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Volume 4, Number 3 - November 1993



PUBLICATIONSCOMMITTEE FrankPettee JudyCreenfield Mary Pratchett SandyKerns CherylPrcyer DavidPeppcr Jill Taylor


ESS STAFF LIAISON Dr. Rohefl Pick(ring

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THE OSTRACONis publishedthreeto lour times per year by members 01-the EgJplian Study Socicty- The ESS, a suppon group of the DENVER lltUSEllNI OF NATUR L HISTORY. is a non-profll organizationrvhose purpose is to study ancienl Egypl. Articles arc cortributed by memberson a voluntary basis. Member participatiollis encouraged.Nothing ay be printed in rvholeor in part rvithoutwritten pen]lrssron, O1993EgyptianStudySociety

PublicalionofTHE OSTMCON is supportedby a grantlrom THE PETTY FOUNDATION


ARTICLE The Middle Kingdom by DavidPepper Byblos and Egypt by TroyL. Sagrillo LectureNotes: Alexandria by FloydChapman Ramses Mural s/NetvAcq uisi t i ons by Gretchen Pascoe Oa.sisof Siwa by Jill Taylor ARCE in Egypl by Laura& LindaEngel Arizona Expedition in Valley oJ the Kings by StuartWier House ofScrolls by HarriettePeters


ABOUT 'I'HE AUI'HOR: Itctt'itl Papper is ona of otLr tilo:l ocliye nlenlbers.having ser,-cclon the liSS lloard os treqsurer antl a: an aclitrtr on the I)thlication.; ('omnillee. He ha.s contriht ed article.\ /o THE OSTRACON. leclued lo lhe llSS (nosl recenlly on the Hi,storyof Alexandria). and vas also a main speaker.for the Pltramid Sl,mpo:;i1tm la:;t slonmer. Pepper works.for United Airlines and does exlensive re:;earchon oncienl Egrpt at vorious tn1lselln.\overseasduring his liequent businessIri p.; abroad. Have t ou ever \\ onderedrr'ho ruled Egvpt as maltr t ears beforethe birth of Christ as u e live aftcr that event'l An anall sis of the lengtl.rof the reigns of the pharaohshas detennined that Nebtowe lle Menttthotep. commonll, called Menluhotep 111 s as the king of arcient Egl pt ir.r 1993BCE When the Old Kingdom age Neb towe Re endedrvith the collapseof the Sixth D1'nastv.perhaps due to the overlong reign of PharaohPepi II. Egypt becamea country besetby chaos. Local rulers reigned in severalprovinces simultaneouslyduring this time rvhich becameknolvn as the First IntermediatePeriod. During this period. in the Seventhand Eighth Dynasties. numerous lveak nome (provincial) govemors ruled Egypt. They rvere gradually replaced b1' the more centralized govenments of the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties which nrled from the northem cit_v of Heracleopolis,near modem Beni Suef. The dominanceof these northem rulers was successfully challengedby Inyotef I, II, and III, early rulers of the llfr Dynasty from the southem city of Thebes. It i:" important to realize that this early southem l lrn Dynas\ coexisted with the more northem Tenth Dynasty, and the country of Egypt rvasdivided in two. The Early llth Dynasty: The kings ofthe early 1lft Dynasty were (Rose): Name lnyotef I Inyotefll InyotefIII

Reign GCE) c.2134-211,8 c. 2118-2069 c.2069-2O6I

Inrotcf [ rras follolcd bl a king rvho changedthe fanrilv nameIo Mcntlthote p. a namc trhich signifiesthat "Montu is content." This local god had reasonto be contcntedfor. aftcr manl r'earsofconflict. Mentuliotep's long reign of 5l vcars litnessed the re-unificationof Upper md Lolrer Egvpt undcr a single mler (Gardiner. p.120). Mcntuhotcpconsolidatedthe centralauthorit,\' and lorked torvard restoring the glorv of thc Old Kingdom. The Late llth Dynasty: The kings og 15" 1"1. 11th Dr,nastvx'ere (Rose): FamilyName Menluhotep I Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III

ThroneName Nebhotep Re SeAddla Re Nebtorve Re

Reisn (BCE) c. 2061-2010 c. 2010-1993 c. i998-1991

MENTUHOTEP I, II, and III: MentuhotepI achieved the rer"rnification either throueh some unrecorded political settlement. or military by -.t o,/g-4.,{-E-'l A ton.rb victory. discovered near Thebes from the Nlentu hoteP time of this intrepid Rose) king contained the bodies of some 60 soldierslvho had been slain in battle, evidencethat the victory may not have been by peacefulmeans(Gardiner. p.121).


Under the next king. Mentuhotep II, foreign trade and re-building projects were started, and Eg,y-ptbegan to retum to its position ofpower. His successor,the last pharaoh of the l lth Dynasty. MentuhotepIII (previously mentioned fiom 1993 BCE). ruled betrveen1998 and l99l BCE. This king once again began using the symbol ofthe Old Kingdom, the pyramid, as a cenotaphover his burial chamber (located at Deir el Bahri in Upper Egypt next to the muchlater Temple of QueenHatshepsut). Mentuhotep III's vizier was a commoner named Amenemhet which means "Amun is foremost". This man, who $'as fiom Elephantine Island. succeeded Mentuhotep to,found the last great pyramid-building dynasty,the l2m. The late l lth and all ofthe l2th Dynasties make up the Middle Kingdom period of ancient Egypt, an era which lastedfor almost300 years(c. 2061-1783BCE). NoYember1993

The 12th Dynasty: The line of kings of the l2th Dynastywere(Rose): ThroneName FamilvName SeHotepib Re AmenemhetI KheperKa Re SenusertI NebKauRe II Amenemhet ll KhaKheperRe Senusert KhaKau Re Senusert III Ni MaatRe AmenemhetIII MaatKheruRe AmenemhetIV QueenSobek-neferuSebekKa Re

Reign (BCE) c. 199l-1962 c. 197l-1928 c. 1929-1895 c. 1897-1878 c. 1878-1841 c. 1843-1797 c. 1798-l'787 c. l'787-l'783

The lastruler to follow King AmenemhetIV was Queen Sobek-neferu. Her short four-year rule ended the l2th Dynasty, and Egypt again slipped into the chaos known as the SecondIntermediatePeriod. The 12th Dynasty was a prosperousperiod in which there was much new building constructionthroughout the land. Remainsof l2tn Dynasty structurescan be found in almost every major town throughout Egypt. This was also the time for a re-discovery of art and literature, creating styles that would be revered years later when Egypt reachedits peak in the New Kingdom. Middle Kingdom narratives and stories, like The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant and the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor, wodd be copied again and again in the dynasties that followed (Simpson,p. 15). ln tlie First Intermediate Period, burial places had revefted back to rock-cut tombs in nearby cliffs. Middle the During Kingdorn, however, the kirrgs once again wanted to be interred in pyramid impressive those Iike structures constructed in the Old Kingdorr times. Each of the pharaohsof the l2rll Dynasty built a pyramid complex in lvliich to house their remains for all eternity.


Middle Kingdom Pyramids: The locations of the pyramids ofthese l2tn Dynasty kings are as follows: AmenemletI SenusertI AmenemhetII SenusertIl SenusertIII III Amenemhet AmenemhetIV

Lisht Lisht Dashur Lahun Dashur Dashur& Hawara Mazghuna

The following is a closer look at these pharaohs and their pyramid complexes.

AMENEMHET I and SEIIUSERT I: Amenemhet I reduced the power of the feudal provincial govemors and subjectedthem to ever-increasingcentral authority. Under his skillful leadership, Egypt began to prosper. This king saysof his achievements: I wasonewhocultivatedgrain and lovedthehqnest god; and the Nile greetedme in every valley. None werehungryduring myyears, and nonethirsted then Men dwelt in peace, through that which I had p.117). wr ought (Breasted,

Amenemhet I furthered the foreign policy of the Mentuhotepsand, in severalcampaignsin the last years of his reign (in which he did not personallytake part), he conqueredthe Nubian land south to the second cataract. The leader of these campaignswas his co-regentson, SenusertI, and the ten-year overlap in their reigns was Amenemhet's innovation which set a pattern for co-regencies. future put on the toyal Pressure &s o "& house by the tromarchs "' 9 ^'!$ probably explains this first use of co-regencies, senior whereby the nronarch associatesItis porve uvith his chosen heir before his death to ensurethat his succession will not be challenged. Senusert rvas by far the Temple of Mentuhotep III At Deir el Bahri (From Fakhry) more active pharaoh during these Iatter years (Murray, p.22).

tr:tlsi ; ; i* [;i :4 .

