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Making the Most of Pathfinder In addition to the suggestions in the teacher’s notes for each lesson and the ideas in Key Features (page 9), here are practical suggestions to help you use Pathfinder 3 with your class.

Learning to Learn This section helps students find their way around the Students’ Book and covers basic vocabulary and grammar.

Unit Objectives Every unit starts with a list of objectives so students always know exactly what they are going to learn. ■

Before starting the Warm-up exercises, ask students to read the Unit Objectives: In this unit you will … .

Check that students understand the objectives, using L1 if necessary.

Get students to think about which of the objectives are most important for their individual learning.

At the end of every unit, refer to the objectives again. Encourage students to talk about what they have found difficult or easy.

Refer students to the Unit Diary in the Workbook, which helps students to reflect on their learning in the unit, and to review any aspects of grammar that need clarifying or further work.

Key Words These present the active vocabulary for the lesson.

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In most lessons, students are encouraged to activate vocabulary they know or guess the meaning of new words in a short warm-up exercise.

With students, look at the words in the Key Words box, and list any words they do not know.

Refer students to the Mini-Dictionary. Ask them to check meaning. Do not give meanings yourself.

Elicit the meanings of the Key Words.

Play the CD and get students to repeat the words. If students have problems with any words, get them to listen and repeat more than once.

Remind students to write new words in their vocabulary books.


Making the Most of Pathfinder

headword pronunciation part of speech definition example

The Mini-Dictionary The Mini-dictionary only includes words considered useful for this level. The Mini-Dictionary is designed to build students’ confidence and skills in using dictionaries as a vital part of their language learning experience. ■

Give students opportunities to get to know what’s in their Mini-Dictionary. The Mini-Dictionary should be used every day, in every lesson, and it is important that students feel at ease with it.

Get students to use their Mini-Dictionary as they work out the meaning of important words (see Reading Strategies on page 9).

Get students to use their Mini-Dictionary to help them with the Key Word Bank exercises in the Workbook.

Encourage students to write down new vocabulary in their vocabulary books.

Grammar Presentations Pathfinder teaches grammar in context, in the form of a short dialogue or text.

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Don’t worry when students say ‘We’ve done it before!’ Make stronger students aware that, even though they may have studied a grammar point before and know the form, they often have problems with the use of it.

Encourage students to work out the grammar rules themselves. Make sure you give them plenty of time to do the rule formatting exercises.

Before students practise the grammar, refer them to the relevant sections of the Grammar Summary (see page 6).

Finally, go over the rules with the whole class, using L1 when necessary.

At the end of each Grammar Focus lesson, encourage students to write their own examples of the grammar structures in their notebooks.

Encourage students to use the Grammar Summary at the back of the Students’ Book while they are doing their homework. The Grammar Summary gives students more examples of the target grammar.

At the end of every second unit in the Students’ Book there is a Language Problem-Solving section which presents and practises difficult language structures.


How to use Pathfinder

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un it

2 Heroes ■

Unit objectives Draw students’ attention to the unit objectives. Point out that the objectives include reading, speaking, listening and writing. Ask students to think about which of these skills is their strongest and which is their weakest and to decide which objective is most important for them at this stage.

Resource used

Exercise

CD.

Background The photos are movie stills from Alien IV starring Sigourney Weaver and Shakespeare in Love starring Gwyneth Paltrow and Joseph Fiennes. Sigourney Weaver has starred in all four Alien films, playing the role of a brave, dynamic and intelligent heroine. Ronaldo is a Brazilian footballer. Mother Teresa was a nun from Romania who devoted her whole life to helping the poor and sick in Calcutta. Hamlet is the sensitive and indecisive hero of Shakespeare’s play.

3

Students look at the pairs of adjectives and predict who the film characters could be. They then listen to the CD to see if their predictions were right.

When students have checked their answers, replay the recording, pausing it so that students can justify their answers; e.g. ‘Tom Hanks is brave because he never runs away from dangerous situations.’ Tapescript 1 Tom Hanks is a group commander in Saving Private Ryan. He is often frightened but he never runs away from dangerous situations. He always listens to the opinions of the others in his group. 2 Jack Nicholson is the villain in the first Batman film. He’s an absolutely horrible character! He never tells the truth and spends his time thinking of clever ways to trap Batman. 3 Sigourney Weaver, in the first Alien film, finds herself alone on a spaceship with an extremely dangerous alien. She stays calm and uses her powers of logic to finally kill the monster.

