connects the hub of Navi Mumbai with Ulwe, Dronagiri and Uran. It is 22.50 km long and caters to the daily commuting needs of Navi Mumbai SEZ, proposed Navi Mumbai Airport, JNPT etc. CIDCO has planned several stations along the route and as such Dronagiri node will be served by four railway stations and Ulwe node by one station. This project is a joint venture between Central Railway and CIDCO. It is an approved project and presently construction is in progress. After commissioning the commuter line will facilitate commuters travelling from Mumbai, Thane, Navi Mumbai to reach Ulwe, Dronagiri and Uran. 


THINK OUT OF THE BOX Members of the Mumbai Transport Forum wrote to the chief minister recently, suggesting ways to tackle the growing traffic menace in the city

With cars more easily available than ever before and road space not expanding quickly enough to accommodate them, traffic jams in the city have become a nightmarish experience for Mumbaikars. Members of the Mumbai Transport Forum believe that there are solutions to the increasing problem and on November 9, 2014, they wrote to Devendra Fadnavis, Maharashtra’s new chief minister, suggesting low-cost ways to tackle the issue. The letter was signed by Ashok Datar, Prashant Gupta, Rishi Aggarwal, A V Shenoy, Vijayshree Pednekar, Trupti Amritwar Vaitla and several others. Here’s what they told the Chief Minister about commuting in Mumbai. Commuting is one of the most painful aspects of living in Mumbai. Many of us (“transport thinkers and activists”) have seen Mumbai’s transport situation over the last several years with dismay, as there are so many missed opportunities. And many solutions being implemented tend to add more problems in the medium to long-term than solve them. It need not be so. It needs just a bit of courage to think out-of-the-box and choose a path less travelled. There is much to learn from several global cities like London, Singapore, Hong Kong, Paris, New York City, etc. If there is one message we would like to leave you with it is the very famous quote of Bogota’s mayor –“A developed city is one where the rich use public transport.” We hope you agree and will make choices (or guide your colleagues to make them) so that we make Mumbai a truly developed city, where even the rich happily use public transport. This is a very long haul and would probably take eight to ten years, but a very

meaningful beginning is possible within a year with tangible and visible impact. Metro-III, Mumbai Trans-Harbour Link, the Coastal Road, or any other new flyovers will take several years and cost several thousand crores of rupees. While these need to be worked upon judiciously and expeditiously, we should seriously think how to make a visible difference to the common woman’s commuting experience in one year! Hence we suggest you consider following suggestions for near-term impact on the life of common man:


In Mumbai, where space is so much at a premium, road space is used indiscriminately and free for parking of vehicles (cars, buses, trucks, etc.). Only 10,000 parking spaces (mostly in South Mumbai) are under pay-and-park. Another 100,000 parking

SHORT TAKES  A group of transport experts recently wrote to the CM with suggestions for better commutes  Double-decker suburban trains, a comprehensive parking policy and technology for traffic management were among them spaces can be converted to pay-and-park, which will make parking more organised and userfriendly and also generate city-friendly revenues. We need a comprehensive parking policy that properly prices on-road parking (e.g., global experts suggest that pricing should dynamically change to ensure 85% peak utilisation of the parking space). This would make people more aware of the “true cost” of car ownership (and use) and thereby also nudge people in the direction of using walking, cycling, or public transport as alternative means of movement. We should also introduce night paid parking on roads in residential areas. Such a policy should also focus on freeing the space for buses on commuting corridors which can improve the speeds, frequency and popularity of buses.

technology, improve deterrence, recruit and train auxiliary force.


A large number of commuters in Mumbai travel between six business hubs in the city—Nariman Point, Central Mumbai, Bandra-Kurla Complex, Andheri-Sakinaka, Vikhroli-Powai and Malad— and their homes. Except Nariman Point, other hubs are not properly connected. Huge traffic congestion is witnessed around them that leads to waste of fuel and precious time for those working there—right from top executives to telephone operators. There is an urgent need to work out traffic management plans and local infrastructure rebuilding to ease the congestion in the financial capital of India.


A lot can be done in this area in a relatively short time frame, if there is conviction. We could use Information Technology for the following - linkage of traffic lights with computerised databases of secure number plates, all driving licenses to be under smart cards and on database, every vehicle and driving license must have a correct address, email id, bank account number and mobile telephone number, have a system for capturing violations and issuing challans/fines automatically (a lead has already been taken by Bangalore/ Delhi in this area). We should clean up areas under 50+ flyovers. Emphasise traffic disciplines at high volume junctions under such flyovers which get ignored as VIPs travel above. Slow but smooth and calm traffic through smaller interventions like underpasses is more appropriate for Mumbai rather than high-speed unsafe traffic creating systemic traffic jams through freeways and flyovers. We should empower the police with authority and (responsibility) so that vehicles parked on the road or at a public place can be confiscated/ scrapped. The income from systematic scrapping will enable good management of such a scheme. In fact, incremental income from parking and fines can be allowed for traffic police/municipality or RTO to improve road marking, introduce


From Bandra Western Railway to Kurla, Harbour branch from Kurla via Mankhurd, Navi Mumbai airport, Panvel to Karjat and Pune (it is already mostly in place – need strengthening – and will provide very critical east west connectivity). The Sewree Nhava Sheva link must have rail/ road connection (just to earn more toll should not kill the rail link) and this should be supported by low-cost land availability for housing of poor/slum dwellers, work places in a mixed land use across the creek (so that a substantial mobility across can be in walk/bike/bus mode.)


We should deploy two-tier coaches for suburban services. They carry 30% more passengers in the same space as existing coaches without



Pics: Shashikant Patil

Members of the Mumbai Transport Forum also wrote to Mr Suresh Prabhu, Union Railway Minister, with suggestions on improving the rail system. Here’s the gist of what they said.

any modifications in electrical equipment and platforms. AC coaches should replace ordinary first class with appropriate pricing for a single ticket as well as a variety of passes.


In the next six years, we have no alternative to buses. We need to strengthen and modernise the bus system with newer buses and providing space for buses to run faster at higher frequency and smart connectivity, common ticketing, maps, bus stops and carry many more people with more efficient use of space, fuel and cause minimum emissions. Mumbai is the most suitable city- geographically and connectivity for appropriate variations of Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS). • Jogeshwari-Vikhroli link extended to Vashi in the east and Lokhandwala in the west • Western and eastern express highway • S V Rd to Nariman point via sea link • Ghatkopar , Sion, Dadar to Ballard Pier • Shuttles between commercial complexes and suburban/metro station • Small AC/Non AC buses for local loop connectivity, airport limo/mini bus service • BEST network incurred a loss of ` 693 cr from the operations of 3700 buses carrying 36 lakh trips per day. Out of this, air-conditioned (AC) buses carry less than one per cent of trips but 14% of the loss which is higher than the total revenue from such buses. The number of bus trips has gone down from 41 lakhs/day in 200506, while the number of buses increased from 3,000 to 4,000!


A systematic effort is needed for a sharing system and provide radio paging as common infrastructure for this trade. Regulation and fair pricing of parking will provide many more customers to this trade. In return, we demand high

Build/develop specific linkages on existing suburban network in partnership with state government  Introduce double-decker suburban trains  First class on suburban trains to be AC class  Rationalization of fares on suburban rail system  Improve all high volume stations and areas around them  Electronic ticketing to save cost and time Integrated ticketing for suburban rail, metro and buses “The next decade will be a railway decade (last two decades have ignored railways while focusing on highways and automobiles,” the letter added. “It is time to change the priorities.”

discipline and consumer-friendly compliance. Encourage car pooling

# 8: FOOTPATHS, WALKING AND BICYCLES They got only lip service so far. Now provide serious attention and budgets (at least 10 times!) . THERE is analysis and rationale to support each of these ideas. And there are many more - another 10 we would be very happy to share these with you, or with the officials who you believe would be openminded for ideas that work on a shorter horizon but no less important or effective. 

RIDE THE WAVES In a scenario where there is no infrastructure for conventional vessels and huge investments would be required for its creation, a hovercraft is the best option for passenger water transport in Mumbai, says Cdr. Kumresh Sharma

Man has been using water transportation since times immemorial when he used trunks of trees, paddling with his hands to cross rivers and streams. With the passage of time he graduated to use canoes, sails and finally power boats and ships to cross the oceans. India has a coastline of 7,517 kms, out of which 6,100 kms is around the mainland. Approximately 70% of big cities in the world are situated either on the river banks or on the sea shore. So has been the case with Mumbai. With the ever-increasing population in the main city, the government of Maharashtra created Navi Mumbai, which has further increased the need of commuting to the island city because south Mumbai still remains the CBD of Mumbai and it will remain so till Mantralaya, Headquarters of the state and central government organisations, the share market and wholesale markets remain there. Lately, however, the Maharashtra government has considered exploring other means of commutation in addition to existing road and train systems. Accordingly

Passenger Water Transport was considered another option to substantiate the existing systems.


A ‘Committee of Experts’, headed by Admiral N. P. Datta, Former Flag Officer Commanding Western Naval Fleet was constituted in 1983. The expert committee proposed detailed techno-economic studies to be carried out but favoured water passenger transportation system on the crossharbour routes on the East Coast. The expert group also identified the potential crafts such as hovercrafts and hydrofoils. These crafts were speedy (even speedier in comparison to the existing train services), could be operated throughout the year and particularly hovercrafts being amphibious had the advantage of eliminating the needs for terminal facilities or jetties. Moreover, hovercraft services could be introduced more quickly because it did not require dredging of channels and construction of jetties.


However it was admitted that for both these technologies, capital and unit operating costs of the crafts were far higher as compared to the conventional low speed ferries. The Expert Committee recommended three routes: 1. Cross Harbour Routes: - Various locations for cross-harbour routes were New Ferry Wharf (NFW), Mumbai and Apollo Bundar / Radio Club Terminus to Mora, Mandwa / Rewas, Vashi, Belapur and Nhava-Sheva. 2. North-south route along east coast: - Between Mazagaon Pier and Apollo Bundar via New Ferry Warf on experimental basis and between Trombay and Apollo Bundar via Mazagaon Pier / New Ferry Wharf.. 3. North-south route along west coast.


M/s SKS Ltd. M/s SKS Ltd. from Delhi commenced passenger water transport services between South Mumbai (Gateway of India) and Vashi, CBD Belapur and JN Port Nheva-Sheva deploying 20-seat fully amphibious hovercrafts in 1994. The services were commenced on the presumption that either the government of Maharashtra would provide suitable infrastructure at Gateway of India or permit the developer to create it. However, no infrastructure could be created and the developer had to install SHORT TAKES  In a croweded city like Mumbai, water transport would make a big difference  A hovercraft facility had been started in Navi Mumbai but was closed down a floating pontoon with a ramp on Jetty No. 1 opposite the Department of Atomic Energy building in order to protect the crafts from getting damaged by berthing alongside stone walls and also to provide a stable and safe landing platform to the passengers. In Navi Mumbai, CIDCO provided infrastructure for hovercraft operations with Terminal facilities and a fixed ramp at Vashi and CBD Belapur and a plot for maintenance facilities at Vashi. The maintenance facilities were created by the developer himself. These services were patronised by the regular office goers using their cars otherwise to commute to Mumbai and also by the industry in Thane – Belapur industrial belt. The services were also extended to the public in the form of joyrides and charters and these became very popular. However, the level of service declined gradually and the services were finally suspended in 2002

after running for almost eight years. Though there is no official information, the closure is attributable to the following factors:  Lack of infrastructure at Gateway of India in south Mumbai.  Location of JNPT terminal at a site directly exposed to the Arabian Sea. Impact of incoming waves damaged it finally.  Lack of proper fuelling facilities at the Base Port Terminal.  Developer’s inability to raise tariff commensurate with the rise in diesel fuel price.

“The government has been exploring options for passenger water transport” M/s Triton Overwater Transport Agency Ltd. Looking at encouraging public response to passenger water transport another company namely TOTAL (Triton Overwater Transport Agency Ltd.) was floated by a consortium of Mahindra & Mahindra, CIDCO, IL&FS and SICOM with management remaining with Mahindra & Mahindra in 1994. This company asked Tata Consulting Engineers to prepare a feasibility report for them and decided to commence passenger water transport services on the west coast of Mumbai. They acquired two old Hovercrafts with 51 seating capacity and inaugurated services between Girgaon Chowpatty and Juhu in November 1995 being on the west coast, exposed to open sea, the vessels deployed on these routes were registered under Merchant Shipping Act. (M. S. Act). Though the services were to start from Nariman Point, this could not be done due to local fishermen’s agitation. As dropping the commuters, mostly working in the CBD area between Nariman Point and Fort, at Girgoan Chowpatty did not serve any purpose. The PWT service, therefore, did not become very popular on the west coast.


That Mumbai is surrounded by sea on three sides is a well known fact to a common man. But it was never one city; it was formed by reclaiming seven islands consisting of various creeks and bays. The original Maritime Charts still name the east coast of Mumbai as “Bay of Bombay”. The Supreme Court has recently confirmed and declared Mahim Creek as ‘Mahim Bay’. A natural phenomenon of creeks and bays, somehow or the other, has been neglected wherein the sea water touches the coastline during the high tide but recedes far away during the low tide leaving behind a long non-navigational area called as a tidal zone. It is not possible to ply conventional boats in the tidal


As Mumbai experiences high tidal variations twice a day there is no option but to construct long jetties and undertake capital investment in jetty construction as well as dredging. Alternatively an amphibious vessel known as ‘hovercraft’ could be deployed to overcome infrastructure-related issues. The advantages of a hovercraft over conventional vessels are as follows –

zone during the low tides since the conventional boats also known as ‘Displacement Vessels’ require minimum depth of water always. The displacement vessels, if deployed in such areas where water recedes during the low tide will be able to operate for not more than 12 hours in a day of 24 hours. Such a system which works only for half the required time cannot be suitable for a regular transport system where the frequency is required to be in the order of three to four minutes. A conventional displacement vessel would not be the right choice for the coastline of Mumbai. In case a displacement vessel is essentially deployed the following action needs to be initiated 1. Construct a jetty into the sea through the tidal zone to reach the required depth of water during the lowest tide in the region. 2. Alternatively dredge the length of the tidal zone up to the shoreline to required depth. a. Dredging involves Capital Dredging for the first time. b. Maintenance Dredging every two to three years thereafter.

Though the initial cost of hovercraft is much higher it could be compensated by the cost of other infrastructure required for conventional vessels. Both the above-mentioned options need heavy capital investment at each landing point. At times the cost of maintenance dredging far exceeds the capital dredging since required frequently. As professed by some if a Hydrofoil is proposed to be deployed in and around Mumbai the cost of the above infrastructure would be much higher since the depth of water required for a Hydrofoil of equivalent size of a conventional vessel is much higher.

1. No depth constraints can operate on land also. 2. Does not require jetty for berthing/docking. 3. Does not require dredged channels for operations. 4. Lower capital maintenance since it does not require Dry Docking. 5. Can be left without qualified crew when not in operation since on land. 6. Freedom of landing and terminal sites since can land on beaches and grass patches. 7. Very helpful in rescue operations. 8. Project can be implemented much faster. It simply involves acquisition of a hovercraft and landing site with minimal construction. Though the initial cost of hovercraft is much higher it could be compensated by the cost of other infrastructure required for conventional vessels.


The technical feasibility of the Passenger Water Transport project around Mumbai, on the east of Mumbai in particular, has been established by various consultants in the past. Nevertheless, the success of such a project depends entirely upon the safety, reliability and operational availability of the vessels for the maximum period during the day and throughout the year. Whereas operations on the west coast could be ruled out during the monsoon, the east coast operations are possible throughout the year except on the warning days subject the craft capabilities. The selection of a suitable craft that can withstand the sea and weather conditions on the route deployed without compromising the human comfort and yet operates economically is paramount and should be accorded due importance. Under the present conditions where there is no infrastructure for the conventional vessels and creation of infrastructure requires huge investments, a hovercraft is considered the best option for starting regular Passenger Water Transport around Mumbai. Cdr Kumresh Sharma has spent 25 years in the Indian Navy and has experience as a hovercraft pilot and engineer. He implemented two passenger water transport projects in Mumbai with hovercrafts 


“The growing population and its rising aspirations for better living and working conditions have increased the demand for sustainable projects in India.” Anuj Puri

Chairman & Country Head, JLL India

SHOWING THE GREEN LIGHT As Mumbai’s buildings increasingly get redeveloped, Anuj Puri highlights the importance of sustainable development in India

The real estate sector in India is one of the largest drivers of the country’s economic growth. While the sector provides large-scale employment, contributes massively to the country’s GDP and is vigorously driving growth, it is also a known fact that it is adversely impacting the environment. The question arises, how do we curtail this impact on the environment? The answer is, by a more determined adoption of the concept of sustainable development. Sustainable development is all about limiting the destruction of natural resources and consumption of its gifts, and ensuring that we keep the planet green and alive. India is by no means lagging behind on the sustainable development front. The fact that the number of certified green buildings in India has surged over the last four to five years is a direct indication to the growing popularity of the ‘sustainability’ concept. However, we have a lot of catching up with more developed countries to do. While there is a more than decent saturation of space committed for ‘green’ certification in India today, it is nowhere close to being enough if we consider the space under development and the number of existing buildings. The growing population and its rising aspirations for better

living and working conditions have increased the demand for sustainable projects in India. How does this scenario look for developers? There is no denying that this is a very challenging environment for developers with committed funds for development of projects. They need to be able to find occupiers or buyers in order to recover the cost of capital and the investment. This means that the growth story of sustainable real estate in India depends on consumers proffering demand for as much as on developers generating supply of green buildings.

SHORT TAKES  Stakeholders of the residential real estate sector in India need greater encouragement to go green  Greater awareness is a key factor in increasing demand for green real estate In India, IGBC has licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the U.S. Green Building Council, which is responsible for certifying LEED buildings in India. There are other rating systems that are more localized; the most significant among them is the TERI GRIHA. So, there is no lack of routes for ‘green’ certifications for developers in India. However, there is still a serious lack of State-

level incentives for developers and occupiers of certified buildings. There is a huge market potential for green buildings in India. A large number of corporates are now establishing and stating sustainability commitments. Commercial development in the top tier 1 cities has shown a significant increase in projects committed to Green certification. However, there is still a visible lack of ‘green’ penetration in tier 2 cities, and the residential sector has by no means risen resoundingly to the occasion as yet. This is significant, because the biggest share of real estate development and absorption in India is vested in the residential sector. The way I see it there has to be a much clearer benefit statement for consumers of green real estate in the country for this scenario to change for the better. Buildings account for up to 40% of the total energy consumption in India, and commercial and residential real estate combined will account for more than 2000 TWH of energy consumption by 2030 (more than double of the figure in 2012). Of this, more than 60% will be consumed by residential. Therefore, stakeholders of the residential real estate sector in India definitely need greater encouragement to go green. Sadly, the reality is that most home buyers in India are still quite averse to paying an extra premium for a green residential project. Obviously, developers will not fall over themselves to cater to a segment wherein demand is lacking. There is therefore a distinct need for a combination of incentives and stipulates to boost the development and consumption of sustainable real estate development in India. Greater awareness is a key factor in increasing demand for green real estate, and the impetus for this awareness has to hinge on two aspects and drivers - the first of course being cost. Home buyers need to be convinced that their total ownership cost, including maintenance, over the life cycle of the property will actually imply significant savings. The second aspect is equally important – developers and consumers of green real estate must become more sensitized to their contribution to sustainable living over the long term; of creating a better world for future generations. States should become more serious about subsidizing development of green spaces so that developers can keep their development cost at par with non-green spaces. This will ensure that these developers will not have to levy an extra premium on the buyers. When sales of a project are positively impacted by Green certification, developers will have a clear rationale to adopt the sustainable development route.

Also, bodies like the IGBC and the TERI should take a cue from the consumer product market and bring out a more ‘palatable’ version of the benefits of green homes. For example, if we consider energy star-rated products in the consumer segment, a 5 star rating for an air conditioner becomes an attractive proposition for buyers because they know exactly how they benefit from it. Sustainable homes with a ‘star’ rating by bodies such as IGBC or TERI should attract buyers for similar reasons. Already, the Bureau of Energy Efficiency has a star rating system for the energy efficiency of buildings. The purview of this system should be extended through state sponsorship to cover a more ‘holistic’ sustainability index.


As a country, India has an energy deficit of around 12%, and this is only set to increase once electrification of the country’s geography is enhanced over the subsequent two five year plans. As per statistics published by the IGBC, the total square foot area committed to Green certification in India stands at over 1.5 billion sq. ft. This encompasses projects at all stages of certification; registered, pre-certified and certified. This is a highly encouraging statistic, but there is a lot more that needs to be done. The key to making ownership of green spaces more attractive to home owners is to increase awareness. The residential real estate sector is the biggest focus area in this regard, and this is the segment wherein the concept of ‘going green’ must be transformed from a campaign covering a limited few into a determined mass movement. 


“The city of Mumbai has a great natural advantage, which could be envy of any other city of the world” Nitin Killawala Architect

SMALL THINGS MAKE GREAT CITIES Libraries, cafes, public transport and space are among the things that make a city livable, says Architect Nitin Killawala

The city of Mumbai has a great natural advantage, which could be envy of any other city of the world - It enjoys 24% of about 430 sqm of its land mass as a National Park, eastern and western sea front totaling to 40 km of sea shore, lakes and ponds, gentle hillocks, heritage structures and archeological caves, suburban rail, metros and mono rail as well as clear tropical skies and good monsoon. The city is also termed as the economic capital of the country, with the strength of a multi-lingual population, few citizens of its citizens amongst the ‘Fortune 500’ list and always represented by couple of Parliamentarians in the Union ministry.

Mumbai. We have a Municipality which is totally politicised and corrupt yet has a fund reserve of about ` 31000 crores. Substantial budgets of over ` 6500 crores are sanctioned exclusively for infrastructure in every fiscal but it could barely spend 25% of the amount resulting in deteriorating quality of life.

Despite all these attributes and physical clout it’s a terrible city to live in! I was browsing through a London-based magazine called ‘Monocle ‘ where they surveyed 25 best cities to live. There are none from USA, China or Gulf. Because their criteria for a better ‘city to live’ is not a materialistic city having shopping malls and multi-storied flyovers but libraries, street side cafés, museums, pedestrianisation, various options for public transport, potable water in the tap, efficient power supply and decomposting plants, lots of space to yourself ... They believe small things makes great cities. And rightly so. Bombay had this potential before it became

The extremely high and unrealistic real estate value in Mumbai undoubtedly is due to dominance of private land developers although their market revolves around less than 5% of city’s population. We have already lost the wonderful opportunity about a decade ago when mill lands developed, interconnecting vast urban open spaces and affordable housing remained only on paper.

When 65% of the population lives in the Slums, occupying meager 8% of land proves that there is a total collapse of the Housing sector. Therefore the MbPT lands comprising about a thousand hectares abutting the eastern water front is the last opportunity for the city’s revival. Already ambitious ideas are pouring in such as marina bay, giant wheel, iconic structures, convention centres , luxury housing and so on.... Yes we must consider it all but the city will survive if they could achieve social housing comprising all sections of the society. I think the government should assume a role of a developer themselves with the technical and financial support from the private investors especially the NRIs in promoting housing as an ‘infrastructure ‘ project and not as a speculative real estate venture. As an example the HBD (Housing Development Board) in Singapore constructs and controls housing for the 85% of their population. Similarly in Hongkong it’s about 52% of their housing stock.

SHORT TAKES  Most successful large-scale development especially abutting dockyards/waterfronts are totally controlled and sustained by government  We must have a master plan in place which is feasible to execute in time and dynamic to fine tune as per the demanding situation As per present policy of the SRA the slum dwellers are eligible for free housing in lieu of carving out their occupied lands and sold it to private developers. Thus on the pretence of a free house huge land banks are ‘gifted’ to private developers resulting in the most unrealistic property value even in a mediocre project that too in a remote location. At the same time indulging in disastrous and non cohesive planning. Therefore it is absolutely necessary that the government controls the housing and sells or leases the same to the lower segment of housing, say, based on just the construction cost, while making reasonable profits for rest of the segment in the new found Mumbai Port Trust lands. Fortunately the government is not bankrupt on the finances but yes there is a bankruptcy of mind which needs to be put on track. Everyone knows that the land is the most expensive cost component in any development. Cost of construction is miniscule and may vary marginally. Even CIDCO in Navi Mumbai and DDA in New Delhi showed some enthusiasm initially in developing housing

Marina Bay, Singapore

as an intent for social responsibility but could not resist the temptation from private builders and politicians, resulting in liquidating some of our prime lands. Most successful large-scale development especially abutting dockyards/waterfronts are totally controlled and sustained by government - such as Hafencity in Hamburg, Marina Bay at Singapore and so on. To achieve this minimum goal, we must have a master plan in place which is feasible to execute in time and dynamic to fine tune as per the demanding situation. Imagine the Eastern Waterfront could boast of the longest walking and cycling tracks, hierarchy of open spaces having sea views including morning sunrises, a ‘walk-to-work’ real estate development, complete identification of pedestrian and vehicular movement. The long-pending link to Nhava Sheva and North South strip of lands thus opened up shall have connectivity to Western parts of the city at every few kilometers distance so that most part of the Mumbai has access to this majestic development. Lastly let’s hope that the new government in Maharashtra believes in the ‘will’ to do and that ‘intent’ is honest. The result will then be certainly positive for the last chance of revival of Mumbai and hope for generations to follow. 


FROM PRECINCTS TO SPRAWL Architect Kamu Iyer provides a fascinating glimpse of urban development in Bombay’s early days The event that dramatically changed the course of urban planning in the city was the plague of 1896. The outbreak began in the area occupied by the ‘natives’, both within and outside the Fort. It was a threat to the British population too and there was a time, when, to escape infection, many Britishers and some ‘natives’ slept in tents on the maidans. Hundreds of lives were lost. In response to the plague, the British set up the Bombay Improvement Trust in 1898 with members of the Indian Civil Service as well as engineers, architects and a host of specialists to execute projects. The trust was given extensive powers to clean up the city and develop new planned neighbourhoods. How did the Improvement Trust go about its job? According to Parpia, [Akbar Parpia, a partner in an architectural firm] it first realigned roads,

SHORT TAKES  In response to the plague, the British set up the Bombay Improvement Trust in 1898  The trust was given extensive powers to clean up the city and develop new planned neighbourhoods demolishing parts of buildings. Next it got building owners to create house gullies on the side to keep space between buildings and improve ventilation and sanitation. It then drafted a set of rules for development that determined the proportion of the building’s footprint to its site, the maximum number of floors it could have and other design rules. The most important design rule that the Trust introduced was what came to be known as the 63.5 degree light angle rule. The concept was developed in England for the redevelopment of blighted areas in London, Manchester and other industrial cities and subsequently imported to Bombay by J P Orr, the chairman of the Improvement Trust. At a meeting organised by the Bombay Sanitary Association in June 1912, he expounded the theory of light and air planes which set out a method of determining the distance between buildings relative to their heights. Planners in England found, through analysis and experience, that the open space in a plot, derived from an angle of 63.5 degrees, ensured adequate light and ventilation on the lowest floor. Without this rule, Orr emphasised, unsanitary conditions would continue to prevail. The distance between buiildings were related to their heights and

they were determined by front and rear light and air planes and angles. The chairman was able to eventually convince the municipality to embed the 63.5 degree rule in the bye-law book However, it could not be applied in scheduled areas where buildings were already closely built – in such areas, the requirement on minimum open spaces was reduced.... The Improvement Trust had a vision of how a planned settlement should look. Layouts and planning and building rules were intended to create a coherent visual fabric. To make sure that individual buildings did not become isolated entities, architects had to submit for approval the elevations of the building along with details of the entrance drawn to quarter and half scales. Approvals always came only after discussions with the chief architect of the Improvement Trust, who kept reminding the architects who submitted plans for approval: “Your building is only a part of the estate. The individual building is subsumed in the context.” The Trust did not insist on uniform facades and the buildings in these layouts differed from one another in external appearance. However they coalesced into one harmonious visual entity because they were not designed to be iconic, stand-alone buildings.... Over the years, building rules became more refined as shortcomings were rectified through amendments. Some rules were added to ensure their house owners maintained their properties well so that the estate as a whole had a well-kept look. Every house had to have a bin whose garbage would be collected and transferred to bullock carts mounted with rectangular bins with roll-top covers. It was compulsory for the exterior wall of a building to be whitewashed or painted every three years. The base of the building had to be faced with dressed blue or yellow basalt stone. According to Parpia, all the conditions for construction and subsequent maintenance were included in the lease agreement with property owners. Excerpted from Boombay: From Precincts to Sprawl, by Kamu Iyer, published by Harsha Bhatkal for Popular Prakashan Pvt Ltd, Rs 750. Reproduced with the author’s permission

SCULPTURES IN T Here are some of the awe-inspiring structures that are changing the city’s skylines, setting the benchmarks and redefining luxury. While height is a major criterion contributing to the ‘Wow’ factor, there are other attributes that make them iconic too, such as stunning design, cutting-edge technology, special services and much more.

LODHA GROUP: WORLD CREST The World Towers (TWT) consists of three towers. These include World One, billed as the world’s tallest residential tower; World Crest and World View. The World Towers will house luxurious World Residences, lavish World Villas and opulent duplex World Mansions that are reserved for the creme da le creme of society. The World Towers is currently under construction. World Crest has completed its civil construction and will be ready for fit-outs by end of 2015, according to the developers. World One, the world’s tallest residential tower, is expected to be completed by December 2016. The World Towers is said to be the first project in Asia to have Interior Design by Armani/Casa representing the epitome of fine living.

Pics courtesy: Lodha Group



Mumbai may still have a long way to go in terms of its iconic buildings, but we are getting there

Pic courtesy: Godrej Properties


Imagine looking out of your front window onto the Race Course and the soothing ocean – and then out of the rear window into the Mumbai Zoo and the Arabian Sea. Planet Godrej at Mahalaxmi offers spectacular 360 degree views from all the residences, presenting Mumbai at its scenic best. Every home overlooks a variety of landmarks, including the lovely Haji Ali Mosque. The 48-storeyed, five-tower project, crafted by Singapore-based DP Architects offers a host of facilities such as a huge swimming pool, large open areas, tennis court, squash court, concierge service and highspeed lifts operating at three minutes per second, to name just a few amenities. The Project Architect is JP Parekh, Mumbai. “Planet Godrej is an example of our commitment to build structures that become landmarks in the region,” says Pirojsha Godrej, MD and CEO, Godrej Properties Ltd. “The contemporary design coupled with state-ofthe-art, modern, lifestyle amenities are well complemented by its locational advantage. The towers occupy just over 4% of the total footprint and the balance is utilised towards beautifully landscaped areas and amenities. Planet Godrej has achieved several firsts, notable one’s being the tallest habitable structure in India - when residents of tower 1 moved in and installation of multi-entry fire escape chute, again a first in India.” 