AmenemlletI also bLrilta greatrall. calledthe Prince's Wall, along the easternedge of the Delta to keep the Asiaticinvaders.the Aamu. out ofEg1pt. There is no traceof this $all toda1..but its constrLtction rvasone of the achievelnents of the eallr rcars of Antenemhet,s reign(Montet,p.53). Although the l2th Dynastl,\\as a prosperousperiod in Egypt, it was still a tirne plagued by internal srrife. Amenernhet I found it necessary to appease the polverful nome governors, rvho ultimately had the pharaoh rnurdered an1,way,rvhile his son \\'as ol) a campaignin Libya. However, perhapsbecauseof the co-regency! there rvas no resulting chaos and the son took over $ithout a struggle. In a literary work wtich became famous in later years, The Instructions of Anenenhet. Amenemhet I gir es arr account of the conspiracy rvhen his ghost appears before his son, Senusert, in a dream. The ghost says:

The Pyramids of Amenemhet I and Senusert I at Lisht: ]'he p1'ranridsand rnastabas at Lisht lie to thc north of the village of that name, l9 ntiles south of Dashur(43 miles southof Giza). Nor.vvisibleonly as sand-coveredltounds, the pyramids rvere originally surroundedby sntallerpyramidsfor femalemernbersof the royal family atrdhundredsof mastabasbelongingto slarehigh officials. At rhe time of rhe burials at Lisht,'scapital,Itj-totty was somewherenearby but it hasneverbeendefinitiveJyfound. The smaller and more northerly of the two is the pyramid of AmenemhetI. Scatteredfragmentsindicate it was partly built of stone stolen from other tombs and templesat Saqqaraand Giza. This pyramid u,asbuilt of a stone framework over a mound of sand and rubble. The entranceis on the nodli side, as is usuallythe case,witb a passageleading down to the tomb chamber. This chamberis now floodedas a resultof the rise in the water table. Within its lemenos (enclosrre) wall lay a smaller pyramid for the queen and the tomb of Antefoker, the superintendentof the royal tombs. Around the main pyramid were found a number of lizard mummies. The mortuary temple belongingto the pyramid lay on a rock terrace below and to the east. This temple was adorned with lively, but sometimes rather crudely executed, reliefs.

It was after supper when nighl was come, and I took an hour o/ repose, lying on my bed. I was tired end I began to ;fall asleep. All of a sudden, weapons |.i)ere brqndished and there \ras blk concerning me, while I remained quiet like a snake in the desert. I awoke to a fight, and being by myself, found it was an attack by my own guard. Had I hed weapons at hand, I could have driyen the traitors bqck. But there is none so strcng at night, and no one canfight alone. There cqn be no successwithout q protector."

sâ‚ŹnusertI (from Hayes) This clearly refers to the conspiracy in which Amenemhetlost his life (Gardiner,p.130). In anotherfamous literary work of this period, The Story of Sinuhe, the tale of the murder is told from another angle,by the haplessSinuhe,a companionof the king's son, SenusertI, who is away on the Libyan campaign when the king is murdered. Overhearing that the plot to kill the Pharaohhad already taken place, Sinuhe fled to Lebanon for his life; he feared he might also be implicated for overhearing tlose involved. Years later he writes to the aging Senusertand begs his forgiveness for his cowardice, and Senusertallows him to retum to Egypt for his burial. 1

One mile south is the largerpyramid of SenusertI. Its layoutcontinuesthe Sixth Dynasty tradition of an attached mortuary temple, a causeway, and a valley temple.

Senusert I's pyrarrlid was surrounded by a double temenoswall, the inner one of which was built of Tura limestone, with reliefs at regular intervals. The mortuarytemple is on the east side; a small subsidiary pyramidwith its own cult chamberand chapelis located at the southeastcomer. The typical north side entrancehas a small chapelbuilt in front of it. A narrow passagefaced with red granite led down to the tomb chamber,which is now also filled with waterand inaccessible.On the eastside.within the November1993

mud-brick outer enclosure walls, were the temple forecourts. Set at intervals around the structure and within these walls were nine small pyramids for the female members of the royal family, each with its own chapel,offering room, and enclosurewalls.

It opens into a passagewhich descendsto a horizontal gallery closed by two portcullises, one which operated vertically and the other transversely. The gallery leads to the burial chamber.on the western side of which is a sandstonesarcophagussunk in the floor.

From the valley temple, of which there are only scant remains,a masonrycausewayflanked by Osiris figures of the king led up to the moftuary temple. The line of this causervaycan still be seen at some points. Ten seatedstone figures and two painted wooden figures of SenuseftI were found here during an excavation by the MetropolitanMuseumof Art.

The valley temple has not yet been discovered, but a causeway 800 meters long extends from the cultivated area westward to the pyramid. The mortuary temple is also ruined, but limestone fragments found here identified the owner of this pyramid as AmenemhetII.

AMENEMHET II: Amenemhet Ii was the son of SenusertL During his reign the copper mines of the Sinai r.vereextensivelyworked, and foreign trade was substantiallyincreased(Muray, p.23). At the Temple of el-Tod in Egypt, a treasurewas found, inscribedwith the name of AmenemhetIl. lt containedobjectsfrom Crete,Syria,and Mesopotamia(David, p.185). AmenemhetII locatedhis pyramid at Dashur,near the three Third Dynasty pyramids attributed to King Sneferu. In the 23ro year of his rule, AmenemhetII rramedhis son, SenusertII as co-regent. By this time, expeditionsto the Land of Pnnt were frequent(Lepre, p. I97) and unrestbeganto developin the landssouthof Nubia. In his 39th year on the tlrrone,AmenemhetIi, in who rvas 80 years old at the time, was assassinated his palace. The Pyramid of Amenemhet II at Dashur: The pyrarrid is norv in sucha ruinedstatethat its dimensions are unclear. Hor.vever, De Morgan excavatedthe site in 1894-95and reachedthe interior(Fakhry,p.2l6). The site is bestknown for the discoveryof the so-called Dashur Treasure, now in the Cairo Museum. The owners of the treasurewere two princesses,Khnumet and lta, whose graves were among a group of royal tombs lying closeto the king's pyramidon the west side. In technicalskill and artistic taste,the rvhole treasure demonstrates the skills of the Middle Kingdom Egyptian goldsmithsand lapidarylvorkers(Edrvards,p.209). plunderedin ancienttimes. The pyramidwas thoroLrghly De Morgan found the core \vasdivided by severalrvalls into diagonal compartmentswhich rvere filled rvith sand. Not a single casingstonehas been found so it is impossibleto detenninethe angle of the exteriorslope. The entrance,now inaccessible, is on the northernside. November1993

Immediatelywest of the pyramid, enclosedwithin the temenos wall, are the tombs of the queen and four princesses(Fakhry, p.216). On the east side, near the pyramid, a magnificent gray-black granite pyramidion inscribed with the name of Amenemhet II was found. This pyramidionin now in the Cairo Museum.

SENUSERT II: SenusertII, the son of AmenemhetII, was probably the first king to be concerned with opening up new lands around the Failum to inigation (Lepre, p.207). A small branch of the Nile, the Bahr Yusef, flows into a lake, the Birket el-Qarun, which was two metersbelow sealevel during ancienttimes (David, p.4l). The site where his barrier dikes were built, at Lahun, is the place SenusertII chose to build his pyramid. Senusertll is also known for the construction of a string of r.vallsand fortificationsin southernEgypt and lowerNubia. The Pyramid of Senusert II at Lahun: SenusertII's pyramidlvas unorthodoxfor severalreasons.The lower part r.vasformed from a naturalhill ratherthan on leveled ground. Its entrancewas hidden by placing it on the south side, accessiblefrom a vertical shaft, which led to an ascendingpassageway(locating the burial chamberabove the ilater table). The builders used a crosswall structureto form the core of the ovramid (Lepre,p,208), On the south. east. and rvest sides of the monument severalgrovesof treesrvereplantedin rorvsof circular beds. About one rnile eastof tlie pyramid,the remains to$,n were uneafthedby FlindersPetrie. of a r.vorkmen's This torvnconsistedof over 2,000separateroomsspread over l8 acres (Lepre. p.208). The story of the excavationof this torvn.calledKahun, by the University of Manclresteris told in Rosalie David's book. THE PYRAMID BUILDERS OF ANCIENT EGYPT.

SENUSERT III: SenusertIll. the son of Senusertll, rvasone ofthe greatestpharaohsever to rule Egypt He carriedout campaignsto extend Egypt'sfrontiersto the Sudanin the the ArabianGulf in the east.and Lrpthe Mediterraneancoastto the rrortll. He built great fortressesand spreadEgyptianculture as he conquered nationafter nation(Lepre.p.210). In orderto rnakethe passagethroughtlle first cataractof dre Nile navigable, Senusert III had a huge 250-foot long canal dug between the islandsof Sehel Elephantine. and channel This circumvented the natural granite rock barrierin the river.

plrarrid. and the substructuleis cornposedof a mazeof chambersand corridors. Like Senusertll, Senusertlll hid tlie entranceto his tomb in a placeotherthan otr the nofih side of tlie pyramid. in this case in the inner coutl otr the lvest face When De Morgan excavatedthis site in 1894,he spent many monthssearchingfor tlte burial entrance.In spite of this ruse, the pyramid had been robbed in ancient times (Edwards, p.210).