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Look at the three examples of heroes and heroines and elicit the qualities of each. Ask students which one they would vote for as their favourite hero or heroine. Students then work in pairs, writing down the names of different kinds of heroes and heroines. Students feedback the names of heroes and heroines to the class. Write some of the names on the board. Students then look at the Key Words and classify them as positive or negative.

Options Practice – Writing In groups, students write a character description of a wellknown film or television actor without saying who he/she is. Students then exchange their description with another group and try to guess who is being described. Practice – Speaking Students discuss the idea of the ‘unsung’ hero or heroine, an ordinary person who regularly does heroic things but will never become famous; e.g. lifeboat crews, firefighters, mountain rescue teams.

K ey W ords aggressive, arrogant, brave, calm, cruel, dishonest, generous, honest, intelligent, kind, romantic, sensitive, violent Answers positive – brave  calm  generous  honest  intelligent  kind romantic  sensitive negative – aggressive  arrogant  cruel  dishonest  violent ■

Each student writes down five or six sentences about film heroes, heroines and villains. In groups, students read out their sentences and the rest of the group agrees or disagrees with the statements.

Answers 1 a  2 c  3 b

Let students look at the pictures and ask them whether they have seen the films and, if so, have them give their opinions.

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Exercise ■

Warm-up

Exercise

Elicit more positive and negative adjectives to describe character; e.g. the opposite of brave (cowardly), generous (mean), intelligent (stupid), kind (cruel). Have students use some of the positive words to describe the heroes and heroines whose names are on the board. Then ask students to use some of the negative words to describe villains or anti-heroes in books or real life.

Check pronunciation of Key Words, especially word stress on the first syllable (arrogant, generous, honest, sensitive, violent) or second syllable (aggressive, dishonest, intelligent, romantic). Teacher’s Guide page

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Local Heroes

Lesson 6 P ast S i m ple

an d

P ast C onti n uous

■ ■ ■

To practise extensive reading in order to understand the main idea of each paragraph and intensive reading in order to guess the meaning of new words from the context. To give personal reactions to a story and opinions about the characters in the story. To use time linkers, especially adverbs and conjunctions. To revise the use of Past Simple and Past Continuous. To talk about recent events (last night, this morning).

Resources used Grammar Summary, page 132, pictures/drawings of people doing actions for use in Past Continuous practice in Exercise 6, local/national newspaper cuttings of ‘true life drama’ stories.

Possible problems

The distinction between Past Simple and Past Continuous is generally not a problem, but students may overuse the Past Continuous to talk about past habits; e.g. ‘I was playing football every day last summer’. Students may have forgotten the past forms of some irregular verbs.

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Students discuss Liz Pursey’s friend, Neil – what sort of person is he? How would he tell the story? What does he think of Liz? Ask students if they know anybody who has become a local or national hero or heroine – what did they do? If possible, bring a current newspaper cutting from the local or national press about a brave act carried out by an ordinary person. Students tell the story in English. Ask students if they have ever been in a situation where they had to act immediately. Have they ever been in a situation where they couldn’t immediately remember their name, address, telephone number, date of birth? Workbook: the Word Corner on page 17 gives further practice in words that go together.

Background The text is taken from a so-called women’s magazine. It is a sensationalist story very typical of such publications, a true life drama written in the first person and full of emotional and colourful words and expressions (e.g. out of control). Readers of these magazines are encouraged to send in their own experiences and they get a prize if they get published.

Presentation Exercise ■

Routes through the material If you are short of time, omit Exercise 9 and set some of the exercises for homework. ➤ If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break would be after Exercise 5. ➤

Workbook: pages 16-17.

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Ask students to read the first two sentences of the text in Exercise 1 and find the verbs in the Past Simple (went, left, offered). Elicit which verb is regular (offered) and which are irregular (went, left). Elicit other irregular verbs which students remember. Ask students to find the Past Continuous form in the first paragraph (were driving) and elicit why this verb is in the Past Continuous, not the Past Simple form. Students then complete the table. Answers 1 called  2 call  3 left  4 Did  5 leave  6 didn’t  7 Was 8 Were  9 wasn’t  10 weren’t

Before you start Exercise

Students read the text again to find words which show the time sequence. Write the words on the board: after that, first, when, then, meanwhile, in the end. Students close their books and retell the story using the words on the board.

