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Magazine of Zoo Outreach Organisation Vol. XXVII No. 2, February 2012

ISSN 0971-6378 (Print); 0973-2543 (Online)

What makes a mammal attractive to the public at the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul in southern Brazil? See Pp. 6-11

Date of Publication: 21 February 2012


Magazine of Zoo Outreach Organisation Vol. XXVII No. 2, February 2012

ISSN 0971-6378 (Print); 0973-2543Online)

Contents Feature articles -Marketing in Indian Zoos -- Indian Zoos on their way to Market, Pp. 1-2 -Guidelines for Developing Framework Mechanism for Mobilizing Corporate Financial Support for Supplementing Management of Zoos, B.S. Bonal, Brij Gupta & Naim Aktar, Pp. 2-5 -What makes a mammal attractive to the public at the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul in southern Brazil?, Elenara Véras dos Santos, Leonel de Souza Martins, Danusa Guedes, and Júlio César Bicca-Marquesa, Pp. 6-11 -Promoting Human Elephant Coexistence among conflict area inhabitants of Coimbatore, South India-Refresher Course, R. Marimuthu, Pp. 12-13 -Zoo Lex - Zoo Miami Harpy Eagle Encounter, Pp. 14-17 -Wildlife Week 2011 - Education Reports, Pp. 18-19 Technical articles -A Case Study on Indian Vulture (Gyps indicus) rescued in Orchha, Madhya Pradesh, India, Amita Kanaujia and Sonika Kushwaha, Pp. 20-22

Santhanakrishnan, A. Mohamed Samsoor Ali and U. Anbarasan, Pp. 23-24 -A case report of tuberculosis in a captive Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus), D.T. Fefar, B.M. Jivani, R.A. Mathukiya, V.V. Undhad, D.J. Ghodasara, B.P. Josh, C.J. Dave and K.S. Prajapati, Pp. 25-26 -A preliminary report of Phumdis from Narthamalai hills, Pudukkottai District, Tamil Nadu, Senthil, D, P. 27 -Successful treatment of Leptospirosis in a captive lioness -- a case report, K.S. Subramanian, K. Vijayarani, and R. Thirumurugan, P. 28 -Cross reactivity of deer immunoglobulin G (IgG) with antibovine IgG conjugate, Chintu Ravishankar, Nandana D., Anneth Alice John, Reni M. R., Mathew Sebastian, George Chandy and Anoop S., Pp. 29-30 Announcement -International Aquarium Congress 9-14 September 2012, Cape Town, P. 31 The 4th International Congress on Zoo Keeping 9-13 September 2012 Singapore, P. 32

Knowledge about Owls among general public in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, R. Zoo Miami -- Harpy Eagle Encounter, See Pp. 14-17


Marketing in Indian Zoos -- Indian Zoos on their way to Market Editor’s Note: When I was associated with the Friends of Mysore Zoo (FMZ) as Founder/Secretary, I was interested in adding as many public or visitor activities as possible to the zoo. Then, there was not much going on in an interactive way between the zoo and the public. Of course, people came and saw the animals, but mostly visitors did not get involved with the zoo or donate money and materials, or even think to ask what problems the zoo might be having. Founding the Friends of Mysore Zoo (FMZ) was an excellent way to gather the more “proactive” Mysoreans and put them to work! FMZ conducted many projects which had not been done or even contemplated in other Indian zoos and some of these were charming. But gathering the public in a fragile environment like a zoo often creates more problems than are solved. Add to this an ambitious and pushy foreign woman, an American spy in the opinion of many, and problems are not just likely ... they are inevitable. Ironically, despite the problems, the officials in the then Department of Environment when it was under the Ministry of Agriculture, paid no mind to the problems, but invited me to start a national version of FMZ, funded by the Department, that would include all the zoos in India. I agreed and so came along the Zoo Outreach Organisation, funded by the DoE, GoI.

Bored of dogs? Now, you can adopt a lion-Chatbir Zoo http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/ pets/Bored-of-dogs-Now-you-can-adopt-a-lion/articleshow/ 5916643.cms

But before all this happened, the Friends of Mysore Zoo organised an Animal Adoption Scheme at Mysore Zoo. Being American I had heard about zoos creating these programmes or schemes and understood how they worked. I did not, however, understand how alien such a scheme would seem in India. There was a lot of enthusiasm for the scheme by some of our members, but soon it emerged that their enthusiasm stemmed from a very wrong idea that if they “adopted” an animal, they had some rights. Some thought that they could go into the cage with the animal. Others thought that they could even take the animal home. It was not just the donors who didn’t understand Animal Adoption. The zoo director and his associates could not understand that the donors had to be given attention and “get something” to acknowledge their donation aside from a small sign on the cage. I tried to explain ... in other countries, zoos with adoption programmes stayed in touch with the donors. They send donors news of the animal they adopted and encourage them to come to the zoo often and see “their” animal. These are small things but they mean a lot to the donors. The administration didn’t get it and after some time, with no reinforcement forthcoming, the donors lost interest and when it was time to donate the next year, they just ignored the request. A few more zoos attempted animal adoption but seemed to have a similar experience.