De However, Morgan did discoverjewelry hidden in concealed enclosuresin the associated tombs royal the of princesses, SatHathor and Merit. In his time, Senusert Just soutlr of the ill was revered by enclosurewall of The Pyramid at Lahun (Photo by the Author) his people. Lengthy the pyramid, De passages described chamber an underground also discovered Morgan his benevolenceand wisdom, and stated that "twice Each cedar. made of boats containingthree large solar great" was anyoneblessedby him (Lepre, p.212). The was over 30 feet long and in good condition. A large on a stele king himselfevendescribedhis achievements wooden sledge found with these boats was probably written in year 16 ofhis reign: used to transport them from the water to their burial l place(Fakhry,p.221). SenusertIII's burial chamberis I havecreated a frontier exceedingthat of myfathers who havegivenmorethan wasgivenlo me l am a king built of enormousblocks of red granite,vaultedwitlrin. my speaksond acts. Thatwhichmy hearthasconceived, At the westem end of the room stood a red granite arm petforms. I am aggressivein attack ctndresolutein decoratedwith verticalpaneling. sarcophagus success. Ilords do not sleep in my heart. (Montet, p.59) Senusert III enhanced intemal security when he dissolvedthe privileges and power of the hereditary nomarchs, reducing them forever to the status of local non-entities, unable to threaten the power of the king He set up an and the stability of the counlry. govern Middle' and Upper, to administration at Itj-towy Lower Egypt with three separatebranchesof the central govemment. These branchescame under the overall supervision of the vizier (prime minister) who was ultimately responsibleto the king. After the disappearance of the nobility, the middle class, made up of craftsmen and tradesmen,gained much power (David, p.32). The Pyramid of Senusert III at Dashur: SenusertIII's pyramid at Dashur lies just north of the pyramid of Amenemhet IL Following the example set by Senusert II, mud bricks are used for the inner core of the

AMENEMHET III: This son of SenusertIII built two pyramids:one next to his father'sat Dashur,and the other in the Faiyum, at Hawara. Although it is not utiusual to find two tombs for the same king (one is usuallythoughtto be a ceremonialcenotaph),the only other pharaohwho built two pyramids was Sneferu'who built the two greatpyramidswithin a mile of eachother at Dashur. Amenemhet III undertook a vast irrigation proJect to increasethe arableland in the Faiyum. A canalwas dug from the Nile to allow the watersto be channeledduring the annual flood into a low-lying depressionnear the cultivatedareaat the Faiyum. This vast wall, some27 miles long, could be stopped-upas the flood watersreceded, providing an enorrnous storage pond for irrigation water. This allowed an additional 27,000 acresto be brought under cultivation. For more lhan November1993

half a century under Amenemhet III's rule, peace and prosperitywere found throughout his kingdom. His peoplepraisedhim: He makesthe Two Lands more verdant than q great Nile (lood). He hath filled the Two Lands ,eith Strength. The treq:ures which he gives are food for p.l9l ) thosewhoqre in hisfollowing. (Breasted,

The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara: The pyramid at Hawara is most interesting,displayinga great amount of ingenuity in the way the architect soughtto outwit the tomb robbers.Like the pyramidof SenusertII at Lahun, it has a mudbrick core, stone cross-walls, andhada casingof white limestone. It had an unorthodoxentranceon the southside,with a

sloping passage leading to a vestibule with a dead-end. At this point, hidden in the ceiling, was a 20-ton movable stone slab which, when slid aside, revealed another chamber. From here a long blind passageway, blocked with loose stone rubble, led due north -- acting as a ploy to lead tomb robbersastray. A hidden passageway concealed by a The pyramid does not appear to sliding panel leading due east have lrad a r,alley temple or was the real conidor, although causeway associated with it. it ended in a third dead-end. Imrrediately south of it, however, Again, as with the first is the site of the famousLabyrinth. vestibule, a 21-ton sliding At ieast part of the Labyrinth ceiling stoneled to a third level contained the temple of corridor system. At the end of Amenemhet III, and it was this fourth chambercomprising apparently completed by hrs yet another dead end, was daughter, Queen Sobek-neferu, found another 20-ton sliding who was the last ruler of the l2th ceiling stone. This led to a Dynasty. fifth vestibule which had a AmenemhetIII (from Saleh) false wall to the right made of The immenseLabyrinthwas about loosely-packedsmall bricks, the Ieft solid wall, of 1,000feet long and 800 feet wide, largeenoughto hold course.blockedthe real entranceto the tomb chamber. the greattemplesofKarnak and Luxor. Unfortunately, it has been used as a quarry since Roman times, and Ancient thievestrined through this rock, and avenged today not a single wall is standing. When seen by their hard work by burning the entire contentsof the Herodotus,lrowever,the l,abyrinth still stood in all its chamber,includingthe body of the king and his jewelry. glory. He said its beautysurpassed the pyramids,for it The huge burial clramber contained two quartzite had 12 walled courts,and contained3,000rooms(1,500 sarcophagiand two canopicchests. Petrie investigated above and 1,500 below ground). Herodotuswas not this chamber,and althoughit was half-filled with water, allowedto visit tlie below-groundrooms,which he was lie discovered artifacts incised with the names of told containedthe burial placesof sacredcrocodilesand Arnenernhetlll and his daughter,Ptah-Neferu.[n 1956, kings, but he did get to see the above-groundrooms. a tomb was found just south of the pyramid, rvhich His descriptionreads: provedto be the burial ofPtah-Neferu. Herjervelrynow Amenemhet III was most likely buried in his pyramid at nearby Harvara (Fakhry. p.222). He probably built at Hawara because it rvas the pad of Egypt he had spent so much time developing. Like Senusert II's pyramid at Lahun, the pyramid at Hawara commands a view of both the FaiyurrandtheNile valley.

...theupper ones,which surpassal! humanv,orks,I nyself saw;for the passagesthroughthe corridors, and the windingsthroughthe cottts, for their great variety,presenteda thousandoccasionsof v,onder. p53) (Budge,


residesin the Cairomuseum(Fakhry,p.226). The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Dashur: Amenemhet'splrarnid at Dashur is the southernmost one locatedthere. The valley ternplelras not yet been originally paved found-but a 2,000foot long causervay, rvith limestoneslabsand l'alled with rnudbrick,leadsto

the cultivation. At thc Lrpperend of the cause\\,a\. a numberof mudblick buildinssand the ruinedmofiuar) tenlpleare fbund. A gray granitepvrarnidionrvhich once capped the rronurrent rvas found next to this pyram id.It containedthe narneof King Amenenrhet Ill. and is norv in the Cairo urLrseLrm The entrarce is on the east side. near the southeast corner. The interior arrangementof passageways and vestibules,all lined rvith lirnestone,resemblesHawara. Thev eventually lead to a burial charrber, which lies some distance east of center. The tornb chamber conlairrs a magnificentred granitesarcophagus.

AMENEMHET IV & QUEEN SOBEK-NEFERU: After the deathof AmenemhetIII, his son and co-regent, AmenemhetIV, ascendedto tlle throneof Egypt. About three miles north of Dashur,at Mazghuna,the remains of two pyramids can be found. These ruins closely resemblethe plan of the Hawara pyramid. While some authors(Edwards and Lepre) feel that these pyramids shouldbe attributedto AmenemhetIV and his co-regent and sisterQueenSobek-nef'eru, others(like Fakhry)feel that they probablybelongedto 13tnDynastyrulers. The Middle Kingdom came to an end with the reign of but very little is known abouther. QueenSobek-neferu, The Collapseof the 12th Dynasty: The reasonfor the collapseofthe l2tn Dynasty is not known. The country was peaceful and experiencing a period of prosperity. The next dynasty, the l3th, continued to rule from southernEgypt, with a rapidly changingseriesof some 60 kings in 150 years. Only three of thesekings built pyramids: Ameny, the sixth pharaohofthe dynasty,Ay, the I lst. and Khendjerll. the 55thpharaoh.All threeof thesepyramids are located in South Saqqara. The pyramid of Ay remained unfinished,and two uninscribed black granite pyramidions were found next to its site.

R E FE R E N C E S Budge. E.A.W. EGYPT UNDER THE AMENEDIHET'S AND ItYKSOS. AnthropoJogicalPublications:Oosterhout, The Netherlands.1968. David. Rosalie.THE PYRAMID RAILDERS OF ANCIENT EGfPT: A MODERN INVESTIGATION OF PHARAOH,S WORKFORCE. Routledge& KeganPaul:London, I986. Edwards, I.E.S. THE PVRAMIDS OF EGYPT. B ooks:N Y ., R ev.E di ti on,1985.


Fakhry,Ahmed. THE PYRAMIDS. Univ. ofChicago Press: Chicago,2nd Edition,1969. Cardiner. Sir Alan. EGYPT OF THE PHARAOHS: AN INTRODUCTION. ClarendonPress: Oxford. 1961. Hayes, Wilfiam C. THE SCEPTER OF EGYPT, Harvard Univ. Press:Cambridge,1953. THE EGYPTIAN Lepre, J.P. COMPREHENSIVE, ILLUSTRATED McFarland& Co.: Jefferson,1990.


Montet, Piene. LIVES OF THE PHAfu4OHS. PublishingCo.: Cleveland,1968.


THE SPLENDOR THAT WAS Muray, Margaret, A. EGYPT. PraegerPublishers:NY., Rev. Edition, 1969. Rose, John. THE SONS OF RE: CARTOUCHES OF THE MNGS OF EGVPT. JR-T Press:Cheshire,UK., 1985. and Hourig Sourouzian. THE Saleh, Mohammed, Prestel-Verlag: Mainz, EGyPTIAN MUSEaM, CAIRO. Germany,1987. THE LITERATURE oF Simpson, Wm. Kelley (ed.). ANCIENT EGYPT. Yale Univ. Press:New Haven.1972.

At the sametime in the north, Asiaticsestablisheda coexisting dynasty, the l4tn, ruling from the Delta. Egypt had now slipped into the Second Intermediate Period, and its citizens would have to wait another 200 years until yet another powerful ruler, Ahmose, would reestablish Theban supremacy and bring Egypt to new heightsof power and glory. But that's anotherstory...