Exercise ■

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Answers 1 b  2 c  3 d  4 a  5 e

Objectives ■

unit

1

Useful vocabulary: ruin, out of control, incredibly, unconscious, a state of shock. Pre-teach the meaning of ruin (paragraph title b) but encourage students to guess the meanings of the other words from the context. ■ Have students look at the picture and predict what the story is about. ■ Read through the paragraph titles with the class. Then students read the text working individually, matching the paragraphs to the titles. ■ Students compare their answers in pairs before checking the answers as a class.

Ask questions about the text in Exercise 1. Students answer using the Past Simple or the Past Continuous; e.g. ‘Was Neil driving?’ ‘How many people were in the car?’ ‘Who did Liz and Neil get out first?’ ‘Who was watching them?’ ‘Who called the emergency services?’

Exercise ■

Students look at the sentence and complete the timelines (Past Continuous, Past Simple). Students look back at the text and find another sentence with the same structure (Past Continuous/when/Past Simple). The first sentence of the fourth paragraph has the same structure.

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Exercise ■

Campaigners

Lesson 7 Speaking

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Read through the Listening Strategies with the students and ask them if they agree with them and if they use any of these strategies already. Encourage students to say what sort of listening texts and tasks they find difficult or easy and how they tackle them. Elicit what students think they will hear in the radio programme about Martin Luther King and what they hope to find out. Play the recording through once without pausing it. Then, encourage students to pool what they have understood on the CD.

Exercise

K ey W ords for – animal rights, freedom of speech, human rights, independence, peace, women’s rights, children’s rights against – racism, slavery, violence, war, pollution ■

Tapescript: see Teacher’s Guide, page 70.

Exercise ■

Students look at the Key Words and use the Mini-Dictionary to check their meanings. In pairs, students choose some famous campaigners and make notes about their causes. Students may wish to use reference books in the library or at home to research their campaigners. If so, set some preparation as homework.

Exercise

5

Students read through the sentences and predict what the answers are. Students listen to the CD and see if their predictions are correct. As you check students’ answers, ask them to correct the false sentences and make them true.

Pronunciation: Stress ■

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Before listening to the CD, ask students to listen and identify the stress in two or three sentences you say in their mother tongue. Then say a sentence in English; e.g. ‘This lesson started at ten o’clock’ and ask students to identify the stresses. Write the sentences on the board if necessary and underline the stressed syllables/words. Ask students which type of words are stressed (words that give important or new information, such as nouns and verbs). Students read the four sentences and predict where the stresses will occur in sentences 2–4. They then listen to the CD and see if they were correct. Play the CD again for students to repeat the sentences.

Students look at the three names and see if they are familiar with any of them and what he/she fought for. Students listen to the CD and match the people with the causes.

Answers Emmeline Pankhurst 3  William Wilberforce 2  Jane Goodall 1 Tapescript: see Teacher’s Guide, page 78. ■

Divide the class into three groups. Each group listens carefully to the information on the CD about one of the people. Play the CD again and then see how much information each group has remembered.

Option Extension Students discuss which campaign(s) they support and which one they think is the most important campaign at the present time.

Answers 2 Martin liked Gandhi’s ideas about peaceful protest. 3 He organised a march to Washington. 4 A white extremist killed him.

8

Students work in groups discussing their opinions about the famous campaigners they chose in Exercise 7. The groups can then have a class discussion about who are the three most important campaigners of the twentieth century.

Comparing cultures

Answers 1 T  2 F  3 T  4 T  5 F  6 F  7 T  8 T  9 F  10 T

Exercise

7

If students ask whether the stress can be different, explain that this is the normal stress pattern in these sentences.

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Lesson 10 Communication Workshop

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2 Stage 2. ■

Wond’rin’ who he might be, Along came a Spyder and picked up a rider And took him down the road to eternity. James Dean, James Dean, you bought it sight unseen. You were too fast to live, too young to die, bye-bye. You were too fast to live, too young to die, bye-bye. Bye-bye, Bye-bye, Bye-bye, Bye, bye.

Students work in groups of three or four, discussing their heroes/heroines. Each group might like to appoint a secretary to note down their agreements and report back to the class in the next stage. As the groups are working, go round and monitor their language, but don’t interrupt the discussion. Any general mistakes can be brought to their attention at the end of the discussion and remedial practice given, if necessary.

Exercise ■

Stage 3. ■

The groups report back to the class on their agreements (and disagreements, if you wish).

Students answer the questions about their own performance in the speaking activity. Have an open discussion about the mistakes students remember they made and use this opportunity to draw their attention to any common mistakes you noticed.

Before you start ■

1

Students discuss what they know about James Dean, his life and his films.