Wildlife authorities offer a range of privileges to reinforce the scheme. Adoptees can visit as special guest during celebrations and appointed ex-officio member of the zoos‘ development society. He will have his own name board display and free passes for family and friends to visit the zoo several times a year. Naturally this plan is showing a good response as it is a two-way bargain. The adoptive family can check on the living conditions of the animal and ask anything about its habits.

After 3 decades of Indian zoos flailing around when they tried to engage with the public, now there is a big difference...there is progress! Much of this difference must have to do with the training in Marketing provided by Central Zoo Authority, and the visits to other countries training, etc. Also, now there is an powerful impetus by CZA which relatively recently brought out guidelines for corporate support which would supplement the management of Indian zoos. The entire document of Guidelines is incorporated in this article. Recently a spate of articles appeared about zoos attempting to engage the public in order to raise funds for the zoos but also to create more interest in the zoo and perhaps a feeling of “ownership” or participation by the public. A few of these article have been summarised next:

For animal lovers seeking a new type of pet than a domestic dog or cat can avail the scheme put up by Government of Punjab to adopt a zoo animal. The animal has to stay in the zoo of course so the “adoption” is only in name and gives the adoptive parent a chance to help the zoo financially. All major zoos in Punjab are included like Mohindra Chaudhury Zoological Park at Chhatbir and even the three small zoos in Ludhiana, Bathinda and Patiala as well as a deer park at Neelonand an aviary at Patiala. "All these zoos and deer parks are keeping wild animals for education and recreation purposes” said Punjab's Chief Wildlife Conservator R.K. Loona; “We have launched this scheme of adoption Oct 7 under which any individual, trust or organisation can adopt animals or birds from these places which will help government confront a severe financial crunch, a noble exercise." The Conservator went on to sya that the adoption scheme is a means for busy citizens to show support for wildlife conservation, contributing toward feeding, maintaining enclosures and medicating the animal.

The cost of an adoption varies according to the size and cost of maintenance of the animals, ranging from Rs. 400 to Rs. 209,200. The scheme has caught the attention of environmentalists and residents of Punjab. One can adopt an animal either for a whole year or for a few months. Charges vary from Rs. 400 to Rs. 209,200. Environmentalists and residents are quite enthusiastic about the move. "We have planned to adopt two Asian lions for one year at a cost of around Rs. 200,000. We should understand that these animals are not only for entertainment," Rohit Ruhella, an environmentalist who is running an NGO said. Rajiv Gandhi Zoo, Pune http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/Katraj-zoo-topair-up-endangered-species/articleshow/11261546.cms The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park in Pune was already promoting an animal adoption scheme when CZA released Guidelines for same. Any individual, organisation or corporate sector was permitted to participate in bearing the cost of food, upkeep, etc. either for all the animals, a group a single animal or an enclosure. The zoo will also raise its entry fee to meet expenditures and improve the zoo. Most of the zoos are maintained by government which always has strict rules on raising and using funds and the guidelines show how these zoos can deal with the current financial situation by registering a charitable society or foundation which would enable them to collect funds to improve management and also provide individuals and corporations to support the zoo and show their interest in nature conservation. The Pune public has responded well to this

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appeal and many animals including leopard, tiger, bear, spotted deer, peacock and tortoise have been adopted. The funds provided help in guaranteeing good care, nutritious food and veterinary treatment. The new guidelines of the Ministry permits zoos to use the revenue from ticketing to run the zoo better. This has been a very silly situation in years past that all ticket and other funds generation should be given to government which would then mete out amounts which did not meet expenses. The new scheme has perhaps led to an increase in visitation. The zoos reports and satisfactory income but it is not enough to support the infrastructure in a suitable manner, so they are increasing the fee for entry. This has been another thorn in the flesh of the zoological institutions in the country whose politicians insisted on keeping the entry fee very low to please all income groups. The master plan of Rajiv Gandhi Zoo was submitted to the Central Zoo Authority of India two years ago with proposals for new enclosures for lions, lesser cats, hyena, wild dog, raptor and an aquatic bird aviary, Leopard, Nilgai, Barking Deer, among others. Animal adoption florishes at Mysore zoo Mysore zoo has had an adoption scheme for some time with almost 400 individuals and businesses adopting an animal or several last year. Celebrities adopting animals are a “winwin� for everyone. They can easily afford it and the fact of their celebrity lends a cache to the act which thrills the public. Some of the celebrity adoptions are. Cricketer Anil Kumble has adopted a giraffe calf at Mysore zoo. The popularity of the adoption scheme at Mysore zoo is such that many more cricketers, film stars, politicians and industrialists have adopted animals. The scheme did not receive the a good response earlier there has been a gradual rise in adoptions, with a record number of animals and birds being adopted in last three years. Adoptions rose from 7 in 2001-02 to 394 in 2010-11 with Rs. 30.2 lakh as adoption revenue in 2010-11.