Scotab seol desiRa. a

,jstt Mrseum,


November 1993

In any event, with the beginning of the First Dynasty, Egypto-Byblian relations were firmly established. During this period, the foundations of the Temple of By Troy L. Sagrillo Ba'alat-Gebel,"The Lady of Gebel,"2 were laid' By the reign of Unas (Fifth Dynasty), and probably much on a Troy Sagrillo began wotk About the Author: earlier, this goddess came to be identified with the Ph.D. in Egyptian Archeology at the University of Egyptian goddess Hathor. In Egypt, the tombs of the Toronto lhis fall; he has an M.A. in Syro-Palestinian First Dynasty kings employed Byblian: timber; pine, Archeology from the Unirersity of Arizona. Troy was cypress,and cedar; and wood by-products, such as oils employed at the DMNH this past summer in the and resins, are mentioned on alabaster vases of King Anthropologt Dept. where he ussisled in cataloging the Adj-ib and are listed among food offerings on two mttsetrm'sEgtpt ian materi al. Second Dynasty stelae. The oils and resins were important components of the mummification process. Located some 36 kilometersnorth of Beirut, Lebanon, The first inscription of Egyptian lhe ancienl ciq of Byblos -origin known from Byblos is on modernJabayll -- is situatedon a an alabastervase fragment with /( Mediterranean coastal promontory \un-it ) a cartouche of Kasekhemui, the at the foot of Jabal al Qaraqif, the last pharaoh of the Second western spur of Jibdl Lubndn alUnfortunately, the Dynasty. Charabilyah (Mount Lebanon). not found in sit was fragment Thesemountains,rising sharPlYto I \. and may be from a later, the east of Byblos. were denselY Qutn" t^^r* probably Old Kingdom, shiP\ J forestedin antiquitywith conifers phcnicianCoast The ment of royal gifts. ) eaoeshf such as fir. cypress. (Kadesh\./ A.g: of tnthe and the famous cedarsof Lebanon. /' The Egyptian rulers of the Old ALhenaten This forested range constituted an /ii \-/ Kingdom maintained a high effective obstruction to commuByblos level of contact with theil nication until the developmentof Phenicia Byblian counterparts, PrimarilY lithic and metal technologies Beirut to securethe large quantitiesof permittedits clearance. Until that timber required by Egypt. a time, Byblos turned princiPallYto The wood-poor country. the sea for communication and Palermo Stone mentions that transportation, and to the narrow the reign o[ Sneferu.a during strip of coast to the north and Dynasfyruler.40 shiPs Fourlh , Hazor south. Akko filled with cedar or pine logs arrived in Egypt, probablY from It is not precisely knowu when Megiddo Byblos. In 19l l. a coPPeraxcontact was first established ( M a l l '\ \ r t l h r 'r l head, dating to the Old between Egypt and the citY of Kingdom and bearinga hieroByblos, but it definitely occurred crew, a royal r.r'ood-cutting naming glyphic inscription beforeDynastictimes. The Frenchclearanceoperations lbrah-rm Nalir the rvas found close to tlre mouth of of PierreMontet and, later,Maurice Dunand.conducted (Adonis River), rvhich opensto the MediterraneanSea than more revealed during the first half of this century. nearB1'blos.It's not known whetherEgyptiansactually ten metersof cultural deposits,dating fron.rthe modern cut the treesor merely supervisedLebanesecrelvs. The Kay Prag, neriodbackto the Neolithic. One researcher, sea route betrveenthe Nile and Byblos came to be so believes that regular and significant maritime trade rvell{raveledthat the oldest Egyptianrvord for "oceanbetweenByblos and Egypt existed as far back as the goingvessel"literallvmeans"Byblos-Ship" foufth millennium.but otller scholarshavedemonstrated BYBLOS AND EGYPT


_L1 ,"",Pji


that her seeminglyconvitrcingargtllllentis not as solid as it first appears.Hor.rever,they do grantthat solre of the evidencedeservesseriousconsideration,and that it indicatesthat some kind of early contact did exist betweenEgypt and Byblos -- though it need not lrave beendirector frequent. November1993

In additionto the royal tilrber's likely that comrnercein other materialsalso occltrred A text from the tomb of an official narnedKhLri,dating to the late Fifth or early Sixth Dynast), makesreferenceto the Byblian trade. According to the inscriptiorr,Khtli and trvo 8

conlpanjolls.I-jcqi ard KhnLunu-hetep. tra\eled to Brbl.'. rrrl tlrc I rrrrd.'lPrrrt' .rr ..rir.rl ,';e.i.i.'rt' Tltc i nscriptioncloesnol describetlrc dctailsol'thejoLlnre)s. but a text lronr Tjct-ji'stornbstatesthathe \as "one$ho foreignlandsto thc bringsthe productsof the soLrthern king." sLrggesting that the three nrerl\vete inrolrcd in trade l ith Bl blos and other important trading ernporiunts. flo$'ever. Eg),pto-Byblianrelations\\ent be1'ondmere tlade. The pharaohsof tlre Fourth and Filth D)'nasties found it irnportantto seud of1'eringsto the Temple of Ba'alat.Cebel,rvith an eye to creating a sphere of influence through mutual obligations between theurselves and the Byblian rulers. Fragmentary alabastra and offering plates bearing the names of Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure,Unas, and Sahurehave been excavatedat the site; similar fragments\\'itlr the nanes of Pepi I and Pepi II, both of *hom ruled during the Sixth Dynasty, have also been found. Although the narnesof kings are most common, other royal names have been found at Byblos, sucli as those of Queen Hetepheris(wife of Sneferuand mother of Khufu) and QueenMeriqtis (wife of Khufu). After the reign ofPepi II (end of Sixth Dynasty),until the 12tn Dynasty, no royal Egyptian inscriptionshave beenfound at Byblos. It would appearthat commercial relations between Egypt and Byblos were almost at a standstillduring the chaos and confusiottof the First IntermediatePeriod in Egypt. hi {act, the name of Ibdadi,a king of Byblos, appearson a cuneiformtext at the end of the third millennium BCE lldicatitrg that the city was within tlie pale of the greaterUr lll Empire of Mesopotamia.

The blue lotus.

Nerertheless.afier a gap of nearly'200 1,ears.Byblos asainrcsLlnrcd closccomnrcrcialand cult ulalties \\i1h t31pt. The l2th Drnastl finclsthe conlectiou rvith Blblos as strongas cvcr. thoLrghob.jectsbearingrolal nalnes arc noticeabllferverdLrlingthe Middle Kingdonr. It may be that trg)ptian interests at Byblos never Period. entirelvbrokeoff rlLrringthe First Interm ediate Thc 20 ships of cedar rvood used in the reign of AnenernhetI denronstrate a connectionbetrveenEgypt and Lebanonat tlre very beginningol the 12thDyrasty. Thus,rvhilethe earliestinscribedroyal object at Byblos fronr the Middle Kingdorndatesto thc reign of SerrLrsert IIl, it rnay be safelyassumedthat the earlierkings also engagedin courmercialrelationswith Byblos. In 1922.a landslideexposeda rock-cuttoIrrbon the seasidecliffface at Byblos;this led to the discoveryofnine tombs rvhich forn the Byblian royal necropoJis.Only TombsI, II, and ltl badnot beenplunderedin antiquity, although all nine yielded at least some grave goods. Tiresethreesealedtombs,along rvith Tornb IV, belong to the period correspondingto the Egyptian 12th Dynastyand provide the bulk of non-textualevidence relatingto Egypto-Byblianrelationsduring the Middlc Kingdom. Tomb I containeda seriesof rich funerary gifts from Pharaoh Amenemhet III, including an obsidian vase rvhich contained, according to the lrieroglyphic ion. perfumeor incettse. inscript The richestof thesesealedtombs,Tomb II, held a gold Egyptian-stylepectoral set with inlaid polished stones forming a falcon with extended wings and two of a plraraohwearingthe white crown of representations Upper Egypt. A box with gold ornamentationinscribed with the nameof AmenemhetIV was also found, along with a gray stone vase bearing the name of the same king. Other items includeda gold bowl, a silver mirror, and a gold necklace. The name of the occupantof Tomb II is known from a typically Egyptianhieroglyphicinscriptionon a bronze khepeshsword which reads"The Prince of Byblos, IbShemu-Abi,repeatingof life, son of the Prince,AbiShemu, the triumphant." Ib-Shemu-Abi'sname also appearson a cartoucheon a gold pendant set with precious stones forming a scarab between trvo uraei wearingthe crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt; under the cartoucheis a falcon with its rvingsextended.Since Tombs I and II are connected by a subterranean passageway, as was customaryin the burials of fathers and sons, it is thought that Tomb I belongedto AbiShemu,and Tomb II to his son Ib-Shemu-Abi. November1993

TonrbsIII and lV likerviscyieldeda numberofpiecesof Egyptianjervelry.stoncvesscls.and othcr objectsn,hich dateto the Middle Kin-cdonr.Sonreof the objeclsare geuerall),poorer in qLralitythan sintilar itenrs from Eglpt anc{probabl),representmaterial iashionedbv localclaftsnrenimitatingEgyptianartisticstl'les.Many scarabsfound at Blblos, inscribedtvith hieroglvphs. belongedto private Egl,ptian of'ficials rvho probabl), residedthere. This rvide variety of textual and artifactual evidence pointsto peacefulcomrrercialrelationsbetweentlre trvo countries. The importedrnaterial,as rvell as the locally nrade copies (including Egyptian-stylereliefs which were allentptedby local craftsmen)points tc a great respectfor Egyptianculture on the part of the Byblian rulers. Even Egyptian hieroglyphswere regularlyerrployed. as shofi inscriptiols have been discovered, inclLrdinga t),pe of Dgyptianhyrr.rn. Indeed,the local princes regularly comrnernorated themselvesin hieroglyphs, and adopted the Egyptian titles of reprl (hereditarynoble)and hali-tt'(princeor rrayor). At the end of the l2th Dynasty, with the deaths of ArnenemhetIV and later Queen Sobek-neferu,Egypt was divided betweenthe l3th Dynastl,atThebesand the l4n Dynastyat Sakha(arcient Xios, in the Delta). At Byblos this period rentainsobscuredue to the lack of sufficientarcheologicalmaterial. There is, however,a Iragrnerrtof bas-relief,rvith a hieroglyphicinscription dcpictingthe princeof Byblos,Inten,pavinghontageto one o1' thc last pharaohs of thc l3th Dynasty, t.\efcrhctepI. Ir is the earliosttext which gives a direct clironological sl nchlonisnt between an Egyptian pharaohand a Byblian prince. A Byblian ruier named Yantin-Khanruis mentionedon a cu:reiforminventory tablet frorn the palacearcltivesof Zimri-Lirr, a king of Mari.4 The name Yantin-Khamu is the Canaaniteform of the Egyptian Inten, and thus sets up an indirect synchronisminvolving the threerulers. With the ascendancyof the CanaaniteHyksos rulers iu the Egyptian Delta, the ScconclIntermediatePeriod courmencedu'ith the l5th Dynasty. Except fbr some scarabs,Iittle Egyptian matcrial is klorvn front Blblos duringthis period. With the expulsionof the l-lyksosfron the Delta at ihc beginni ngof the Ncw Kingdont,the Egyptianpharaohs of the early lSth Dynastyundeftooka policyofpunitive attacksagainstthe Hyksos. Indeed,Ahmose I hirnself rnay have landedat Byblos to conductson]eoperations inland. November1993