Exercise

Students look back at the article in Lesson 6 and match the paragraphs with the story sections. Explain that section b) will have more than one paragraph. Answers b) paragraphs 2–4  c) paragraph 5.

Listening Exercise

Students discuss which of the feelings the singer has towards James Dean. Ask them to refer back to the words in the song to support their point of view.

Writing: A Story

Talkback ■

3

Remind students of the linking words that establish a time sequence and elicit examples from the text in Lesson 6.

Stage 1.

2

■ ■

Students read the lyrics and predict where the missing words might fit. Students listen to the song, complete the lyrics and see if their predictions were correct.

Students can work in pairs or individually. Students may like to write brief notes at this stage to act as prompts when they are writing their stories. Remind students that they should think of a story of bravery.

Stage 2.

Answers 1 mean  2 clean  3 screen  4 was  5 cause  6 fast  7 young

Tapescript James Dean, James Dean, I know just what you mean. James Dean, you said it all so clean. And I know my life would look all right If I could see it on the silver screen. You were the lowdown rebel if there ever was Even if you had no cause. James Dean, you said it all so clean. And I know my life would look all right If I could see it on the silver screen. We’ll talk about a low-down bad refrigerator, You were just too cool for school, Sock hop, soda pop, basketball and auto shop, The only thing that got you off was breakin’ all the rules. James Dean, James Dean, So hungry and so lean. James Dean, you said it all so clean. And I know my life would look all right If I could see it on the silver screen. Little James Dean, up on the screen

Explain the meaning of the timeline and show students the temporal order of events in the example. You may wish to revise what linking word can be used before the description of each event. Encourage students to think of new linking words.

Stage 3. ■

Students should refer to Writing Help 2 before writing their paragraphs. You may wish to spend some time in class looking at the Writing Help with the students and then have them write their stories as homework.

Stage 4. ■

Refer students to Writing Help 2 for the assessment criteria.

Talkback In groups, students read each other’s stories and decide which one describes the bravest actions. Monitor the activity and make sure nobody gets embarrassed. One student per group reports to the rest of the class. Do not interrupt the reports to correct mistakes, but rather wait until the end. Teacher’s Guide page

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Review Unit 2 Exercise

Objectives ■

To check and consolidate grammar studied in this unit: Past Simple, Past Continuous, Present Perfect. To revise key vocabulary (character adjectives, multi-part verbs, nouns from adjectives). To practise the pronunciation of /T/, /D/, /S/ and /tS/.

Answers 1 back  2 off  3 to  4 up  5 out  6 to

Routes through the material

If you are short of time, some of the Review exercises can be given for homework.

Grammar ■

■ ■

1

Take one or two of the sentences and discuss the underlying issues, e.g. Sentence 1 – is it always a good thing to tell the (whole) truth? Sentence 4 – is there too much violence on TV? Does it have a bad effect on people? Sentence 5 – are we born with a certain level of intelligence or do we acquire it?

Answers 1 was  2 died  3 became  4 married  5 was studying 6 received 7 said  8 killed  9 phoned  10 came 11 were arguing 12 heard 13 was listening 14 killed 15 was  16 found  17 drowned   18 was sitting  19 came in 20 was carrying

Pronunciation: /T/, /D/, /S/, /tS/

2

Exercise

Advise students to read through the whole text quickly before writing in the verbs so they get an overview of the content.

Answers 1 has become  2 began  3 spent  4 did not enjoy  5 went 6 has been  7 has made  8 has performed

Exercise ■

Look at the four groups of sounds with the students and practise the pronunciation of the four example words (think, there, crash, watch). Play the CD several times, pausing it, so that students can group the sounds.

3

Answers 1 has moved  2 never  3 arrived  4 have introduced  5 already  6 yet

Vocabulary ■

7

Answers Group 1 (think)  anything  through  three Group 2 (there)  other  breathe  together Group 3 (crash)  issue  relationship  situation Group 4 (watch)  achievement  research

Read the instructions with the students so they understand that they either have to put in a verb or already, yet, never.

Exercise

6

Have students read the sentences aloud to check their answers so that you can check their pronunciation. Answers 1 honesty  2 ambition  3 decision  4 violence  5 intelligence

Before doing the exercise, ask students what they know about the story of Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet. Students do the exercise individually. Check students’ answers by having some of them read the text aloud.

Exercise

When students have checked their answers, get them in pairs to tell the story in their own words, without looking at the book.

Exercise

Workbook: pages 26-27.

Exercise

5

Students can compare their answers with their partner before checking them as a class.