B.Y. Raghavendra, MP, and Jungle Lodges and Resorts Ltd. (JLR) adopted a lion and a tiger respectively from the park for one year, from September 2009 and have been urged to continue. The former Indian cricketers Anil Kumble and Javagal Srinath helped make the scheme popular in Mysore. Kumble adopted a giraffe calf and an Asiatic lion; Srinath adopted a jaguar. Speedster Zaheer Khan paid Rs. 1 lakh for a tiger. The Ex. Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa adopted Amulya, a tiger, for the third consecutive year. Congress leader D.K. Shivakumar adopted a gorilla and two king cobras for Rs. 1 lakh. Kannada actor Darshan renewed his adoption of an elephant calf for another year. The zoo officials believe the enhanced care offered the animals has influenced more wildlife lovers to take up the programme. Now, Mysore Zoo has upgraded its website permitting online adoption of animals. The new website offers maps depicting different routes to the zoo. Students and wildlife enthusiasts can access the details of educative programmes organized by the zoo on conservation, workshops, competitions, and others. The website offers information about all species in the zoo. Director B P Ravi believes the website will help the animal exchange programmes as authorities of other zoos will get all the details on it and visitors can also post their feedbacks about their experience at the zoo. The avante guarde zoo plans to introduce e-ticketing facility on the website soon and update it frequently with zoo news. The Tyavarekoppa Safari which badly need such help reported that details of their adoption scheme would be displayed on the safari park premises as well as at Jog. It has been modified by reducing the adoption period and keeping the fee affordable. Animals can be adopted even for a week.

Guidelines for Developing Framework Mechanism for Mobilizing Corporate Financial Support for Supplementing Management of Zoos B.S. Bonal1, Brij Gupta2, Naim Aktar3, Central Zoo Authority Introduction The Zoos in India are mainly under the control of state Government, however few zoos are managed by Municipal and private organisations. The Zoos are mainly located in the city suburbs with relatively large green areas with a natural ambience. Zoos have transformed over the years from small menageries to Zoological park/ biological park where animals are exhibited in large naturalistic eco-system based enclosures. The zoos regularly attract large number of visitors as they exhibit animals not easily seen in the wild. Zoos are conservation centres with a large potential to educate visitor and develop understanding and empathy for wildlife. They serve as institution of knowledge and learning about the life history of captive animals. The zoos need to make their operations sustainable through judicious use of available resources, using various marketing tools to raise funds for attaining financial stability without compromising on the welfare of animals in their collections and conservation goals.

Corporate and individuals with a strong sense of responsibility towards nature and ecosystem integrity are keen to associate and donate funds for the development and growth of zoos. As most of the zoos are operated by governments, certain restriction on raising and utilization of such funds exists hence guidelines, procedures and mechanism may help the zoos in raising funds. The zoos run by trusts and private sector may also use these guidelines for availing benefits. It is true that unless zoos have best marketing strategy they cannot tap the financial resources from the corporate sector and from private individuals. Zoos can be self sustaining and financially stable if they can raise funds through innovative marketing. A workshop on marketing, fund raising, and resource management was organized by the Central Zoo Authority at Kolkata from 27th -30th April 2009 in collaboration with Zoological Garden, Alipore to discuss the marketing and fund raising opportunities for the zoos in India. More than 27 zoo directors and 2 International 1

Member Secretary, 2Evaluation and Monitoring. Officer, Scientific Officer, Central Zoo Authority. Email: cza@nic.in 3

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resource persons from Singapore attended the workshop. Following practices may be adopted in marketing and fund raising in zoos: Zoos as Conservation Centres Zoos exhibit a large variety of wild animals with potential to attract visitors keen to know about the wildlife resource of our country. Zoos can be developed into knowledge houses by innovative nature education and interpretation strategy. Zoos can reach out to the general public, educational institutions and develop partnership in the field of wildlife conservation and education. The ex-situ and in-situ conservation linkages can be leveraged to make zoos centres for study and research on natural resource management. The zoos should formulate strategy to market itself through dissemination of information on its exhibits. Zoos Business Models Zoos have a large variety of animal housed in natural ecosystem based enclosures. The animals still maintain their natural traits in the restricted environment and are natural panorama of the wilderness. Zoos advantage is the natural aesthetics and ambience which is lacking in urban areas and which people desire. The empathy towards animals and the sylvan surrounding evoke the emotional cords of human beings and they begin to associate and identify themselves with the cause of conservation of species and habitat. Zoos business model should reflect the natural yearning of human beings to conserve pristine habitats and wildlife. The sections of society, institution and organisation should have a means of knowing about the purpose, objectives and mandate of organisation. This can occur through dissemination of information not only through words of mouth but by a sustained effort through print and electronic media. The zoos under Government control are not free to openly canvass for raising funds as the maintenance funds are allotted by Govt and the zoo managers do not consider it as important part of their activity. It is necessary that the state govt should explore avenues to make zoos self sustaining and financially sound so that the welfare of animals do not suffer. SWOT Analysis Each zoo should carry out a SWOT analysis and develop a financial business model based on its core strength and enter into a dialogue with corporate and private individuals to support the zoos for conservation. The zoos have to decide the marketing module best suited to their strengths. SWOT analysis can indicate your current position and the way forward. It can give insight to your strength, sphere of your excellence, your advantages, valuable assets and resources, visitor perception of your strength. It can also give you areas of your weakness, where you can do better, locate your weak areas of management, your vulnerability. The opportunities in an ex-situ conservation facility with respect to Conservation breeding, education and research, green initiatives and education are immense and we need to capitalize on them. The zoos are facing criticism on Animal ethics and welfare and media perceive them as vulnerable entities. Internally and externally there are threats to its progress and growth in spite of good legislation, rules and guidelines. The zoos have to reorient themselves and incorporate significant changes in the outlook of the management and keep abreast new technologies, concepts and ideas emerging in management of animals.. The first step towards economic viability of zoos is to develop a business plan or model:

Developing a Zoo Business Model Your business plan needs to cover the following: a. The market, b. Market segmentation, c. Consumer analysis, d. Competition, e. Zoo Activity features and benefits, f. Competitive analysis, g. Positioning, h. Advertising and promotion, i. Sales, j. Research and development, Operations, k. Visitors- the target group, l. Professional Financial Projections This exercise will create a business model innovation; understanding the logic through which the business can create and deliver value for the customers/clients. Set up a Business and Finance Unit Zoos should first set up a separate unit deploying existing staff if available. In case expert opinion and advice is required zoo should hire consultants to manage this unit. The Important features for your Zoo Business setting: a. Clear Objectives b. Your Mission Statement c. Your Keys to Success The business vision should be clear. How far you can work and achieve under the existing Government norms. Do you need to set up a special purpose unit under a society model? Will the state govt agree to this dispensation? How you can convince the govt to give you the powers to raise and deposit funds and also plough back and revolve the funds from entry fees and other collections. You have to develop the vision and strategy for management and business. For this set out the guiding principles and ethics. Maximise Strengths Location, surrounding, natural landscape and water bodies etc What is your zoo known for, your hallmark, find it, develop it and make your position statement in society. Develop rapport with other organisations private or government in entertainment and allied sectors. How your zoo has adapted to the changing role and philosophy about wildlife. What is your visitation and market share as compared to other natural landscapes and entertainment centres. How to increase your market share. You have to make the system of governance and management work for you. Your vision should be to become a major and important natural resource recreation and learning centre in your city with a top position. Most important is to develop your brand and then strategically associate and align with other supporting business (theme park, botanical garden, transport sector, caterers etc) What is your target audience, do you have a separate and exclusive niche audience .You may have to revise tariff rates and operating hours to strategically take your business forward. Zoos Dilemma The Government zoos bound by rules framed for government service, finance, maintenance procedures etc cannot effect any changes deviating from government procedures and feel themselves restricted in executing new ideas and business concepts. They need to form a society and adapt elements of corporate management and ethics to produce results. Government zoos have to learn to set up and operate towards achieving sound financial returns within the government norms. The shift is from sustainable to commercial service goals. This calls for a optimum, efficient and effective allocation of resources, a quick turn

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around time and growth of the zoo. The zoo manager should be more than an administrator, a business manager. HRD Training The zoos have to work and invest in the staff on training and development as staffs are the most important assets that build an image of your organisation. Rude and discourteous staff can ruin any organisation. Empower your staff with knowledge and efficiency of work, provide appropriate courses, reward and grant incentives for enhancing performance. Practices may be adopted for Marketing and Fund raising: 1. Marketing a. Effective marketing strategy. All zoos in the country should formulate effective marketing strategy to popularize their zoos using exhibits, animals, landscape, vegetation, free ranging fauna, zoo events etc to attract visitors from all section of community. The market has several competitors so we must first assess our potential based on our objective and mandate and select our target group to deliver services in an efficient and effective manner. We should be clear as to our market segment and focus our energy to cater to this segment. Our market is the educational institutions, school and colleges, families from rural and urban areas, professional, executives and business sector. The corporate sector would like to expand knowledge of their work force and make them sensitive to animal conservation, efficient energy, alternate energy, pollution and other environmental concerns. Zoos are best placed to offer customized services and can develop natural resource knowledge and learning modules and impart knowledge through informal outdoor learning, including a judicious mix of fun entertainment and learning. Marketing principles requires to sell your zoo events and attractions much more than present levels and build your market share. Image and brand building, including use of celebrities as brand ambassadors The zoos should make their image and brand using various strategies e.g. role of zoo in conservation breeding of endangered species, captivity of endemic or exotic animals, specialized enclosures (walk in aviary, drive through enclosures), arrival of migrating birds, free ranging fauna etc. The image and brand of the zoo may further be built or upgraded involving celebrities as brand ambassadors from media, film industry, sports, social sector and even politician. Press will enhance your market if the zoos programmes are educative and enriches peoples experience. The zoo brands need to be developed to give it unique identity. Marketing communication will sell the zoos activities to public. Develop stakeholders long term relationship for continued support. For brand selling a trained person is required as peoples interest in the zoo brands wane quickly. Strategic positioning and image rejuvenation is required all the time in this dynamic sector The positioning and branding of the zoo activity features and exhibits with right names which attracts people can do wonders for your zoo image. Positioning zoo towards target audience can attract large number of people. Work out the unique selling proposition in consonance with the target audience. Make your zoo different from others. Brand is a unique image builder and connects to value, emotion etc and excites people and makes them loyal towards brand and people want it all the time.