Follo\\,iug thc death ol Queen I latshepsut. TLrthrrosis III undcrlook a long series of carrpaignsinto Northern Syria. prinarily,agailtstthe kingdornof Mitanni and her vassals,TLrnip and Kadesh.By this tirne.Byblos las again apparentll,rvithin the Eg),ptianspherc,for the pharaoh olderedships of cedarbuilt near S.rtth senl design. Ilrc Arilish Byhlos lor lrilitarl operatiorrs in centralNorth Syria. Likewise,there are recordsfron.r thc reign of TuthmosisIII regardingthe shipmentof cedar logs to Egypt. After the defeat of Mitanni, Egypto-Bybliancommercial relationsremainedstrong throughoutthe remainderof the 18th Dynasty, and a number of Egyptianroyal namesfronr tlre period have been discoveredon objects frorn Byblos (inclLrding ArnenhotepII, ArlenhotepUl. and Akhenaten). A "robber" state, the kingdorn of Anrurru, rvas establishedin rorthent Lebanon during the reign of AmenhotepIll. It began,undertlre hand of its Amorite rr-rler,'Abdi-Ashirta, to llarry the entirePhoeniciarr coast. The king of Byblos,Rib-Hadda,sentnumerouslettersto AmenllotepIII and his successor,Akhenaten,begging for rnilitary assistanceagainst 'Abdi-Ashirta and his vassals. Initially, Rib-FIaddawarned AnrenlrotepIII aboutincLrrsions rrade by'Abdi-Ashirta along tlte coast. and that Byblos rvas in dangerof attack. The situation becamc riesperateas other city-states sided with ArrurrLr. Rib-lJaddasent his sisterand her childrento Sfir (Tyre),rvherethey were larerkilled in anti-Egyptian violencc.'Abdi-Ashirta, sensingRib-hadda's rveakness, laid siegeto Byblos,where'Abdi-Ashiftamet lris deatlr. Aziru and Pu-Bakhla,sons of 'Abdi-Ashifia. lifted the siege but continuedattacking the other coastal cities. Throughoutthis conflict, Rib-Haddasent lettersto the pharaolr,now Akhenaten,begging for rnilitary aid and graiu to prevent farnine. Akhenaten replied by requestinga shiprnentof box-wood! Rib-Haddarvrote back that the Hittites were no\v tltreateningByblos as uell. As a last resort, Ite fled to thc protectionof Arnmunira(KhamnrLrniri). the king of Bayrl-tt(Beifut). At the erd of it all. Rib-Hadda rvlotetlrathis brotherhad turncdByblosovcr to the sonsof 'Abdi-Ashifta,and that Anrmunira rvas being persuadedto hand Rib-l'ladda over to Aziru. With this. Rib-Haddadisappears lionr history. Hou'ever.Aziru rvashinrselflatcr summonedto the coun of Akhenaten,rvhere he ivas detained lbr severallears and probabll blinded. tJpon his release. hc returnedto Anturru and pronrptlvsrvoreallegianceto l0

ShuppiluliLrmash, king of the Hittites, and his kingdom wasthen annexedto the Hittite Empire.

treesfelled until he receivedpaymentfor the u,oodand eventuallybetrayedWen-Amento his enemies!

While it's possible that Horemheb tnay have campaignedagainstthe Hittites from Byblos, it rvasnot until the 19th Dynasty that Egypt made any serious attemptto regain its l-orrrerLebanesctcrritory. After Seti l's death.his son. RamsesII, took to the field iu thc for.rrthyear of his reign. marchingas far north as Nahr al-Kalb. north of Bayrut. The spring of the following year saw Rarrses again in Lebanon, as he passed through on his rvay to meet the Hittites in battle at Kadesh (Tall Nabi Mand). After the battle, with political stability restored, Byblos resumcd her comrnercialactivities. Numerousobjectsinscribedwith the name of RarnsesII have been found at Byblos, includingstelaeand a largedoorrvay. From the tonrbof Ahiram, the ruler of Byblos at the tirne, came an alabasterfiagment inscribed witli the cartouche of RamsesII. The latter'sreign 'ivasa periodof greatprosperity,and the presenceofnumerous inscriptionsofthis pharaohat Byblos is evidencethat closc rclationsbetrveenEgypt and the Phoeniciancity existedonceagain.

Thereafter, Egypt retained very little influence in Phoenicia and Byblos. Shortly after Wen-Amen's I of Assyria .journev to Byblos, Tiglath-PiJeser Lebanon and received tribute from the eoncluered Phoeniciancity-states.Egypt regaineda certaindegree of powcr in the Levant follorving the death of I and the breakdolvn of Assyria; f iglath-Pileser SheshenqI and OserkonI, Libyan rulers of the 22th Dynasty, even sent offerings to the Temple of Ba'alat-Gebelin Byblos. Horvever, with a nervly resurgentAssyria, Byblos passedpermanentlyinto tlie Mesopotamiansphere when AshunrasirpalII led an expedition to the Levant in 877 BCE, and all of Phoeniciawas forcedto submitto Assyrianrule.

During the 12th century BCE, the political structureof the entire Levant underwent a drastic clrange. Mycenaeans.displaced by the Dorian invasiotrsof Greece,took to the seas,raiding the coastlinesfrom Anatoliato Egypt. A northernwave oftribes destroyed the Hittite Ernpire and ovelran important Syrian citystatessuch as Ugarit and Alalakh; Byblos herself was razed. Another wave headedsouthlvardsto attack Egypt but was repelled by RamsesIII at Pelusium (Tall al-Faramah). Altlrough they were pushed back, the Egyptianswere unableto preventsomeof these"People of the Sea" frorr settling in Canaan,where tltey were laterknown as " Philistines." With the deathof RamsesIII in I 154 BCE, Egypt was no longer the dominate power in the Near East; the countryenteredinto a period of political and economic declinervhile Assyria emergedas the leadingpower in Mesopotamia. No longer politically or economically dependentupon Egypt, Byblos enjoyeda periodof prosperityand growth as one of tlre premierPhoeniciancitystates. It wasat this time, late in the 20th Dynastv,that I'{erihor, High Priest of Amen at Thebes, sent his envoy, Wen-Amen, to Byblos to secure cedar for the ceremorrialbarqueof Amen. As recordedin The Story of Wen-Amen,Egypt'sprestigeabroadhad fallen so lolv that Zakar-Ba'al,king of Byblos, refusedto have cedar ll

NOTES preserves the Phoenician L The modernArabic name,-/a6a1,/, nameof Byblo",gebel,Byhlosbeing Greek;the Semiticform is alsofound in the Akkadiangz-ub-laft,the UgariticgD1,and the Hebrewgebal 2. Ba'alat-Gebelwas the patron goddessof Byblos down to times. Phoenician 3. Punt is generally thought to be modem Somalia and-/or Yemen. 4. Mari (Tall Hariri) was an importantSyrian city-stateand kingdomcenteredon the Middle Euphrates.

REFERENCES Jidejian,Nina. BYBLOS THROaGH THE AGES. Bettut. Publishers. 1968. Darel-Machreq Monrel.Piere. BYBLOSET L'EGYPTE. Paris:Librairie 1929. PaulGeuthner, Orientaliste THE AMARNA Moran. William (ed.). Baltimore:JohnHopkinsUniv. Press.1992.


Redford. Donald B. EGYPT, CANAAN, AND ISRAEL IN ANCIENT TIMES. Princeton:PrincetonUniv. Press,1992.

J, tt D+.[t',-




t f / t ' l( 4'-,t 1 1 7 ' 1993 Novemtrer


discr.rssiorr of ccrtain aspectsof their constructionas rvellas the socialand religioLrs activitiesassociated u,ith tllem.

Rhtc ghr.el hippo. Tonh ofSenbi, Meir. Xlcttopolitan Museurn ofAtt, NY

Of parlicular lascination to me were the ancient underground cataconrbs with its labyrinthian passage\r,ays and ancient tombs, many of rvhich are decoratedin an exotic blend of Egyptian and GrecoRomanreligiousmotifs.

ALEXANDRIA Presentedby David Pepper

Tlre presentationconcludedrvith a discussionof the city's more outstandingMoslem sites and other pointsof-interestincludingfour surviving monasterieslocated out in the desertin Wadi Natrun.