“The developers reach a stage when they release ads in newspapers, run the process; people begin bidding on that basis, and suddenly the policy changes.” Suresh Sahu

MD, Supreme Engicons (India) Pvt. Ltd


Changing government policies are affecting redevelopment, says Suresh Sahu

The real estate market in Mumbai may still be one of the hottest in the country, but the powerful builders are not happy. One major reason—nearly 2,000 redevelopment projects, worth a staggering ` 35,000-40,000 crore, are stuck in the pipeline, in red tape. Those stuck under Development Control Rules 33(7) alone number more than 700. Many Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) and Maharashtra Housing and Development Authority (MHADA) projects are stuck too. A new Directive from the supreme court that instructs builders to keep six meters space at one side perpendicular to the main road while constructing any property is another reason why many redevelopment projects are hampered. With little scope for redevelopment as most old buildings were built very close to each other, and leaving six metres’ space is a loss builders are unable to make up. The real estate industry in Mumbai, which is already reeling under demand recession, has virtually come to a standstill following this. The ruling says that a six-metre-wide open space skirting all buildings is mandatory and 10-25% of the plot area should be kept open to sky. Several other issues, such as heritage, doppler, prisons, naval restrictions and Coastal Regulation Zones, have already crippled the industry. The actual size of plots available for development has shrunk dramatically as a result of the court order. This, in turn, has upset the calculations

with regard to the viability of a project. Hence architectural plans have to be changed. The height of buildings has also to be increased to accommodate tenants in redevelopment projects. If the height of the proposed building goes up more than 70 metres, high-rise committee rules will be applicable. For eg: it will be mandatory to keep two staircases with a width of two metres. Also, refuge floors will have to be provided after each set of nine floors. Earlier, these requirements were free of FSI. Now, we have to pay for them. On one hand there is no significant rise in property prices, but, on the other, people are being forced to pay more by way of premia and other escalated input costs. Projects have become non-viable. The new sets of rules have completely upset the calculations. Expenses for construction have also gone up considerably. We have to pay extra for Floor Space Index (FSI) now, thus escalating the prices. Also we have to reserve homes for the economically weaker sections in many redevelopment projects. According to the builders, at least 400 files are stuck at the BMC for approvals.

COASTAL ZONE REGULATIONS In addition to the FSI regulations Mumbai is subject to Coastal Zone Regulations (CRZ), which limit new constructions within 500 metres from the high tide zone, even in CRZ II where land is already developed. While such regulation is justified to protect coastal zones in rural areas it


is an odd regulation in a city built on a narrow peninsula. With such regulations in place cities like Manhattan, Hong Kong, Singapore, San Francisco and Rio de Janeiro would have never been built. Rent control legislation, still active, is now one of the main culprits in preventing land to be used efficiently. The devastating effect of rent control legislation on the housing sector is well documented both in India and internationally. Rent control prevents land from being redeveloped. The longer a building is under rent control the higher is the difference between controlled rent and market rent. Over time, the real rent paid to the landlord tends toward zero. As a consequence tenants never

SHORT TAKES ďƒź Thanks to red tape, a number of redevelopment projects are stuck ďƒź Redevelopment work on 16,000 cessed buildings in South Mumbai is stuck because of constantly changing government policies move; they are able to transmit to relatives the right to occupy their apartment after their death. Therefore, the older and the more decrepit is a building, the less likely it is to be sold, rebuilt or even maintained. As in the case of low FSI, the maintenance problem created by rent control was considered to be a market failure, and therefore the State Government decided to substitute itself to landlords to insure the maintenance of privately owned buildings under rent control. The property rights of these buildings are therefore even more muddled after this move as rights are spread between, landlords, tenants and the Board in charge of maintenance and redevelopment. Residential buildings under rent control represent the majority of buildings in the island city. The effect on land use efficiency of freezing over more than 50 years the sale and redevelopment of so many buildings in the part of the city where there is most demand is certainly not trivial. This is preventing the market to reallocate land use as the economic base of the city changed have certainly greatly contributed to the large number of slums and the low floor consumption in the city. Redevelopment of co-operative housing societies in Mumbai has been a subject of great interest for the developers in recent years. It is assumed as a big business for builders and real estate developers. In regard to the number of problems for redevelopment, the civic administration has recently made its addition by charging 100% premium to builders who wish to have criteria for open spaces encompassing the buildings. Certain projects of the builders will now find it difficult to

thrive with the introduction of new norms. The sudden mandate of additional premium has put the developers who have signed a redevelopment deal with cooperative housing societies in an unhappy state. Issuing of such instructions to the architects to pay the premium in full is expected to give rise to serious repercussions in the redevelopment market. Developers find that this makes it completely unaffordable. In the past, the civic administration has raked not less than `1,500 crore as premium from the builders who wished to use 35% of the additional FSI for residential projects. However, according to building architects, the new demand for additional premium is much more compared to Fungible FSI. Cluster development can be done in a minimum area of 4,000 sqm or one acre. Developers can avail a floor space index (FSI) of 4. The, developers and promoters have to seek the consent of 70 per cent of the area’s landlords and tenants. While developing individual buildings, as per the Supreme Court order, the builder has to keep six metres of space around the proposed building so fire brigade vehicles can move smoothly. In Mumbai, the size of plots is very small so it is very difficult to keep so much space around buildings. Because of this, most individual buildings project proposals become unfeasible. As a result, most projects have gotten stuck. Developers are reluctant to undertake the projects.


Earlier, the state government had received 48 cluster development proposals, but only two were successfully approved. Therefore, the state decided to amend the cluster redevelopment policy to

make it making more development and developerfriendly. However, the decision came too late. In the meantime, a public interest litigation (PIL) was filed and the HC put a stay on the proposed amended cluster policy. This delay also brings the project to a standstill. Redevelopment work on 16,000 cessed buildings

in South Mumbai is stuck because of constantly changing government policies. Any kind of redevelopment will take anywhere between one to three years to mature. Unfortunately, by the time you start talking to the members and go around meeting up with them giving proposals nowadays, policies change. The developers reach a stage when they release ads in newspapers, run the process; people begin bidding on that basis, and suddenly the policy changes. Halfway through or even after a developer has paid a substantial amount of the deposit – the government backs out from a promised 2.5 FSI, and says; now it’s got to be on the basis of sharing. As far as redevelopment is concerned, a very big issue at least in the MHADA is environment clearance. They won’t take you up for environment clearance unless you have an offer letter stating that you’ve got this kind of FSI. And if you take it in part, which is exactly what happens, you do only part of the project, thus use up lesser area, which does not require an environmental clearance. Then you do the second part. When you want to finish the project, you go to get the clearance and you find that you’re caught in between because you’ve started the work. Here is an environment clearance that is not taken because you did not utilise that amount of FSI. You’re under 20,000 square meters. More than 60% of land in Mumbai has been categorised as slum area. This needs to be redeveloped. Secondly, we have about 17,000-odd buildings in South Mumbai, which are known as repair-board-cessed-buildings. These have been built prior to 1960 and therefore are going in for redevelopment. Thirdly, nearly, 20,000-odd housing societies all over the city, built prior to 1980, and over 3,700-odd buildings are also looking for redevelopment. Then, there are other tenanted buildings, maybe, 5,000 to 6,000 buildings which are prior to 1980 – tenanted buildings in the suburbs, – and we thus have over three lakh properties all over Mumbai, open for redevelopment. With people coming to the city, and demand increasing, there is no option other than the redevelopment. The judgment clearly said that if there is any plot below 600-square-metres it must have proper access for fire brigade to approach it. So a minimum open space of six-metre on the ground level is required. It is important to note that it must be on the ground level, not upper level. It has to be kept open. But the BMC has a different interpretation – that it should be six-metres straight. So there cannot be any cantilever, any fungible FSI also cannot come into this segment, first. Now, there was a development plan, which was made way back in 1991, which was also published in 1998-‘99, which was meant for only 20 years.

Unfortunately, Mumbai has grown much faster then what the plans envisaged. So the 2011 limit is already over and the DP plan is still not there. The corporation and the government have increased the FSI. The DC rule has no value because it has to be backed by various circulars. And when you do a redevelopment, you must think about 100 years from now. It is inconceivable that today, four million people staying in dilapidated areas or slums and we have to provide them a home. You have to plan for the future as well. Redevelopment is not just construction of four walls or a building or a cluster. It’s a facelift of that territory, the suburbs and the city. Out of 535 square kilometres, only two-thirds is available. The rest is CRZ and forest. We have to do our master planning for 60 years, bringing it down to 40 years, 20 years, 10 years. There are two issues which affect this city and the country as well. One is the applicability of a law and second is implementation of a judgment. All the other cities in India are going to get more attractive because they are more organised. They have better facilities. You can lead a better lifestyle. And eventually you’re going to degenerate Mumbai into an old age home for people who bought crores of apartments and they have not yet repaid their loans or probably they can’t move out. So a real issue is that, at the state level, we need to discuss whether we are keeping the city attractive enough for it to be able to attract investments over a period of time. The CRZ rule is ready reducing the restriction area to 150 metres. Now the entire Mumbai has been built within 500 metres of high-tide-water-mark right from Churchgate, Nariman Point till Gorai. It’s all within 500 metres. The entire city is next to the bay. How would you then do reconstruction? And most of the buildings on the sea front are almost 40 to 50 years old. How long do they wait? 


THE PE POTENTIAL Private Equity funds can play a critical role in redevelopment by filling the gap left behind by the banking system, believe Balaji Raghavan and Saurabh Gupta Balaji Raghavan

Chief Investment Officer, IIFL Real Estate Fund

The first impression anyone carries about Mumbai is one of a city bursting at the seams. Look closer and you can spot deep dichotomy - crowded, mostly encroached streets with slums and dilapidated buildings co-existing with gleaming, modern master pieces of architecture reaching into the skies. A view from the Sea-Link will give you impressions of a Shanghai, or even New York in the making, coloured by a slum in the foreground. Visualise a Van-Gogh, and then mushrooms thriving on the colourful landscape - bloated, dark, shapeless, unsure but ever growing. With estimates putting 60% of the city’s land under slum, and an additional ~40,000 buildings already notified, redevelopment is not an option but a reality staring us in the face.

Saurabh Gupta

Fund Manager, IIFL Real Estate Fund

The process is complex and challenging, yet it offers an opportunity to not only raise the standard of living of millions, but a chance at creating a world-class city. Can a fund investing in real estate in the country afford to overlook it for long? If not, how does a fund view a redevelopment project? How does it create a compelling case for investment, often to a risk committee sitting overseas? A redevelopment project is unique because of the large number of stakeholders involved. Projects can be classified into redevelopment of private societies, cluster development or slum rehabilitation. Private societies own structures in prime/ well established areas, often on

relatively small plots with inadequate access or infrastructure compared to the demands of a modern residential project. Further, there is no framework for redevelopment – given the rights granted to societies under MOFA, they are free to decide what they want out of the project. This poses a set of challenges – planning the project and getting consent from all members is a time-consuming process. They are free to command their own pricing, and achieving commercial viability becomes a challenge especially for smaller plots. The government also steps in with regulation or frequent revisions thereof- for example on set back, parking or road access. This increases uncertainty and adds complexity to the planning exercise. The high number of clearances required adds to the project timeline, keeping developers away. It is common to come across societies who have been evaluating proposals, but have been unable to close one for years even after having approached multiple developers.

SHORT TAKES  PE funds can bring financial security, monitoring and controls, and enhanced compliance to local and government norms  However, they need a better playing field, with better frameworks, stable regulation and a partnership-driven approach from developers There are no clearly defined rules on amalgamating multiple plots to achieve scale. Although the government has come out with cluster redevelopment regulation, these projects have very high capital and time requirements, putting them out of the purview of most funds. While a few developers have kicked off the process, the merits or demerits of the policy are yet to be seen. Slum projects are better placed due to the supervision of the Slum Rehabilitation Authority. Entitlements as well as the process of development are clearly defined. But the uncertainty comes from lack of land title and multiple stakeholders. Mapping the residents, dividing the sprawl into manageable sectors, getting actual consents and managing the local politics is a time consuming and expensive undertaking. Even then the process is subject to dispute or litigation. There are no, or sometimes multiple societies or decision-making bodies representing different interests. Show- cause or stop work notices are common, stalling work indefinitely. In the “greater interest”, the SRA or competent authorities need to step in with speedy

The presence of a PE fund builds confidence on all sides and can catalyse transactions at the agreement stage itself. and decisive redressal of grievances to enable the project to continue on schedule. Developers add to the problem too. They often overestimate their capability to clear a land parcel. Sometimes they just want to access a parcel cheaply and create an interest or land bank for future profit. At other times, they fail to deliver on the promises they made at agreement stage. There have been cases where quality has been compromised for profit, or the project was stuck due to non-compliance with the plans approved. This is often compounded by poor project or financial management - adding further delays, disagreement and litigation. Most funds are sceptical of redevelopment projects due to the uncertainty and complexity involved. It is difficult to assess when exit will happen, or to estimate the risks posed to the process till then. As a result, many stay away and others have to resort to proxies when investing. Despite strong diligence processes, they restrict themselves to partnering with developers with a proven track record in the field, and to investing at stages when land has been cleared and commencement certificate granted. The risk premium allocated to such projects is extremely high, and monitoring requirements very stringent. This is unfortunate. You can count the number of world cities with population density >20,000/km2 on your fingertips, but few are water bound with area as small as 600 km2. Take away the forest CRZ and other reserved lands, and it is not difficult to see that we have simply run out of land! Mumbai needs redevelopment and it needs it now. PE funds represent risk capital and can play a critical role by filling the gap left behind by the banking system. They can bring in financial security, greater monitoring and controls, as well as enhanced compliance to local and government norms. Their presence builds confidence on all sides and can catalyse transactions at the agreement stage itself. They can bring in international best practices. They can help in changing the city landscape, in changing the quality of life for millions so affected. All they need is a better playing field, with better frameworks, stable regulation and long-term, partnershipdriven approach from developers. 


If the developer agrees to reconstruct the building and give the same area or additional area free of charge to the existing owner/occupant, as such there is no monetary consideration, hence there is no contract/sale price thus it is not liable to VAT. Deepak Thakkar

Chartered Accountant

VAT CLARIFIED CA Deepak Thakkar clears some doubts about the implications of the complex Value-Added Tax (VAT) on redevelopment projects

The construction of a building by the developer is treated as a works contract, involving material and services, as held by the larger bench of Supreme Court in the case of Larsen and Toubro Ltd. V/s State of Karnataka and others pronounced on 26 September 2013 and reported at 65 VST 1. The said building may be for residential, commercial, industrial or any other purpose.

Thus, the VAT is levied on the developer only for the units which are booked/sold during the phase of construction of the building. In such a scenario the developer is treated as a works contractor and the person booking the unit is treated as a contractee for the concerned construction project.

If the building is constructed and none of the units in it are booked or sold during the construction period, then it is the construction activity carried out for self, which is not taxable. Similarly when a unit is booked or sold after the construction is complete then it is a transfer of an immovable property which is also not liable to sales tax (also generally referred as VAT) as the State Government has power to levy sales tax on sale or purchase of moveable property/goods only.

ďƒź Under the Maharashtra VAT Act (MVAT Act) the developer has two options to comply with such liability ďƒź Generally the developers and the buyers opt for the Composition Scheme of 1% after 1 April 2010, as it is simpler

Is the date of receipt of Occupation Certificate (OC) for the concerned building or the date of application for OC the date of completion of construction? The tax authorities may consider the OC grant date as the date of completion of construction but if, after the application for OC, there is no use of any material for any construction activity for the concerned building/project, then the date of OC application can be treated as date of completion of construction. Such a fact can be proved by the certificate from the architect of the project which can be further justified from the invoices and books of account of the developer.


In case of the redevelopment projects i.e. the reconstruction of a new building by demolishing the old existing structure, let us see how VAT is applicable. Even redevelopment projects are works contracts in view of the earlier discussion calling the developer as the contractor and the unit buyer as the contractee. In such a case, generally, the developer agrees to reconstruct the building and give the same area or additional area free of charge to the existing owner/occupant, as such there is no monetary consideration, hence there is no contract/sale price thus it is not liable for VAT. If the existing owner/occupant buys additional area (in addition to getting free area) at an agreed rate/consideration, then such agreed monetary consideration is treated as a sale price for the additional area, which is liable to VAT.

The amount of corpus or fund given to the existing owner or the society, rent/compensation given for an alternate accommodation for certain period and shifting charges given to the occupant are the monies given by the developer to the existing unit holder which are in the nature of costs to the developer and not the receipt/sale price and hence the question of levy of VAT on such amount does not arise. Thus when VAT is leviable on the unit booked/sold during construction phase, then such a VAT can be collected by the developer from the buyer, it being an indirect tax. Under the Maharashtra VAT Act (MVAT Act) the developer has two options to comply with such liability. Under the first option, deduction is available for Land value from the agreement value, after further deduction available based on the stage of booking qua construction, VAT is payable on the sale value of materials used in construction, at the VAT rate of 5% or 12.5%, as applicable on the goods involved for the unit booked/sold and claim input tax credit (also called as set off) on the corresponding cost of materials purchased from Maharashtra State by paying VAT to supplier who must be a registered dealer under the MVAT Act. This ‘VAT method’ is very complex as it has to consider the area sold out of the total construction area, the date of sale of each unit, different agreement values of sale of all units, all the purchases effected during the construction phase which may be of three to five years or more,

purchases effected from local source or interstate or imports, the stages of construction, etc for computation of VAT payable. On the other hand, the second option called as ‘Composition method’ notified by the Maharashtra State Government is simpler. This Composition Scheme was notified vide Notification No VAT 1510/CR-65/TAX-1 dated 9 July 2010 effective from 1 April 2010. As per the said scheme, composition sum is payable @1% of the aggregate agreement value or the stamp duty value, whichever is higher, of the concerned unit booked/sold, the agreement of which is registered after 1 April 2010. This scheme is subject to certain conditions and restrictions like, entire 1% is payable for the month in which the agreement is registered, irrespective of the stage of construction of the unit or the building or the project concerned. Thus full payment is made in the beginning. If there is a cancellation of an agreement or the project does not start or is not completed then there is no clarity about any refund of such sum paid. If the said unit is resold to another buyer again during the construction phase, then even this agreement becomes liable to VAT. The developer neither gets any input tax credit on the goods involved in the construction activity nor eligible for purchase of goods under Form ‘C’ at a concessional rate for inter-state purchases. Generally the developers and the buyers opt for the Composition Scheme of 1% after 1 April 2010, as it is simpler. For the old period i.e. the agreements registered prior to 1 April 2010, the composition sum was @5% on the contract value and the developer was eligible for set off in excess of 4% of VAT paid on purchases effected from Maharashtra State. As the VAT method is also complex, for the correct computation formula, certain writ petitions are heard in January 2015 by the Bombay High Court in case of MCHI, Builders Association of India, and other cases, and the decision is awaited.



GLOSSARY Here are some definitions of important terms, expressions and related provisions under development control regulations for Greater Bombay, 1991

1. TYPES OF BUILDINGS (a) “Industrial building” means a building or part thereof wherein products or material are fabricated, assembled or processed, such as assembly plants, laboratories, power plants, refineries, gas plants, mills, dairies and factories.

from F.S.I. computation inter alia include the following {Refer D.C. Regulations 35(2)];

(b) “Office Building” (premises), means a building or premises or part thereof whose sole or principal use is for an office or for office purpose or clerical work. “Office purposes” includes the purpose of administration, clerical work, handling money, telephone, telegraph and computer operation; and “clerical work” includes writing, book-keeping, sorting papers, typing, filing, duplicating, punching cards or tapes, machine calculations, drawing of matter for publication and editorial preparation of matter for publication.

(b) staircase rooms lift machine rooms, overhead tanks on terrace. (c) other features

(c) “Residential building” means a building in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking or dining facilities, and includes one or more family dwellings, lodging or rooming houses, hostels dormitories apartment house, flat, and private garages of such buildings. (d) “Multi-storeyed building” or “High-rise building” means a building of a height of 24 meters or more above the average surrounding ground level.

2. FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI) means the quotient of the ration of the combined ground floor area of all floors, excepting areas specifically exempted under these Regulations, to the total area of the plot, viz:Total covered area on all floors Floor Space Index (FSI) = ------------- Plot area Note.–The computation of F.S.I. means total built up area covered on all floors except exclusions prescribed in DC Regulations 1991. Exclusion

(a) areas covered by staircase lift and lift passage against payment of premium as per rates decided by the corporation from time to time.


water storage suction tank and pump room (ii) septic tank, soak pit (iii) electrical meter room (iv) watchman’s cabin upto 3 sq. mtr. in area (v) electric sub station (vi) porch (vii) balcony upto 10% of floor area (viii) chajjas, sun breakers not more than 1.2 m. from face of building (ix) ornamental projection over balcony upto 0.75 m. (x) dustbin (xi) fire escape staircase and fire escape balcony (xii) garages (xiii) basement for car parking (xiv) stilt (xv) society office (xvi) servant toilet at stilt on Ground Floor and on each floor for each wing (xvii) refuge area (xviii) A. C. Plant room (xix) Milk booth, Telephone booth in layouts (xx) Letter box at Ground Floor (xxi) Cupboard Niches below window sill level (xxii) structures permitted in RG layout (xxiii) effluent treatment plant Note.- If the clear light of a room in a building is less than 4.2 m such area should be counted once in FSI computation. If the clear room height is more than 4.2 m. such area should be counted one and a half times. Amenity: Amenity means roads, streets,

open spaces, parks recreational grounds, play grounds, gardens, water supply, electric supply, street lighting, sewerage, drainage, public works another utilities, services and conveniences. Plinth area: The built-up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey. Plot: A parcel or piece of land enclosed by definite boundaries. Carpet area: The net usable floor area within a building excluding that covered by the walls or any other areas specifically exempted from floor space index computation in these Regulations. Built-up area: The area covered by a building on all floors including cantilevered portion, if any, but excepting the areas excluded specifically under these Regulations. Loft: An intermediate floor between two floors or a residual space in a pitched rood above normal level constructed for storage. Mezzanine floor: An intermediate floor, not being a loft, between the floor and ceiling of any storey. Owner: A person who receive rent for the use of the land or building or would be entitled to do so if it were let, and includes(i) an authorised agent or trustee who receives such rent on behalf of the owner; (ii) a receiver, executor or administrator, or a manager appointed by any court of competent jurisdiction to have the charge of or to exercise the rights of the owner; (iii) an agent or trustee who receives the rent of or is entrusted with or is concerned with any building devoted to religious or charitable purposes; and (iv) a mortgagee in possession. Parking space: An enclosed or unenclosed covered or open area sufficient in size to park

vehicles. Parking space shall be served by a driveway connecting them with a street or alley and permitting ingress or egress of vehicles. Permission: A valid permission or authorisation in writing by the competent authority to carry out development or a work regulated by the Regulations.


Planning and design: The planning and design of lifts including their number type and capacity depending on the occupancy of the building, the population on each floor based on the occupation load and the building height shall be in accordance with Section 5. Installation of Lift and Escalators, National Building Code of India. Maintenance: (i) The lift installation should receive regular cleaning, lubrication adjustment and adequate servicing by authorised competent persons at such intervals as the type of equipment and frequency of service demand. In order that the lift installation is maintained at all times in a safe condition, a proper maintenance schedule shall be drawn up in consultation with the lift manufacturer and rigidly followed. . . Any accident arising out of operation of maintenance of the lifts shall be duly reported to the competent authority, i.e. Lift Inspector of the Government of Maharashtra. Transfer of Development Rights (Regulations No.34) In certain circumstances, the development potential of a plot of land may be separated from the land itself and may be made available to the owner of the land in the form of Transferable Development Rights (TDR). SOURCE: Guide to Redevelopment of Housing Societies, by Adv. K. K. Ramani (Ramani Legal Services) 


PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS If you are looking for a project management consultant, begin here!

PRABHU ASSOCIATES CONSULTANTS PRIVATE LIMITED ADDRESS: A-2, 302, Laram Center, Above Golden Gate Hotel, opp. Platform No. 6, Andheri (W), Mumbai – 400 058 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mr. S.R. Desai - 4255 1414 EMAIL: / REDEVELOPMENT CONSULTANCY SERVICES ADDRESS: 202, Sagar Avenue, S.V. Road, above ICICI Bank, Andheri (W), M-58 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mr. Sunder Rajan - 9820131759/26205701 EMAIL: VASTU ASSOCIATES ADDRESS: 73, D/2, Ekatmata Nagar, J.B. Nagar, Andheri (E) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mr. Nikhil Pimputkar (Structural Engineer), Mr. Prajakta Patil (Architect) 9821038065 / 9821535291 /9769088250 EMAIL: / / NANDAPURKAR AND ASSOCIATES ADDRESS: 4/32, Unnat Nagar III, M.G. Road, Goregaon (W), M-104 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mr. Arvind Nandapurkar - Arch- 9820326427, Mrs. Uttara Nandapurkar - Engineer9819467858, 28775590 EMAIL: / SUPREME ENGICONS (INDIA) PVT. LTD. ADDRESS: 401,Shree Krishna Tower, Link Road, Andheri (W), M-53 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 26732435 / 26732436 EMAIL: / STRUCT CURE ENGINEERS ADDRESS: 302,Mahatrangan Bldg., Opp. Mega Mall, Oshiwara, Jogeshwari (W), M-102 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 65001302 / 9821604948 / 9323234747 EMAIL: LALIT AND ASSOCIATES ADDRESS: Sai Viraj Apartment, B-104, Plot No. C/8, Near D-Mart, Sec-9, Airoli, Navi Mumbai / C-70, Shanti Shopping Centre, Near Railway Station, Mira Road (E), Thane - 401107 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 6565 2977 / 9321035048 /9222552270 EMAIL:

TOTAL SOLUTION ADDRESS: Shop 47A, 1st Floor, RNA Shopping Centre, Andheri (W), M-53 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 22938303 / 30659713 / 9820130492 EMAIL: REX CON COR CONSULTANTS PVT. LTD. ADDRESS: Crystal Plaza 706-707, A wing, Opp. Infinity Mall, Andheri (W), M- 53, CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 26734133 / 26730455 / 26354386 / 26344950 / 9221020869 EMAIL: / / NEO-TECH CONSULTANTS ADDRESS: 4, 1st Floor, Chandrakant Apt., Opp. Hanuman Mandir, Shreyas Colony, Goregaon (E), M-63 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 9322255108 / 9930344006 / 9930999312 / 29272735 /29272382 EMAIL: ARVIND SINGH CONSULTANTS ADDRESS: Gandhi Nagar, Samadhan CHSL., Bldg. No. 45, Room No. 2233, Next to Mhada Office, Bandra (E), M-51 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 65210232 / 65345001 EMAIL: ASSOCIATED ENGINEERS ADDRESS: 3/54, Singh Ind. Estate No. 3, Ram Mandir Road, Goregaon (W), M- 104 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 26763052 / 26791814 /9819368787 / 9821168787 EMAIL: / TECH - N - ECO ADDRESS: 417, Palm Spring Centre, Link Road, Malad (W) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mithilesh Dalvi -9833312519 / 9819624785 / 28888702 / 40039355 EMAIL: /


DHARGALKAR TECHNOESIS ADDRESS: D-104,Radha Govinda, Near Siddharath Nagar off W.E.Highway, Borivali (E) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: R.K.Nair 2846 1317/ 2846 1500 EMAIL: YASHRAJ AND ASSOCIATES PMC ADDRESS: 128,Yashwant shopping center, 7th carter road, Nr railway st Borivali (E), Mumbai 400 086. CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mahesh YashRaj - 922 341 9450 EMAIL: ARCHITECT PANDIT AND ETHICAL SOLUTIONS ADDRESS: Goregoan office 241, Citi Center mall, opp B.M.C. office S.V.Road, Goregaon (W), Mumbai CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Ismaili - 022-2871 2825 / 992 095 7794 / 982 111 1716 MANO PROJECT CONSULTANTS PVT LTD ADDRESS: B/36, Ghandhi nagar CHS, Near Ambedkar school, Cross Road Mahim CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Muigilal - 4917 8235 EMAIL: APROMAC PMC AND INTERIOR DESIGNERS ADDRESS: A-5, Anant Nagar, Near Riddhi Siddhi Temple office, S.V.Road Malad (W), Mumbai - 400 064 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Pavani 4918 3788 EMAIL:, M/S V.V.AND ASSOCIATES ADDRESS: 417, Palm Spring Centre, Link Road, Malad (W), CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mr. Vishwas Joshi-2612 1028/2612 2099

SOME USEFUL BOOKS  Redevelopment – Preparation, ` 200  Redevelopment – Tender Process, ` 150  Redevelopment – Documentation, ` 200


 Redevelopment – FAQ, ` 120


 Deemed Conveyance – English, ` 625

ADDRESS: Borivali (w) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: AAKASH Enterprises- 2891 9114/2894 4684 EMAIL: CONPRO CONSULTANTS PVT LTD ADDRESS: Goregoan (East) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Anita 2878 1316/2879 1316

 Deemed Conveyance – Marathi, ` 725  Practical Guide on Stamp Duty, ` 150  Registration of Documents, ` 120  Registration of Housing Society, ` 120


All the above-mentioned books are published by Maharashtra Societies Welfare Association


 Co-operative Society Ready Reckoner, by Adv. Vinod Sampat, published by Residents, Users and Welfare Association, ` 750 (approx)

ADDRESS: Parekh Market, JSS Road, Opera House Mumbai - 400 004 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 98217 15584 /98213 22140 EMAIL: VASTUSHILP ADDRESS: Borivali (W) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: S.S.Kalbag - 2833 7242, Ravi Karwar - 98210 11668.