c. Professionalism and transparency In spite of your dedicated work in govt sector your integrity is at stake as people perceive govt working as not above board and manipulative. Therefore zoo should adopt professionalism and transparency while making & executing marketing strategy and generation of fund and its expenditure. Such zoos should constitute a governing body having representation of all stakeholders including donors in decision making of zoo management and implementation of such policy. d. Use of signage, hoardings, print and electronic media The zoo should have proper signage (directional, non directional, animal bearing signage, innovative signage), hoardings to make their image good before the public. Electric media can also play effective role in enhancing image of zoo in public. e. Good public amenities Public amenities in zoo also play big role in making its image in public hence zoo should ensure that public amenities of zoo are of best standard and accessible to all. The zoo should focus to have best toilet, visitor shed and drinking water facilities. Zoo moreover should have proper road, trails, and battery operated vehicles if zoo are large in size. f. Sensitization of policy makers, bureaucrats From time to time, zoo should organize meetings and seminar with the policy makers and bureaucrats to highlight achievement and their problems encounter in day to day and long term management and seek their intervention in solving such problem if so. g. Strengthening of infrastructural facilities To market the image, the zoo should have best infrastructural facilities e.g. good exhibits (enclosures), good visitor and service roads, drainage, rain water harvesting, veterinary hospitals with all desired equipments, store, kitchen, offices, disposal facility, and public amenities and staff quarters. h. Postal stamps/currency to market the zoos Zoo can request to government of India to issue stamps, currency to market the image of zoos and highlight the issues of ex-situ conservation of endangered species. i. Zoos to have website To furnish desired information to the visitors and other agencies, zoo should have their websites with up-to-date information including the grievances redress mechanism. This website can also have gate way of banking institution to receive fund online from individuals and organizations. Zoos should develop logo and tag line. j. Add new attractions regularly All zoos should keep adding new attractions to the visitors may be in the form of animals in their collection or events related to animals births, wildlife week celebrations, quiz programme, conservation education activities to school children, and other section of the society. k. Friends of Zoo- Potential Donors Zoos should identify potential donors corporate or individuals by inviting a them to events and functions of the zoo. Corporate houses who have evinced keen interest in donating funds for social and public causes can be introduced to zoos and its mandate informally so that they can develop a empathy for the zoo animals. A long term relationship can be developed by continuing to involve them

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in zoo related matters of interest to them. The donors choice regarding the area of support is important. The donors would like zoo management to ensure maintenance of standard and norms for animal care. l. Donors conditions The donors would require concessions and preferences with regard to entry in zoo and acknowledging their contribution and role which can be agreed by consultation within the ambit of the guidelines Possible request from donors are: waiver of entry fee, preferential entry, visit to enclosures, erection of board with details of sponsors and acknowledging their role in the official website. m. Networking with other sectors There are amusement parks, museums and outdoor adventure activities which attract visitors and zoos which hold endangered and charismatic species struggle to increase visitation. We need to come out of isolation and work together with other natural amusement and entertainment centres Zoos need to network with tour operators, transporters, caterers, airlines and hotels as their clients can be made aware about the experience zoo offers. Further bundling with other local entertainment and amusement park will bring more business to zoo. Zoo Tariff and pricing Pricing the various activities and events offered to public has to be carefully done by looking at the price sensitivity of the target market audience. The capacity of the people to spend for such experience will vary depending on market place. The income of various income groups their priorities and willingness to spend for leisure is to be assessed. Comparative pricing of similar leisure activities viz watching cinema, amusement and theme park, museum, outdoor adventure activities are to be analysed before pricing. Differential pricing for Indians/ foreigners, school and college students, physically challenged have to be determined. Pricing on weekdays/week ends, school holidays/ govt holidays have to be determined. Dual Pricing on low and high seasons will enhance visitation. The operating hours can be changed based on seasonal exigencies. Dual pricing should be done in such a way that rural people are not discouraged rather visit to zoos in large groups and ‘business model approach’ has not forgotten the role of zoos towards educating rural people. 2. Fund raising Fund raising is an integral part of the zoo to make it self sustaining and financially sound. Govt rules do not encourage active fund raising events as done in foreign zoos. Considering the restriction imposed in Financial Rules of Government (GFR), if needed, it is advised that the zoos may have a Registered Charitable Society/ Foundation for receiving the funds from people and corporate sector for the better management. The many States have created zoo authorities to plough back the revenue generated by the zoo in terms of entry fee etc. for the better management of the zoo. The States who does not have State zoo authorities yet may constitute the same for the purpose of fund raising and its utilization. It is observed due to lack of information or awareness, zoos don’t know how to receive and utilize such fund. Following criteria may be adopted to raise the funds. Criteria for Zoos raising Funds a. The zoo should be allowed to raise & use funds by their respective operators or governments. b. The zoo may have a Registered Society/ Foundation comprised of all stakeholders to raise fund and utilize same for the development of zoos.