ESSJuly Meeting Reviewedby Floyd R. Chapman ABOUT THE REVIEWER: Floyd R. Chapman is an archeological and historical painter, specializing in ancient Egypliatl, Moyan, and Khmer cullural lhentes. Follov,ing his training in Fine Arts, he studied thefields of Asian history and anthropologt at San Diego State Unbersity. AJter receiving his 8.A., Floyd contintled his studies for on additional two yeors as o Masters candidate. He is currenlly pointing a reconstruction of a large relief in Ramses III's great temple (tt MedinetHabu as it woulcl have looked when lhe ancient Egyptians f rct pdinted it. With a prelude of exotic Egyptian music filling the roonr,David Peppercornrrencedhis presentation on the histoly and sitesof both ancientand modenrAlexandria. He explainedho$'this historiccity was foundedApril 7, 331 BCE, by Alexander the Great, at tl'renorthwesten'r mouth of the Nile Delta on the MediterraneanSea. The ancientcity, in its prime, was not only the capital of Egypt but was also a centerof commerceand learning. During its glorious years,ancientAlexandriapossessed numerousfabulous buildings and monumentsJarnong which were the Lighthouseof Pharos(one of the Seven Wondersof the Ancient World), the museurn,arrdthe library. Unfornmately,virtually nothing rernainsof the city'sancientsplendor. However,what still exists of this arcient ciiy provided ample material for an errgaging lectLrre. Pepper's enlighteningcommentary rvas illustrated by e..:ceilent slides. Some of the archeological sites which he shorvcasedwere the remains of an ancient school, a theater, and the temple complex of the Serapeum. Pepper elaboratedupon eacl.rof these sites with a November1993

This was a very well-researched,orgarrized. and infonnative lecture which highlighted one of Egypt's greathistoriccities.

RAMSES II EXHIBIT MURALS Presentedby Joe Craighead and Nf,W DMNH EGYPTIANACQUISITIONS Presented by Dr. RobertPickering ESSAugustMeeting Reviewed by Gretchen Pascoe ABOUT THE REVIEWER: Gretchen Pascoe, ctfter a lrip to Egypt tt,ith her daughler, becume a rating Egyptophile like lhe rest of us! She has ntany interests, and has just contpleted courses for lhe American Ntttionsl Red Cross Disct,slerAclion Teum which serves in casesof naturol disaslers. Grelchen furs workedfor the Jederal governmenlJbr l9 years mttl is u long-time Denver resident. At the August ESS rneeting, a double-featurewas presented.During the first part, Joe Craigiread,Events ServicesCoordinatorat the DMNII and highly-regarded local artist, presentedan in-deptlt discussionof the aftistic metlrodsand researchinvolved in painting the muralsfor lhe RuntsasII Exhibit. 'fhis was follorvedDr. Robert Pickering'sshorv-and-tellpresentationof the ancient Egyptiar'rartifacts recently pr:rchasedrvitlr nrortevdoltatedb1,the Ratnsesll Voluutecrs. THE RAMSES II EXHIBIT MURALS Prescntedby Joe Craighead: Craigheaddiscussedhow the nrurals tbr the Rarnses II Exhibit r.vere pairted, and the t2

extensive lesearch involved in this trernendous underlaking. The u'hole projecttook over four months to cornplete and involved an in-depth study of tlre techniquesused by the ancient aftists. John Romer's LIVES, abotrt the artisalts' torvn of book, /NCIENI Deir el Medina. provided huch inspiratiou and guidance. Craigheadnarratedraw original video footageol Deir el Medina (supplied by the DNINH Video Production 'fearn)to orientatcthe audiencel'ith thc village location and layout. 1'he village had its orvn cemeteriesand who did both 300 inhabitauts chapelsand approximately in the Valley in the tombs the diggingand the afl,,vork of the Kings. The pharaoh suppliedthese attcieut of life artisansand their families rrith the necessities (food^ grain, beer, etc.) as the-"-could not grorv ancl luLulLrre tlrcir o\4Jr) crops anci work on thc tontbs at tllc sanrc tiuro. They kne$ tl)c seclcts ol' preparingthe plraraohs'tonbs, and so \\ere able to malie smaller velsions for themselles. l-he tomlr of Sennerljem.:r ancithe lbrerran, ,'vasin the best slatc ol preserYalion, paintilgsin suchvivid colorsthatthcv lcoled as though thel had beenpaintedyestelday. The video allowedthe audienceto actually see these lantasticr.vallpaintings tomb. I'lle skin coloringof the insideol'Sennedjem's men \\'as darker than that of the \.vomen,possibly to showthat the men spentmoretime out in tlte sun. These tomb paintings,which representedthe life that Sennedjemand his family expectedand hopedfor in the afterlife, were perf'ect fbr providing an authentic Therefore, backdrop for the Exhibit's aftifacts. Craighead'stask was to accuratelyreprodttcethem for the exhibit murals. Craigheadpresentedslides depictingthe variousstages of the murals' production; they were scaledto about 85% ofthe sizeofthe originals. The leproductionofthe muralswas very exact. Areas tlrat were chippedoffof in the the actualpaintingsin the tomb were represetrted Exhibit rnuralsas lvell. Sincethe line drawingsby the Egyptianaftistscaughtthe spirit of their subjects,it was also essential to capture that same spirit when reproducingthe art work for the exhibit. Other mLrseumartists who worked otr tltese murals, jokingly referred to as the "Torrb Gang", rvere Gail Opsahl,Joan Klipping, Mark Gould and Carol Dufficy. Aftist Torn Buchanarr rvas enlisted to paitrt tlte hieroglyphs.


EG\?TIAN ACQUISITIONS NEW DMNH Presentedby Dr. Robert Pickering: Bob Pickering, Curator of Anthropoiogy, utilized a terrific new techniqueto show off the museum'srecentlypurchased I-gyptianartifacts. This technique,a conceptconceived by Joe Craighead.displayed close-up viervs of the artifactson a largeprojectionscreenusingclosedcircuit TV. This methodprovidedthe audiencervith a blownup vierv of eaclr srr.rallobject. and it was much more practical than having everyone crorvd around these small artifacts. The center-pieceof the show nas a beautiful bronze statue of Osiris, dated from the Late Period. Other ob.jectsshorvnwere: two small faience"identicaltwin" forerren uslrabtis,two largervoodenushabtiboxes(orre tlating frorn the 2lst - 22nd Dynasty. ard the other betweentlre 2lst - 3()thDynasty).an alabasterofl'erirg goddessand I tablet,and arruletsol'the hippopotarlus papyruspillar. Anotller item displal,edrvasa bcaritifttl r.voodenPtah-Sokar statue, part of the rnuseutn's perrnanentEgyptiancollection. lt haciat orte linle becn covered witlr gold leal and hac! a niche in its back. pruhnblrto hold a papyrrr:scroll. These neu'ly acquired objects were purchasedwith furrds donatedby the volurteers from the Ramsesll Exhibit. The presentationof these objects was ver) educational, and the audience gained additional understanding of thesewonderful artifactsfrom ancient Egvpt.

OASIS OF SIWA PresentedBy Patricia Shamseldin Meeting ESS Septernber Reviewed by Jill Taylor

Patricia Shamseldin(also Shams-el-Din)preserlteda very interestingprogramon a little known areaof Egypt -- the Oasis of Siwa. Shamseldinis an importer of merchandiseprirnarily frorn Egypt, but it was not until her 20th trip to Egypt that slretook the time to visit this remoteareanearthe Libyan border. The inhabitantsof Siwa are not consideredEgyptian,but are descendants ofthe Berbersfrom NorthernMorocco. Tliey havetheir own languageand customsand, while the Oasiswas famous in olden tirnes, it is not yet a popular area for November 1993

modem tolrrists. It rvas a long and difficult journey in ancient times; even today, for tourists on a tight schedule,the Oasisis far off the beatentrack.

ARCE IN EGYPT Presentedby Dr. Terry Walz ESSMeetingOctober,1993

Siwa'sfonner glory was due to the many notabletulers and military leaderswho lraveled tl'rereto corlsultthe Templeof Aghurmi Oracle. The most prominentleader to consult this Oracle was Alexander the Great who wishedto be buried in Siwa (this wish was not granted).

Reviewedby Laura & Linda Engel

Shamseldinshou'edslides of the Fortressof Shali, the entireAghurmi areaincludingthe Oracle,the Ternpleof Amun (restorationto begin in the near future by the Germangovernment),FatnasIsland,the town itself, the many date palrn trees, and underground springs (includingone that Cleopatrabathedin). Terrific slides of the interior wall paintingsof the ton.rbof Si-Amon, obtainedby specialpennission,were also presented.

ABOUT THE REVIEII/ER: Although Laura and Linda Engel live in lhe Kittredge area, lhey have beett extrenel.ydclive in the ESS. Thesevivacious, intelligent ladies belong to both the Art Study ond Mummy Study Grottps as well as to ARCE. They especially enioy oltending ARCE's Annual Conferencesaround the US where lhey seent lo alwaysfnd adventure - or it fnds thent! Linda und Laura sell Egyptian arlicles al vdrious craJi ;t'airs and have traveled extensively here and abroad including several trips to Europe and Egypt.