 Deemed Conveyance – 2015 by Adv. K K Ramani, ` 600  Redevelopment of Housing Society – 2015 by Adv. K K Ramani, ` 695  Redevelopment Ready Reckoner, by Santosh Kumar and Sunit Gupta, published by The Architects Publishing Corporation of India, ` 500

EMAIL: M/S CNS CONSULTANTS CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Ashwin Bhatt-9821076828, Shilpen Sarvaiya-9819173535, Tinesh Gala - 9869469237 EMAIL: B.J.MEHTA ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL CONSULTANTS PVT. LTD. ADDRESS: Office 2 & 3, Amit Vijay Apartment, Near Modern Dairy Kasturba Cross Road, Kandivali(W), Mumbai 400067. CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mrs. Rajeshri - 2862 1676 EMAIL: RIGHT PMC PVT. LTD. ADDRESS: D/4 Charkop Snehal View Sea View CHSL plot No.932, sector No 8, Charkop Kandivali (W), Mumbai - 400 067. CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Nitin Naik - 982 115 7052 / 932 225 8405 EMAIL: EDIFICE ERECTION PVT LTD (PMC) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 022 2898 4915 EMAIL: MASTER MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS ADDRESS: New Udyog Mandir, Kamanwala Chambers No.2, Unit No. 7, Mugal Road, Mahim (W), Mumbai 400 016 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Chandresh Dedhia - Regional Manager Mobile: +91 96198 60881 EMAIL: M/S S.B.ASSOCIATIES ADDRESS: D-63/B, Ground Floor, Vyomesh behind Swami Narayan Mandir Off S.V.P Road, Borivali(W), Mumbai 400 092 CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 2890 5531/2891 3104 EMAIL: REDEVELOPMENT PROJECTS MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Glenn Fernandes 983 354 5366. EMAIL: RACHNA ARCHITECT AND ENGINEERS ADDRESS: Borivali (E) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mr. Sameer - 2670 5421 / 69 EMAIL: DAISARIA ASSOCIATES CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: 6111 0504 EMAIL: KAPIL BAKSHI ARCHITECT ADDRESS: Borivali (w) CONTACT NAME/NUMBER: Mrs. Pranali - 2869 1554 EMAIL: SOURCE: MAHARASHTRA SOCIETIES WELFARE ASSOCIATION




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ef[PeeF&ve ë nsceble ueebyes (9920109088) cejeþer Yee<eeblej ë yee@ìceueeF&ve ueBiJespe meesu³etMevme He´e³eJnsì efueefceìs[ (9930051872)


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Òeef¬eÀ³eeb®es Heeueve keÀje

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HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esojc³eeve meom³eebkeÀ[tve J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meefceleer®³ee JewOelesyeeyele meom³eebveer ÒeMve efJe®eeª ve³esle. l³eecegUs keÀe³eÐeeDebleie&le DeeKetve efouesu³ee ³eesi³e Òeef¬eÀ³esÜejs efveJe[tve Deeuesu³ee DeeefCe mLeeHeve Peeuesu³ee meefceleerkeÀ[tve HegveefJe&keÀemee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª keÀjeJeer. 14.2.2013 Heemetve J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meefceleer®eer efveJe[CetkeÀ cenejeä^ jep³e menkeÀejer efveJe[CetkeÀ ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eeves vesceuesu³ee efveJe[CetkeÀ DeefOekeÀeN³eekeÀ[tve kesÀueer peeles. meesmee³eìeruee meefceleer®³ee efveJe[eryeeyele MebkeÀe Demeu³eeme efveJe[CetkeÀ Heej Hee[eJeer DeeefCe HegveefJe&keÀeme Òeef¬eÀ³ee Heg{s megª keÀjeJeer. yewþkeÀer®eer ieCemebK³eeë HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee efveCe&³e IesC³eemeeþer yeesueeJeC³eele Deeuesu³ee efJeMes<e meJe&meeOeejCe meefceleer®³ee yewþkeÀer®eer ieCemebK³ee GHeefmLele meom³eeb®³ee mebK³es®³ee 75 ìkeÌkesÀ DemeeJeer. keÀe³eÐeeceOeerue lejlegoeRÒeceeCes meom³eebceO³es menkeÀejer meom³e Demeleerue DeeefCe l³eecegUs menkeÀejer meom³eeuee DeMee yewþkeÀerle GHeefmLele jentve celeoeve keÀjC³ee®eer HejJeeveieer Deens. l³eeb®eer GHeefmLeleer ieCemebK³ee ceespeC³ee®³ee GÎsMeeves ceespeC³eele ³eeJeer.

ieCemebK³ee HetCe& nesle vemeu³eeme yewþkeÀ Deeþ efoJemeebmeeþer mLeefiele keÀjC³eele ³eeJeer DeeefCe ieCemebK³esceO³es meesmee³eìer®³ee 75 ìkeÌkesÀ meom³eeb®ee meceeJesMe Demeu³eeme ne efJe<e³e ®e®exuee Ieslee ³esFu& e Dev³eLee yewþkeÀ mLeefiele keÀjC³eele ner met®evee cenejeä^ mejkeÀejkeÀ[tve ScemeerSme keÀe³eoe 1960 ®³ee keÀuece ³esFu& e. HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee efveCe&³e yewþkeÀeruee GHeefmLele Demeuesu³ee efkeÀceeve 75 79(De) Debleie&le DeefOekeÀejeb®ee JeeHej keÀªve peejer keÀjC³eele Deeueer Deens. ìkeÌkesÀ meom³eebveer ceev³e keÀjCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. DeMee yewþkeÀeb®es keÀe³e&Je=Êe yewþkeÀerveblej one efoJemeeb®³ee Deele meom³eebceO³es JeeìC³eele ³eeJes. Meke̳e keÀuece 79De Debleie&le veJeerve efve³ece Demeu³eeme meJe& HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee yewþkeÀeb®es FefleJe=Êe p³eele J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e ³ee efoMesves Keeueerue HeeJeues DeeefCe Òeef¬eÀ³ee mHeä keÀjC³eele Deeu³ee meefceleer®eener meceeJesMe Deens, yewþkeÀerojc³eeve leelkeÀeU efuentve keÀe{C³eele ³eeJes DeeefCe yewþkeÀer®³ee MesJeìer yewþkeÀeruee GHeefmLele Demeuesu³ee meJe& meom³eebveer Deensleë l³eeJej me¿ee keÀjeJ³eele, Demes mete®f ele keÀjC³eele nesles. l³eecegUs FefleJe=Êee®³ee meom³e HegveefJe&keÀemee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª keÀjleerueë meesmee³eìer®es efkeÀceeve veeWoeryeeyele keÀesCeleener Jeeo ìeUlee ³esFu& e. 25 ìkeÌkesÀ meom³eebveer J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meefceleeruee HegveefJe&keÀemeeyeeyele efveCe&³e IesC³eemeeþer efJeMes<e meJe&meeOeejCe meYee yeesueeJeC³ee®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Demeles. yewþkeÀermeeþer veesìermeë HegveefJe&keÀemeemeeþer efJeMes<e meJe&meeOeejCe meYee J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meefceleer®eer ³eesi³e He×leerves efveJe[ DeeefCe mLeeHeveeë (SmepeerSce) ®eer meYee 14 efoJemeeb®eer mHeä veesìerme osTve yeesueeJeC³eele ³eeJeer.


ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve meuueeieejeb®eer vesceCetkeÀë J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meefceleerves HegveefJe&keÀeme ÒekeÀuHeeuee meuuee osCeeN³ee ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve meuueeieejebkeÀ[tve (HeerScemeer) efkeÀceeve Hee®e keÀesìMs eve I³eeJeerle DeeefCe SkeÀe HeerScemeeruee SmepeerSceceO³es vesceeJes. HeerScemeer®eer Yetecf ekeÀeë HeerScemeer efkeÀbJee Jeemlegj®eveele%eeves peefceveer®es lemes®e Òel³eskeÀ meom³eekeÀ[s Demeuesues #es$eHeÀU ³eeb®eer veerì HeenCeer keÀjeJeer, pegv³ee j®eves®ee DeY³eeme keÀjeJee, DeeJeM³ekeÀ Demeuesues meJe& mejkeÀejer omleSsJepe ÒeeHle keÀjeJesle, meesmee³eìerkeÀ[s peefceveer®eer lemes®e Fceejleer®eer ³eesi³e He×leerves ceeuekeÀer Deens ³ee®eer Kee$eer keÀjeJeer DeeefCe l³eeveblej Meke̳e Demeuesuee SHeÀSmeDee³e, ìer[erDeej, JeeHejC³ee³eesi³e SHeÀSmeDee³e lemes®e DeefmleÊJeele Demeuesu³ee Fceejleerves JeeHejuesuee SHeÀSmeDee³e ³eeb®³eeyeeyele SkeÀ DenJeeue le³eej keÀjeJee. l³eebveer meom³eebvee veJeerve Fceejleerle efceUt MekeÀCeejs efkeÀceeve #es$eHeÀU, efveOeer, Yee[s DeeefCe Flej megeJf eOee p³ee veJeerve Fceejleer®ee Yeeie Deensle, l³eeb®eerner ceeefnleer ÐeeJeer. ³eesi³elee/ÒekeÀuHe DenJeeue le³eej keÀjCesë HeerScemeerves ³eesi³elee DenJeeue DeeefCe ÒekeÀuHe DenJeeue le³eej keÀjeJee DeeefCe meesmee³eìer meom³eebceO³es leHeMeerueJeej ®e®ee& Ie[Jetve DeeCeeJeer, l³eeb®ee DeefYeÒee³e I³eeJee DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee MebkeÀe otj keÀjeJ³eele. HeerScemeerves HegveefJe&keÀemee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee megjUerle Heej Hee[C³eemeeþer megeJf eOee ÐeeJ³eele. HeerScemeeruee efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$e efceUtve meom³eebvee veJeerve Fceejleerle jene³euee peeiee efceUsHe³e¥le menYeeieer keÀªve I³ee³euee nJes.

Lees[ke̳eele  HeÌue@쮳ee ogªmleerkeÀ[s DeveskeÀoe ogue&#e nesles DeeefCe Iejeb®es vegkeÀmeeve Deefle¬eÀceCeecegUs nesles.   HegveefJe&keÀeme Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª keÀjC³eemeeþer efkeÀceeve 25 ìkeÌkesÀ meom³eebveer meefceleeruee meJe&meeOeejCe yewþkeÀ yeesueeJeC³eemeeþer uesKeer Depe& osCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. ìs[b j le³eej keÀjCesë HeerScemeerceO³es meom³eebMeer meuueecemeuele kesÀu³eeveblej SkeÀ ìW[j le³eej keÀjC³ee®eer iejpe Deens, p³eele HegveefJe&keÀemeeojc³eeve efJekeÀemekeÀeves Ðee³e®³ee yeBkeÀ ie@jìb ermen meesmee³eìerves þjJeuesu³ee meJe& Deìer DeeefCe MeleeA®ee meceeJesMe Demesue. mejkeÀejves peejer kesÀuesu³ee efveoxMeebvegmeej efkeÀceeve 20 ìkeÌkesÀ ÒekeÀuHe Ke®e& yeBkeÀ ie@jìb er cnCetve IesCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. meom³eeb®³ee meO³ee®³ee #es$eHeÀUeJej yeebOekeÀecee®³ee Ke®ee&FlekeÀer yeBkeÀ ie@jìb er IesC³ee®eer He×le meO³ee meesmee³eìeRceO³es Deens.

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ye=nvcegbyeF& ceneveiejHeeefuekesÀves 30 Je<ee¥Hes#ee DeefOekeÀ keÀeU pegv³ee Demeuesu³ee Òel³eskeÀ Fceejle efkebÀJee meesmee³eìermeeþer yeebOekeÀecee®es Dee@ef[ì oj leerve Je<ee¥veer keÀjCes DeeefCe mì^keÌ®ejue DeefYe³ebl³eeves metef®ele kesÀuesueer meJe& ogªmleer keÀjCes DeeefCe yeebOekeÀecee®es Dee@ef[ì kesÀu³eeveblej Hetle&lee DenJeeue mene ceefnv³eeb®³ee Deele meeoj keÀjCes mekeÌleer®es kesÀues Deens. efJekeÀemekeÀ efveJe[C³ee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle Jeeo efkebÀJee ieeWOeU jenle veener. efveyebOekeÀekeÀ[tve vee njkeÀleë meesmee³eìerves efJekeÀemekeÀe®³ee efveJe[erHe³e¥le meJe& DeeJeM³ekeÀ keÀeieoHe$es meeoj keÀªve efveyebOekeÀekeÀ[tve vee njkeÀle ÒeceeCeHe$e (SveDeesmeer) ÒeeHle keÀjCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. l³eele efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer efveJe[ Peeuesu³ee yewþkeÀer®es FefleJe=Êe DeeefCe yewþkeÀer®³ee eqJnef[Dees jskeÀe@e[f i¥ e®eer [erJner[erner DemeeJeer. efveyebOekeÀeves ScemeerSme keÀe³eoe 1960 ®³ee keÀuece 79De ceOeerue meJe& lejlegoeR®es Heeueve Peeues Demeu³eecegUs SveDeesmeer osle Demeu³ee®es meebietve leer osCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. efJekeÀemekeÀ keÀjeje®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeerë meesmee³eìer DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀeves efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer efveJe[ Peeu³eeHeemetve oesve ceefnv³eeb®³ee Deele ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeìeRvegmeej efJekeÀeme keÀjeje®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀªve l³ee®eer veeWoCeer keÀjCes iejpes®es Deens. GMeerj Peeu³eeme efJeMes<eefjl³ee yeesueeJeuesu³ee SmepeerSceceO³es l³eeJej Heg{erue efveCe&³e IesC³eele ³eeJee. p³eele Hegvne SkeÀoe efveyebOekeÀe®es ÒeefleefveefOelJe DemeeJes DeeefCe l³ee®e efkebÀJee ogmeN³ee efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer efveJe[ keÀjeJeer. efJekeÀemekeÀeves Dee³eDees[er ÒeeHle keÀjeJeer DeeefCe Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ keÀjeje®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjeJeer- efJekeÀemekeÀeves Fceejleer®eer veJeerve ³eespevee le³eej keÀªve meom³eebkeÀ[tve ceev³eleeÒeeHle keÀªve IesC³ee®eer DeeefCe les ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneveiejHeeefuekesÀuee ceev³elesmeeþer HeeþJeC³ee®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee Deens. SkeÀoe ³eespevee le³eej Peeu³eeJej ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneveiejHeeefuekeÀe Fbeìf cesMeve Dee@ HeÀ ef[meDe@ÒetJnue (Dee³eDees[er) DeeefCe ceev³eleeÒeeHle ³eespevee peejer keÀjles.

efJekeÀemekeÀ DeeefCe meesmee³eìerves Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ keÀjej meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebkeÀ[s meeoj keÀjC³ee®eer iejpe Demetve veJeerve Fceejleerleerue veJeerve HeÌue@ì l³ee ³eespevesle efomeeJee Je l³ee®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer DeeefCe veeWoCeer keÀjCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. l³eecegUs meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebceO³es l³eeb®³eeyeeyele efJeéeeme efvecee&Ce nesFu& e. Hetle&lee ÒeceeCeHe$e ÒeeHle keÀjCes DeeefCe Fceejle HetCe& keÀjCesë SkeÀoe meJe& meom³eebveer HeÌue@ì efjkeÀeces kesÀues keÀer meesmee³eìerves Fceejle efJekeÀemekeÀeuee Hee[C³eemeeþer osCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. Fceejle Hee[u³eeveblej efJekeÀemekeÀ Hetle&lee ÒeceeCeHe$e ÒeeHle keÀjsue DeeefCe ceev³eleeÒeeHle ³eespevesvegmeej Fceejle HetCe& keÀjsue. leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$e ÒeeHle keÀjCes DeeefCe DeefmleÊJeele Demeuesu³ee meom³eebvee veJeerve HeÌue@ì®ee leeyee osCesë efJekeÀemekeÀeves SkeÀoe leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$e ÒeeHle kesÀu³eeJej meesmee³eìeruee veJeerve HeÌue@ì®ee leeyee IesC³eeyeeyele meebielees DeeefCe mebHetCe& Fceejleer®es J³eJemLeeHeve meesmee³eìerkeÀ[s megHeto& keÀjlees. lees veJeerve HeÌue@ì®ee leeyee veJeerve Kejsoeroejebvee oslees DeeefCe meesmee³eìeruee l³eebvee meesmee³eìer®es meom³e cnCetve menYeeieer keÀªve IesC³ee®eer efJevebleer keÀjlees. veJeerve meom³e meesmee³eìer®es meom³e cnCetve menYeeieer nesleele DeeefCe yeBkesÀ®eer nceerHe$es ceeskeÀUer nesleeleë SkeÀoe meesmee³eìer HetCe& le³eej Peeueer DeeefCe meJe& ueeskeÀ, veJeerve Je pegves IejebceO³es jene³euee peeleele lesJne meesmee³eìer veJeerve HeÌue@쮳ee Kejsoeroejebvee meesmee³eìer®es meom³e cnCetve menYeeieer keÀªve Iesles, l³eebvee meceYeeie ÒeceeCeHe$es peejer keÀjles DeeefCe l³eeb®³eekeÀ[tve osKeYeeue MegukeÀ IesTve Fceejleer®eer osKeYeeue keÀjC³eeme megªJeele keÀjleele. Fceejle


meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebmeeþer meceeOeevekeÀejkeÀefjleerves HetCe& Peeu³eecegUs yeBkesÀ®eer nceerHe$es ceeskeÀUer keÀªve I³eeJeer ueeieleele. ³eesi³e Òeef¬eÀ³ee Heej Hee[u³eeme DeeefCe keÀece keÀjleevee HeejoMe&keÀlee peHeu³eeme ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme Del³eble cenÊJee®ee Demelees DeeefCe l³ee®ee

Deevebo Ieslee ³eslees. ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer®es keÀe³e& ueeskeÀMeener®³ee leÊJeevegmeej ®eeueles. efveCe&³eÒeef¬eÀ³esuee Lees[e JesU ueeielees HeCe Jej efouesu³ee He×leerÒeceeCes SKeeoer Òeef¬eÀ³ee pejer HetCe& Peeueer veener lejer ÒekeÀuHee®³ee HegveefJe&keÀemeemeeþer les OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ þª MekeÀles.  

efyeu[jceeHe&Àle HegveefJe&keÀemeemeeþer omleSsJepeeb®eer le³eejer HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee JesUer DeeJeM³ekeÀ keÀeieoHe$es

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

meesmee³eìer veesob Ceer ÒeceeCeHe$e. 7/12 Gleeje cenmetue keÀe³ee&ue³eekeÀ[tve Depe& ¬eÀceebkeÀ 6. keÀvJns³evme keÀjej /Yee[skeÀjej/ efJe¬eÀerKele MeesOe DenJeeue DeeefCe ceeuekeÀer ÒeceeCeHe$e. Fb[ks eÌme Sve S DeeosMe efJekeÀeme keÀjej veiejefJekeÀeme DeejeKe[e. ceev³eleeÒeeHle Fceejle DeejeKe[e. Dee³eDees[er®eer Òele Hetle&lee ÒeceeCeHe$e leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$e Hetle&lee ÒeceeCeHe$e efJe¬eÀerkeÀjej mì@cHe MegukeÀ Yeju³ee®ee HegjeJee veeWoCeer MegukeÀ Yeju³ee®ee HegjeJee vesceCetkeÀ.

HegveefJe&keÀeme Òeef¬eÀ³ee

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

³eesi³elee DenJeeue meom³eebkeÀ[tve met®evee ìW[j ceeieJeC³eemeeþer meeJe&peefvekeÀ veesìerme efJeefJeOe yewþkeÀeb®es FefleJe=Êe efJeefJeOe ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eebmeesyele He$eJ³eJenej GHeefveyebOekeÀ, yeerScemeer, ³etSuemeer efJeYeeie Sve omleSsJepe Fl³eeoer

ìW[j Depe& ÒeeHle kesÀuesu³ee ìW[j®ee meejebMe meJe&meeOeejCe yewþkeÀerle ìW[juee ceev³elee DeeefCe cemegoe Je Debelf ece FefleJe=Êe le³eej keÀjCes 10 JekeÀerue, mì^keÌ®ejue DeefYe³eblee, JekeÀerue, Jeemlegj®eveekeÀej, ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve meuueeieej Fl³eeoeRvee vesceCetkeÀHe$es.

meesmee³eìer®³ee JeefkeÀueeves le³eej keÀjC³ee®eer keÀeieoHe$es 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjej efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve vegkeÀmeeveYejHeeF& keÀjej efyeu[jkeÀ[tve yeBkeÀ nceerHe$ee®ee DeejeKe[e meesmee³eìerkeÀ[tve efJekeÀemekeÀeuee Hee@Jej Dee@HeÀ De@ìveea He³ee&³eer efveJeemeemeeþer keÀjej meom³eebkeÀ[tve meesmee³eìeruee ceev³eleeÒeeHle meom³eebkeÀ[tve efyeu[j/yeerScemeeruee ceev³eleeHe$e meesmee³eìer DeeefCe efyeu[jceO³es meecebpem³e keÀjej SceDees³et meesmee³eìerkeÀ[tve efyeu[juee vesceCetkeÀHe$e efyeu[jkeÀ[tve meom³eeuee leeyeeHe$e veJeerve meom³eebkeÀ[tve meesmee³eìeruee meom³e nesC³eemeeþer He$e veJeerve meom³eebkeÀ[tve meesmee³eìeruee uesKeer nceer veJeerve meom³eeuee menYeeieer keÀªve IesC³ee®³ee ÒemleeJee®ee DeejeKe[e efyeu[jkeÀ[tve ÒeeHle keÀjC³ee®³ee keÀeieoHe$eeb®eer ³eeoer Hee@Jej Dee@HeÀ De@ìveea jÎ keÀjCes/ceeies IesCes

efyeu[jkeÀ[tve I³ee³e®eer keÀeieoHe$es 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

efJekeÀemekeÀeb®eer ³eesi³eefjleerves veeWoCeerke=Àle Yeeieeroejer keÀjej efkebÀJee Demeesemf eSMeve®ee keÀjej veeWoCeer ÒeceeCeHe$ee®eer Òele Yeeieeroejeb®es veeJe DeeefCe HeÊes lemes®e l³eeb®es He@ve mebmLes®es He@vekeÀe[& Yeeieeroej/ meb®eeuekeÀ DeeefCe kebÀHeveer ³eeb®³ee Jeleerves leerve Je<ex Yejuesu³ee ÒeeHleerkeÀje®eer Òele mesJeekeÀj veeWoCeer ¬eÀceebkeÀ kebÀHeveer®eer efJeÊeer³e #ecelee mecepeC³eemeeþer leeUsyeboe®eer Òele efJekeÀemekeÀeves efouesu³ee Dee@HeÀjceO³es ceeueceÊes®ee les efJekeÀeme keÀmee keÀjleerue ³ee®eer ceeefnleer osCeeje ³eesi³elee DenJeeue

m$eesleë HegveefJe&keÀemeë omleSsJepeerkeÀjCe DeeefCe keÀje, meerS jcesMe Sme. ÒeYet, SceSme[yu³etS ³eeb®³eekeÀ[tve

``efJekeÀemekeÀe}ener SkeÀ cenÊJee®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme Yeeieeroej ceeve}s Heeefnpes. l³eeves veHeÀe keÀceeJe}e veener lej lees ÒekeÀuHee®³ee Ke®ee&le keÀHeele keÀjs}“ GlkeÀ<e& S peeveer

ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej Sef[HeÀeFme Fjske̵eve Òee³eJnsì ef}efceìs[

meesHee HegveefJe&keÀeme SkeÀe He×leµeerj J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ ¢äerkeÀesveeÜejs HegveefJe&keÀeme DeHe³eµeer nesCes/Gµeerj nesCes ³ee®³ee µeke̳elee keÀceer keÀjlee ³esleele, GlkeÀ<e& peeveer ³eeb®es cele

cegyb eF& yesìeJej Del³eble ce³ee&eof le peeiee Demeleevee HegveefJe&keÀeme ne cegyb eF&leer} jenC³ee³eesi³e peemle peeieeb®eer meelel³eHetCe& ceeieCeer HetCe& keÀjC³eemeeþer HegveefJe&keÀeme ne SkeÀcesJe ceeie& efkebÀJee GHee³e³eespevee Deens. HegveefJe&keÀeme ner DeefmleÊJeele Deme}suîee Fceejleer Hee[tve veJeerve FceejleeR®es yeebOekeÀece keÀjC³ee®eer SkeÀ Del³eble meesHeer Òeef¬eÀ³ee Deens. cegyb eF& µenjeµeer mebyebeOf ele HegveefJe&keÀeme ³ee µeyoe®ee DeLe& yeo}t µekeÀlees keÀejCe ³esLes HegveefJe&keÀeme cnCepes ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer meom³e DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ ³eeb®³eemeeþer GHe}yOe Deme}suîee H}e@ì®ee keÀcee} JeeHej keÀªve IesCes. Goe. HetJeea SkeÀ npeej ®eewjme ceerìj®ee SkeÀe H}e@ì}e SkeÀ npeej ®eew. ceerìj DeeefCe one ìkeÌkesÀ yeeukeÀveer®eer peeiee efceUle Demes. Hejbleg Deelee SkeÀ npeej ®eewjme ceerìj®³ee H}e@ìJej ®eìF& #es$e efveoxµeebkeÀ (SHeÀSmeDee³e) 2700 ®eew. ceerìjHe³e¥le ies}e Deens, efpeLes DeefmleÊJeele Deme}suîee pegv³ee meom³eebvee DeefleefjkeÌle #es$eHeÀUeÜejs HeÀe³eos efceUleele DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀe}e GJe&ejf le SHeÀSmeDee³e Kegu³ee yeepeejele efJekeÀC³ee®eer mebOeer efceUles.

ne}®ee}eR®eer HeefjefmLeleer Deens. keÀejCe ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneveiejHeeef}kesÀves (yeerScemeer) SkeÀe veJeerve Fceejleer®eer j®evee keÀjleevee YetkebÀHee®ee leeCe menve keÀjC³ee®³ee #eceles®ee efJe®eej keÀjC³ee®es mekeÌleer®es kesÀ}s Deens. ogmejs keÀejCe cnCepes jsveJee@ ìj neJexemf ìbie p³eeletve Yetpe}HeeleUer Jee{C³eeme ceole nesles. ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebmeeþer SkeÀ ieglb eeieglb eer®ee efJe<e³e Deens. 2009 HetJeea efveyebOekeÀekeÀ[s DeveskeÀ le¬eÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebkeÀ[tve ³esle Demele. l³eele l³eeb®ee efJekeÀeme

DeeHeCe HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjC³ee®es keÀe³e keÀejCe Deens, ne Òeµve ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeeb®³ee meom³eebkeÀ[tve JeejbJeej efJe®eej}e peelees. l³ee}e DeveskeÀ keÀejCes Deensle. keÀenerpeCeebvee kegÀìgyb es efJemleeefjle nesle DemeuîeecegUs ceesþer peeiee nJeer Demeles, keÀenerpeCeebvee HeeCeer legyb eC³ee®³ee ÒeµveecegUs Jej®³ee cepeuîeeJej jene³e}e pee³e®es Demeles, keÀenerpeCeebvee ef}HeÌìmeejK³ee megeJf eOee nJ³ee Demeleele, efJeµes<eleë ®eewL³ee cepeuîeeJejer} }eskeÀebvee, l³eebvee ogªmleerJej peemle Ke®e& keÀje³e®ee vemelees. ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîee HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee efveCe&³e Iesleele, l³ee®eer keÀejCes DeveskeÀ Demeleele.

keÀmee vesce}e ies}e efkebÀJee J³eJemLeeHeve meefceleerves SkeÀ efJeefµeä efJekeÀemekeÀ keÀmee efveJe[}e efkebÀJee l³eeves keÀesCel³ee DeeOeejs Dee@HeÀj efo}er Deµee le¬eÀejer Demele. lemes®e efJekeÀemekeÀeves DeeHeuîee}e HeÀmeJeuîee®eer YeeJevee DemeuîeecegUs meom³eebceO³es ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej DemeceeOeeve nesles. l³eecegUs cenejeä^ menkeÀejer meesmee³eìer keÀe³eoe 79 (De) DeefmleÊJeele Dee}e. ³ee keÀe³eÐee®es SkeÀcesJe GefÎä ns mebHetCe& HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esojc³eeve meom³eebceO³es Heejoµe&keÀlee DeeCeC³ee®es nesles. l³ee®ee meJeexÊece Yeeie cnCepes ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieejeb®ee (HeerScemeer) meceeJesµe pes ³ee efJe<e³eeleer} le%e DeeefCe DeefYe³ebles Deensle DeeefCe les SkeÀ cenÊJee®eer Yetecf ekeÀe Heej Hee[leele. HeerScemeerkeÀ[s meJe& J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ SkeÀe®e íleeKee}er Demeleele. pemes Jeemlegj®eveekeÀej, DeefYe³eblee,

leLeeefHe, HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjC³ee®es DeeCeKeer SkeÀ cegK³e keÀejCe cnCepes YetieYee&leer}

Lees[ke̳eele  HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òel³eskeÀ ìHH³eeJej DeveskeÀ De[LeUs Demeleele   SkeÀ ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej meesmee³eìer®³ee mJeejm³eeb®es mebj#eCe keÀjlees


JekeÀer} DeeefCe ®eeì&[& DekeÀeTbììb . l³eeb®eer cegK³e peyeeyeoejer ner meJe& meom³eebvee efµeef#ele keÀjCes DeeefCe l³eebvee HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee mebHetCe& Òeef¬eÀ³esojc³eeve ceeie&oµe&ve keÀjC³ee®eer Demeles. HeerScemeer®eer peyeeyeoejer Del³eble cenÊJee®eer Demeles keÀejCe HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òel³eskeÀ ìHH³eeJej DeveskeÀ Keºs Demeleele. meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eeb®³ee efnlee®es j#eCe keÀjC³ee®eer peyeeyeoejer HeerScemeer®eer Demeles.

ceeefnleer ieesUe keÀje

HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee Heefn}e ìHHee ceeefnleer ieesUe keÀjC³ee®ee Demelees. pemes cee}ceÊee keÀe[&, efmeìer meJnx ¬eÀceebkeÀ (meerìerSme) efve³eespeve, keÀvJns³evme [er[, H}e@ì®es Òel³e#e meJex#eCe, [er[er/ìerHeer®es DenJee}, keÀe³e&keÀejer DeefYe³eblee JeenletkeÀ DeeefCe mecevJe³eve (F&Fì& ermeer)®ee µesje, meO³ee®³ee Fceejleer®eer ceev³eleeÒeeHle ³eespevee Òele, meJe& meom³eeb®ee ®eìF& #es$e leeUsyebo, }sDeeTì DeejeKe[e Fl³eeoer. ner keÀeieoHe$es ieesUe kesÀuîeeJej HeerScemeer SkeÀ ³eesi³elee DeY³eeme keÀjC³eemeeþer l³eeb®es efJeµ}s<eCe keÀjles. l³eecegUs SHeÀSmeDee³e ceespeceeHe, ì^evmeHeÀj Dee@HeÀ [sJn}HeceWì jeFìdme (ìer[erDeej) ceespeCeer, JeeHejC³ee³eesi³e SHeÀSmeDee³e ceespeceeHe, GlHeVe DeeefCe Ke®ee&®ee leeUsyebo lemes®e efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer HeÀe³eosµeerjlee ³eeb®ee DeY³eeme neslees.

meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebveer ÒekeÀuHeeyeeyele Hegjesieeceer ¢äerkeÀesve DebieerkeÀejeJee DeeefCe l³eeb®³eeceO³es SkeÀelcelee DemeeJeer. ³eesi³elee DeY³eeme Del³eble cenÊJee®ee Deens, keÀejCe l³eele mebHetCe& ÒekeÀuHee®eer ceeefnleer leHeµeer}Jeej efo}s}er Demeles. l³eeletve ³eesi³elesmeeþer efJeefJeOe efvekeÀ<eeb®ee DeY³eeme kesÀ}e peelees, HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee ÒekeÀuHee®es cenÊJee®es ìHHes mecepetve Iesle}s peeleele DeeefCe ns ìHHes Heej keÀjC³eemeeþer }eieCeeje keÀe}eJeOeerner DeY³eeme}e peelees.

efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer efveJe[ keÀjCes

³eesi³elee DenJee} le³eej keÀjC³eele DeeuîeeJej ìW[j®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª nesles. ìW[j ns efJekeÀemekeÀebkeÀ[tve Dee@HeÀj ceeieJeC³eemeeþer le³eej kesÀ}s}s cenÊJee®es leHeµeer}Jeej keÀeieoHe$e Deens. ìW[jceO³es H}e@ì #es$eHeÀU, meO³ee®³ee meom³eeb®es JeeHej}s}s ®eìF&#es$e, efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve DeHese#f ele Deme}s}er megeJf eOeeb®eer ³eeoer Fl³eeoer®ee meceeJesµe Demelees. ìW[j ne efJekeÀemekeÀebkeÀ[tve Dee@HeÀj ceeieJeC³ee®ee ³eesi³e ceeie& Demetve l³eeb®eer leg}vee meeceeef³ekeÀ HeeleUerJej kesÀ}er peeT µekeÀles. efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer efveJe[ ne mebHetCe& HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esleer} meJee¥le cenÊJee®ee IeìkeÀ Deens, keÀejCe efJekeÀemekeÀ®e ÒekeÀuHe HetCe& keÀjlees. efJekeÀemekeÀe}e HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee SkeÀ cenÊJee®ee Yeeieeroej ceeve}e ies}s Heeefnpes. l³eeves veHeÀe keÀceeJe}e veener lej lees ÒekeÀuHee®ee Ke®e& keÀceer keÀª µekeÀlees.

keÀe³eosµeerj yeepet

JekeÀer} efJeefJeOe He×leeRveer SkeÀ cenÊJee®eer Yetecf ekeÀe yepeeJeleele. l³eeleer} meJee¥le Heefn}er cnCepes efJekeÀeme keÀjej le³eej keÀjCes. meom³eebveer peeiee mees[}er keÀer l³eeb®³eekeÀ[s l³eeb®³ee efnlee®es DeeefCe nkeÌkeÀeb®es mebj#eCe keÀjC³eemeeþer efJekeÀeme keÀjej Demelees. meecebpem³e keÀjej (SceDees³et), efJekeÀeme keÀjej, Hee@Jej Dee@HeÀ De@ìveea DeeefCe Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ keÀjej le³eej keÀjC³eele JeefkeÀ}e®eer Yetecf ekeÀe cenÊJee®eer

Demeles. meesmee³eìeRveer DeeHe}s mJeleë®es JekeÀer} vescee³e}e nJesle DeeefCe HeerScemeer Demes omleSsJepeerkeÀjCe DeeefCe Òeef¬eÀ³esJej }#e þsJeles. ³eemeeþer efJekeÀemekeÀeJej DeJe}byetve jeefnuîeeme meom³eeb®³ee efnleeµeer leer le[pees[ þjs}.

efve³eespevee®ee ìHHee

efve³eespeve ne SkeÀ ieglb eeieglb eer®ee efJe<e³e Demetve ³esLes meJe& meom³eebveer efJekeÀemekeÀeves efo}suîee He³ee&³eebceOetve SkeÀ efJeefµeä ³eespevee efveJe[eJeer }eieles. HeerScemeer®³ee Jeemlegj®eveekeÀejebveer l³eeb®³ee HeÌ}ì@ md e®³ee j®evesyeeyele ceeefnleer osCes iejpes®es Deens. ³eesi³e ÒekeÀeµe DeeefCe nJesµeerjHeCee jeKe}e peeF&} DeeefCe Debleie&le j®evee Goe. efJekeÀemekeÀeves l³eeb®³ee HeÌ}ì@ ®³ee }sDeeTì/³eespevesle iegHlelee jeKe}er Deens keÀe? Jeemlegj®eveekeÀejevesner ³ee DeejeKe[îeebvee ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneveiejHeeef}kesÀkeÀ[tve keÀesCel³eener megOeejCeebeµf eJee³e ceev³eleeÒeeHle keÀjC³ee®eer peyeeyeoejer Iesle}er Heeefnpes. HeerScemeer®³ee Jeemlegj®eveekeÀejebveer mebHetCe& ceneHeeef}kesÀ®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³es®ee DeY³eeme Fbeìf cesµeve Dee@HeÀ ef[meDe@ÒetJn} (Dee³eDees[er), keÀcH}erµeve meefìe& Hf eÀkesÀì (meermeer) les leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$e (Deesmeer) He³e¥le kesÀ}e Heeefnpes DeeefCe DeeHeuîee }e³emevme ¬eÀceebkeÀemen Òel³eskeÀ ìHH³eeJej leHeµeer}Jeej DenJee} }sKeer Ðee³e}e nJee. ÒekeÀuHee®³ee megjef#eleles®eer Kee$eer HeìJeC³eemeeþer meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebveer HeerScemeerkeÀ[tve HegveefJe&keÀemeeyeeyele Òel³eskeÀ ìHH³eeJej }sKeer DenJee} ceeefiele}e Heeefnpes. mebHetCe& Fceejle efjkeÀeceer keÀ©ve efJekeÀemekeÀe®³ee leey³eele osC³eeHetJeea meesmee³eìer DeeefCe HeerScemeerves meJe& cenÊJee®³ee keÀeieoHe$eeb®eer ÒeeHleer efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve Pee}er Deens ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³ee³e}e nJeer. Fceejle Hee[tve Òel³e#e yeebOekeÀece megª PeeuîeeJej HeerScemeer®³ee efvejer#ekeÀeves meesmee³eìer}e DeeþJe[îeeletve SkeÀoe meeFìJejer} Òel³eskeÀ Ieìves®eer ceeefnleer Ðee³e}e nJeer. l³eele meeefnl³ee®eer ÒeeHleer, l³eeb®eer leHeemeCeer ÒeceeCeHe$es, keÀeB¬eÀerì®eer leHeemeCeer ÒeceeCeHe$es DeeefCe Flej ieesäeR®ee DenJee} Demes}. lemes®e HeerScemeerves meeFìJej ®eebieuîee opee&®es keÀece nesle Demeuîee®eer peyeeyeoejer Iesle}er Heeefnpes DeeefCe meesmee³eìervesner l³eeb®ee efJekeÀemekeÀ yeebOekeÀece ®eebie}s nesC³eemeeþer efo}suîee meJe& met®evee DeeefCe efµeHeÀejµeeR®es Hee}ve keÀjlees ns Heeefn}s Heeefnpes. HegveefJe&keÀeme ne SkeÀ Del³eble ieglb eeieglb eer®ee efJe<e³e Demetve l³eele DeveskeÀeb®es meecetenf keÀ Òe³elve meceeefJe<ì Demeleele. pemes meesmee³eìer meom³e, HeerScemeer®es JekeÀer}, ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneveiejHeeef}keÀe Fl³eeoer. ÒekeÀuHee®³ee megjUerle DeeefCe JesUls eer} efJekeÀemeeceO³es ³eesi³e mecevJe³e, efvejer#eCe Je He[leeUCeer®ee meceeJesµe Demelees. meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebveer ÒekeÀuHeeefJe<e³eer Hegjesieeceer ¢äerkeÀesve Iesle}e Heeefnpes DeeefCe l³eeb®³eeceO³es SkeÀelcelee nJeer. l³eebveer DeeHeCe vescele Deme}suîee J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀebJejner efJeµJeeme þsJee³e}e nJee.

GlkeÀ<e& S peeveer ns ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej Deensleë l³eeb®ee y}e@ie 


``meesmee³eìerves Fceejleer®ee DeejeKe[e ÒeeHle keÀjeJee DeeefCe ÒekeÀuHe Je ³eesi³elee DenJee} ³ee ceev³eleeÒeeHle ³eespevesJej DeeOeeefjle®e le³eej keÀjeJee.“ De@[. Deefve<ee µeem$eer

³eeb®³eemeesyele JeejbJeej efJe®eej}s peeCeejs Òeµve

De@[ Deefve<ee µeem$eer meesmee³eìer meom³eebvee ieeWOeUele ìekeÀCeeN³ee DeveskeÀ ÒeµveebJej ÒekeÀeµePeesle ìekeÀle Deensle. SkeÀe HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle efJekeÀemekeÀeves keÀesCel³ee #es$eHeÀUe®ee efJe®eej keÀjeJee- ceev³eleeÒeeHle Fceejle ³eespevesvegmeej efve³eesefpele ³eespevee keÀer meom³e jenle Deme}s}s efkebÀJee l³eeb®³ee leey³eeleer} #es$eHeÀU? menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebceO³es meom³e meesmee³eìer®³ee meeceeef³ekeÀ peeieebJej Deefle¬eÀceCe keÀjleele DeeefCe l³ee®ee JeeHej meesmee³eìerkeÀ[tve keÀesCeleener Dee#esHe ve ³eslee Je<ee&vegJe<ex kesÀ}e peelees. leLeeefHe, ceev³eleeÒeeHle Fceejle ³eespevee DeeefCe efJe¬eÀerKeleevegmeej #es$eHeÀU ³eeHes#ee keÀceer Demeles. ³ee yeeyeercegUs meesmee³eìerceO³es keÀe³ece JeeoeJeeoer nesles DeeefCe l³ee®ee HeÀìkeÀe HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee ÒekeÀuHee}e yemelees. leLeeefHe, efyeu[j kesÀJeU efyeefu[bie®³ee ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[îeele Deme}s}s #es$eHeÀU ie=efnle Oejlees. l³eecegUs meesmee³eìerves efyeefu[bie®ee DeejeKe[e efceUJeeJee DeeefCe ÒekeÀuHe ³eesi³elee DenJee} ³ee®e ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[îeeJej DeeOeeefjle jentve yeveJeC³eele ³eeJee. meom³eebveer ³eeJej Jeeo Ieeleuîeeme ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej (HeerScemeer) ves l³eebvee DeefleefjkeÌle peeiee ner ®eìF& #es$e efveoxµeebkeÀ (SHeÀSmeDee³e)®ee Yeeie veener DeeefCe HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee JesUer efle®ee efJe®eej keÀjlee ³esCeej veener ns mHeä keÀjeJes. meom³eeves HeÌ}@ì DeeefCe ie®®eer Kejsoer kesÀ}er Demes} lej keÀesCeles #es$eHeÀU ie=efnle Oej}s peeF&}? HetJeea efJekeÀemekeÀ ie®®eermen HeÌ}@ì efJekeÀle Demele DeeefCe Kejsoeroej l³ee®ee efJe®eej keÀªve mì@cHe µegukeÀ DeeefCe veeWoCeer µegukeÀ HeÌ}@ì lemes®e ie®®eermeesyele Yejle DeeefCe ³ee®ee HeÀe³eoe DeveskeÀ Je<ex Iesle Demele. l³eecegUs SKeeoer menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLee HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee efJe®eej keÀjles lesJne p³ee meom³eebveer ie®®eer DeeefCe Iej Iesle}s Deens les l³ee oesIeeb®esner #es$eHeÀU ceespeeJes Demes meebieleele. leLeeefHe, les Fceejleer®³ee ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[îeele GHe}yOe Demes} lej HeÌ}@ì Kejsoeroejebvee ie®®eer®es meJe& HeÀe³eos IesC³ee®ee nkeÌkeÀ Deens. ceie les efJe®eej keÀªve Demees efkeÀbJee efJekeÀemekeÀ meom³eebvee veJeerve HeÌ}@ìceO³es osle Deme}suîee DeefleefjkeÌle #es$eHeÀUe®³ee mJeªHeele Demees. ie®®eer DeeefCe HeÌ}@ì Fceejleer®³ee ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[îeele veeWoJe}s}s vemeuîeeme meom³e efJekeÀemekeÀeves DeefleefjkeÌle #es$eHeÀU ÐeeJes efkebÀJee ie®®eer®ee Yeeiee®ee efJe®eej keÀjeJee Deµeer ceeieCeer keÀª µekeÀle veenerle. ne Yeeie Fceejleer®³ee ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[îeele vemeuîeeme lees JeeHejCeeN³ee }eskeÀebvee ie®®eer®³ee HeÌ}@ì®es HeÀe³eos Ðee³e®es keÀer veener ³ee®ee efveCe&³e efJekeÀemekeÀeves I³ee³e®ee Deens. ie@jspe efkebÀJee Heeefke¥Àie®ee Yeeie DeeHeuîee keÀe³ee&}³eerve efkebÀJee J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ GÎsµeeves JeeHejCeeN³ee meom³eeb®es nkeÌkeÀ keÀe³e Deensle? HetJeea efJekeÀemekeÀeves iee[îee Heeke&À keÀjC³eemeeþer ie@jspesme yeebOe}er DeeefCe leer meom³eebvee efJekeÀ}er. meom³eebveer ie@jspe®es ªHeeblej keÀe³eÐee®eer HejJeeveieer ve Ieslee efkebÀJee Òeef¬eÀ³ee ve keÀjlee J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ keÀeceemeeþer kesÀ}s. l³eecegUs menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLee HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee efJe®eej keÀjles, lesJne J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ keÀeceemeeþer ie@jspe®³ee peeies®ee JeeHej keÀjCeejs }eskeÀ ie@jspe efJeYeeieemeeþer J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ ³egefveì ceeieleele. leLeeefHe, ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[îeele ie@jspe GHe}yOe Demeuîeeme meom³e ie@jspe®ee Yeeie ceeiet µekeÀleele DeeefCe efyeu[j ceie l³eebvee efmìuì, Heesef[³ece efkebÀJee leUIejele Heeefke¥Àie osF&} efkebÀJee veJeerve HeÌ}@ìceO³es DeefleefjkeÌle peeiee osF&} efkebÀJee l³ee meom³ee®ee efJe®eej keÀjs}. leLeeefHe l³ee meom³ee}e HegveefJe&keÀemeeceO³es keÀesCelesner J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ ³egefveì efceUCeej veener. ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[îeele ie@jspe GHe}yOe vemeuîeeme meom³ee}e ie@jspe®es keÀesCelesner HeÀe³eos efceUCeej veenerle DeeefCe ie@jspe Yeeie Ðee³e®ee keÀer veener ³ee®ee efveCe&³e IesCes efJekeÀemekeÀe®³ee neleele Demes}. meom³e l³eemeeþer Deeûen Oe© µekeÀCeej veener. keÀener meom³eebveer HegveefJe&keÀemee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee De[JeC³ee®ee Òe³elve kesÀuîeeme keÀe³e nesF&}? menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer®es meom³e yengmebK³eekeÀ meom³eebveer Iesle}suîee efveCe&³eevegmeej keÀece keÀjles. ne efveCe&³e meesmee³eìer®³ee meJe& meom³eebveer ceev³e keÀjes Jee ve keÀjes les l³ee}e yeebOeer} Demeleele. cenejeä^eleer} DeveskeÀ Fceejleer cees[keÀUerme Dee}suîee HeefjefmLeleerle Deensle Deens DeeefCe ogªmleer


efkebÀJee vetleveerkeÀjCe keÀjCes µeke̳e veener, ³ee®eer keÀuHevee DeeHeCee meJee¥vee Deens. Deµee HeefjefmLeleerle, ye=nvcegbyeF& ceneveiejHeeef}keÀe Deµee meesmee³eìeRvee Fceejleer efjkeÀec³ee keÀjC³ee®eer veesìerme peejer keÀjle Deens. ceesþîee ogªml³ee keÀjC³eemeeþer meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebkeÀ[s DeveskeÀoe Hewmes vemeleele l³eecegUs mejkeÀejves cees[keÀUerme Dee}suîee DeeefCe meO³ee®eer Fceejle Hee[tve l³eeb®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjC³ee®eer F®íe Deme}suîee FceejleeRmeeþer HegveJe&meve DeeefCe Òeef¬eÀ³ee }eiet kesÀ}er Deens.

``menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer keÀcee} meom³eebveer Iesle}suîee efveCe&³eevegmeej keÀece keÀjles’

3.1.2009 HetJeea HegveefJe&keÀemee®es efve³eespeve keÀjCeeN³ee menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebmeeþer keÀesCelesner efve³ece veJnles. meom³e mJele뮳ee efJekeÀemekeÀebvee Deecebef$ele keÀje³e®es DeeefCe Demes meom³e meesmee³eìer DeeefCe Flej meom³eeb®ee HeÀe³eoe I³ee³e®es. meesmee³eìer keÀesCel³eener DeefOekeÀejeefJevee efJekeÀeme keÀjeje®eer Hetle&lee keÀjle Demes. leLeeefHe, efJekeÀeme keÀjeje®eer Debce}yepeeJeCeer nesTve Fceejle Hee[uîeeJej efJekeÀemekeÀ Pee}suîee Gefµejemeeþer keÀejCes osle Demes. l³eecegUs HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee ÒekeÀuHe jKe[tve jenle Demes DeeefCe efJekeÀeme keÀjeje®³ee Deìer Je µeleeA®es Hee}ve ve kesÀuîeeyeeyele efJekeÀemekeÀeefJejesOeele me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eekeÀ[s DeveskeÀ le¬eÀejer oeKe} kesÀuîee peele Demele. l³eecegUs DeveskeÀ menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebvee Yes[meeJeCeejer Deµeer HeefjefmLeleer ìeUC³eemeeþer cenejeä^ mejkeÀejves 3.1.2009 jespeer SkeÀ ceeie&oµe&keÀ lelJe cenejeä^ meesmee³eìer keÀe³eoe 1960 ®³ee keÀ}ce 79 (De) Debleie&le peejer kesÀ}s. l³eeletve l³eebveer SkeÀ mekeÌleer®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee }eiet kesÀ}er, peer HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀª Feq®íCeeN³ee menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer}e HetCe& keÀjeJeer }eiele Demes. HegveefJe&keÀemee®eer ³eespevee keÀjCeeN³ee keÀesCel³eener menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer}e ³ee®es Hee}ve keÀjeJes }eieles. l³eecegUs meesmee³eìerkeÀ[tve keÀejJeeF& kesÀ}er peeles DeeefCe meom³eebceO³es SkeÀmeceevelee jenles. l³eecegUs meJeexÊece, meJee&efOekeÀ me#ece DeeefCe efJeÊeer³e¢ä³ee efmLej efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer efveJe[ SkeÀe megjUerle Je Heejoµe&keÀ He×leerves meesmee³eìer®³ee Fceejleer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjC³eemeeþer kesÀ}er peeles.

pegveer meefceleer DeeefCe veJeerve meefceleerceOeer} Jeeoe®es keÀe³e? efpeLes pegveer meefceleer Jeeo GkeÀªve keÀe{les DeeefCe veJeerve meefceleer}e Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª keÀª osle veener? Demes Jeeo, efpeLes pegv³ee meefcel³ee Òeµve GY³ee keÀjleele, l³ee®es cegK³e keÀejCe ns pegveer meefceleer meesmee³eìer®es keÀecekeÀepe neleeUle nesleer lesJne veJeerve meefceleer}e efveJe[tve osCeejs meom³e l³eebvee menkeÀe³e& keÀjle veJnles. leLeeefHe, meom³eebveer meefceleer®³ee keÀuîeeCeeÒeefle keÀece kesÀ}s Heeefnpes. l³eecegUs meJe& meom³eebmeeþer HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee ÒekeÀuHe ³eµemJeer nesT µekeÀlees. J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meefceleer DeeefCe HegveefJe&keÀeme meefceleer ³eeb®³eeleer} Jeeoe®es keÀe³e? meesmee³eìer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme ner ceesþer peyeeyeoejer Demetve meesmee³eìerves l³eele meb³ece oeKeJee³e}e nJee. meefceleer®³ee meom³eebvee DeveskeÀ ìHHes DeeefCe HeeJe}s Deensle peer l³eebvee I³eeJeer }eieleele DeeefCe l³eeJej }#e þsJeeJes }eieles. l³eecegUs meefceleer meom³eebvee De®etkeÀ efveCe&³e IesCes DeeefCe ³eesi³e efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjCes keÀþerCe nesles pees efJeÊeer³e¢ä³ee efmLej Deens DeeefCe yeepeejele l³ee®es ®eebie}s veeJe Deens. l³eecegUs p³ee DeveskeÀ meesmee³eìîee HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjle Deensle l³ee SkeÀe efJeµes<e meJe&meeOeejCe yewþkeÀerle ÒemleeJe Heeefjle keÀªve HegveefJe&keÀeme meefceleer®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjleele. HegveefJe&keÀeme meefceleer®eer YetefcekeÀe meefceleer®³ee meom³eebvee HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle ceeie&oµe&ve keÀjC³ee®eer Demetve l³eeletve meefceleer®es meom³e meesmee³eìer}e HeÀe³eosµeerj lemes®e efnlee®es þjleer} Demes efveCe&³e IesT µekeÀleer}. leLeeefHe HegveefJe&keÀeme meefceleerves Iesle}s}s efveCe&³e, met®evee efkebÀJee ceeie&oµe&ve mJeerkeÀejCes meefceleerJej yebOevekeÀejkeÀ veener. HegveefJe&keÀeme meefceleer®eer mLeeHevee kesÀJeU meefceleer®³ee meom³eebvee ceeie&oµe&ve keÀªve met®evee osC³eemeeþer kesÀ}s}er Deens. leLeeefHe, Debeflece efveCe&³e meesmee³eìer®³ee ogmeN³ee meom³eeb®³ee ceev³elesÜejs meefceleer®³ee meom³eekeÀ[tve Iesle}e peelees. meefceleer, HegveefJe&keÀeme meefceleer, efJekeÀemekeÀ efJebkeÀe HeerScemeer ³eebveer Ye´äe®eej kesÀuîeeme keÀe³e keÀjlee ³esF&}? 3.1.2009 HetJeea HegveefJe&keÀemeemeeþer efve³eespeve keÀjCeeN³ee ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebmeeþer keÀesCelesner HeefjHe$ekeÀ, ceeie&oµe&ve lelJe efkebÀJee efve³ece kesÀ}s}e veJnlee. l³eecegUs meefceleer®es meom³e efJekeÀemekeÀebkeÀ[tve leHeµeer}Jeej ceeefnleer ve Ieslee®e efJekeÀeme keÀjej keÀjle Demele. l³eecegUs meefceleer®³ee meom³eebmeceesj DeveskeÀ Òeµve GYes jenle Demele. cenejeä^ mejkeÀej®³ee ns }#eele DeeuîeeJej l³eebveer 3.1.2009 jespeer cenejeä^ menkeÀejer meesmee³eìer keÀe³eoe 1960 ®³ee keÀ}ce 79 (De) Debleie&le ceeie&oµe&ve lelJe peejer kesÀ}s. HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀª Feq®íCeeN³ee meJe& meesmee³eìîeebveer 3.1.2009 jespeer®³ee ceeie&oµe&keÀ leÊJee®ee DeJe}bye keÀjeJee. les ³eesi³e Deens. l³eecegUs HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle Heejoµe&keÀlee jener} DeeefCe meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebceO³es ieeWOeU efkebÀJee Jeeoe®ee cegÎe jenCeej veener. megªJeeleer}e HeerScemeer®ee meJe& Ke®e& meesmee³eìer}e G®e}eJee }eies}. lees ³eesi³e Demes} keÀejCe meom³e DeeHeCe Kejsoer kesÀ}s}er Iejs nmleebleefjle keÀjCeej Deensle, leer Hee[}er peeleer} DeeefCe veJeerve HegveefJe&keÀefmele Fceejle yeebOe}er peeF&}. meesmee³eìerves HegveefJe&keÀemeeDebleie&le ³eesi³e Òeef¬eÀ³ee Heej Hee[uîeeme, meieUerkeÀ[s efomeCeeje Ye´äe®eej keÀceer nesF} & . efJekeÀemekeÀ meJe& ieesäeRceO³es le[pees[ keÀªve meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebceO³es Jeeo efvecee&Ce keÀjC³ee®ee Òe³elve keÀjCeej veener.

HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³es}e menkeÀe³e& ve keÀjCeeN³ee DeuHemebK³eekeÀ meom³eebefJejesOeele keÀe³e HeeJe}s G®e}}er peeJeerle? yengmebK³e meom³eebveer Iesle}suîee efveCe&³ee®³ee DeeOeejs menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLee keÀe³e& keÀjles, pes meJe& meom³eebJej yebOevekeÀejkeÀ Demeleele. les efveCe&³e meJe& meom³eebvee mJeerkeÀejen& Deensle keÀer veener ne cegÎe iewj}eiet Deens. SkeÀe menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer®³ee HegveefJe&keÀemeele ner yeeye cenejeä^ mejkeÀejves cenejeä^ menkeÀejer meesmee³eìer keÀe³eoe 1960 Debleie&le 3.1.2009 jespeer peejer kesÀ}suîee met®eves®³ee keÀ}ce 79(De) ceO³es veeWoJeC³eele Dee}er Deens. HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle 75 ìkeÌkesÀ efkebÀJee peemle meom³eebveer lees®e efJekeÀeme vesceC³eeme ceev³elee oµe&Je}er DeeefCe GHeefveyebOekeÀe®³ee keÀe³ee&}³eeleer} DeefOeke=Àle DeefOekeÀeN³ee®³ee GHeefmLeleerle efJeµes<e meJe&meeOeejCe yewþkeÀerle ÒemleeJe Heeefjle kesÀuîeeme GJe&efjle 25 ìkeÌkesÀ/keÀceer/DeuHemebK³eekeÀ meom³eebJej p³eebveer ³ee efJekeÀemekeÀe}e yewþkeÀerle efveJe[}s}s veener, l³eebveener leer yeebOeer} nesles. efjkeÀec³ee HeÌ}@ì®ee leeyee osle Demeleevee DeuHemebK³eekeÀ meom³eebveer Flej yengmebK³eekeÀ meom³eebvee menkeÀe³e& ve kesÀuîeeme efJekeÀemekeÀ ob[ þesþeJet µekeÀlees DeeefCe HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle De[LeUs DeeCeCeeN³ee DeuHemebK³eekeÀ meom³eebefJejesOeele keÀe³eosµeerj keÀejJeeF& keÀjC³ee®es HetCe& DeefOekeÀej l³ee}e Deensle. meesmee³eìerves keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjC³eeHetJeea efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjCes ³eesi³e þjCeej veener keÀe? menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer®³ee mLeeHeves®ee cegK³e GÎsµe ne peceerve DeeefCe l³eeyejesyej efle®³eeJejer} Fceejleer®ee keÀvJns³evme meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes efle®³ee mLeeHevesveblej ®eej ceefnv³eebceO³es efceUJeC³ee®ee Deens. leLeeefHe, efJekeÀemekeÀ DeeefCe peceervecee}keÀ l³eebvee yebOevekeÀejkeÀ DemeCeejer peefceveer®ee keÀvJns³evme efle®³eeJejer} Fceejleermeesyele meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes osC³eeme le³eej nesle veenerle. l³ee®es cegK³e keÀejCe me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eeves HejJeeveieer efouîeeme DeefleefjkeÌle cepe}s yeebOeC³ee®es keÀe³eosµeerj nkeÌkeÀ l³eebvee DeeHeuîeekeÀ[s þsJee³e®es Demeleele. DeveskeÀ menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîee DeeHeuîee meesmee³eìer®³ee Fceejleer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjC³eemeeþer efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjleele DeeefCe meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes keÀvJns³evme osC³ee®eer Deì l³ee®³eemeceesj þsJeleele. meesmee³eìer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme l³eecegUs jKe[lees DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ keÀejCes meebieC³ee®ee Òe³elve keÀjlees. l³eecegUs HegveefJe&keÀeme Leb[eJelees. l³eecegUs HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjC³eeHetJeea meJe& menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebveer meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes peceerve DeeefCe l³eeJejer} Fceejleer®ee keÀvJns³evme I³eeJee Demee me}Áe osC³eele ³eslees. l³eecegUs meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJeeJej peceerve nesles DeeefCe HegveefJe&keÀeme ÒekeÀuHe jKe[Ces ìeUlee ³esles.