c. Zoo should also be allowed to spend their revenue generated from ticketing. d. Funds or the services in the zoos may be generated using some of the below suggested ways: - Appropriate advertising in zoos by corporate sector. - Making friends of zoos through charging fee. - Outsourcing or establishing souvenir shops in zoos. - Monetary donation from individuals and corporate. - Monetary endorsement by corporate sector to zoos. - Parking of vehicles. - Endorsement from the corporate sector for certain services e.g. cleaning and hygiene in the zoo, road, enclosures, hospital and office maintenance in zoo premises. - Zoo can also receive certain equipments as donation such as furniture, computer, and battery operated vehicle, veterinary equipments, stationary item, ticketing machine etc. - Sponsorship for various activities viz transport, drinking water kiosk, education programme for school children, hygiene and health care of animals, uniform and other accoutrements for staff, medical camps etc. - Adoption of exhibits –providing feed for animals and maintenance of enclosure and health care etc. - Sponsoring conservation breeding programmes, ex-situ & in-situ conservation of animals, species recovery programme etc. - Receive donations and wills. - Special fund raising events for Environment protection and general conservation. Zoo can create a program aimed at connecting corporate and government organizations with nature. More importantly, the program can show them a business case for improving the efficiency and green-energy of their operations. The strategy is to take executives out of the boardroom, bring them to the zoo and immerse them in a close-up encounter with endangered species, and provide workshops and presentations on innovations and new technology on green-energy, and the business’ zoo ecological footprint. Other Revenue generation options Zoos should examine other revenue generation possibilities from serving/leasing rights to supply Food and Beverages, adoption of animals and sponsoring maintenance activities, photography, transport rides, entry to new attraction areas and overnight stay in zoo education centres etc. Food and beverages should be of excellent quality in a natural setting, with specific themes so that the food becomes a unique zoo visit proposition. Research is required to cater the choice meals to customers. Outlets for distribution of Food and Beverages (cold drinks, tea, coffee etc.) should be appropriately spread in the zoo. The role of the donor corporate/individuals in the management of zoo should also be clearly spelt out as without proper precaution they may likely unduly interfere in the internal management/administration of the zoo to the detriment of the stated objectives of the institution. While advertising on zoo signage or sponsoring structures/ literature or adopting animals it should be ensured that their massages/ads/logos do not over shadow the zoo massage/ animals or zoo landscape. The zoo management should retain its discretion in the matter and there should clear guidelines for the same. All zoos will develop protocol for receiving such aid, fix price or amount of different services and adoption of animals. All such aid will be entered into records and subjected to the audit. The zoo will have annual audit by competent authority for said grant and aid as well. Attempt should be made to deploy marketing professionals to market the

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What makes a mammal attractive to the public at the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul in southern Brazil? Elenara Véras dos Santos, Leonel de Souza Martins, Danusa Guedes, and Júlio César BiccaMarquesa Zoos can play an important role in biodiversity conservation by keeping well-managed populations of threatened species, producing scientific knowledge, helping to improve public awareness through environmental education (Reade & Waran, 1996) and promoting a feeling of connectedness to nature (Clayton & Myers, 2009). The efficiency of fulfilling these tasks is challenged by maintenance costs. Because maintenance costs can be high, species selection should take into account visitors’ preference for reaching an optimal balance between income and expenses. Since most zoos in developing countries are public institutions with limited budgets, their potential for building and enriching exhibits to improve their inhabitants’ welfare is limited. Therefore, finding mechanisms to raise income is critical. Although several studies, especially in Europe and North America, have investigated the factors affecting zoo visitors’ interest (Balmford, 2000; Balmford et al., 1996; Bitgood et al., 1988; Margulis et al., 2003; Reade & Waran, 1996; Ward et al., 1998), little is known about Latin American zoos. The variables often analyzed for accessing visitors’ interest or species popularity include body mass, exhibit proximity to the zoo’s main entrance, animal origin (native or exotic), level of activity, presence of infants, exhibit architecture and species’ annual maintenance cost (Bitgood et al., 1998; Davey 2006; Marcellini & Jessen, 1988; Margulis et al., 2003; Mitchell et al., 1990; Silva & Silva, 2007; Ward et al., 1998). Popularity has been estimated via census by the mean number of visitors (Balmford et al., 1996; Silva & Silva, 2007) or the time spent by them (Ward et al.,1998) attending each exhibit. This difference in methodology has produced partially divergent results. Whereas Ward et al. (1998) found that body mass and maintenance cost influenced popularity, Balmford et al. (1996) and Silva & Silva (2007) found no relationship between these variables. On the other hand, both Balmford et al. (1996) and Ward et al. (1998) found a positive relationship between popularity and exhibit distance from the zoo’s main entrance.