Samplesofthe unusualhandicraftsof Siwa were on display for the audience to enjoy before and after the lecture. These included a heavily embroideredwedding dress, a wedditrg shawl with over I,l00 hand-sewn motirer-of-pearl buttons,basketwork, old silverjewelry, a rug, and other articles of clothing - all completely different from anything from other areasof Egypt. In order to get to the Oasis of Siwa, Shamseldintook a public bus from the RamsesHiltotr Hotel in Cairo to Marsa Matruh and then transferred to another bus frotn MarsaMatruh to Siwa. Tlie trip took ovet 12 hoursand she arrived after 10:00 at night. She was able to see rnostof the sights in two full days but recommendeda stay of at least three days in order to take advantageof the excursioninto the desertto a lrot-springspool. The but more are few hotelshave minimal accomrnodations to Siwa is also being built. A paved road from Luxor planned. Departingfrom Luxor insteadof Cairo would probably cut tlre travel tirne in half. It was very inexpensiveto visit this delightful area; if you would like more informationon visiting Siwa, pleasefeel free to call Sharrseldinat (719) 256-4010.

DetailIon |9a -paitunry.'romboIKenanun,493, ThebesISth U,aso'-

November 1993

The ESSaudiencevery rtuch enjoyedthe lectureby Dr' Terry Walz, Executive Director of the American ResearchCenter ir.tEgypt (ARCE). Walz presenteda brief history of ARCE and a slide presentationand overviewof someoftheir many activities. ARCE was founded in 1948 as an archeologicaland academicsuppod resource. One of its maitr functions, at that time, was to look after digs when researchers could not be in the field. ARCE hasalso providedmuch support for the ongoing epigraphic survey being conductedby ChicagoHousesince 1927. The intentof this ambitiousprojectis to make a permarentrecordof templereliefsso tltat a recordwill exist after the reliefs are no longer visible due to their continr"titlg deterioration. These records being compiled will be of the future. invaluableto Egyptologists Other projectssupportedby ARCE includeKent Weeks' rnappingof all known tomb locationsin the Valley of the Kings and surroundingarea.Mark Lehner'swork at the Sphinx, David O'Connor'swork near Abydos, and ongoing projectsat Karnak and the Medurn Pyramid Walz pointed out that ARCE was also involved in the internationaleffort to relocate the tcrnples at Abu Simbel abovethe rising waterscausedby construction of the Aswan Dam. ARCE is currently expandingits Cairo facilitir, which will enable it to increaseits current 15,000volume library to 25,000 volumes. This library provides a valuableresourceto scholarswlren they are in Egypt l4

Horvever,ARCE's involvementin Egypt is not Iimited to the support of the archeologicalcommunity. Last June, the organization hosted an international conference on the preserualion of Egypt's Islamic monumentswhich were severelydamagedduring last year'seafthquake. E,SSnrembersshould definitely note tl'ratARCE and a Los Angeles museum will host a fabulous exhibit of the US. Egyptian artifacts from museurnstirror"rghout TJreopeningis plannedfor Novernber,1994. Walz concludedwith an explanationof the benefitsof rnembershipin ARCE. These include a quarterly newsletter containing reports on field work and a cornprehensive annualjournal containingreportsfrom top scholarson their work in Egypt. ARCE also hosts numerollsconferencesduring the year; and the annual conference,as those ESS memberswho also belongto ARCE can attest, provides a wealth of infonratiorr and fun.

THE ARIZONA EXPEDITION TO THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS Presentedby Dr. Richard Wilkinson DMNH Lecture- October25, 1993 Reviewed by Stuart Wier ABOUT THE REVIEWER'. Stuart Wier is an active nember of ESS and a frequenl conllibulor to THE OSTRACON. Sluarl is foscinated witlt history and eyen participated on a dig in Winchester,England, where he excavaledthe grave of a tenth century Saxon noblernan. He is currenlly compiling an excellent bibliography on ancient Egypt for the ESSmembership (to be cnailable ,soon). The Publications Cotnmittee is delighted tltat, Stuart hds graciously agreed to write lhe Lecture Noles for THE OSTRACON on a regular basis. Dr. Richard Wilkinson of the University of Arizona, avtllor of READING EGYPTIAN ART, the forthcoming SYMBOL AND MAGIC IN EGYPTIAN ART, and the cover story Tne Pclhs of Re; Sun Symbolisnt in the Vallel, of the Kings Tombs in tlle current issue of rLilfl, describedthe lvork of himself and his colleaguesof the Arizona Expeditionin the Valley of the Kings to over 200 listeners. Wilkinson is an engagingspeakerand that, combined with his fascinating topic, had the audiencein rapt silenceand on the edgeof their seatsby the end ofthe lecture. For a numberof yearsihe Arizona Expeditionhas been rvorking in the Valley of the Kings, continuing excavationsbegun by Dr. Wilkinson's colleague,Dr. Otto Schadenof Chicago. The expeditionstartedin the rarely-visitedback valley, clearinga tomb next to what is believedto be Akhenaten'soriginal tomb, tlre one he startedbefore removing to Amarna. This tomb began with a vertical well shaft over 30 feet deep,an unusual feature for the Western Valley of the Kings. The slopeddown from the baseofthe shaft entrancepassage into the mountain. It was filled with turab -- flood debris consisting of sand, dirt, and rock fragments washed into the tomb by the rare but violent which afflict the Valley every centuryor thunderstonns so. Many tombs in the Valley have filled with layersof this debrisover the centuries.

Woolen cosnetic spoon with litl Muse ,5966, IEth Dltas!*.


The B.itisl'

Oddly enough,this debriscan encaseand help preserve remainsin the tombsalthoughthe lrlrlal swirling waters and debrisare violent enouglrto abradesurfaces.This protection and destruction is especiallytrue of wall November1993

paintingswhose i organicpigmentsare very resistiveto most types of deterioration. The first flooding caused the rnostdamageas the swirling debrisabradedthe wall decorationcloseto glound level. However,subsequent flooding every century or so depositedthe debris in layerswhich actuallyprotectedthe tomb walls. Careful removal of the turab from the tombs is immenselylaboriousbut pays off when finds are made which shed new liglit on ancient Egypt. In the Expedition'sfirst tomb, severalobjectsof interestwere found, including pottery, a wooden mallet left by the workmen who made the tomb, a face mask, a broken woodencoffin, the remainsof five mummies,and linen in excellentcondition. Tliis torrb is now thoughtto be an adjunctto Akhenaten'stomb next door. The other tontb excavated in the back valley was used by PharaohAy, successorto Tutankhamun. This tomb was being prepared for Tutankhamun when Tut's early demise (at about age 20) forced the use of a snaller tomb for his burial. Some of the wall paintingsin Ay's tomb are nearly idertical to those in Tutankhamun's lomb. All the names and images of Ay were later hacked out as part of the campaign to obliterate the memory of all associatedwith the Amarna regime. lnterestingly,the image of Ay's ka sufferedonly two chiselbiows, which leadsto some speculationaboutthe meaningofthe ka in ancientEgypt. This past summer, the Arizona Expedition began clearingKVl0 in the main Valley of the Kings. This tonrbis well known; in fact, it's lessthan 100feet down the patir front Tutankhamur.r's tomb entrance. The entranceof KVl0 has been open for generations,the passagevidually filled with turab, and the wall paintingscompletelydestroyed. There has never been any significantinterestin this tomb -- until now. KV l0 is the tomb of Amenmesse,probably a son of RamsesII, who ruled after Merneptah,anotherson and successorto Ramses. Amenmesse'scompletename is Amen-Ramesse,"son of Amen-Ra." Amenmesse apparentlyruled for only four to five years,but though his reign was slroft, he is not an unknown. Wilkinson and liis colleaguesdecidedto excavateKVl0 following the kind of insightwhich also led Howard Carterto look for the torrb of Tutankhamun. ln Carter'sday, tlie known pharaohs'tombs had been robbed and were empty, yet some objects from the entiresuite of rnaterialleft in each tomb, known as the funerary corpus, were in the handsof collectorsaround Novemtrer1993

the world. Theseobjects.likely stolenfrom the tombs in antiquity, had somelrorvsurvived the ages. Carter spottedan exception.Therewere no survivorsfrom the tomb contentsof an obscureking namedTutankharnun. There was a possibility that his tomb, if it could be found, would still contain some or all of the original offerings. Carter went on to find the tomb, bLrried unintentionally by debris frorn the constructionof RamsesVI's tornb nearby, a rnore effective disguise than all the deliberatecontrivalrcesof ancient tomb architects. Wilkinson pointed out that, in the caseof Amenmesse'stomb, there is also a paucity of known funeraryitems. This suggeststhat either this king was not actuallyburied,or tltat some items may still remain irrthe tomb, althoughit was apparentlyopenedcenturies agoand sincefilled with flood debris. Amenmesse'stomb is expectedto be very similar to thoseof the pharaohsjust beforeand after him: a long straightcorridor or passageleading into the tnountain, sloping downward in places,with side niches arrd at leastone pillaredhall mid-way beforereaclringthe rnain and larger pillared hall at the far end. The entrance passageto Amenmesse's tomb is about sevenfeet wide and ninefeet high; its lengthis as yet unknownalthough Merneptah's tomb is about 300 feet long. The decorations of Amenmesse's tonrbwere also expectedto be similar to those of his predecessor, and so far, the excavationshavefound this to be the case,allowing for the alterationsIaterdescribed. After a suspenseful waiting periodfor a concession from the Egyptian governmentto excavatethis tonrb, the team, Inostly composedof llrose who had previously worked in the back valley, began rvork on KVl0 this past summer. Right away importantfinds were made. The depositsin the torrb's entrancepassagewere indeed flood debris. Perhapsappropriately,neartlte top was a typed menu for a banquetheld in 1923, shortly after Tutankhamun'stomb was opened. On the back were notesin what may be the handwritingof Howard Caner or one of his contemporaries.A srnallcacheof objects frorn the burial of Seti I (ust up the hill) was also found in the entrance.Theseitemsmay havebeenwashedinto the tomb of Amenmesseby floods or possibly left by robbers who paused here to sort their treasureand durnpedunwanteditems. Many centurieslater,perhaps Howard Carter sat in the same spot writing notesand debatingwhat to do with tlre contentsof Tut,s tomb acrossthe path. More impoftantthan tltese incidentalintrusionsis the infonnation gleaned from the walls of tlte entrance l6