OeesjCe DeeefCe efJekeÀeme efve³eb$eCe ([ermeer) efve³eceebceOeer} yeo}eb®es keÀe³e? HegveefJe&keÀeme SkeÀe Je<e&Yejele HetCe& nesCeejer Òeef¬eÀ³ee veener. efle}e KetHe JesU }eielees. Òel³eskeÀ Je<eea OeesjCe DeeefCe efve³eceebceO³es yeo} nesleele DeeefCe l³eecegUs HegveefJe&keÀeme jKe[lees. efJekeÀemekeÀ keÀejCes osle jenlees DeeefCe ÒekeÀuHe JesUsle HetCe& nesle veener. l³eecegUs OeesjCe efkebÀJee [ermeer efve³eceebceO³es keÀener yeo} Peeuîeeme l³ee}e l³ee®ee HeÀe³eoe Ieslee ³esF&}. l³eecegUs efJekeÀemekeÀemeesyele keÀesCeleener keÀjej keÀjC³eeJesUer meesmee³eìerves DeeHeuîee HeerScemeer®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjeJeer pes HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle meesmee³eìer}e ceeie&oµe&ve keÀjleer}. meesmee³eìer®es keÀe³eosµeerj me}Áeieej keÀjejeceO³es SkeÀ keÀ}cee®ee G}ÁsKe keÀjleer}, p³eele OeesjCe DeeefCe [ermeer efve³eceebceO³es keÀenerner yeo} Ie[tve Deeuîeeme DeeJeµ³ekeÀ HeeJe}s G®e}}er peeleer}. OeesjCe efkeÀbJee [ermeer efve³eceebceO³es keÀenerner yeo} Peeuîeeme DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀe}e l³ee®ee HeÀe³eoe I³ee³e®ee Demeuîeeme l³eeves meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebb®eer HejJeeveieer I³eeJeer DeeefCe l³eeb®³eeµeer l³ee®ee HeefjCeece cnCetve meom³eebvee efo}s peeCeejs nkeÌkeÀ DeeefCe HeÀe³eos efo}s peeleer}, Demes mHeä veeWoJeC³eele ³eeJes. HegveefJe&keÀemee®es efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej keÀesCeles? HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee ÒekeÀej peefceveer®ee ÒekeÀej DeeefCe l³eeJejer} Fceejle ³eeb®³eeJej DeJe}byetve Demelees. PeesHe[HeÆer HegveefJe&keÀeme ne PeesHe[HeÆer HegveefJe&keÀeme


keÀe³eÐeeDebleie&le kesÀ}e peelees, p³eele peefceveer®³ee DeekeÀejeJej DeJe}byetve 3 les 4 SHeÀSmeDee³e efo}e peelees. efJekeÀefmele nesCeeN³ee peefceveer®es #es$eHeÀU 4000 ®eew. ceerìjHes#ee DeefOekeÀ Demeuîeeme lees mecetn efJekeÀemeeDebleie&le, keÀ}ce 33(9) Üejs kesÀ}e peeJee p³eele 4 SHeÀSmeDee³e efceUlees. mecetn efJekeÀeme meO³ee HeÀkeÌle oef#eCe cegbyeF&le µeke̳e Demetve lesLes 4 SHeÀSmeDee³e efceUlees. Keemeieer peefceveer, mesme Fceejle peefceveer efkebÀJee PeesHe[HeÆer®eer peceerve, cne[e Fceejle efkebÀJee Flej keÀesCeleerner SkeÀ }sDeeTì cnCetve efJekeÀefmele kesÀ}s}er peceerve peer mecetn efJekeÀeme cnCetve DeesUKe}er peeF&}. meO³ee Deµee megefJeOee GHeveiejele GHe}yOe veener. keÀejKeev³ee®³ee peefceveer Jesieȳee efJekeÀeme efve³eb$eCe keÀe³eoe 58 p³ee efiejC³eeb®³ee peefceveer®es DeeOegefvekeÀerkeÀj CeeDebleie&le kesÀ}er peeles. l³eeveblej mesme Fceejle/Yee[sleÊJeeJejer} Fceejleer®ee efJekeÀeme [ermeer 33 (7) Üejs. efpeuneefOekeÀejer peceerve efJekeÀeme efkebÀJee cne[e meesmee³eìer HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀ}ce 33 (5) Fl³eeoer.

HegveefJe&keÀefmele Fceejleerle osKeYee}er®ee Ke®e& efkeÀleerves Jee{Ces DeHesef#ele Deens? HegveefJe&keÀeme Peeuîeeveblej cee}ceÊee keÀj Deesmeer osC³ee®³ee JesUer js[er jskeÀvej®³ee oje®³ee DeeOeejs ceespe}e peeF&}. mJeeYeeefJekeÀHeCeS cee}ceÊee Lees[ke̳eele keÀj megceejs 20 les 30 Je<ee¥HetJeea Heefnuîee ceespeCeer®³ee JesUer  mJele뮳ee HeerScemeer®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjCes meesmee³eìermeeþer þjJe}suîee keÀje®³ee leerve les ®eej Heì Demes}. ogmejs cnCepes veJeerve cenÊJee®es Deens. Fceejleerle meermeerìerJner, FbìjkeÀe@ce, Deeqiveµeceve megefJeOee, meewjTpee&, jsveJee@   jeKeerJe efveOeermeeþer peJeUHeeme®³ee meesmee³eìer®³ee ìj neJexefmìbie, µeew®ee}³ee®³ee HeeC³eemeeþer yeesDeefjbieÜejs JesieUer }eFve, DeeOeejs efkebÀJee HeerScemeerµeer me}Áeceme}le keÀªve Ke®ee&®es SkeÀ efkebÀJee oesve ef}HeÌì, ÒekeÀuHe ceesþe Demeuîeeme SkeÀ efpece, eqmJeefcebie Het} DeboepeHe$ekeÀ yeveJe}s ies}s Heeefnpes. DeeefCe Fl³eeoer. l³eecegUs Ke®e& Jee{s}. l³eecegUs DeeHeuîee}e osKeYee}er®ee Ke®e& SkeÀ npeej ªHe³eebJeªve ceeefmekeÀ mene les meele npeej ªHe³es nesF&} Deµeer DeHes#ee keÀje³e}e njkeÀle veener. l³eecegUs HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee JesUer ne Ke®e& Yeªve keÀe{C³eemeeþer jeKeerJe efveOeer ceeefiele}e peelees.

mejemejer efkeÀleer jeKeerJe efveOeer meesmee³eìer}e efceUt µekeÀlees? l³eebveer Flej keÀesCel³ee megefJeOee ceeiee³e}e nJ³eele? kesÀuîee peeCeeN³ee Ke®ee&®es DeboepeHe$ekeÀ peJeUHeeme®³ee meesmee³eìer®³ee DeeOeejs efkebÀJee HeerScemeerµeer ®e®ee& keÀªve þjJeeJes. jeKeerJe efveOeer iegbleJeCegkeÀerceO³es efkeÀceeve 6 ìkeÌkesÀ J³eepe GlHeVe osF&}, Demes }#eele IesTve jeKeerJe efveOeer jeKeerJe efveOeerletve Demee Jee{erJe Ke®e& keÀjC³eemeeþer Iesle}e peeJee. megefJeOeeb®ee yeebOeerJe #es$eHeÀU pes oesve ìkeÌkesÀ Demeles les ceesHeÀle Demeles DeeefCe les J³ee³eeceµeeUe efkebÀJee mecegoe³e ne@} cnCetve JeeHej}s peeles. meesmee³eìer keÀe³ee&}³e 200 ®eew. HetÀì, meewj ³eb$eCee, Jee@ìj neJexefmìbie, yeesDeefjbie, meermeerìerJner, Òel³eskeÀ HeÌ}@ìmeeþer megj#ee ³eb$eCee, FbìjkeÀe@ce, cees[îeg}j efkeÀ®eve, meesmee³eìer kesÀefyeve DeeefCe Flej megefJeOee efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve ceeielee ³esleele. meO³ee®³ee cee}ceÊesJej keÀpe& Demeuîeeme DeeefCe Fceejle HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esle Demeuîeeme HeÌ}@ì cee}keÀeves keÀe³e HeeJe}s G®e}eJeerle? meesmee³eìerves efJekeÀeme keÀjej }eiet kesÀuîeeme DeeefCe veJeerve Fceejleer®ee ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[e DeeefCe Dee³eDees[er (Fbefìcesµeve Dee@HeÀ ef[meDe@ÒetJn}) mLeeefvekeÀ ÒeµeemeveekeÀ[tve (yeerScemeer) ÒeeHle Peeuîeeme keÀe³ecemJeªHeer He³ee&³eer efveJeeme keÀjej meO³ee®³ee meom³eemeesyele, efJekeÀemekeÀ Je meesmee³eìermeesyele keÀªve l³ee®eer veeWoCeer keÀje³e}e nJeer. l³eeveblej p³ee meom³eeves keÀpe& Iesle}s Deens l³eeves efJeÊeer³e mebmLesµeer mebHeke&À meeOetve pegv³ee leejCe keÀe{tve IesTve veJeerve leejCe ÐeeJes peer Hee[C³eele ³esCeej Deens. efyeu[j DeeefCe meesmee³eìerkeÀ[tve veJeerve HeÌ}@ì}e leejCe keÀjC³eemeeþer DeeJeµ³ekeÀ vee njkeÀle IesTve yeBkesÀ}e Ðee³e}e nJes. DeveskeÀ yeBkeÀe ogmejs leejCe IesC³eeme ceev³elee osleele. yeBkesÀves ceev³elee ve efouîeeme mebyebefOele meom³eebveer ogmeN³ee m$eesleekeÀ[tve Hewmes ieesUe keÀªve les HetCe& keÀjeJes. HeÌ}@ì ce=le Hee}keÀe®³ee veeJes Demeuîeeme DeeefCe Fceejleer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme nesle Demeuîeeme keÀe³e HeeJe}s G®e}}er peeJeerle? Flej keÀe³eosµeerj JeejmeebkeÀ[tve DeeJeµ³ekeÀ megìkeÀe keÀjej keÀªve IesTve keÀe³eosµeerj Jeejmeeb®³ee veeJes HeÌ}@ì DeeefCe meceYeeie nmleebleefjle keÀªve IesCes iejpes®es Deens. keÀe³eosµeerj JeejmeebceO³es Jeeo Demeuîeeme leeyee Deme}suîee J³ekeÌleer}e leelHegjl³ee yeebOekeÀece keÀeUeHegjles Yee[s efo}s peeJes DeeefCe p³ee J³ekeÌleerves HeÌ}@ì Hee[C³eemeeþer efo}e Deens, l³ee}e veJeerve HeÌ}@ì®ee leeyee efo}e peeJee. HegveefJe&keÀemee}e HeÌ}@ì osCeeN³ee J³ekeÌleerkeÀ[tve meesmee³eìer DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ }sKeer IesT µekeÀleele DeeefCe les®e efo}s peeT µekeÀles. kesÀJeU keÀe³eosµeerj JeejmeebceOeer} Jeeo mebHegäele ³esF&He³e¥le jeKeerJe efveOeer meesmee³eìerkeÀ[s jeKetve þsJe}e peeT µekeÀlees.  

``keÀjej/ mJeleë HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjC³eemeeþer pesLes meesmee³eìer®es meom³e He´keÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve meuueeieeje®³ee mene³³eeves He´keÀuHee®ee leeyee Iesleele, l³eebvee FlejebHes#ee 50 ìkeÌkesÀ DeefOekeÀ #es$e efceUt MekeÀles.“ DevegHe iegHlee

jskeÌme keÀe@ve keÀesj keÀvmeuìbìdme Òee. ef}.

mJeleë DeeHeueer ceole keÀje keÀjej efkebÀJee HegveefJe&keÀeme mJeleë kesÀuîeeves ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîee DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee meom³eebvee SkeÀ ®eebie}e HeÀe³eoe efceUt µekeÀleesDevegHe iegHlee Jeefj<ì Heer.Sce meer ³eeb®es cele ceeieer} oµekeÀYeje®³ee keÀeUele DeeHeuîee}e HegveefJe&keÀeme ÒekeÀuHeebceO³es DeveskeÀ $eeme nesle Demeuîee®es efomeles. HegveefJe&keÀeme ³eesi³e Deme}suîee 6000 meesmee³eìer FceejleeRHewkeÀer 70 ìkeÌke̳eebHes#ee DeefOekeÀ keÀener yesojkeÀej efyeu[me&cegUs De[ketÀve He[uîee Deensle. Demes $eeme ìeUC³eemeeþer SkeÀ GHee³e cnCepes kebÀ$eeì/ mJe³ebHegveefJe&keÀeme ne Demetve ³esLes meesmee³eìer®es meom³e ÒekeÀuHee®ee leeyee ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieeje®³ee ceoleerves Iesleele. l³eecegUs SjJeerHes#ee 50 ìkeÌkesÀ DeefOekeÀ #es$eHeÀU efceUC³ee®eer mebOeer l³eebvee ÒeeHle nesles.

kebÀ$eeì/mJe³ebeJf ekeÀemeemeeþer keÀener Òeef¬eÀ³ee ³esLes osC³eele Dee}er Deens

ìHHee -1 ÒekeÀuHe ³eesi³eles®ee DenJee} le³eej keÀjC³eemeeþer SkeÀ ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej (HeerScemeer)®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀje. meesmee³eìer meJe&meeOeejCe HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀjles lesJne mebHetCe& peyeeyeoejer efyeu[j®eer Demeles. kebÀ$eeìer HegveefJe&keÀemeele kesÀJeU yeebOekeÀecee®eer peyeeyeoejer efyeu[jJej Demeles. ìHHee -2 efJeÊeHegjJeþîee®eer mees³e keÀje. kebÀ$eeìer HegveefJe&keÀemeele meesmee³eìer}e kesÀJeU efve³eespeve DeeefCe Heeefjle keÀjC³eemeeþer efJeÊeHegjJeþe keÀjC³ee®eer iejpe He[les. 1. Òel³eskeÀ meom³eeves Hee®e les one }eKe ªHe³eeb®ee efveOeer ÐeeJee. Hejbleg ne efveOeer l³eeb®³ee meO³ee®³ee #es$eHeÀUe®³ee ÒeceeCeele DemeeJee. cnCepes Òeefle ®eewjme HetÀì SkeÀ npeej ªHe³es. 2. keÀesCelesner 2/4 meom³e Heg{s ³esTve SkeÀe meJe}leer®³ee ojele DeefleefjkeÌle #es$eHeÀUe®³ee KejsoerJej megªJeeleer®es efve³eespeve/Heeefmebie Ke®e& Fbeìf cesµeve Dee@ HeÀ ef[meDe@ÒetJn} (Dee³eDees[er) keÀjC³eemeeþer ³eesieoeve osT µekeÀleele. 3. meesmee³eìer yeensj®³ee ieglb eJeCetkeÀoeje}e (meO³ee®³ee meom³eeb®es veelesJeeFkeÀ)

yees}eJet µekeÀles DeeefCe Hewmes YejuîeeJej SkeÀ HeÌ}ì@ meJe}leer®³ee ojele efJekeÀC³ee®eer le³eejer oeKeJet µekeÀles. 4. m eom³e Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ nceerJej íesìîee jkeÀces®es yeBkeÀ keÀpe& IesT µekeÀleele. 5. Flej keÀesCeleener meg³eesi³e He³ee&³e ìHHee -3 Flej meJe& leebe$f ekeÀ keÀe³ex keÀjC³eemeeþer HeerScemeer/Jeemlegj®eveekeÀeje}e yees}eJeCes. l³eele efve³eespeve DeeefCe Dee³eDees[er ìHH³eeHe³e¥le®eer cebpegjer meceeefJeä Demes}.


ìHHee -4 Goe. meeblee¬etÀPe (Heef½ece) cegyb eF& ³esLeer} SkeÀe meesmee³eìer®ee ³eesi³elee DenJee} 1. Òel³e#e yeebOekeÀeceemeeþer kebÀ$eeìoej/efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjC³eemeeþer (efJeÊeer³e DenJee}) ìW[j Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª keÀjeJeer. ìW[j®eer He×le efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve SketÀCe Lees[ke̳eele yeebOekeÀecee®ee Ke®e& DeeOeer®e Heeme keÀjC³eemeeþer meceesj þsJe}suîee ef[PeeFve/ DeejeKe[îeevegmeej efkeÀleer ³esF} & Demes efJe®eejCeejer DemeeJeer.  kebÀ$eeì/mJe³ebeJf ekeÀeme cnCepes efpeLes meesmee³eìer®es meom³e 2. eJf ekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve HeÀe³eÐee®eer DeeefCe Ke®ee&®eer Jemeg}er ieglb eJeCetkeÀ DeeefCe ÒekeÀuHee®ee ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieeje®³ee leeyee HeÀe³eÐee®³ee osJeeCeIesJeeCeermeeþer ÒeceeCeµeerj efJe¬eÀer³eesi³e #es$eHeÀU osTve Iesleele. keÀªve IesC³eele ³eeJeer. 1. m eJe&meeOeejCe HegveefJe&keÀemeeojc³eeve efJeÊeer³e HeÀe³eos- mebHetCe& keÀecee®eer ìHHee -5 peyeeyeoejer efyeu[jJej jenles Dee³eDees[er DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ/kebÀ$eeìoeje®eer vesceCetkeÀ PeeuîeeJej meb¬eÀceCe efJekeÀemee®ee Ke®e& DeeefCe efveOeer- 1-2 SkeÀkeÀ/HeÌ}ì@ meesmee³eìerkeÀ[tve ®eewmeä keÀesìer veJ³eeCCeJe }eKeë cnCepes megceejs 50 ìkeÌke̳eebFlekesÀ DeeefCe efJe¬eÀermeeþer osC³eele ³eeJeer. ceesHeÀle ®eìF& #es$e, JeeHejC³ee³eesi³e 100 ®eew. HegÀì #es$eHeÀU, meO³ee®³ee ®eìF& #es$eHeÀUeJej 2500 ®eew. HetÀì ceeefmekeÀ (24 ceefnv³eeb®ee) meb¬eÀceCe ìHHee -6 keÀe}eJeOeer, 20 npeej ªHe³es JeenletkeÀ µegukeÀ, mì@cHe µegukeÀ DeeefCe Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ meesmee³eìerves Fceejle efjkeÀeceer keÀªve efJekeÀemekeÀe}e yeebOekeÀece keÀª ÐeeJes DeeefCe keÀjeje®eer veeWoCeer. Flej HeÀe³eos Òel³eskeÀ meom³ee}e efo}s peeleer}/ osT l³ee®³ee Yeeiee®eer efve³ebe$f ele efJe¬eÀer keÀjC³ee®eer HejJeeveieer ÐeeJeer. Hejbleg l³ee ìHH³eeHe³e¥le kesÀ}s peeleer}. efJekeÀemekeÀeves l³eele 75 ìkeÌkesÀ ieglb eJeCetkeÀ kesÀ}s}er DemeCes iejpes®es Deens. 2. kebÀ$eeìer HegveefJe&keÀemeeDebleie&le efJeÊeer³e HeÀe³eosë HeÀkeÌle yeebOekeÀecee®eer ìHHee - 7 peyeeyeoejer efyeu[jJej osJeeCeIesJeeCeer®³ee He×leerle. mebHetCe& efµe}ÁkeÀ Sefj³ee/³egevf eì/HeÌ}ì@ meesmee³eìer®³ee cee}keÀer®es Demeleer}. l³eecegUs efyeu[j®³ee ìkeÌkesÀJeejerle 50 ìkeÌkesÀ peemle jenC³ee³eesi³e #es$eHeÀU 92 keÀesìer DeÇeJeVe }eKe, 75 ìkeÌke̳eeb®³ee meceeve, ceesHeÀle ®eìF& #es$ele, efceUt µekesÀ}. JeeHejC³ee³eesi³e µetv³e #es$eHeÀU, meO³ee®³ee ®eìF& #es$eHeÀUeJej Òeefle ®eew. HetÀì 3000 ªHe³es jeKeerJe efveOeer. Òeefle. ®eew. HetÀì megceejs 100 ªHe³es ceeefmekeÀ ìHHee - 8 efveOeer (24 ceefnves), meb¬eÀceCe Ke®e&, 20 npeej ªHe³es JeenlegkeÀer®ee Ke®e&, yeebOekeÀecee®es keÀece HetCe& PeeuîeeJej efJekeÀemekeÀe®eer peyeeyeoejer mebHeles DeeefCe lees mì@cHe µegukeÀ DeeefCe Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ keÀjeje®eer veeWoCeer. Òel³eskeÀ meom³ee}e Flej HeerDeesS/[erSceO³es menYeeieer nesCeej veener. HeÀe³eos efo}s peeleer}/osT kesÀ}s peeleer}. (mejemejer DeeefCe ®ee}t keÀecee®³ee ³eb$eCesDebleie&le) Deeefol³e meesmee³eìer pegn®t ³ee kebÀ$eeìer-HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee DeY³eeme pesJnerHeer[er ³esLeer} ceO³eceJeieea³e 40 meom³eeb®³ee cne[e meesmee³eìer}e DeeHeuîee cees[keÀUerme Dee}suîee Fceejleer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀje³e®ee neslee. 2003 mee}er l³eebveer meJe& DeeJeµ³ekeÀ leer µeer<e&keÀ omleSsJepe DeeefCe H}e@ì Sefj³ee/ ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU ³eeb®ee DeY³eeme keÀªve l³eebveer efJeefJeOe efJekeÀemekeÀebvee efJeÊeer³e Dee@HeÀme& osC³eemeeþer Deecebe$f ele kesÀ}s nesles. DeveskeÀ efJekeÀemekeÀ Heg{s Dee}s. l³eebveer 2.4 SHeÀSmeDee³eceO³es 25-30 ìkeÌkesÀ DeefleefjkeÌle ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU osT kesÀ}s. HegveefJe&keÀeme Dee³eg<³eele SkeÀoe®e nesT µekeÀlees ner yeeye }#eele IesTve meesmee³eìerves Je=ÊeHe$eele peeefnjele osTve ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej (HeerScemeer) Deecebe$f ele kesÀ}s. 37 ÒeeflemeeoebHewkeÀer meesmee³eìerves jskeÌme keÀe@j keÀvmeuìbìmd e Òee. ef}.®eer vesceCetkeÀ kesÀ}er DeeefCe l³eebvee DeefOekeÀ leebe$f ekeÀ ceeefnleer/He³ee&³e osC³eeme meg®eJe}s. 2004 mee}er Deecner l³eebvee kebÀ$eeìer efJekeÀemee®ee me}Áe efo}e. ner ieesä mecepetve IesC³eeme l³eebvee mene ceefnv³eebHes#ee DeefOekeÀ keÀe}eJeOeer }eie}e. µesJeìer meesmee³eìer®³ee oesve meom³eebveer Heg{ekeÀej Iesle}e DeeefCe DeeJeµ³ekeÀ leer ieglb eJeCetkeÀ keÀjC³ee®eer le³eejer oeKeJe}er. ÒekeÀuHe ³eesi³elesvegmeej meom³e- efJekeÀemekeÀebveer efJe¬eÀer³eesi³e #es$eHeÀU yeepeejYeeJeeves DeeefCe 15 ìkeÌkesÀ veHe̳eeves IesC³ee®eer le³eejer oeKeJe}er. l³eevegmeej ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU SketÀCe ÒekeÀuHe Ke®e& DeeefCe HeÀe³eoe ³eeb®³eeÜejs ceev³e keÀjC³eele Dee}s. les efJekeÀemekeÀ meom³ee}e efo}s peeF&} DeeefCe GJe&ejf le meesmee³eìer®³ee Òel³eskeÀ meom³ee}e efo}s peeF&}. l³ee®ee HeefjCeece cnCetve Òel³eskeÀ meom³ee}e 66 ìkeÌkesÀ DeefleefjkeÌle ®eìF&#es$e efceUe}s. (400 pegvee neslee lees 676 ®eew. HetÀì efceUe}e.) 2007 mee}er Deeefol³e yeer Fceejle HetCe& Pee}er. 2009 mee}er Deeefol³e-S HetCe& Pee}er. 2012 mee}er Deeefol³e meer Fceejle HetCe& Pee}er. efve<keÀ<e&ë ns kebÀ$eeìer efJekeÀemee®es SkeÀ GoenjCe Demetve ³esLes ceg}Yetle efveOeerHegjJeþe HeÀkeÌle oesve meom³eebveer kesÀ}e les ®eeì&[& DekeÀeTbììb (meerS) DeeefCe ieglb eJeCetkeÀoej nesles. Deelee les ³ee efJeYeeieeleer} ®eebie}s DeeefCe Òeefleefÿle efyeu[me& Deensle. l³eebveer HeerScemeerves efo}s}e meJe& leebe$f ekeÀ me}Áe mJeerkeÀej}e. Fceejleer Peesve HeÀesjvegmeej le³eej Peeu³ee. efMeJee³e l³eebvee 50 ìkeÌkesÀ peemle cepeyetleer, opee& DeeefCe 80 Je<ee¥®es Dee³eg<³e He´eHle Peeues.

keÀebeof Je}er Òeerleer mebiece- yeesjerJe}er (He.) ³esLeer} kebÀ$eeìer HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee kesÀme mì[er®ee DeY³eeme meeF&yeeyee veiej efJeYeeieeleer} 76 meom³eeb®³ee meesmee³eìer}e l³eeb®eer cees[keÀUerme Dee}suîee Fceejleer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme keÀje³e®ee neslee. ³esLeer} H}e@ì #es$eHeÀU 2000 ®eew. ceerìj Demetve DeefmlelJeele Deme}s}s ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU 3000 ®eew. ceerìj (megceejs) nesles. 2008 mee}er, l³eebveer efJeefJeOe efJekeÀemekeÀebvee ÒekeÀuHeemeeþer efJeÊeer³e Dee@HeÀj osC³eemeeþer yees}eJe}s. meJe& DeeJeµ³ekeÀ µeer<e&keÀ omleSsJepe DeeefCe H}e@ì #es$eHeÀU/®eìF& #es$eHeÀUe®ee DeY³eeme kesÀuîeeveblej KetHe Lees[s efyeu[j Heg{s Dee}s. l³eebveer HeÌ}e@Jej yes[®³ee ceeHe&Àle 10 ìkeÌkesÀ DeefleefjkeÌle #es$eHeÀU osC³ee®eer le³eejer oeKeJe}er. lees leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$e (Deesmeer) efouîeeveblej pees[C³eele ³esCeej neslee. Hejbleg SHeÀSmeDee³eceO³es DeefleefjkeÌle ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU osC³eele ³esCeej veJnles. meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebveer yeebOekeÀecee®ee Ke®e& keÀjeJee Demes l³eeb®es cnCeCes nesles. meJe& µeke̳elee leHeemeuîeeJej meesmee³eìerves HeerScemeer ces. jskeÌme keÀe@ve keÀesj ³eeb®eer ceole Iesle}er DeeefCe leebe$f ekeÀ ceeie&oµe&vee®ee ueeYe Iesleuee.

j®eveelcekeÀ Dee@ef[ì mekeÌleer®es

2009 mee}er Deecner Je=ÊeHe$eebceOetve SkeÀ ìW[j efo}s. mJeejm³e oeKeJe}suîee 18 efJekeÀemekeÀebHewkeÀer kesÀJeU oesIes®e mHeOexle Gj}s. Hejbleg l³eebveer DeefleefjkeÌle SHeÀSmeDee³e osCeej veener DeeefCe meesmee³eìer®es meom³ener keÀener jkeÌkeÀce YejCeej veenerle Demes meebeif ele}s. l³eecegUs nener Òe³elve HeÀme}e. 2012 mee}er Hee®e efJekeÀeme/kebÀ$eeìoejebvee oeKeJe}suîee mJeejm³eevegmeej Deecebe$f ele keÀjC³eele Dee}s. Hejbleg l³eele meesmee³eìer®³ee meom³eebveer efkeÀceeve 100 ®eew. HetÀì ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU efveOeer/Yee[s/ DeefleefjkeÌle ®eìF&#es$e veener ³ee Deìer nesl³ee. ³ee®ee GHe³eesie Pee}e. efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee ®e®ee&/yewþkeÀe PeeuîeeJej 76 HewkeÀer 67 meom³eebveer DeefleefjkeÌle ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU 10 npeej ªHe³es Òeefle ®eew. HetÀì ³ee ojeves Kejsoer keÀjC³ee®eer le³eejer oeKeJe}er.

petve 11. 213 ceO³es efo}suîee veesefìµeerÜejs ye=nvcegbyeF& ceneveiejHeeef}kesÀ®³ee Dee³egkeÌleebveer Keemeieer FceejleeR®³ee j®eveelcekeÀ Dee@ef[ì mekeÌleer®es kesÀ}s Deens. ³ee veeseìf µeervegmeej, Òel³eskeÀ cee}keÀ DeeefCe ceeieer} 30 Je<ee¥Heemetve Fceejleer®es leeyeekeÀlee& ³eebveer ceneHeeef}kesÀkeÀ[s veeWoCeerke=Àle Hee$e j®eveelcekeÀ DeefYe³ebl³ee®³ee ceeO³eceeletve Dee@e[f ì keÀjeJes Demes mekeÌleer®es kesÀ}s Deens.

2012 mee}er veJeerve efJekeÀeme efve³eb$eCe efve³ece Heeefjle PeeuîeeJej yeo}C³ee³eesi³e #es$eHeÀUe®ee HeÀe³eoener DeefmleÊJeele Dee}e. meom³eebvee ³ee #es$eHeÀUeletve DeefleefjkeÌle 25 ìkeÌkesÀ ®eìF& #es$eHeÀU efceUe}s.

ne meoj 30 Je<ee¥®ee keÀe}eJeOeer 1) ceneHeeef}kesÀkeÀ[tve l³ee®³ee Hetle&les®es ÒeceeCeHe$e peejer kesÀuîee®³ee leejKesHeemetve efkebÀJee 2) keÀ}ce 353 De Debleie&le Fceejleer®ee leeyee IesC³ee®eer HejJeeveieer efkebÀJee 3) efle®ee Òel³e#e leeyee pees l³ee®³ee yeebOeerJe #es$eHeÀUe®³ee efkeÀceeve 50 ìkeÌkesÀ Demes}, pees meJee&le DeeOeer®ee Demes}. Hee$elee j®eveelcekeÀ DeefYe³ebl³eeves meg®eJeuîeeÒeceeCes ogªmleer®es keÀece keÀªve IesCes DeeefCe ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneveiejHeeef}kesÀ}e yeebOeerJe j®evesmen Hetle&lee ÒeceeCeHe$ener osCes DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Deens.

efve<keÀ<e&ë ns Deµee SkeÀe efJekeÀemee®es GoenjCe Deens pesLes cet}Yetle efveOeerHegjJeþe meom³eebveer mJeleë kesÀ}e Deens DeeefCe ÒekeÀuHe Heg{s ies}e Deens. peg}w 18 ceO³es Dee³eDees[er ÒeeHle keÀjC³eele Dee}s DeeefCe HeÌ}ì@ osC³eele Dee}s. meJe& meom³eebveer keÀesCeleener Jeeo ve Iee}lee Iejs efjkeÀeceer kesÀ}er DeeefCe pegveer Fceejle Hee[tve Hee®ecepe}er Fceejle yeebOeC³ee®es keÀece 1 veesJnWyej 2014 ceO³es HetCe& Pee}s.

jskeÌme keÀe@ve keÀe@j ner SkeÀ ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej Demetve leer leebe$f ekeÀ, keÀe³eosµeerj DeeefCe }e³ePeefvebie®³ee mesJee ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìîeebvee l³eeb®³ee ie=n mebkeÀuHe mebmLee ³ee mJe³ebmesJeer mebmLes®³ee ceeO³eceeletve megeJf eOee HegjJeles.

efo}suîee keÀe}eJeOeerle megOeeefjle og©mleer ve keÀjC³eeme Deeu³eeme keÀejJeeF& keÀjC³eele ³esF} & . 