Open Giraffe. Photo by Anamelia de Souza Jesus

In this study we investigate the factors affecting mammal popularity at the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul in southern Brazil. We aim to provide subsidies for future management decisions such as species pool and enclosure characteristics. The Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, occupies an area of 740 ha. Exhibits are distributed over 120 ha, with the remaining 620 ha representing a protected area covered mainly by forest. The zoo harbors nearly 1400 individuals distributed in about 120 mammal, bird and reptile species. Mammals are represented by 46 species. Census of visitor attendance to mammal exhibits were conducted twice a day beginning at 10:00 am and 13:30 pm during 15 days in December 2008 and January 2009. Following the methodology of Balmford et al. (1998), the popularity of 40 mammal species was calculated using the mean percentage of visitors attending a particular exhibit (excluding those visitors that were only walking past it). Mammals in multi-species exhibits were not included in the census. Tremarctos ornatus and Panthera onca were represented by two individuals kept separately, but are analyzed together using the mean number of visitors. Individuals of Cebus nigritus and Callithrix penicillata were

Closed Common Marmoset. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes

*

Laboratório de Primatologia, Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, Brazil. e-mail: jcbicca@pucrs.br (Corresponding author)

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also kept at two exhibits, but because of exhibit differences they are analyzed separately. One C. nigritus exhibit contained an albino individual and one C. penicillata group had twin infants. We tested the relationship between species popularity and 11 variables: (1) distance from the pedestrian entrance to the exhibit, (2) distance from the zoo’s restaurant to the exhibit, (3) distance from bus parking lot to the exhibit, (4) distance from car parking lot to the exhibit, (5) number of animals in the exhibit, (6) animal visibility (percentage of census’ in which the animals were visible), (7) exhibit size (area), (8) species weight, (9) origin of species (native to Brazil or exotic), (10) presence or absence of infants and (11) exhibit type (Table 1). Weight data were obtained from the literature (Emmons & Feer, 1997; Walker, 1964). Data on (1) to (8) above were log transformed for reaching normality and allowing the comparison between measures with different scales (Sokal & Rohlf, 1998).

Open Guanac. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

Table I. Descriptions of exhibit types Type

Description

Island

Exhibit surrounded by water. Island shoreline at approximately 10 m from observers, with no visual obstacles.

Pit

Pit-like exhibit in which animals are kept at a lower level. Visitors need to look down to see the animals

Closed (with fences)

Usually small exhibits, laterally closed with fences or brick walls. Upper and front sides closed with fences.

Open (with fences)

Exhibit totally surrounded by a fence and without an upper cover. Exhibit with upper side semi-open and front side closed with a glass windowpane. Laterals sides and bottom made of brick.

Semi-open (with windowpane)

Table II. Relationship between mammal popularity (dependent variable) and several independent variables using linear regression. Significant results are in bold Variable Distance from pedestrian entrance (m) Distance from car parking lot (m) Distance from bus parking lot (m) Distance from restaurant (m) Exhibit size (m2) Species weight (kg) Individuals in the exhibit

Range 414-1,478

Median 810

r2 0.01

F 0.57

p 0.54

b 0.55

50-691 194-918 50-867 12.6-11,490

317 357 364 121

0.01 0.03 0.13 0.25

0.23 2.56 6.81 14.99

0.63 0.11 <0.01 <0.01

0.17 0.69 0.56 0.36

0.95-5,000

35

0.39

26.87

<0.01

0.35

1-30

2

0.02

1.95

0.17

0.35

Table III. Relationship between exotic mammal popularity (dependent variable) and several independent variables using linear regression Variable

Range

Median

r2

F

p

b

Distance from pedestrian entrance (m) Distance from car parking lot (m)

414-1,478

857

0.07

2.44

0.13

-0.93

50-680

337

-0.02

0.56

0.53

0.21

Distance from bus parking lot (m)

194-961

400

0.05

2.06

0.16

-0.64

Distance from restaurant (m) Exhibit size (m2) Species weight (kg) Individuals in the exhibit