4

When students have written their three sentences, they can exchange papers and see if their partner thinks the statements are true. If not, the partner can suggest another sentence. Teacher’s Guide page

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Culture corner 1 E ating in B ritain Ask students what they know about British food – what food do they think is typical of Britain? What are the girls in the picture drinking and eating? Have they heard of any specific English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish dishes?

Exercise

Exercise ■

1

K ey W ords cook, dish, food, lunch, meal, recipe, curry ■

Look at the Key Words with the students and see if students already know some of them. Do not pre-teach any new words but encourage students to guess their meanings as they read the text. Students read the text to find the Key Words. Then they can match them with their definitions.

Option Extension In groups, students plan meals for one day for a foreign visitor who wants to sample their national dishes and typical food.

Answers 1 food  2 meal  3 recipe  4 cook  5 lunch  6 curry   7 dish

Tapescript: Lesson 7, Comparing Cultures Reader: The history of every country has people who have campaigned to change society.

In pairs, students choose four of the Key Words and make sentences using them. Students can read some of their sentences to the class to check that they have used the words appropriately.

Exercise

A good example of a person like this is William Wilberforce. He was a member of Parliament from 1780 to 1825 and he organised a campaign in Parliament to stop the slave trade and then to free all the slaves in the British Empire. The slave trade was stopped in 1807 and all the slaves were freed the month after his death.

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In the second half of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century Emmeline Pankhurst was another important crusader. She fought for the rights of women, especially the right to vote. She organised strikes and demonstrations and was put in prison several times. Finally, women in Britain over thirty were given the vote in 1918, and in 1928, eight years after Emmeline Pankhurst’s death, women and men became politically equal.

Students read the article more carefully and note three good changes and three bad changes in British eating habits. Students discuss their answers with their partners before checking answers as a class. Answers Good changes – eat less meat, more fresh fruit and vegetables, children have sugar-free sweets. Bad changes – eating more fast food, microwave meals, meals are not family occasions.

A modern campaigner is Jane Goodall, who has spent nearly forty years studying chimpanzees in the national park of Gombe in Tanzania. For years she’s campaigned to protect chimpanzees and to change our views on the environment. She’s also been an important figure in the campaign for animal rights.

Ask students if they are surprised by anything in this article. Is there anything else they would like to know about eating habits in Britain?

Exercise

4

Elicit some of the topics which students may want to include in their description of food and eating habits in their country; e.g. changes from past habits, most popular foods, times of meals, good changes, bad changes. In groups, students write a description of food and eating habits in their country for a foreign visitor. Ask the group also to discuss what picture they would put with the text to illustrate eating habits in their country.

3

Students work in groups listing differences between eating habits in Britain and their country. The groups then exchange views and see if they all agree.

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Language Problem-Solving a, an, the, no article See Grammar Summary, page 133.

Exercise ■

Exercise

1

Answers 1 the 2 nothing 3 nothing 4 nothing 5 a 6 nothing 7 nothing 8 nothing 9 nothing 10 the 11 nothing 12 a 13 nothing 14 the 15 nothing 16 nothing 17 the 18 nothing 19 the 20 a

Answers 1 T  2 F  3 F  4 T  5 F  6 T

■ ■

■ ■

2

Students complete the rules: a) the  b) a. Give students some examples of the use of a to ‘describe something or someone as an example of that group’, e.g. ‘I bought a new coat yesterday/There’s a good film on television tonight.’

Exercise

3

Students discuss the situations in small groups. When checking answers, ask students to explain why the alternative sentence is wrong. Answers 1 a  2 b  3 a  4 a

Exercise ■

4

In pairs, students look at the sentences and match them with the rules. Answers 1d 2a 3e 4b 5c

Exercise ■

6

When students have done the exercise and checked their answers, they can write a similar paragraph about themselves and their daily routine.

Students work in pairs studying the dialogues and marking the statements true or false. Check students’ answers and then elicit the important difference between the two situations. (Pete doesn’t know which key Jack is talking about, whereas John and Adam know which key they are talking about).

Exercise

1

5

Students work individually. Correct as a whole class. Answers 1 nothing, nothing 2 the, nothing 3 nothing, the, nothing 4 a, nothing 5 nothing, nothing 6 nothing, the 7 nothing, a 8 nothing, a, nothing 9 nothing, the 10 nothing, nothing

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Pathfinder 3 Practice Exam  

Diseño y Maquetación interior Practice Exam ESO Pearson Longman

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