``HegveJe&mevee®³ee JesUer cee}ceÊes®es Yee[skeÀª cnCetve DeeHeCe oUCeJeUCee®³ee HeefjCeeceebyeeyele o#e DemeeJes DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ osle Deme}suîee Yee[îee®³ee HetCe& cetuîeemeeþer ®eewkeÀìeryeensjer} He³ee&³eeb®eener efJe®eej keÀjeJee.“ meboerHe meeOe

J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meb®ee}keÀ DeeefCe mebmLeeHekeÀ cegbyeF& Òee@Heìea SkeÌm®eWpe

SkeÀ ®eebie}e Yee[skeÀjej

SkeÀe ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer®ee HegveefJe&keÀeme nesle Demeleevee®³ee keÀeUele meom³eebvee veJeerve Fceejle HetCe& nesF&He³e¥le ogmejerkeÀ[s mLe}ebleefjle JneJes }eieles. meboerHe meeOe ³eebveer Yee[sleÊJeeJej ³eesi³e Iej ÒeeHle keÀjC³eemeeþer keÀener met®evee kesÀuîee Deensle. SKeeÐee ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer®³ee HegveefJe&keÀemee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª PeeuîeeJej mLe}ebleje®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee megª nesles, p³eele keÀener iebYeerj Òeµve Demeleele. DeeHeuîee veJ³eekeÀesN³ee Iejele HejleC³ee®ee Deevebo JesieUe®e Demelees. Hejbleg leesHe³e¥le Iejcee}keÀebvee oesve les leerve Je<ee¥®³ee leelHegjl³ee keÀeUemeeþer ogmejerkeÀ[s jene³e}e peeC³ee®eer keÀþerCe Òeef¬eÀ³ee Heej Hee[eJeer }eieles. meesmee³eìermeesyele efyeu[jves kesÀ}suîee meecebpem³e keÀjejele (SceDees³et) ceO³es efo}suîee HegveefJe&keÀemee®ee DeeefCe leeyee keÀe}eJeOeer ³eeb®³eeJej DeJe}byetve jentve keÀe}eJeOeer efveef½ele keÀjeJee }eielees. legcner pees Yee[skeÀjej cegyb eF&le keÀje} lees legce®es Iej efpeleke̳ee keÀe}eJeOeerle le³eej nesF} & l³ee keÀe}eJeOeerJej DeJe}byetve Demelees, l³eecegUs ner yeeye Del³eble cenÊJee®eer Deens. Deecner legce®³eemeeþer SkeÀ Del³eble meesHes ieeF[ DeeCe}s Deens p³eeletve legcne}e legce®es Iej le³eej nesle Demeleevee Yee[îee®³ee Iejele jene³e}e peeC³eeyeeyele keÀener cenÊJee®eer ceeefnleer osT µekesÀ}. 1. ³eesi³e mLeeve µeesOeeë DeveskeÀ efþkeÀeCeer cegyb eF&leer} Yee[sleÊJeeJejer} Iejeb®³ee yeepeejHesþ®s es cetuîeebkeÀve keÀceer Pee}s Deens. Goe. keÀesCelesner mLeeve pes jsuJesmLeevekeÀeHeemetve efkebÀJee ne³eJesHeemetve efkebÀJee ceg}Yetle mees³eeRHeemetve otj Deens lesLes legcne}e KetHe ceesþe HeÀe³eoe efceUs}. HeCe l³eemeeþer legcne}e lesJe{s Deblej ÒeJeeme keÀjeJee }eies}. Goe. cee}e[ Heef½eceskeÀ[er} ceeJex ³esLes DeveskeÀ G®®e opee&®³ee Iejeb®es yeebOekeÀece mHe@evf eµe He×leerves kesÀ}s Deens DeeefCe leer Del³eble Keeme Deensle. ³esLes SkeÀ oesve yes[ªce®es Iej megceejs 25 npeej ªHe³es Yee[îeeves GHe}yOe Demetve 3 yeerS®ekesÀmeeþer 35 npeej les 40 npeej ªHe³es Yee[s Deepe®³ee yeepeeje®³ee HeefjefmLeleerlener Deens. ner Iejs Lees[er otj Deensle DeeefCe Demes J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ, me}Áeieej efkebÀJee pees[Heer ³eeb®³eemeeþer GHe³egkeÌle Deensle, peer SkeÀlej KetHe ÒeJeeme keÀjleele efkebÀJee iejpesHegjlee efkebÀJee ÒekeÀuHeeJej DeeOeeefjle ÒeJeeme keÀjleele.

meeceev³eleë legce®es cet} µeeUsle efkebÀJee ceneefJeÐee}³eele peeCeejs Demes} lej KetHe }ebye®³ee efþkeÀeCeer jenC³eeme peeCes Del³eble keÀþerCe nesles keÀejCe l³eecegUs Dee³eg<³ee®eer Ie[er ceesþîee ÒeceeCeeJej efyeIe[les. DeeHeuîee}e Deblej DeeefCe ÒeJeemee}e }eieCeeje peemle JesU lemes®e ÒeJeemee®eer He³ee&³eer meeOeves ³eeb®ee efJe®eej keÀjeJee }eielees. Iej DeeefCe µeeUsceOeer} Deblej mLe}eblej keÀjleevee HeenCes Del³eble cenÊJee®es Deens. 2. HeÀkeÌle SkeÀ®e mLeeve ve Heenlee Flej mLeeveeb®eener efJe®eej keÀjeë De}erkeÀ[s®e SkeÀ DebOesjer Heef½eceskeÀ[er} SkeÀ Iej Heenle neslee keÀejCe l³ee®eer ceg}ieer pegnt ³esLes ceneefJeÐee}³eele efµekeÀle nesleer. l³eebvee DebOesjer Heef½ecesle efkeÀceleer KetHe peemle Jeeìuîee DeeefCe l³eebveer cesìe^ s mLeevekeÀepeJeUer} IeeìkeÀesHejceOeer} Iej IesC³ee®ee efveCe&³e Iesle}e. ceg}ieer DebOesjer [erSve veiejHe³e¥le Deejeceele cesìe^ vs es ÒeJeeme keÀje³e®eer DeeefCe lesLetve leer pegnHt e³e¥le efj#ee I³ee³e®eer. l³eeb®eer Helveerner Ketµe nesleer keÀejCe efle}e Kejsoer, cee@ume DeeefCe Flej DeeJeµ³ekeÀ iejpee Hee³eer peeC³ee®³ee DeblejeJej efceUeuîee nesl³ee. mLe}ebleje®³ee JesUer SkeÀ cee}ceÊee Yee[skeÀª cnCetve DeeHeCe o#e jene³e}e nJes DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ osle Deme}suîee Yee[îee®es HetCe& cetuîe efceUJeC³eemeeþer Lees[îee Jesieȳee He³ee&³eeb®eener efJe®eej keÀje³e}e nJee. DeeHeCe ³eeyeeyele Lees[îee Hewµeeb®eer ye®ele keÀª µekeÀ}es lej l³ee ye®eleerletve Deejeceoe³eer ÒeJeemee®ee Ke®e&ner DeeHeCe G®e}t µekeÀlees

Lees[ke̳eele  HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee keÀe}eJeOeerle cee}ceÊee Yee[îeeves Iesleevee DeeHeCe Lees[îee Jesieȳee He³ee&³eeb®ee efJe®eej kesÀuîeeme les HeÀe³eosµeerj þjles.  meJe& Deìer DeeefCe µeleea veeWoJetve þsJee.

3. legcner mLe}eblej keÀjCeej Demee} l³ee®³ee efkeÀceeve SkeÀ ceefnvee DeeOeer µeesOe megª keÀjeë ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìer HegveefJe&keÀemee}e megªJeele keÀjleele, lesJne DeveskeÀ }eskeÀ l³ee®e efþkeÀeCeer Iejs µeesOele Demeleele. l³eecegUs legcner SKeeÐee Ieje} e Yesì Ðee³e}e pee} lesJne legce®es µespeejerner les®e Iej yeIee³e}e Dee}s Demeleer} lej Dee½e³e& Jeeìtve IesT vekeÀe. legcne}e p³ee efþkeÀeCeer jene³e}e pee³e®es Deens, les efþkeÀeCe JesUDs eeOeer®e þjJetve þsJeCes keÀOeerner ³eesi³e þjs}. 4. DeemeHeeme®ee Heefjmej, Fceejle DeeefCe Iej mecepetve I³eeë legcner SKeeoer efyeefu[bie efkebÀJee DeHeeì&ceWì®ee efveCe&³e I³ee} lesJne l³ee efþkeÀeCee}e Hegvne SkeÀoe Jesieȳee JesUer ceie efoJemee Demees Jee je$eer Yesì Ðee. DeeHeuîee}e meJe& IeìkeÀ mecepetve IesCes DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Deens. les mLeeve, DeemeHeeme®es Kejsoer®es Heefjmej, Fceejleerleer} meeOevemegeJf eOee DeeefCe IejebceO³es Deele keÀe³e megeJf eOee Deensle. Iejele veJeerve keÀe³e GHe}yOe Deens l³eeyejesyej legcner legce®³ee pegv³ee Iejeletve keÀe³e DeeCeCeej les pegUCes DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Deens. HeeC³ee®ee oeye, meeþJeCegkeÀer®eer peeiee, efkeÀ®eve ke@Àefyevesìmd e, Jee@[j& esyme, efiePeme&, HeeFH[ ie@me DeeefCe ceesyeeF}®eer jWpe ³ee ieesäer leHeemeC³eemeeþer Iejele Hegjms ee JesU peeF&} ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³ee. 5. pegv³ee Jemlet mees[vt e Ðeeë DeeHeCe SKeeos pegves HeÀefve&®ej efkebÀJee pegvee yes[ efkebÀJee Demes®e keÀener pegves peHetve þsJelees. les mJeeYeeefJekeÀ Deens. Hejbleg ne mJe®íles®ee keÀeU Deens. legcne}e Yee[îee®³ee Iejele DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Demeleer} lesJe{îee®e Jemlet v³ee DeeefCe veJeerve Iejele DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Demeleer} lesJe{îee®e Jemlet Hejle DeeCee. legce®es HeÀefve&®ej Dee@ve}eFve efJekeÀCes efkebÀJee Kejsoer keÀjCes µeke̳e keÀjCeeN³ee Deepe DeveskeÀ JesyemeeFìdme Deensle. 6. keÀjej DeeefCe SeqkeÌPeì keÀ}ces mecepetve I³ee DeeHeuîeeHewkeÀer DeveskeÀpeCe Yee[sleÊJee®³ee keÀjejeleer} meJe& keÀ}ces veerì Jee®ele veenerle. legcner oesve efkebÀJee leerve Je<ee¥meeþer Iej Yee[îeeves Iesle Deenele DeeefCe legcne}e Kee$eer Deens keÀer efyeu[j efo}suîee keÀe}eJeOeerle legce®es Iej HetCe& keÀjs} lej cee}keÀe®³ee yeepetves }e@keÀ Fve keÀe}eJeOeermen oesve les leerve Je<ee¥®es Yee[skeÀjej keÀjC³eeJej Deeûen Oeje DeeefCe legce®³ee yeepetvesner lees keÀe}eJeOeer Ðee. ³ee SkeÀe keÀ}ceecegUs legce®es KetHe Hewmes DeeefCe JesU Jee®es}. Yee[îeele Jee{ Ðee. Òel³eskeÀ mLeeveeJej DeeOeeefjle Hee®e les one ìkeÌke̳eebHe³e¥le Yee[sJee{ Ðee. cee}keÀ meesmee³eìer®es DeHeeì&ceWì®es Ke®e& Yejle DemeuîeecegUs legcner l³ee Yee[sJee{eryeeyele ef®eblee keÀª ve³es ns ³eesi³e jener}. 7. Yee[sleÊJe efJemleej keÀjej- cetU lelJeë legcner legce®³ee Yee[îee®³ee Iejele jene³e}e peele Demeleevee legcner cee}keÀebµeer yees} Ces DeeefCe legcner oesve les leerve Je<ee¥meeþer peele Deenele Je legce®³ee Ieje®ee leeyee efceUC³eeme keÀener ceefnv³eeb®ee Gµeerj Peeuîeeme cee}keÀebveer legcne}e leeyee efceUsHe³e¥le keÀjeje®ee efJemleej keÀjC³ee®eer le³eejer ner yeeye mHeä keÀjCes DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Deens. l³eecegUs cee}keÀebmeesyele GÊece mebyebOe DemeCes DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Deens. l³eebvee Yee[sJee{ Ðee. JesUls e Yee[s Ðee. ceie cee}keÀe}e l³ee®³ee Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ keÀejCeebeµf eJee³e pemes ogmejerkeÀ[s jene³e}e peeCes efkebÀJee ogmeje Yee[skeÀª ieceeJeCes Deµee keÀejCeebeµf eJee³e ogmejs keÀejCe legcne}e vekeÀej osC³eemeeþer vemes}. 8. Òel³eskeÀ iees<ìer®eer veeWo keÀjeë De}erkeÀ[er} keÀeUele Fces} DeeefCe Flej ieesäeRcegUs meJe& ieesäeR®eer veeWo þsJeCes µeke̳e Pee}s Deens. l³eecegUs keÀe³e ceev³e kesÀ}s nesles DeeefCe keÀe³e veener ³eeyeeyele keÀesCeleerner µebkeÀe jenCeej veener. keÀjeje®³ee

meJe& Deìer DeeefCe µeleea meejebµeele ef}ntve SkeÀ keÀeieo le³eej keÀje DeeefCe l³eele Deìer, }e@keÀ Fve keÀe}eJeOeer, veesìerme keÀe}eJeOeer, Yee[s DeeefCe Yee[sJee{ Deµee ieesäeR®eer veeWo keÀje. l³ee®es oerIe&keÀeUele legcne}e KetHe HeÀe³eos nesleer}. 9. Iejeleer} meeOevemegeJf eOee/HeÀefve&®ej ³eeb®eer ³eeoerë cee}ceÊes®ee leeyee efceUJeC³eeHetJeea cee}keÀebmeesyele Ieje®eer SkeÀ meb³egkeÌle HeenCeer keÀje DeeefCe meeOevemegeJf eOeeb®³ee ³eeoerJej SkeÀef$ele mener keÀje peer Yee[sleÊJee®³ee keÀjeje}e pees[}s}er Demes} DeeefCe efle®eer veeWoCeer kesÀ}s}er Demes}. keÀesCeleerner ieesä veerì keÀece keÀjle vemeuîeeme leer }sKeer mJeªHeele cee}keÀe®³ee efveoµe&veeme DeeCetve Ðee³e}e nJeer. }#eele þsJee keÀer SkeÀoe Ieje®ee leeyee legcne}e osC³eele Dee}e keÀer, SKeeoer ieesä keÀece keÀjles keÀer veener ³eeyeeyele KetHe µebkeÀe Demeleele. SKeeoer ieesä þerkeÀ keÀjC³eeme Iejcee}keÀeves vekeÀej efouîeeme efkebÀJee legcner legce®³ee Heefnuîee Yesìerle mJeerkeÀejuîeeme pemes veU, efKe[ke̳ee, µee@JejceOeer} ies}us îee ìeFume, lej legce®³ee keÀjejele les DeeOeerHeemetve®e Deens Demes veeWoJeC³eele ³esF} & ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³ee. 10. keÀjejeceO³es keÀe³e meceeefJeä nesles? cegyb eF&le meeceev³eleë Yee[îeeceO³es Ieje®eer peeiee DeeefCe keÀej Heeefke¥Àie DeefleefjkeÌle keÀejmeeþer Fl³eeoer Deensle. HeeCeer, Jeerpe, kesÀye}, Fbìjvesì DeeefCe HeeFH[ ie@me®es DeeOeer®es µegukeÀ Yej}s}s Demes} ³ee®eer Kee$eer HeìJee. legcner keÀjeje®³ee keÀe}eJeOeerojc³eeve meJe& efye}s JesUls e YejCes iejpes®es Deens. De}erkeÀ[®³ee keÀeUeleer} meJeexÊece ceeie& cnCepes legce®³ee meJe& meeOevemegeJf eOeeb®eer efye}s DeeHeesDeeHe Yej}er peeleer} ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer IesC³eemeeþer ¬esÀef[ì keÀe[&Jej leer IesCes. keÀjej HetCe& nesC³ee®³ee JesUer legcner cee}keÀebvee DeeOeer®e Hegjms es Hewmes efo}s}s Demeleer}, p³eeletve megeJf eOeeb®eer efye}s Yej}er peeleer} ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³ee. 11. legce®ee veesìerme keÀe}eJeOeer DeeefCe HeefjefmLeleer peeCetve I³eeë DeeHeCe mees[vt e peeleevee®es keÀ}ce Jee®eCes DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Deens. keÀejCe l³eeletve legcner keÀjej }JekeÀj cees[uîeeme l³ee®es HeefjCeece keÀe³e nesleer} DeeefCe legcner Iej keÀjeje®³ee µesJeìer Iej mees[vt e peelee lesJne veesìer osC³ee®eer peyeeyeoejerner legcne}e keÀUs}. legcner Debce}yepeeJeCeer keÀjC³eeHetJeea keÀjej veerì Jee®etve IesC³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³ee. 12. meesmee³eìer®es efve³ece DeeefCe efve³eceeJe}erë legcner Iejele jenle Demeleevee meesmee³eìer®es efve³ece DeeefCe efve³eceeJe}er®es keÀe}ve keÀje. Iejele jene³e}e peeC³eeHetJeea meesmee³eìer veJeerve Yee[skeÀªmeesyele yewþkeÀ Iesleer}. legce®es cenÊJee®es otjOJeveer ¬eÀceebkeÀ DeeefCe Flej ceeefnleer osTve lesLes legce®ee yee³ees-[sìe HetCe& keÀje. mLeeefvekeÀ keÀe³eÐeebvegmeej He[leeUCeer HetCe& keÀje. 13. mì@cHe µegukeÀ DeeefCe veeWoCeerë DeeHeCe DeeHeuîee keÀjeje®eer veeWoCeer keÀªve keÀener Òeleer veesìjeFp[ nesleer} ³ee®eer keÀeUpeer I³ee. keÀejCe cegyb eF&le cetU keÀeieoHe$es cee}ceÊes®³ee cee}keÀekeÀ[s jenleele. 14. keÀeieoesHe$eer keÀeceë ³ee meJe& IeìkeÀebmeeþer ceole keÀª µekesÀ} Deµee DevegYeJeer efjDe} Fmìsì me}Áeieeje®eer ceole I³ee. legce®³ee Yee[skeÀjejeojc³eeve legcne}e Yes[meeJeCeejs meJe& Òeµve ns cegK³elJes legcner meJe&keÀener mJeleë keÀjC³ee®ee Òe³elve keÀjlee cnCetve Demeles. meboerHe meeOe ns ®es J³eJemLeeHekeÀer³e meb®ee}keÀ DeeefCe mebmLeeHekeÀ Deensle.  


ceeuekeÀer®eer peceerve I³ee legce®ee efyeu[j legcneuee keÀvJns³evme osle vemeu³eeme l³eeSsJepeer [erc[ keÀvJns³evme®ee He³ee&³e efveJe[e. cenejeä^eleerue 80 ìkeÌkesÀ ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìeRkeÀ[s l³eeb®eer peceerve DeeefCe FceejleeR®ee keÀvJns³evme vemeu³eecegUs l³eeb®³eemeeþer [erc[ keÀvJns³evme SkeÀ Jejoeve þjues Deens.

keÀvJns³evme cnCepes keÀe³e? keÀvJns³evme [er[®³ee ceeO³eceeletve cetU ceeuekeÀekeÀ[tve Debelf ece KejsoeroejekeÀ[s mLeeJej pebiece ceeueceÊes®³ee ceeuekeÀer®es nmleeblejCe cnCepes keÀvJns³evme nes³e. ``keÀvJns³evme [er[‘’ cnCepes keÀe³e? mLeeJej pebiece ceeueceÊes®³ee ceeuekeÀer, mJeejm³e, Meer<e&keÀe®³ee nmleeblejCee®³ee GÎsMeeves cetU ceeuekeÀ DeeefCe Kejsoeroej ³eeb®³eeceO³es keÀjej kesÀuee peelees. DeMee keÀjejeuee keÀvJns³evme [er[ Demes cnCeleele.

SkeÀe menkeÀejer ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLesle keÀvJns³evme [er[ Heej Hee[C³ee®eer peyeeyeoejer keÀesCee®eer Demeles? meesmee³eìer le³eej Peeu³eeJej meesmee³eìer DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ ³eeb®eer keÀvJns³evme®es keÀe³e& HetCe& keÀjC³ee®eer HetCe& peyeeyeoejer Demeles. vecegvee GHekeÀe³eoe ¬eÀceebkeÀ 5 vegmeej, meesmee³eìer veeWoCeerkeÀjCe p³ee GÎsMeeves keÀjleele lees cegK³e GÎsMe cnCepes peefceveer®ee DeeefCe Fceejleer®ee keÀvJns³evme cetU ceeuekeÀekeÀ[tve DeeefCe efyeu[j/efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes ÒeeHle keÀjCes. GHekeÀe³eoe ¬eÀceebkeÀ 155 (De)vegmeej keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjC³ee®eer DeeefCe keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjC³eemeeþer DeeJeM³ekeÀ leer meJe& ke=Àleer keÀjC³ee®eer peyeeyeoejer meefceleerJej ìekeÀC³eele Deeueer Deens.

GHekeÀe³eoe 175 (keÀ) ceO³es ns veceto keÀjC³eele Deeues Deens keÀer, efyeu[j/ efJekeÀeme efkebÀJee peefceveer®es ceeuekeÀ ³eeb®³eekeÀ[tve keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjC³eemeeþer meesmee³eìer/meefceleerkeÀ[tve efoJeeCeer v³ee³eeue³eele efoJeeCeer Keìuee oeKeue keÀjC³eele ³esT MekeÀlees. cenejeä^ DeesvejefMeHe HeÌue@ì ªume 1964 ®³ee efve³ece 9 vegmeej meesmee³eìer veeWoCeerke=Àle Peeu³eeJej ®eej ceefnv³eeb®³ee Deele keÀvJns³evme [er[ HetCe& keÀjC³eemeeþer efyeu[j keÀe³eosMeerjefjl³ee yeebOeerue Deens.

SkeÀe ie=nefvecee&Ce meesmee³eìeruee keÀvJns³evme efceUC³ee®es keÀe³e HeÀe³eos Deensle? keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjCes cnCepes p³ee peefceveerJej Fceejle yeebOeuesueer Deens efle®eer ceeuekeÀer, Meer<e&keÀ, nkeÌkeÀ DeeefCe mJeejm³e mebHetCe& Fceejleermen veeWoCeerke=Àle meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes nmleebleefjle keÀjCes. l³eecegUs keÀvJns³evme [er[ HetCe& nesFH& e³e¥le Òel³eskeÀ kesÀmeÒeceeCes ceeueceÊes®eer ceeuekeÀer, nkeÌkeÀ, Meer<e&keÀ DeeefCe mJeejm³e ceeuekeÀ/efJekeÀemekeÀ ³eeb®³ee veeJes jenles. [erc[ keÀvJns³evme cnCepes keÀe³e? peceerve DeeefCe Fceejle meesmee³eìer efkebÀJee HeÌue@ì Kejsoeroejeb®³ee keÀesCel³eener keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®eer mLeeHevee Peeu³eeJej ®eej ceefnv³eeb®³ee Deele ceeuekeÀer l³eeb®³ee veeJes keÀjC³eeme ÒeJele&keÀ (efyeu[j/efJekeÀemekeÀ) keÀe³eosMeerjefjl³ee yeebOeerue Deensle. leLeeefHe, DeveskeÀ ÒeJele&keÀebveer (efyeu[j/efJekeÀemekeÀ) ³eebveer peefceveer®ee DeeefCe FceejleeR®ee keÀvJns³evme keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLeebvee kesÀuesuee veener Demes Dee{Utve Deeues Deens. l³eecegUs mejkeÀejves cenejeä^ DeesvejefMeHe HeÌue@ìmd e De@keÌì 1963 (ceesHeÀe) ceO³es megOeejCee kesÀu³ee Demetve keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLeeb®³ee veeJes [erc[ keÀvJns³evme keÀjC³eeme HejJeeveieer efoueer Deens. ³ee lejlegoerDebleie&le [erc[ keÀvJns³evme cnCepes keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®³ee mLeeHevesveblej ®eej ceefnv³eebveer peceerve DeeefCe Fceejle keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®³ee veeJeeves nmleebleefjle nesFu& e DeeefCe l³ee®eer veeWo cenmetue veeWoerceO³es keÀjC³eele ³esFu& e. le¬eÀejoej He#eekeÀ[tve ÒeeHle Peeuesu³ee Depee&®³ee DeeOeejs SkeÀ efJeMes<e DeefOekeÀejer He#eeb®es cnCeCes SsketÀve IesFu& e DeeefCe DeeJeM³ekeÀ les DeeosMe Heeefjle keÀªve keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®³ee veeJes ceeueceÊee nmleebleefjle keÀjsue. lees l³eemeeþer DeeJeM³ekeÀ les DeeosMe Heeefjle keÀjsue DeeefCe [erc[ keÀvJns³evme ÒeceeCeHe$e osTve meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes keÀvJns³evme [er[®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjC³eemeeþer DeefOeke=Àle DeefOekeÀeN³ee®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjsue pees menkeÀe³e& ve keÀjCeejs efyeu[j efkebÀJee peceerve ceeuekeÀ ³eeb®³eeJeleerves keÀe³e& keÀjsue. Jejerue Òeef¬eÀ³es®ee DeJeuebye keÀ©ve peceerve DeeefCe Fceejleer®eer ceeuekeÀer ÒeeHle keÀjCes ³eeuee [erc[ keÀvJns³evme Demes cnCeleele.

Lees[ke̳eele  keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjCes cnCepes p³ee peefceveerJej Fceejle yeebOeuesueer Deens efle®eer ceeuekeÀer, Meer<e&keÀ, nkeÌkeÀ DeeefCe mJeejm³e mebHetCe& Fceejleermen veeWoCeerke=Àle meesmee³eìer®³ee veeJes nmleebleefjle keÀjCes. efyeu[j/peceerve ceeuekeÀ ³eebveer menkeÀe³e& ve kesÀu³eeme [erc[ keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjC³eele keÀener De[®eCeer/keÀe³eosMeerj Keìues Deensle keÀe?

[erc[ keÀvJns³evme ne Debelf ece keÀvJns³evme Deens. l³eele keÀesCeleener $eeme nesCeej veener. [erc[ keÀvJns³evme®es DeeosMe me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eekeÀ[tve Heeefjle Peeu³eeJej keÀvJns³evme [er[®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®³ee efnleemeeþer DeefOeke=Àle DeefOekeÀeN³eekeÀ[tve kesÀueer peeF&ue. ³eeefMeJee³e l³ee®eer veeWoCeer keÀjC³eele ³esFu& e. me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eeves Heeefjle kesÀuesu³ee [erc[ keÀvJns³evme®³ee DeeosMeeefJejesOeele DeHeerue keÀjC³ee®eer lejleto ceesHeÀeceO³es veener. keÀvJns³evme [er[®³ee DeeosMeeb®eer keÀvJns³evme [er[men DebceueyepeeJeCeer Peeu³eeJej HeefjefMeä 2 ÒeeHle keÀªve les leueeþer keÀe³ee&ue³e efkebÀJee efmeìer meJnx keÀe³ee&ue³eele keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®es veeJe meele yeeje Gleeje efkebÀJee ceeueceÊee keÀe[e&Jej veeWoJeC³eemeeþer ÐeeJes. leLeeefHe, keÀesCel³eener DeefOekeÀeN³eeves Heeefjle kesÀuesu³ee keÀesCel³eener DeeosMeeefJejesOeele Keemeieer efjì ³eeef®ekeÀe oeKeue keÀjC³ee®ee DeefOekeÀej keÀesCel³eener veeieefjkeÀeuee Yeejleer³e jep³eIeìves®³ee keÀuece 226 DeeefCe 227 Debleie&le osC³eele Deeuee Deens. l³eecegUs le¬eÀejoej He#e [erc[ keÀvJns³evme®³ee efJejesOeele efjì ³eeef®ekeÀe oeKeue keÀª MekeÀlees. megceejs 99 ìkeÌkesÀ efjì ³eeef®ekeÀeb®ee efvekeÀeue 6 ceefnv³eeb®³ee Deele ueeielees Demee DevegYeJe Demetve efJekeÀemekeÀ/peefceveer®³ee ceeuekeÀebveer oeKeue kesÀuesueer DeMeer efjì ³eeef®ekeÀe ceeveveer³e G®®e v³ee³eeue³eeves jÎyeeleue kesÀu³ee Deensle.