passage.Near the front, the decorationsare completely missing. Perhaps "destroyed" is the correct word because,on inspection, it is clear that both the hieroglyphsand the figures of the gods themselveshad beenchiseledfrom the walls. In ancientEgypt,suchan undefiaking would normally have been regarded as religioussacrilege.This is very puzzling,sincemuch work would be required to remove the yards of decoration. Yet this was done carefully and deliberately,r'ightin the centerof a holy site rvhichwas guardedby civil and religious authorities. The only tirle such destructionwas permitted in ancient Egypt was when the alterationsreplacedone holy effigy with one of equalsanctity. of paintedplaster In the deblis in the passage,tlrousands rnay well be found. These have beetr cliips of all sizes the remains of painted plaster decorationrvhich rvas applied to the walls after tlre original decorationrvas removed with chisels. In fact, traces of plasterwere found overlying the chiseled surface of the walls Anotherpuzzle is the fact that in a few placesthe u'all was rci chiseled -- just where the name Amenmesse appeared.This suggestsrespect tbr the metnory of Amenmesse. FLnlherback, intact plasterwas found on the \\'allswith images,titles, and narnesof two otherrviseunknown women: Great Royal Wife Baketwerel and Queen Mother Takat. Wilkinson suggestedthat, while there is at presentno direct evidencefor the relationshipofthese women with a specific king. it is not impossiblethat tlrey were the wife and mother of Alnenmesse One imageshorvsBaketwerelmaking a gestureof respectto Osiris. 'l-his is inappropriate:mofials shottld make a But, if gestLrreof glorification towards a god. justthe wife of Baketwerelwere the deceased Ameumesse, tlte gesture becones appropriate, or at least since Osiris is cornprelrerrsible. actually her husband who becalne Osirisupon his death.

to a burial here,the possiblesecondaryburials(at least) must have been robbed. Wilkinson wonderedif tomb objects of Baketwerel or Takat lay unidentified and in museumsaroundthe world. unappreciated at the time of the secondburial in the tomb, Presumably, the back of the tomb, still containing the burial of would havebeensealedoff beforeconvertArnenmesse. ing the front of the tornb for the new occupant(s).The most obvions and mundanereasonfor doing so being simply to protect the valuable tomb contents. It is certain that the tomb was prepared for the burial of Amenmesse,since royal tombs were never decorated until the king died. The decorationswere appliedduring the lengthy period (70 days) of ritual and mumnrificationfollowing death. There is evidencefrom other tombs that the tomb contentswere installedeven as the decorationwas underway. Its seemsodd that the oharaohs never saw tlteir own tombs decorated. Properlyspeaking,no pharaohwould have ever seena decoratedtomb,exceptthat of his predecessor! The Arizona Expedition's excavation this year has proceededa good distanceinto the tomb but lias yet to reachthe secondpillaredhall or burial chamber,if such exists-- following the analogywith other tombs of the stilJ period. A wall of debris,nearlyfilling the passage, confrontsthe excavators. Wilkinson finally presented a scenario which he describedas an interestingpossibility -- one among many until more is known of the history of the tomb. Amenmessehad KVl0 preparedfor his burial, and lie may have been buried in the tornb accordingto plan. of the tomb were reSometimelater,the outer passages prepared for the burial of the royal decoratedand uomen, Takal rnd Brketuerel. possibly the rnother and wife of Amenmesse,perhapsafter blocking the inner part of the tomb. At an unknown later date, parl or all of the tomb may havebeenrobbedand 'fhe opened clearedof its contents. tomb passagesgraduallyfilled rvith flood debrisover the centuries.

Wilkinson thoughtit possiblethat the tomb was refront of Arnenrnesse's usedthe for burial of one or both of thesewomen. The original decorated wall would lrave been chiseled. plastered.and repaintedto sltow tlle name(s)of the new occupant(s),an essential pad of a proper burial. o! boi'|, hlue sto.rd conryositionw\rc. Sinceno objectshave yet beenfound Inside ,11 uset D', ev Xn,gdo"L ^" in the tomb that are definitely related t1

rhc British

Much hard work rernains for Wilkinson and his colleaguesof the Arizona Expedition as they continuetheir exciting excavations in KV10. The ESSwishesthem tlte bestof luck! November 1993





ABOUT THE REVIEWER: Haruiette Peters is one of otu' long-distancenrenbers -Jiont New Jersey. Even so, she has ntanaged to be quite actiNe in the ESS. Haffiette, y,ho Jinances contntercial reul estale Jbr Anchor Savings Bank, becante obsessetl v,ith ancient Egy-pton her Jirst trip there in 1986. She became a menber o/ ARCE and eventually hooked up y,ith sonte ESSmembersat one of their conferences. Hariette was one oJ the lecturers at the Pyranid Syntposiumand hos parlicipated in other Pyramitl Study Group actiyities incltrding their research trips to Egypl!

Mtmmties: The Eg,ptian Art O;fDeath August7, 1993- January31,1994 SanAntonio Museumof Afi MuseumHours:l0:00 AM - 5:00PM, M-S Noon-5:00PM on Sunday, closesat 9:00 PM on Tuesdays Adrrission:$4.00 Phone:(210)978-8I00 While on a recentbusinesstrip to SanAntonio, I had the opportunityto visit this show and believethat it will be of particular interest to mernbersof tlre ESS. This exhibit is a clear demonstrationof how a regional i.lluseutrcan pLrlltogether a thematic exhibit utilizing both its owl resoltrcesas rvell asjudicious borrowingof works fron otlrer rruseumsand individLrals aroundthe country. The end result, while 1]awed.coritair'ts sotne fascinatingpieces on a scale not norrnally available outside of Philadelphia, Boston, New York-, arici C hicago. Tlre show, which contains well over 300 pieces, is arranged in chronological order beginning with a reconstructed Pre-Dynastic, Naqada II burial pit. November1993

Although the body is not real. thc pots and other artifactsare! The Old Kingdom is well represented rvith pots, "models" of a rorving ship. rvonderfulbas-relieJ fragmentsand a ntoderndoubleserdab(ed. note: srrall, sealedchamberfor tlte statueof the personfor r.vhorn the tomb or pyrarnid was built) containingstatuesof Nakht-Sas(from the Brooklyn Museum) and a scribe. SesharnNefer II. Middle Kingdom objects include anhydrite and amethyst cosmetic jars and a rvell preserveomummy case. If anyhing, the period leastrepresentedin the slrolvis the one best known to studentsof ancientEgypt - the New Kingdom. The ore exceptionto this is a collectiorr of objects from Deir el Medina, most notably a tnarvelousdouble statue of Sennedjerrand his son Khonsuholdinga stele. Most surprising is an extensive collection of Third IntermediatePeriod objects including a set of unique canopicjars. Although internaJorgausrvereburiedwith the body duringthis peliod,carropic.jar.s rverefashioned for the burial to honor tradition, Thesejars, however, are solid rvith lines drawn where the openingswould normallybe found. 'flrere is ample representation of Nubian objects,most notablytwo particularlyfine ushabtisof King Taharqa. Members of the Mummy Study Group rvould be especially interestedin the two Third Intermediate Period and one Late Period mumnty cases, some rvrappedrrurrrnified birds, and a modernre-creationof u wrrpperl Il)Un))) cLJr)taiDiltg iltr acluJl layoUt of originalamuletsas they woLrldbe placedon a body prior to bLrrial. The flnal display,Ient by the Detroit Instituteof Afts, is an open mummy casecontainingthe pitiful remainsof Tai-Beset. Tlre rnuntrnyis not in very good condition. However"viewing this display serves to personalize. mostgraphically.the cntire exhibit, as one perceivesthe EgyptianArt of Deathas excmplifiedby tlteseoncealltoo-humanrenrains. AII ol the ob.jects in this shorv are uuique and intercsting. llowever the exhibit caLtscsa ceftain anrountof liustrationin tlvo particularareas: J. Many itemsthat u,crc labeleddid not include their provenance (point of origin) in Egypt. This, in part. nray be due to the fact that many have been lent by individuals who rray have had no t8

access to this inforrnation. 2. More frrjstrating',r'erethe manl'caseslvhich containedno identificationwhatsoever. The exhibithad beenopenfor trvo weeksb1'thetime I visited and this seemed inexcusable, particularlywhenI foundan entirestackof labels llad sittingon top ofone ofthe casesl Somebody donethework to vain! I heartilyrecommend this Despitethesereservations, showbecause of tlie qualityand varietyof tlre objects displayed; they includemany from periodswhich are not normallyaccessible.SanAntoniois a wonderful destination in itseli and this exhibitprovidesan extra bonus.

A brief note abofi the San Antonio Museum of Art (SAMA): In addition to this exhibit, SAMA has pennanentcollectionsof Chineseand Asian art, Greek and Ronran antiquities. Spanish Colonial and Latin Americanfolk afi. and various paiuting galleries. The museumhas a small gift shop but no cafeteria. lt is housedin a striking,renovatedbrewerya bit northofthe centercity ("Alamo land") and any visit would requirea car or taxi. The surroundingneighborhoodis rather undistinguished althoughyou will be greetedby many yelps and howls from the inhabitantsof the Humane Society facility located directly across from the entrance.



ST UD Y SOCIE T Y November1993

Ostracon v4 n3  

Journal of the Egyptian Study Society

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