[erc[ keÀvJns³evmeJej mì@cHe MegukeÀ YejC³ee®³ee keÀe³e lejlegoer Deensle? efve³eefcele keÀvJns³evmeÒeceeCes®e [erc[ keÀvJns³evmeJejner meJe& HeÌue@ìOeejkeÀebveer DeeHeu³ee HeÌue@쮳ee veeWoCeer®³ee JesUer ueeiet Demeuesu³ee keÀvJns³evme Yejuesuee Demeu³eeme mì@cHe MegukeÀ HeÀkeÌle 100 ªHe³es ³esles. keÀener HeÌue@ìOeejkeÀebveer mì@cHe MegukeÀ Yejuesues vemeu³eeme efkebÀJee l³eebveer DeeHeueer megìkeÀe keÀªve Iesleuesueer Demeu³eeme l³ee®eer ceespeCeer kesÀu³eeveblej les Yejlee ³esles DeeefCe keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLeebkeÀ[tve [erc[ keÀvJns³evme [er[ meeoj keÀjC³ee®³ee JesUer DeeefCe les DeMee HeÌue@ìceeuekeÀebkeÀ[tve veblej Jemetue keÀjlee ³esles. keÀjejeb®eer meeKeUer Demeu³eeme meO³ee®³ee ceeuekeÀeves DeeHeu³ee keÀjejeJej mì@cHe MegukeÀ Yeju³ee®ee HegjeJee meeoj keÀjeJee ueeielees. keÀjejeb®eer mebHetCe& meeKeUer YejC³ee®eer iejpe Yeemele veener. efJekeÀues ve iesuesues HeÌue@ìmed, ceeskeÀȳee peeiee DeeefCe meeOevemegeJf eOeeb®³ee yeeyeleerle mì@cHe MegukeÀ YejC³ee®eer iejpe veener. keÀjej 10.12.1985 HetJeea kesÀuesuee Demeu³eeme keÀjej veeWoCeerke=Àle Demees Jee vemees leey³ee®ee ³eesi³e HegjeJee efJeYeeieeuee meeoj keÀjC³eele Deeu³eeme keÀjeje®³ee leejKes®³ee efoJeMeer Demeuesueer pegv³ee yeepeejYeeJee®es mì@cHe MegukeÀ mì@cHe MegukeÀ Yejleevee ueeiet keÀjC³eele ³esFu& e. ceev³eleeÒeeHle ³eespevesvegmeej SHeÀSmeDee³e efMeuuekeÀ Demeu³eeme®e DeMee efMeuuekeÀ SHeÀSmeDee³eJejerue mì@cHe MegukeÀ meO³ee®³ee yeepeejYeeJeevegmeej Hee®e ìkeÌke̳eebveer keÀvJns³evme [er[®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjC³ee®³ee JesUer Iesleues peeJes.

uesDeeTì Huee@쮳ee yeeyeleerle efpeLes efyeu[j yeebOekeÀece ìHH³eebceO³es Heej Hee[lees lesLes keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®³ee veeJes keÀvJns³evme kesÀues peeF&ue? uesDeeTì Huee@쮳ee yeeyeleerle l³ee mebyebeOf ele Fceejleerves ÒeeHle kesÀuesu³ee SHeÀSmeDee³e®³ee ÒeceeCeele DebMeleë keÀvJns³evme®eer lejleto Meke̳e Deens. ³eeyeeyeleerleerue DeeosMeebJej ceeveveer³e G®®e v³ee³eeue³ee®³ee ÒeeoseMf ekeÀ Keb[Heerþeves


DeeefCe ceeveveer³e meJeex®®e v³ee³eeue³eeves ``mejmJeleer S keÀes Dee@Hejseìf Jn neTefmebie meesmee³eìer Fve yeesjerJeueer’’®³ee Keìu³eele efMekeÌkeÀeceesle&ye kesÀues Deens. uesDeeT Huee@ìyeeyele keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLesuee efyeu[jves kesÀuesues mHeäerkeÀjCeevegmeej peceerve DeeefCe Fceejleer®³ee keÀvJns³evme leejKesvegmeej mebHetCe& uesDeeTì Huee@쮳ee efJekeÀemee®³ee #eceles®³ee ÒeceeCeele DeefJeYeeefpele nkeÌkeÀ, Meer<e&keÀ DeeefCe mJeejm³e ³eeb®es ÒeceeCe SHeÀSmeDee³e/ìer[erDeej ³eeb®³eeJej DeeOeeefjle efceUt MekeÀles. efyeu[jves ³ee®eer Iees<eCee kesÀuesueer vemeu³eeme mebHetCe& GJe&ejf le SHeÀSmeDee³e/ ìer[erDeej keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLeebvee ÒeceeCeele GHeueyOe nesFu& e, Dev³eLee lees efyeu[juee GHeueyOe Demesue.

[erc[ keÀvJns³evme osC³eemeeþer me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀejer keÀe³e Òeef¬eÀ³ee DeJeuebyeleele? meeceev³eleë keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLesuee efyeu[jves efle®³ee mLeeHevesHeemetve ®eej ceefnv³eeb®³ee Deele peceerve DeeefCe Fceejleer®es keÀvJns³evme ve efou³eeme l³eebveer efyeu[jefJejesOeele GHeueyOe Demeuesu³ee keÀeieoHe$eebmen me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eebkeÀ[s efouesu³ee He×leerle Depe& meeoj keÀjeJee. me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀejer Depee&®eer He[leeUCeer keÀjsue, l³eebveer vesceuesu³ee DeefOeke=Àle DeefOekeÀeN³eeÜejs ÒeJele&keÀ/efyeu[j ³eeb®³eekeÀ[tve keÀeieoHe$es ÒeeHle keÀjsue DeeefCe Depe& oeKeue keÀªve IesF&ue efkebÀJee lees mJeleë keÀvJns³evme [er[®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjsue cnCepes l³eeuee GHeefveyebOekeÀekeÀ[s GHeefmLele jeneJes ueeieCeej veener. keÀejCe l³eeves veeWoCeer keÀe³eoe 1908®³ee keÀuece 88 Debleie&le GHeefveyebOekeÀemeceesj mJeleë GHeefmLele jenC³eeHeemetve megìkeÀe keÀªve Iesleueer Deens.

ÒeJele&keÀ (efyeu[j/efJekeÀemekeÀ) peceerve DeeefCe Fceejle meesmee³eìer®³ee efkebÀJee HeÌue@ìceeuekeÀeb®³ee keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLes®³ee mLeeHevesveblej ®eej ceefnv³eeble nmleebleefjle keÀjC³eeme keÀe³eosMeerjefjl³ee yeebOeerue Deens. Depe& oeKeue kesÀu³eeJej me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀejer megveeJeCeer IesF&ue DeeefCe l³eeveblej keÀe³eosMeerj mebmLesuee efkebÀJee Depe&oejeuee [erc[ keÀvJns³evme osCes ³eesi³e Deens keÀer veener l³eeyeeyele efveCe&³e IesF&ue. l³eeves mekeÀejelcekeÀ DeeosMe Heeefjle kesÀu³eeme lees SkeÀe DeefOeke=Àle DeefOekeÀeN³ee®eer vesceCetkeÀ keÀjsue, pees keÀvJns³evme [er[®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjsue efkebÀJee lees mJeleë DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjsue. efyeu[j DeeefCe peceerveceeuekeÀe®³ee Jeleerves DeefOeke=Àle DeefOekeÀejer efkebÀJee me#ece ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eekeÀ[tve DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjC³eeHetJeea meesmee³eìerves keÀvJns³evme [er[ meeoj keÀªve DeeJeM³ekeÀ mì@cHe [îetìer YejCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens. veeWoCeer Peeu³eeJej mejkeÀejer omleSsJepe pemes Òee@Heìea keÀe[& efkebÀJee 7/12 GleeN³eeJej veeJeveeWoCeer keÀjC³eemeeþer efmeìer meJnx keÀe³ee&ue³e efkebÀJee leueeþer keÀe³ee&ue³eele mebHeke&À meeOeeJee. lesLes keÀvJns³evme [er[ DeeefCe HeefjefMeä 2 meeoj keÀjeJes.

[erc[ keÀvJns³evme ÒeeHle keÀjC³eemeeþer Depee&meesyele keÀesCeleer keÀeieoHe$es meeoj keÀjCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens? KeeueerueHewkeÀer efpelekeÀer peemle keÀeieoHe$es meesmee³eìerkeÀ[s GHeueyOe Deensle leer [erc[ keÀvJns³evmemeeþer Depee&meesyele meeoj keÀjCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deens.

1. ÒeJele&keÀ/efJejesOeer He#e ³eeb®³eemeesyele kesÀuesu³ee efJe¬eÀerKelee®ee veeWoCeerke=Àle keÀjej 2. 7  /12 Gleeje DeeefCe ieeJe Depe& ¬eÀceebkeÀ 6 (c³egìMs eve veeWoer), ceeueceÊee keÀe[&, 3. mLeevee®ee vekeÀeMee 4. cenmetue efJeYeeieekeÀ[tve efmeìer meJnx vekeÀeMee efkebÀJee meJnx vekeÀeMee 5. mLeeefvekeÀ ÒeMeemeveekeÀ[tve ceev³eleeÒeeHle uesDeeTì Huee@ì vekeÀeMee 6. m ebHetCe& uesDeeTì vekeÀeMee, meeceeef³ekeÀ Yeeie, Òel³eskeÀ mebmLes®³ee megeJf eOee efkebÀJee yeebOeuesues yeebOekeÀece efkebÀJee DeMee uesDeeTì Huee@ìJej yeebOeC³eele ³esCeejs yeebOekeÀece ³eeb®³ee DeefJeYeeefpele mJeejm³eeb®³ee ceeuekeÀer®es Jeemlegj®eveekeÀejeb®es ÒeceeCeHe$e 7. S keÀe JekeÀerueekeÀ[tve DeÐe³eeJele Meer<e&keÀ DeeefCe MeesOe DenJeeue ceeieerue 30 Je<ee¥meeþer 8. iewjke=À<eer DeeosMe 9. veeiejer keÀceeue peceerveOeejCee keÀe³eoe 1976 Debleie&le ÒeceeCeHe$e 10. ³eesi³e DeefOekeÀeN³eebkeÀ[tve ceev³eleeÒeeHle Fceejle/yeebOekeÀece DeejeKe[e 11. ÒeejbYe ÒeceeCeHe$e 12. Hetle&lee ÒeceeCeHe$e 13. leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$e 14. HeÌue@ì Kejsoeroejeb®eer ³eeoer 15. mì@cHe MegukeÀ Yeju³ee®ee HegjeJee 16. veeWoCeer®ee HegjeJee Fl³eeoer 17. p eceerve ceeuekeÀeves ÒeJele&keÀemeesyele peefceveer®eer ceeuekeÀer, nkeÌkeÀ DeeefCe mJeejm³e ³eeb®es nmleeblejCe ÒeJele&keÀe®³ee veeJes keÀjC³eemeeþer efJekeÀeme keÀjej efkebÀJee Hee@Jej Dee@HeÀ De@ìveea efkebÀJee efJe¬eÀer keÀjej 18. D epee&uee menkeÀe³e& keÀjC³eemeeþer Flej peceerve efkebÀJee FceejlemebyebOeer keÀeieoHe$es-omleSsJepe 19. cenejeä^ DeHeeì&ceWìmd e De@keÌì 1970 Debleie&le keÀvJns³evme [er[ efkebÀJee Iees<eCeeHe$ee®eer DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjC³eemeeþer ÒeJele&keÀ efkebÀJee Flej mJeejm³e Demeuesu³ee He#eebvee HeeþJeuesueer keÀe³eosMeerj veesìerme 20. D epe&oeje®³ee veeJes DebceueyepeeJeCeer keÀjC³eemeeþer ÒemleeefJele keÀvJns³evme [er[/Iees<eCeeHe$ee®ee cemegoe efyeu[jmeesyele keÀjej kesÀuesu³ee meJe& cenÊJee®³ee keÀeieoHe$eebceO³es keÀesCel³eener meom³eekeÀ[s efkeÀceeve SkeÀ Òeleme peefceveer®³ee veeWoer pemes 7/12, ceeueceÊee keÀe[&, meerìerSme vekeÀeMee, keÀjeje®³ee Mes[îetueceO³es efou³eeÒeceeCes, ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneveiejHeeefuekesÀ®³ee De@mesmeceWì efyeueÒeceeCes Fceejleer®es leHeMeerue, ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeejeKe[e, Deesmeer, GHeueyOe Demeu³eeme DeeefCe Jew³eeqkeÌlekeÀ meom³eeb®³ee mì@cHe MegukeÀe®ee leHeMeerue.

meerS jcesMe ÒeYet, DeO³e#e, ceneje<ì^ meesmee³eìerpe JesuHesÀDej Demeesemf eSMeve ³eeb®³ee `ÖeÀerkeÌJesvìueer DeemkeÌ[ keÌJesMevme De@C[ Deevmeme& Dee@ve [erc[ keÀvJns³evme’ceOeerue Gleeje. les [erc[ keÀvJns³evme®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³eelcekeÀ IeìkeÀeb®³ee efve³eceeb®³ee megOeejCeebmeeþer cenejeä^ mejkeÀejves vesceuesu³ee meefceleer®es meom³e nesles.   

11 ef[meWyej 2014 jespeer cegbyeF& G®®e v³ee³ee}³eeves SkeÀ cenÊJee®ee Deeosµe Heeefjle kesÀ}e

De@[ kesÀ kesÀ jeceeCeer

SkeÀ ceesþe efoueemee... cee. G®®e v³ee³eeue³e, cegbyeF& ³eebveer efoveebkeÀ 11 ef[meWyej 2014 jespeer Heeefjle kesÀuesu³ee DeeosMeeves ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLeeb®³ee HegveefJe&keÀemeeceO³es ke@ÀefHeìue iesve ì@keÌmeceOeerue ieeWOeU otj kesÀuee. cegyb eF&le DemebK³e ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLeeb®³ee Fceejleer ³ee pegv³ee Je OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ Deensle. ³ee Fceejleer og©mle keÀjC³eemeeþer mebmLeebkeÀ[s Hegjms ee Hewmee Je leebe$f ekeÀ %eeve meg×e vemeles. l³eecegUs ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLee ¿ee efJekeÀemekeÀeb®eer ceole IesJetve l³eeb®³ee FceejleeR®es Hegveefve&cee&Ce keÀjle Deensle. mebmLeebveer l³eeb®³ee YetKeb[eJejerue ìer.[er.Deej. #ecelee efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[s nmleeblejCe kesÀu³eeves efJekeÀemekeÀ ns mebmLes®³ee meom³eebvee DeefleefjkeÌle #es$e, keÀe@He&me Je Yee[s YejHeeF& cnCetve osleele.

Demesemf ebie Dee@eHf eÀmej (S.Dees.)ves veceto kesÀues keÀer, ne nkeÌkeÀ mebmLes®³ee ceeuekeÀer®³ee YetKeb[euee mebueive Demetve efkebÀcele osJetve Kejsoer keÀjC³eele Deeuee Deens DeeefCe cnCetve les ke@ÀefHeìue Demesì Demetve keÀjeme Hee$e Deens. FvkeÀce ì@keÌme keÀefceMevej (DeHeerue) S.Dees.®ee efveCe&³e keÀe³ece keÀ©ve Demes veceto kesÀues keÀer, ìer.[er.Deej. ne mebmLesuee YetKeb[ efJekeÀle Iesles JesUms e GheueyOe neslee DeeefCe l³ee ìer.[er.Deej.®eer efkebÀcele meg×e meceeefJe<ì nesleer.

efJekeÀemekeÀeves efouesu³ee Jejerue ueeYeebJej mebmLeebvee ke@ÀefHeìue iesve ì@keÌme ueeieeJee efkebÀJee veener Demee ceesþe ieeWOeU efvecee&Ce Peeuee neslee DeeefCe l³eeyeeyele FvkeÀce ì@keÌme ì^y³etveueves efJeefJeOe DeeosMe meg×e efoues nesles. efJekeÀemekeÀebveer efouesu³ee Jeefjle veceto jkeÀceebJej ke@ÀefHeìue iesve ì@keÌme ueeieeJee efkebÀJee veener Demee Jeeo ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLee Je FvkeÀce ì@keÌme efJeYeeie ³eeb®³eele efvecee&Ce Peeuee neslee. cee. cegyb eF& G®®e v³ee³eeue³e ³eebveer efoveebkeÀ 14.12.2014 jespeer meer.Dee³e.ìer.-18 efJe©× mebYeepeer keÀes-Dee@He. neTefmebie meesmee³eìer efue. (Dee³e.ìer DeHeerue ke´À.1356/2012) ¿ee Keìu³eele Del³eble cenÊJee®ee efveCe&³e efouee Deens. ¿ee efveCe&³eecegUs ne cegÎe efvekeÀeueer efveIesue DeMeer DeeMee Deens.

cee. G®®e v³ee³eeue³eeves Demee efve<keÀ<e& keÀe{uee keÀer, ¿ee ceeueceÊesJej DeefleefjkeÌle SheÀ.Sme.Dee³e./ìer.[er.Deej. ns [er.meer. jsi³eguesMeve ceOeerue yeoueeb®ee HeefjCeece cnCetve DeefmleÊJeele Deeuee Deens DeeefCe l³eemeeþer mebmLesves kegÀþueerner efkebÀcele efoueer veener.

Jejerue Keìu³eele cee. G®®e v³ee³eeue³eeves Dee³e.ìer. DeHeeruesì ì^y³etveue®es DeeosMe p³eele efJekeÀemeekeÀ[tve mebmLesuee efceUeuesueer YejHeeF& jkeÌkeÀce keÀjeme Hee$e veener, Demee keÀe³ece þsJeuee Deens.

cee. G®®e v³ee³eeue³e ³eeb®es He´ceeCes ì^y³etveueves ns DeeosMe mJeleë®es v³et Mewuepee keÀe@. neTefmebie meesmee³eìer efueefceìs[ ³ee kesÀmeceO³es efouesu³ee DeeosMeeme Devegme©ve efoues Deens. v³et Mewuepee ³ee kesÀmeceO³es ì^y³etveueves cee. meJeex®®e v³ee³eeue³eeves yeer.meer. Þeerevf eJeeme MesÆer 128 Dee.ìer.Deej. 294 Sme.meer. ³eebveer efouesu³ee DeeosMeeme Devegme©ve Demetve l³eeHe´ceeCes mebmLesves ìer[erDeej He´eHle keÀjCesmeeþer keÀenerner ceesyeouee efouee vemetve lees l³eebvee [er.meer. jsi³eguesMeve ceOeerue yeoueeb®ee HeefjCeece cnCetve He´eHle Peeuee Deens DeeefCe cnCetve®e keÀjeme Hee$e veener. cee. G®®e v³ee³eeue³eeves ì^y³etveueves DeeosMe keÀe³ece kesÀuee Deens.

¿ee Keìu³ee®eer Lees[ke̳eele ceeefnleer DeMeer Deens keÀer, ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLesves DeefleefjkeÌle yeebOekeÀece keÀjC³ee®es nkeÌkeÀ [sJnueHeceWì kebÀì^eus e jsi³eguesMeve G®®e v³ee³eeue³ee®ee ne DeeosMe l³ee meJe& ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLee, p³ee DeeHeu³ee 1991 Debleie&le ìer.[er.Deej Üeje He´eHle kesÀues. ie=nefvecee&Ce mebmLeebveer FceejleeR®es Hegveefve&cee&Ce keÀjle Deensle, l³eebme SkeÀ ceesþe efoueemee Deens. ìer.[er.Deej. nkeÌkeÀ efJekeÀemekeÀeme nmleeblejCe kesÀues. Hejbleg, ìer.[er.Deej.   #eceles®es ke´À³e cetu³e efveOee&jCe keÀjCes DeMeke̳e Demetve l³eeJej ke@ÀefHeìue iesve ì@keÌme ueeiet MekeÀle veener.


efJekeÀemekeÀeves Fceejle Hegvne yeebOee³e®eer le³eejer oeKeJe}er DeeefCe meO³ee®es cee}keÀ/leeyeeoej ³eebvee lesJe{s®e efkebÀJee DeefleefjkeÌle #es$eHeÀU ceesHeÀle Ðee³e®es þjJe}s DeeefCe l³eele keÀesCelesner DeeefLe&keÀ J³eJenej meceeefJeä vemeleer} lej kebÀ$eeì/efJe¬eÀer efkebÀcele vemeles DeeefCe l³eecegUs l³ee}e Jn@ì }eiet nesle veener. oerHekeÀ þkeÌkeÀj ®eeì&[& DekeÀeTbìbì

megmHeä Jn@ì HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee ÒekeÀuHeebJej ieglb eeieglb eer®³ee cetuîeeOeeefjle keÀjeyeeyele (Jn@ì)®³ee HeefjCeeceebyeeyele®³ee µebkeÀe meerS oerHekeÀ þkeÌkeÀj otj keÀjle Deensle. efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve Fceejleer®es yeebOekeÀece ner ieesä keÀecee®es kebÀ$eeì ceeve}er peeles. l³eele meeefnl³e DeeefCe mesJeeb®ee meceeJesµe Demelees Demes }eme&ve De@C[ ìgye´es ef}. efJeª× cenejeä^ mejkeÀej DeeefCe Flej ³ee Keìuîeele ceeveveer³e meJeex®®e v³ee³ee}³ee®³ee ceesþîee Keb[Heerþeves 26 meHìWyej 2013 jespeer mHeä kesÀ}s. l³ee}e 65 JnerSmeìer 1 Demes cnì}s ies}.s meoj Fceejle efveJeemeer, J³eeJemeeef³ekeÀ, DeewÐeeseif ekeÀ efkebÀJee Flej keÀesCel³eener GÎsµeeves JeeHej}s}er Demet µekeÀles.

HeefjefmLeleerle efJekeÀemekeÀe}e keÀecee®es kebÀ$eeìoej ceeve}s peeles DeeefCe ³egevf eì yegkeÀ keÀjCeejer J³ekeÌleer mebyebeOf ele yeebOekeÀece ÒekeÀuHeemeeþer kebÀ$eeìer ceeve}er peeles.

Lees[ke̳eele  cenejeä^ Jn@ì keÀe³eÐeeDebleie&le (SceJn@ì keÀe³eoe) efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[s Deµee peyeeyeoejer®es Hee}ve keÀjC³ee®es oesve He³ee&³e Demeleele.  meJe&meeceev³eleë efJekeÀemekeÀ DeeefCe Kejsoeroej 1 SefÒe} 2010 veblej®³ee kebÀHeesePf eµeve mkeÀerce®ee He³ee&³e efveJe[leele keÀejCe leer meesHeer Deens.

Fceejle yeebOetve HetCe& Peeuîeeme DeeefCe l³eeleer} SkeÀner ³egevf eì yeebOekeÀecee®³ee keÀe}eJeOeerojc³eeve yegkeÀ efkebÀJee efJekeÀ}e ies}e veener lej les yeebOekeÀece mJeleëmeeþer kesÀ}s}s Demeles pes keÀjHee$e veener. l³ee®eÒeceeCes yeebOekeÀeceeveblej SKeeos SkeÀkeÀ yegkeÀ Pee}s efkebÀJee efJekeÀ}s ies}s lej les mLeeJej pebiece cee}ceÊes®es nmleeblejCe Deens pes efJe¬eÀerkeÀj (p³ee}e Jn@ì Demesner cnCeleele) veener. keÀejCe jep³e HegveefJe&keÀemee®³ee ÒekeÀuHeeb®³ee yeeyeleerle cnCepes efpeLes pegveer DeefmleÊJeele mejkeÀej}e kesÀJeU n}Jelee ³esC³ee³eesi³ee cee}ceÊee/JemletJb ej efJe¬eÀerkeÀj Deme}s}er Fceejle Hee[tve veJeerve Fceejle Hegvne yeebOe}er peeles, efleLes Jn@ì keÀmee }eJeC³ee®ee DeefOekeÀej Deens. }eiet neslees les Heent. HegveefJe&keÀemee®es ÒekeÀuHener DeeOeer®³ee ®e®ee¥vegmeej keÀecee®eer kebÀ$eeìs Demetve l³eele efJekeÀemekeÀe}e kebÀ$eeìoej cnCetve yees}eJe}s peeles DeeefCe ÒekeÀuHe HetCe& kesÀuîeemeeþer mebyebeOf ele Fceejleermeeþer leeyee ÒeceeCeHe$ee®eer (Deesmeer) ³egevf eì Kejsoeroeje}e kebÀ$eeìer cnCetve. Deµee HeefjefmLeleerle meeceev³eleë efJekeÀemekeÀ ÒeeHleer kesÀuîee®eer leejerKe ie=enf le Oejleele keÀer Deesmeermeeþer Depe& kesÀuîee®eer leejerKe Fceejle Hegvne yeebOeC³eeme neskeÀej oslees DeeefCe meO³ee®es cee}keÀ/leeyeeoej ³eebvee Oejleele? keÀjDeefOekeÀejer yeebOekeÀece HetCe& kesÀuîee®³ee efoJeµeer Deesmeer osC³ee®ee Lees[er peeiee ceesHeÀle oslees. l³eecegUs l³eele keÀesCelesner DeeefLe&keÀ J³eJenej vemeleele. efJe®eej keÀª µekeÀleele Hejbleg Deesmeermeeþer Depe& kesÀuîeeveblej mebyebeOf ele Fceejle/ cnCetve kebÀ$eeì/efJe¬eÀer efkebÀcele vemeuîeecegUs ³esLes Jn@ì }eiet nesle veener. ÒekeÀuHeemeeþer keÀesCel³eener meeefnl³ee®ee JeeHej kesÀ}s}e vemeuîeeme Deesmeer Depee&®eer leejerKe yeebOekeÀece HetCe& kesÀuîee®eer leejerKe cnCetve ie=enf le Oejlee ³esles. meO³ee®es cee}keÀ/leeyeeoej ³eebveer DeefleefjkeÌle peeiee þj}s}e oj/efJe®eejDebleie&le ner yeeye ÒekeÀuHee®es Jeemlegj®eveekeÀejeb®³ee ÒeceeCeHe$eeletve efme× nesT µekeÀles, peer efJekeÀle Iesleuîeeme (ceesHeÀle peeiesyejesyej®e) lej Demee ceev³eleeÒeeHle DeeefLe&keÀ efJekeÀemekeÀe®³ee Keel³ee®³ee HegmlekeÀeleer} efye}s DeeefCe HegmlekesÀ ³eebletve DeeCeKeer J³eJenej DeefleefjkeÌle peeiesmeeþer efJe¬eÀer®eer efkebÀcele cnCetve ceeve}e peelees. mHeä nesles. l³ee}e Jn@ì }eiet neslees. l³eecegUs Jn@ì efJekeÀemekeÀeJej kesÀJeU Deµee SkeÀkeÀebJej }eiet neslees, peer Fceejleer®³ee yeebOekeÀecee®³ee ojc³eeve yegkeÀ/efJe¬eÀer kesÀ}er ies}er Deensle. Deµee

meO³ee®es cee}keÀ efkebÀJee meesmee³eìer}e osC³eele ³esCeejer DeefleefjkeÌle jkeÌkeÀce, Yee[s/ vegkeÀmeeveYejHeeF& peer efJeefµeä keÀe}eJeOeermeeþer He³ee&³eer efveJeemeemeeþer efo}er peeles

DeeefCe leeyeeoeje}e osC³eele ³esCeejs efµeeqHeÌìib e µegukeÀ ns HeÀe³eos efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[tve meO³ee®³ee ³egevf eìOeejkeÀe}e efo}s peeleele DeeefCe les efJekeÀemekeÀe®³ee Ke®ee&le veceto nesleele. les ÒeeHleer/efJe¬eÀer efkebÀcele ceeve}er peele veenerle. l³eecegUs Deµee efkeÀceleerJej Jn@ì }eiet keÀjC³ee®ee Òeµve GÓJele veener. l³eecegUs yeebOekeÀecee®³ee ìHH³eele pesJne Jn@ì }eiet neslees lesJne Demee Jn@ì efJekeÀemekeÀ KejsoeroejekeÀ[tve ieesUe keÀjlees keÀejCe lees SkeÀ DeÒel³e#e keÀj Deens. cenejeä^ Jn@ì keÀe³eoe (SceJn@ì keÀe³eoe) Debleie&le efJekeÀemekeÀekeÀ[s Deµeer peyeeyeoejer Heej Hee[C³ee®es oesve He³ee&³e Demeleele. Heefnuîee He³ee&³eeDebleie&le keÀjeje®³ee cetuîeeHeemetve peefceveer®³ee cetuîeemeeþer JepeeJeì GHe}yOe Demeles. leer yeebOekeÀeceemeeþer yegekf ebÀie keÀjC³ee®³ee ìHH³eeHeemetve }eiet nesles. Jn@ì yeebOekeÀeceele JeeHej}suîee meeefnl³ee®³ee efJe¬eÀercetuîeeJej }eiet Demelees, yegkeÀ/efJe¬eÀer kesÀ}suîee SkeÀkeÀeceO³es DeeJeµ³ekeÀ Deme}suîee meeefnl³eeJej 5 ìkeÌkesÀ efkebÀJee 12.5 ìkeÌkesÀ Jn@ì oj }eiet neslees DeeefCe oeJee FveHegì ì@keÌme ¬esÀef[ì (p³ee}e mesì Dee@HeÀ Demesner cnCeleele) cenejeä^ jep³eekeÀ[tve Kejsoer kesÀ}suîee cee}e®³ee efkeÀceleerJej Jn@ì Yeªve HegjJeþeoeje}e efo}s peeles. pees SceJn@ì keÀe³eÐeeDebleie&le veeWoCeerke=Àle efJelejkeÀ Deme}e Heeefnpes. ner Jn@ì®eer He×le Del³eble ieglb eeietlb eer®eer Deens keÀejCe l³eeletve SketÀCe yeebOekeÀece #es$eHeÀUeletve efJekeÀuîee ies}us îee #es$eHeÀUe®ee, Òel³eskeÀ ³egevf e쮳ee efJe¬eÀer®eer leejerKe, meJe& ³egevf e쮳ee efJe¬eÀer®eer efJeefJeOe keÀjej cetuîes, yeebOekeÀecee®³ee ìHH³eele kesÀ}s}er meJe& Kejsoer peer leerve les Hee®e Je<ex efkebÀJee peemle Demes}, mLeeefvekeÀ m$eesle efkebÀJee Deeblejjep³e efkebÀJee Dee³eele keÀªve kesÀ}s}er Kejsoer, yeebOekeÀecee®es ìHHes Fl³eeoer os³e Jn@쮳ee ceespeceeHeemeeþer }eiet nesles.

l³ee®eJesUer cenejeä^ jep³e mejkeÀejves DeefOemete®f ele kesÀ}s}er kebÀHeesePf eµeve He×le leg}vesves meesHeer Deens. `kebÀHeesePf eµeve ³eespevee' DeefOemet®evee ¬eÀceebkeÀ Jn@ì 1510/meerDeej-65/keÀj 1 efoveebkeÀ 9 peg}w 2010 jespeervegmeej DeefOemete®f ele Pee}er DeeefCe leer 1 SefÒe} 2010 Heemetve }eiet Pee}er. meoj ³eespevesvegmeej keÀjej 1 SefÒe} 2010 veblej veeWoCeerke=Àle kesÀ}s}e Demeuîeeme kebÀHeesePf eµeve jkeÌkeÀce mebyebeOf ele efJekeÀuîee ies}us îee/yegkeÀ kesÀ}suîee SketÀCe keÀjej cetuîee®³ee efkebÀJee mì@cHe µegukeÀe®³ee 1 ìkeÌkeÀe Deens, peer peemle Demes} leer. ³ee ³eespevesle keÀener Deìer DeeefCe ce³ee&oe Demetve l³eele mebHetCe& 1 ìkeÌkeÀe keÀjej veeWoCeerke=Àle kesÀ}suîee ceefnv³eele os³ele Deens. ceie ³egevf e쮳ee yeebOekeÀecee®ee ìHHee efkebÀJee ÒekeÀuHee®eer leejerKe keÀenerner Demees. l³eecegUs mebHetCe& jkeÌkeÀce meg©Jeeleer}e®e Yej}er peeles. keÀjej jÎ keÀjC³eele Deeuîeeme efkebÀJee ÒekeÀuHe megª Pee}e veener efkebÀJee HetCe& Pee}e vemeuîeeme Deµee Yej}suîee jkeÀces®³ee HejleeJ³eeyeeyele keÀesCeleerner mHeälee vemeles. meoj SkeÀkeÀ ogmeN³ee Kejsoeroeje}e yeebOekeÀecee®³ee ìHH³eele efJekeÀ}s iesuîeeme lesJne nener keÀjej Jn@ì}e }eiet neslees. efJekeÀemekeÀe}e yeebOekeÀeceele meceeefJeä Deme}suîee meeefnl³eeJej FveHegì keÀjner efceUle veener efkebÀJee Deeblejjep³eer³e Kejsoermeeþer Depe& meer Debleie&le meeefnl³e Kejsoer keÀjC³eemener lees Hee$e þjle veener. meeceev³eleë efJekeÀemekeÀ DeeefCe Kejsoeroej 1 SefÒe} 2010 veblej kebÀHeesePf eµeve mkeÀerce®ee He³ee&³e efveJe[leele keÀejCe leer meesHeer Deens. pegv³ee keÀe}eJeOeermeeþer cnCepes 1 SefÒe} 2010 HetJeea veeWoCeerke=Àle kesÀ}suîee keÀjejebmeeþer kebÀHeesePf eµeve®eer jkeÌkeÀce kebÀ$eeìe®³ee cetuîee®³ee 5 ìkeÌkesÀ nesleer DeeefCe efJekeÀemekeÀ cenejeä^ jep³eekeÀ[tve kesÀ}suîee KejsoerJej DeefleefjkeÌle 4 ìkeÌkesÀ Jn@ì osC³eeme Hee$e nesles. Jn@ì Òeef¬eÀ³eener ieglb eeietlb eer®eer DemeuîeecegU g s De®etkeÀ ceespeceeHee®³ee He×leermeeþer efJeefµeä efjì ³eeef®ekeÀe peevesJeejer 2015 ceO³es cegyb eF& G®®e v³ee³ee}³eekeÀ[tve ScemeerS®eDee³e, efyeu[me& Demeesemf eSµeve Dee@HeÀ Fbe[f ³ee DeeefCe Flej KeìuîeebceO³es SskeÀ}er ies}er DeeefCe l³eeJejer} efveCe&³e DeÐeeHe Pee}s}e veener.


µeyoeLe& keÀener cenÊJee®³ee meb%ee, DeefYeJ³ekeÌleer DeeefCe mebyebeOf ele lejlegoer [sJn}HeceWì kebÀì^e} s jsi³eg}µs evme HeÀe@j ûesìj yee@cyes 1991 Debleie&le Kee}er}ÒeceeCes

1. FceejleeR®es ÒekeÀej

De. ``DeewÐeeseif ekeÀ Fceejle“ cnCepes Fceejle efkebÀJee efle®ee Yeeie efpeLes GlHeeoves efkebÀJee meeefnl³e le³eej nesles, pees[}s peeles efkebÀJee Òeef¬eÀ³ee kesÀ}er peeles. pemes Demescy}er H}evìdme, Òe³eesieµeeUe, Tpee&evf eefce&leer keWÀês, efjHeÀe³evejerpe, Jee³et keÀejKeevee, efiejC³ee, [sDejer DeeefCe keÀejKeeves

1. Hee³eN³ee ef}HeÌì DeeefCe ef}HeÌì He@mespe pees ceneHeeef}kesÀves JesUesJesUer þjJe}suîee oje®³ee Hetle&lesveblej efo}e peelees. 2. Hee³eN³eeKee}er} ªcme, ef}HeÌì ceµeerve ªcme, ie®®eerJejer} ìeke̳ee 3. Flej Jeweµf eäs 4. HeeCeer meeþJeCetkeÀ, µees<e ìekeÀer DeeefCe HebHe ªce ye. ``keÀe³ee&}³eerve Fceejle“ (mebkegÀ}) cnCepes Fceejle efkebÀJee mebkegÀ} efkebÀJee 5. meseHf ìkeÀ ìekeÀer, µees<eKe·e efle®ee SkeÀ Yeeie p³ee®es cetU efkebÀJee cegK³e JeeHej keÀe³ee&}³e efkebÀJee 6. F}sekf eÌìk^ eÀ ceerìj ªce keÀe³ee&}³eerve GefÎäemeeþer efkebÀJee keÀejkegÀveer keÀeceemeeþer Deens. keÀe³ee&}³eerve 7. 3 ®eew. ceerìj #es$eHeÀUeHe³e¥le Jee@®eceve®eer kesÀefyeve GefÎäebceO³es ÒeµeemekeÀer³e GefÎä, keÀejkegÀveer keÀece, Hewmes neleeUCes, 8. F}sekf eÌìk^ eÀ GHemLeevekeÀ ìse} f HeÀesve, ìse} f ûeeHeÀ DeeefCe mebieCekeÀer³e keÀece DeeefCe keÀejkegÀveer keÀeceele 9. Hees®e& }sKeve, yegkeÀ keÀereHf ebie, keÀeieoHe$es, ìe³eefHebie, HeÀe³eef}ib e, [geHq }kesÀì yeveJeCes, 10. 10 ìkeÌkesÀ peceerve #es$eHeÀUeHe³e¥le yeeukeÀveer keÀe[& efkebÀJee ìsHe Heb®e keÀjCes, ceµeerve ceespeCeer DeeefCe ÒekeÀeµeveemeeþer meeefnl³e 11. í ppee, meveye´ks eÀme& Fceejleer®³ee meceesj®³ee yeepetkeÀ[tve 1.2 ceerìjHes#ee ef®eef$ele keÀjCes DeeefCe ÒekeÀeµeveemeeþer®³ee meeefnl³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀer³e peemle veener. le³eejer keÀjCes. 12. yeeukeÀveerJejer} megob j mepeeJeì 0.75 ceerìjHe³e¥le 13. keÀ®ejekegÀb [er keÀ. ``efveJeemeer Fceejle“ cnCepes SkeÀ Deµeer Fceejle efpeLes meeceev³e efveJeemeer 14. DeeHelkeÀe}erve efpevee DeeefCe DeeHelkeÀe}erve yeeukeÀveer GefÎäebmeeþer PeesHeC³ee®eer megeJf eOee GHe}yOe keÀªve efo}er peeles. p³eele 15. ie@jps e mJe³ebHeekeÀe®³ee efkebÀJee pesJeCee®³ee megeJf eOee Demeleer} Jee vemeleer} DeeefCe 16. keÀej Heeefke¥Àiemeeþer leUIej SkeÀ efkebÀJee peemle keÀewìebg yf ekeÀ Iejs, }e@epf ebie efkebÀJee ªefcebie Iejs, ne@mìs}®³ee 17. efmìuì [e@ecf e&ìjer, DeHeeì&ceWì Iejs, HeÌ}ì@ DeeefCe Deµee FceejleeR®eer Keemeieer ie@jps e. 18. meesmee³eìer keÀe³ee&}³e 19. leUcepeuîeeJejer} efmìuìpeJeUer} DeeefCe Òel³eskeÀ efJebiemeeþer Òel³eskeÀ [. ``yengcepe}er Fceejle“ efkebÀJee ``ieieve®egyb eer Fceejle“ cnCepes 24 ceerìjHes#ee cepeuîeeJejer} keÀce&®eeN³eeb®es µeew®ee}³e peemle Gb®eer®eer Fceejle peer DeemeHeeme®³ee mejemejer peefceveer®³ee HeeleUerHes#ee 20. jsHe̳egpe Yeeie ceesþer Demes}. 21. Smeer H}evì ªce 22. ogOee®es yetLe, ìse} f HeÀesve yetLe 2. ®eìF& #es$e efveoxµeebkeÀ ( SHeÀSmeDee³e) 23. leUcepeuîeeJejer} He$eHesìer cnCepes meJe& cepeuîeeb®³ee SkeÀef$ele peefceveer®³ee #es$eHeÀUe®eer SkeÀ ìkeÌkesÀJeejer. 24. efKe[keÀer®³ee HeeleUerJejer} keÀHeeìeb®es Yeeie p³eele efve³eceebKee}er p³ee peeiee JeieUC³eele Deeuîee Deensle l³ee H}e@쮳ee 25. Deejpeer }sDeeTìceO³es ceev³eleeÒeeHle j®evee SketÀCe #es$eHeÀUe®³ee leg}vesle 26. meeb[HeeCeer Òeef¬eÀ³ee keÀejKeevee meJe& cepeuîeebJejer} SketÀCe ceespe}s}s #es$eHeÀU ®eìF& #es$e efveoxµeebkeÀ (SHeÀSmeDee³e) † ööööö H}e@ì #es$eHeÀU veeWo.ö SHeÀSmeDee³e®eer ceespeCeer cnCepes SketÀCe yeebOeerJe #es$eHeÀU pees meJe& cepeuîeebJej ceespe}e peeF&} DeeefCe l³eele [ermeer efve³ece 1991 vegmeej DeHeJeeo Demeleer}. Kee}er} peeiee SHeÀSmeDee³e®³ee ceespeCeerletve JeieUuîee peeleele ([ermeer efve³ece 35 (2) Heene)

veeWoë SKeeÐee Kees}erleer} mHeä ÒekeÀeµe 4.2 ceerìjHes#ee keÀceer Demeuîeeme Demee Yeeie SHeÀSmeDee³e®³ee ceespeCeerle SkeÀoe ceespeC³eele ³eeJee. mHeä met³e&ÒekeÀeµe 4.2 Hes#ee DeefOekeÀ Demeuîeeme Demee Yeeie oer[ JesUe ceespeC³eele ³eeJee. megeJf eOeeë megeJf eOee cnCepes jmles, ceeie&, Keguîee peeiee, yeieer®es, Deejeceemeeþer

cewoeves, KesUe®eer cewoeves, yeieer®es, HeeCeerHegjJeþe, JeerpeHegjJeþe, jml³eeJejer} efo}s, Heeefke¥Àie®eer peeieeë SkeÀ pees[}s}er efkebÀJee ve pees[}s}er, yebeof mle efkebÀJee meeb[HeeCeer, [^vs espe, meeJe&peefvekeÀ keÀe³e&, Flej megeJf eOee, mesJee DeeefCe mees³eer Keg}er peeiee peer iee[îee Heeke&À keÀjC³eemeeþer Hegjµs eer Demes}. Heeefke¥Àie®eer peeiee l³eebvee pees[CeeN³ee [^eFJn Jesves pees[}er Demes} DeeefCe leer jmlee efkebÀJee ie}Áelr e eqH}bLe Yeeieë leUcepe}e efkebÀJee Flej keÀesCel³eener cepeuîee®³ee peefceveer®³ee peeF&} DeeefCe iee[îeebvee ³esCespeeCes µeke̳e nesF} & . HeeleUerJej ceespe}s}s yeebOeerJe #es$eHeÀU HejJeeveieerë SkeÀ JewOe HejJeeveieer efkebÀJee me#ece DeefOekeÀeN³eekeÀ[tve }sKeer H}e@ìë efveef½ele meerceejs<eebveer yeebOe}s}e peefceveer®ee legkeÀ[e mJeªHee®eer ceev³elee efJekeÀeme HetCe& nesC³eemeeþer efkebÀJee efve³eceevegmeej Heej Hee[}s}s SKeeos keÀece ®eìF& #es$eë SkeÀe Fceejleerleer} efveJJeU JeeHejC³ee³eesi³e peefceveer®es #es$eHeÀU. l³eeletve efYebleeRveer yeebOe}s}s efkebÀJee Flej keÀesCelesner Yeeie pes ³ee efve³eceeJe}erle ®eìF& ef}HeÌìë efve³ece ¬eÀceebkeÀ 47 (2) #es$e efveoxµeebkeÀele JeieUC³eele Dee}s Deens. efve³eespeve DeeefCe ef[PeeFveë ef}HeÌì®es efve³eespeve DeeefCe ef[PeeFve, l³eeb®ee vebyej ÒekeÀej DeeefCe #ecelee peer Fceejleer®³ee }eskeÀmebK³esJej DeJe}byetve Demes}, yeebOeerJe #es$eHeÀUë meJe& cepeuîeeJejer} peeiee peer Fceejleerves JeeHej}s}er Deens leey³ee®³ee JepeveeJej DeeOeeefjle Òel³eskeÀ cepeuîeeJejer} }eskeÀmebK³ee DeeefCe p³eele meeceeef³ekeÀ Yeeie Deensle, Hejbleg ³ee efve³eceeJe}erleer} veeWoJe}suîee Yeeieebvee Fceejleer®eer Gb®eer ³ee keÀ}ce Hee®e vegmeej DemeeJ³eeleë Fvmìe@}µs eve Dee@HeÀ ef}HeÌì l³eeletve JeieU}s Deens. De@C[ SmkeÀ}sìme&, ve@µeve} yeBekf ebÀie keÀes[ Dee@HeÀ Fbe[f ³ee. }esHeÌìë oesve cepeuîeebJejer} SkeÀ ceOe}e cepe}e efkebÀJee meeþJeCetkeÀermeeþer osKeYee}ë 1. ef}HeÌ쮳ee ÒemLeeHeves®eer efve³eefcele mJe®ílee, }geyf e´kesÀµeve yeebOe}suîee jml³eeJejer} SkeÀ ceOe}er peeiee peer meeceev³e HeeleUer®³ee Jej Deens. le[pees[ DeeefCe Hegjms es meeqJn&emf ebie DeefOeke=Àle me#ece J³ekeÌleeRkeÀ[tve meeOevee®ee ÒekeÀej DeeefCe mesJes®³ee JeejbJeejlesle kesÀ}e peeF&} Deµee keÀe}eJeOeerveblej. ef}HeÌì ce@pesveeFve cepe}eë SkeÀ ceOe}e cepe}e pees }esHeÌì veener, lees cepe}e DeeefCe Fvmìe@}µs eve osKeYee} veerì kesÀ}s}er Demeuîeeme leer megjef#ele jenles, SkeÀ ³eesi³e Fceejleer®³ee ílee®³ee ceO³es Deens. osKeYee} JesUeHe$ekeÀ ef}HeÌì GlHeeokeÀebmeesyele ®e®ee& keÀªve le³eej keÀjeJes. DeeefCe l³ee®es keÀþesj Hee}ve JneJes. cee}keÀë SkeÀ J³ekeÌleer pees peefceveer®³ee efkebÀJee Fceejleer®³ee JeeHejemeeþer Yee[s ÒeeHle keÀjlees DeeefCe l³eeJej l³ee®eer cee}keÀer Demeles. l³eele Kee}er} Deensleë ef}HeÌ쮳ee osKeYee}er®³ee efkebÀJee keÀeceeletve nesCeeN³ee DeHeIeelee®eer veeWo me#ece 1. SkeÀ DeefOeke=Àle Spebì efkebÀJee efJeéemle pees ³ee cee}keÀe®³ee Jeleerves Demes Yee[s ÒeeefOekeÀeN³eekeÀ[s kesÀ}er peeJeer. Goe. ef}HeÌì FvmHeskeÌìj, cenejeä^ mejkeÀej. ÒeeHle keÀjlees. 2. SkeÀ ÒeeHleerkeÀlee&, Debce}yepeeJeCeerkeÀlee& efkebÀJee ÒeµeemekeÀ efkebÀJee keÀesCel³eener efJekeÀeme nkeÌkeÀeb®es nmleeblejCe (efve³ece ¬eÀceebkeÀ 34) v³ee³ee}³e efkebÀJee me#ece ³eb$eCeskeÀ[tve vesce}s}e J³eJemLeeHekeÀ pees cee}keÀe®eer peyeeyeoejer mJeerkeÀejs} DeeefCe l³ee®es nkeÌkeÀ yepeeJes}. efJeefµeä HeefjefmLeleerle SkeÀe peefceveer®³ee H}e@ì®eer efJekeÀemee®eer #ecelee peefceveerHes#ee 3. SkeÀ Spebì efkebÀJee efJeéemle pees Yee[s ÒeeHle keÀjlees efkebÀJee l³ee®³eeJej JesieUer Demet µekeÀles DeeefCe l³eecegUs leer peefceveer®³ee cee}keÀe}e ì^evmeHeÀjsyej peyeeyeoejer Deens efkebÀJee Oeeefce&keÀ efkebÀJee efJeéemle GefÎ<ìe®eer Fceejleerµeer [sJn}HeceWì jeFìdme (ìer[erDeej)®³ee ceeHe&Àle GHe}yOe nesT µekeÀles. mebyebeOf ele J³ekeÌleer 4. leejCee®eer Òeef¬eÀ³ee m$eesleë ieeF[ ìt efj-[sJn}HeceWì Dee@HeÀ neTefmebie meesmee³eìerpe, De@[. kesÀ. kesÀ. jeceeCeer (jeceeCeer }erie} meeqJn&mesme)  


ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej legcne}e ÒekeÀuHe J³eJemLeeHeve me}Áeieej nJes Demeleer} lej ³esLetve megªJeele keÀje.

ÒeYet Demeesemf eSìdme keÀvmeuìbìmd e Òee³eJnsì ef}efceìs[ HeÊeeë S-1, 3012, }jece meWìj, ieesu[ve iesì ne@ì} s ®³ee Jej, H}@ìHeÀe@ce& ¬eÀceebkeÀ 6 meceesj, DebOesjer (He.), cegyb eF&- 400 058. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Þeer. Sme. Deej. osmeeF&- 42551414 Fces}: / [sJn}HeceWì keÀvmeuìvmeer meeqJn&mesme HeÊeeë 202, meeiej De@Jnsv³et, Sme. Jner. jes[, Dee³emeerDee³emeerDee³e yeBkesÀ®³ee Jej, DebOesjer (He.), Sce-58, mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀ: Þeer. megob j jepeve 9820131759/26205701 Fces}: Jeemleg Demeesemf eSìdme HeÊeeë 73, [er/2, SkeÀelcelee veiej, pes. yeer. veiej, DebOesjer (Het.), mebHeke&À veeJe/ ¬eÀceebkeÀë Þeer efveefKe} efHebHegìkeÀj (mì^keÌ®ej} DeefYe³eblee), Þeerceleer ÒeepekeÌlee Heeìer} (Jeemlegj®eveekeÀej) 9821038065/982153529 1/9769088250 Fces} : / / veboeHetjkeÀj De@C[ Demeesemf eSìdme HeÊeeë 4/32, GVele veiej3, Sce. peer. jes[, ieesjis eeJe (He.), Sce-104 mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Þeer DejefJebo veboeHetjkeÀj, Deeefke&ÀìskeÌì 9820326427, meew. GÊeje veboeHetjkeÀj- DeefYe³eblee 981946785/ 28775590 F ces}: / megÒeerce Fbepf ekeÀe@vme (Fbe[f ³ee) Òee.ef}. HeÊeeë 401, Þeer ke=À<Ce ìe@Jej, ef}kb eÀ jes[, DebOesjer (He.), Sce-53 mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀ ë 26732435 Je 26732436 Fces}: / mì^keÌì ke̳egDej Fbepf eveerDeme& HeÊeeë 302, cenejeä^ efyeu[eRie, cesieecee@} meceesj, Deeseµf eJeje, peesieséejer (He.), Sce-102, mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 65001302/9821604948/9323234747 Fces}: }ef}le De@C[ Demeesemf eSìdme, HeÊeeë meeF& efJejepe DeHeeì&ceWì, yeer-104, H}e@ì ¬eÀceebkeÀ meer/8, [er ceeì&peJeU, meskeÌìj 9, Ssjes}er, veJeer cegyb eF&/meer-70, µeebleer µee@eHf ebie meWìj, jsuJesmLeevekeÀepeJeU, efceje jes[ (Het.), þeCes- 401107 mebHeke&À veeJe/ ¬eÀceebkeÀ: 65652977/9321035048/9222552270 Fces}: ìesì} meesuîetµevme HeÊeeë µee@He 47S, Heefn}e cepe}e, DeejSveS µee@eHf ebie meWìj, DebOesjer (He.), Sce-53, mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 22938303/30659713/9820130492

Fces}: jskeÌme keÀe@ve keÀe@j keÀvmeuìbìmd e Òee. ef}. HeÊeeë ef¬eÀmì} H}ePee 706- 707, S efJebie, FeqvHeÀefveìer cee@}meceesj, DebOesjer (He.), Sce 53, mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 26734133/26730455/26730455/26354386/26344950/9221020869. Fces}ë / / efveDees ìskeÀ keÀvmeuìbìmd e HeÊeeë 4, Heefn}e cepe}e, ®ebêkeÀeble DeHeeì&ceWì, nvegceeve cebeof jemeceesj, Þes³eme keÀe@}veer, ieesjis eeJe (Het.), Sce-63. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 9322255108/9930344006/9930999312/29272735/29272383, Fces}ë DejefJebo efmebie keÀvmeuìbìmd e HeÊeeë ieebOeer veiej, meceeOeevee meerS®eSmeS} Fceejle ¬eÀceebkeÀ 45, ªce ¬eÀceebkeÀ 2233, cne[e Dee@eHf eÀmepeJeU, Jeebês (Het.), Sce-51. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 65210232/65345001. Fces}ë Demeesemf eSìs[ Fbepf eveerDeme& HeÊeeë 3/54, efmebie Fb[eqmì^³e} Fmìsì ¬eÀceebkeÀ 3, jececebeof j jes[, ieesjis eeJe (He.), Sce-104, mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀ 26763052/26791814/9819368787/9821168787 Fces}ë / ìskeÀ-Sve-FkeÀes HeÊeeë 417, Heece efmHebie meWìj, ef}kb eÀ jes[, cee}e[ (He.) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë efceefLe}sµe oUJeerë 9833312519/9819624785/28888702/40039355. Fces}ë / OeejieUkeÀj ìskeÌveesemf eme HeÊeeë [er-104, jeOee ieeseJf ebo, efme×eLe& veiejpeJeU, Heef½ece êgleieleer ceeiee&Jej, yeesejf Je}er (HetJe&) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Deej. kesÀ. vee³ej 28461317/28461500 Fces}:


³eµejepe De@C[ Demeesemf eSìdme HeerScemeer HeÊeeë 128, ³eµeJeble µee@eHf ebie meWìj, meeleJee keÀeì&j jes[, jsuJesmLeevekeÀepeJeU, yeesejf Je}er (Het.), cegyb eF& 400 086. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë censµe ³eµejepe- 9223419450 Fces}ë Deeefke&ÀìskeÌì Hebe[f le De@C[ SefLekeÀ} meesuîetµevme HeÊeeë ieesjis eeJe keÀe³ee&}³e 241, efmeìer meWìj cee@}, ye=nvcegyb eF& ceneHeeef}keÀe keÀe³ee&}³eepeJeU, Sme. Jner. jes[, ieesjis eeJe (He.), cegyb eF&. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë FmceeF}- 022-28712825/9920957794/9821111716 cevees ÒeespeskeÌì keÀvmeuìbìmd e Òee. ef}. HeÊeeë yeer/36, ieebOeer veiej meerS®eSme, Deebyes[keÀj µeeUspeJeU, ¬eÀe@me jes[ ceenerce, mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë cegib eer}e}- 49178235. Fces}ë De@Òeesce@keÀ HeerScemeer De@C[ Fbeìf efj³ej ef[Pee³eveme& HeÊeeë S-5, Deveble veiej, efj×eremf e×er cebeof j keÀe³ee&}³eepeJeU, Sme. Jner. jes[ cee}e[ (He.) peJeU, cegyb eF&- 400064. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë HeJeveer 49183788 Fces}ë, Sce/Sme Jner. Jner. De@C[ Demeesemf eSìdme HeÊeeë 417, Heece efmHebie meWìj, ef}kb eÀ jes[, cee}e[ (He.) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Þeer. efJeéeeme peesµeer26121028/26122099. Fces}: DeekeÀeµe SbìjÒee³ePesme HeÊeeë yeesejf Je}er He. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë DeekeÀeµe SbìjÒee³ePesme, 28919114/28944684 Fces}: keÀe@veÒees keÀvmeuìbÆme Òee. ef}. HeÊeeë ieesjis eeJe (HetJe&) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Deefvelee 28781316/28791316 Fces}:

He}eµe HeerScemeer S}S}Heer HeÊeeë HeejsKe ceekexÀì, pesSmeSme jes[, Dee@Hesje ne@Tme, cegyebF-& 400004. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 98217 15584/9821322140 Fces}ë Jeemlegeµf euHe HeÊeeë yeesejf Je}er (He.) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Sme. Sme. keÀ}yeeie- 28337242 jJeer keÀejJeej9821011668 Fces}:

m$eesleë cenejeä^ meesmee³eìerpe Jes}Hd esÀDej Demeesemf eSµeve keÀener GHe³egkeÌle HegmlekesÀ ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ® ®

efj[sJn}HeceWì efÒeHejsµeve- 200 efj[sJn}HeceWì ìW[j Òeef¬eÀ³ee 150 efj[sJn}HeceWì [e@ke̳egceWìµs eve 200 efj[sJn}HeceWì- SHeÀSke̳et 120 [erc[ keÀvJns³evme Fbeiq }µe 625 [erc[ keÀvJns³evme cejeþer- 725 Òe@ekq eÌìkeÀ} ieeF[ Dee@ve mì@cHe [îetìer- 150 jefpemì^µs eve Dee@HeÀ [e@ke̳egceWìmd e 120 jefpemì^µs eve Dee@HeÀ neTefmebie meesmee³eìer- 120 Jej G}Áes Kf ele meJe& HegmlekesÀ cenejeä^ meesmee³eìerpe Jes}Hd esÀDej Demeesemf eSµeveves ÒekeÀeefµele kesÀ}er Deensle. keÀesDee@Hejseìf Jn meesmee³eìer js[er jskeÀvej- De@[. efJeveeso mebHele, jsemf e[Wìmd e, ³egpeme& De@C[ Jes}Hd esÀDej Demeesemf eSµevekeÀ[tve ÒekeÀeefµele 750 (megceejs) [erc[ keÀvJns³evme- 2015, De@[. kesÀ. kesÀ. jeceeCeer, 600 ejf [sJn}HeceWì Dee@HeÀ neTefmebie meesmee³eìer- 2015, De@. kesÀ. kesÀ jeceeCeer. 695. ejf [sJn}HeceWì js[er jskeÀvej, meblees<e kegÀceej DeeefCe megveerle iegHlee. Deeefke&ÀìskeÌìmd e Heeqy}efµebie keÀe@Heexjµs eve Dee@HeÀ Fbe[f ³eekeÀkeÀ[tve ÒekeÀeefµele 500

Sce/Sme meerSveme keÀvmeuìbìmd e mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Deeeféeve YeÆ- 9821076828, efµeuHesve meJez³ee 9819173535, eflevesµe iee}e- 9869469237. Fces}ë yeer. pes. cesnlee Deeefke&ÀìskeÌ®ej} De@C[ mì^keÌ®ej} keÀvmeuìbìmd e Òee. ef}. HeÊeeë keÀe³ee&}³e 2 DeeefCe 3, Deefcele efJepe³e DeHeeì&ceWì, cee@[ve& [sDejerpeJeU, keÀmlegjyee ¬eÀe@me jes[, keÀebeof Je}er (He.), cegyb eF& 400067. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë meew. jepeÞeer- 28621676. Fces}ë jeFì HeerScemeer Òee. ef}. HeÊeeë [er/4. ®eejkeÀesHe mvesn} J¿et meer J¿et, meerS®eSmeS}, H}e@ì ¬eÀceebkeÀ 932, meskeÌìj ¬eÀceebkeÀ 8, ®eejkeÀesHe, keÀebeof Je}er (He.), cegyb eF& 400067. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë efveleerve veeF&keÀë 9821157052/9322258405. Fces}ë Sef[HeÀeFme Fjske̵eve Òee. ef} (HeerScemeer) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 02228984915. Fces}ë ceemìj ce@vespeceWì keÀvmeuìbìmd e HeÊeeë v³et GÐeesie cebeof j, keÀceeveJee}e ®eWyeme& ¬eÀ.2, ³egevf eì ¬eÀceebkeÀ 7, cegie} jes[, ceenerce (He.), cegyb eF& 400016. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë ®ebêµs e ose{f ³ee, Òeeoseµf ekeÀ J³eJemLeeHekeÀ, ceesyeeF}- 91 96198 60881. Fces}ë Sce/Sme Sme. yeer. Demeesemf eSìdme HeÊeeë [er- 63/yeer, leUcepe}e, J³eescesµe, mJeeceer veeje³eCe cebeof je ceeies, SmeJnerHeer jes[, yeesejf Je}er (He.), cegyb eF& 400 092. mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 28905531/28913104. Fces}ë efj[sJn}HeceWì ÒeespeskeÌìme ce@vespeceWì keÀvmeuìbìmd e mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë i}sve HeÀvee¥e[f me 983545366. Fces}ë j®evee Deeefke&ÀìskeÌì De@C[ Fbepf eveerDeme& HeÊeeë yeesejf Je}er (Het.) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë Þeer. meceerj- 26705421/69. Fces}ë owmeeefj³ee Demeesemf eSìdme mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë 61110504. Fces}ë keÀefHe} ye#eer Deeefke&ÀìskeÌì HeÊeeë yeesejf Je}er (He.) mebHeke&À veeJe/¬eÀceebkeÀë meew. ÒeCee}er- 28691554. Fces}ë




Number of years of relevant experience in the business

1 to 3 yrs


3 to 5 yrs


5 to 10 yrs


10 to 15 yrs

7 10

> 15 yrs


Final Weightage





Based on city classification as follows



Number of flats constructed in the past 5 years

1. Timeliness of completion 2. Quality of constuction 3. Trade reference with vendors


B (Tier II)

C (Tier III)

> 1500


> 200


> 1200

> 750

> 150


> 1000


> 100


> 500

> 300

> 50


> 500

> 300

> 50


Number of flats redevelopment Projects Executed in last 5 years

Track record of the Builder 4

A (Tier I)

12 nos.

Scoring between 1 to 10 will be assigned to these parameters on the basis of past performance of the builder, which would be cross checked during the survey carried out by the Asset Management Team












Asset Management Team will assign score between 1 to 10 for these

Other Details

> 100cr a)


> 200cr


> 500cr b)






Infrastructure availability




Total Score out of 10


Builder Scoring Score > than 7.5

A Category

Score > than 7.5 but < 6

B Category

Score < 6

C Category

The above matrix is indicative. Users will need to change the scores based on the developer’s parameters. Courtesy: EKTA WORLD

Mumbai Makeover - Handbook 2015  
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