53-867

402

-0.005

0.84

0.64

-0.26

13.5-11,490

478

-0.03

0.4

0.54

0.07

6.55-5,000

142

-0.0015

1

0.66

0.26

1-13

2

0.02

1.36

0.26

0.14

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We used linear regression analysis to test the relationship between popularity and each variable. Because some variables can be interrelated we tested the level of correlation among all variables that predicted popularity in the linear regression analyses. Those correlated variables (r>0.5) were tested in a multiple regression (Sokal & Rolf, 1998). We used the chisquare test to determine whether popularity differed among exhibit types. The expected value was based on the assumption that the average popularity of each exhibit type is proportional to the number of sampled exhibits of each type. If the chi-square result was significant at the level of 0.05, a residual analysis was performed considering values outside the -2 to +2 range as significant. The influence of species origin and infant presence on popularity was addressed by the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. All results were bilateral and considered a level of significance of 0.05. Results A total of 2,296 visitors was counted during the study (mean±SD=107±84 visitors/census). Distance from the zoo’s restaurant, exhibit size and species weight were good predictors of mammal popularity (Table 2), but were correlated (distance from restaurant vs. exhibit size: r=0.68, t=5.80, p<0.01; distance from restaurant vs. species weight: r=0.70, t=6.18, p<0.01; exhibit size vs. species weight: r=0.81, t=6.18, p<0.01). A multiple regression showed that species weight alone predicted

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popularity (F3,41=8.44, p<0.01; species weight: b=0.37, t=2.97, p<0.05; distance from restaurant: b=-0.20, t=-0.76, p=0.45; exhibit size: b=0.05, t=0.35, p=0.72). Popularity was also higher for exotic than for native species (exotic median=3.0; native median=0.97; U=98, n1=n2=21, p<0.05). Because exotic species tended to be heavier than native ones (exotic: median=142.5 kg; native: median=6.4 kg; U=41, n1=n2=21, p<0.01), we ran regression analyses on these two groups separately. Whereas none variable predicted popularity of exotic species (Table 3), five variables were good predictors of native species popularity (Table 4). However, these five variables were strongly correlated (Table 5) and a multiple regression analysis revealed that none variable alone predicted the popularity of native species (F5,15=2.42, p=0.08; distance from pedestrian entrance: b=2.76, t=0.36, p=0.72; distance from bus parking lot: b=-5.44, t=-0.85, p=0.41; distance from restaurant: b=2.08, t=0.82, p=0.42; exhibit size: b=0.039, t=0.09, p=0.92; individuals in the exhibit: b=0.43, t=1.63, p=0.12).

Table IV. Relationship between native mammal popularity (dependent variable) and several independent variables using linear regression. Results in bold are significant. Variable Distance to pedestrian entrance (m) Distance to car parking lot (m) Distance to bus parking lot (m) Distance to restaurant (m)

Range

Median

r2

F

p

b

661-1435

712

0.16

4.87

<0.05

2.61

150-691

312

0.39

1.82

0.19

1.12

194-918 50-681

275 110

0.15 0.2

4.64 6.05

<0.05 <0.05

1.27 0.73 0.53

Exhibit size (m2)

12.6-353.1

65

0.25

7.81

<0.05

Species weight (kg)

0.95-225

6.35

0.03

1.71

0.204

0.45

1-30

2

0.36

12.32

<0.05

0.47

Individuals per exhibit

Table V. Correlation between the variables that influenced the popularity of native mammals. Distance from pedestre entrance

Distance from bus parking lot

Distance from restaurant

Exhibit size

Distance from bus parking lot

r=0.99, t=25.45, p<0.0001

---

---

---

Distance from restaurant

r=0.97,t=18.85, p<0.0001

r=0.99, t=29.56, p<0.0001

---

---

Exhibit size (m2)

r=0.78, t=5.43, p<0.0001

r=0.74, t=4.86, p<0.0001

r=0.79, t= 5.61, p<0.0001

---

Species weight

r=0.78, t=5.41, p<0.0001

r=0.79, t=5.60, p<0.0001

r=0.82, t= 6.19, p<0.0001

r=0.75, t=4.92, p<0.0001

Exhibit type also influenced popularity (χ2 =1,108.95, d.f.=4, p<0.05). Visitors preferred mammals kept in “island”, “pit” and “open with windowpane” exhibits and visited “closed exhibits with fences” less than expected (Figure 1). The presence of infants did not affect popularity (exhibits with infants: median=1.95; exhibits without infants: median=1.55; U=176, n1=14, n2=28; p=0.30). Discussion Contrary to Balmford et al. (1996) and Silva & Silva (2007) who concluded that the choice for smaller mammals whose maintenance costs are lower would not compromise visitation, weight explained mammal popularity at the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul, as also reported by Ward et al. (1998). This size effect is likely to be explained by the origin of the larger mammals exhibited at the zoo. Most larger mammals ranking top in popularity belonged to exotic, African, flagship species, such as lion, hippopotamus, giraffe, elephant and rhinoceros that are frequently targets of wildlife documentaries and conservation initiatives, therefore, stimulating the curiosity of visitors. Exhibit type also had a significant influence on animal popularity. Mammals kept in open, and obstaclefree (without fences or other visual barriers) exhibits showed popularity

Figure 1. Residuals of standardized chi-square for each type of exhibit.

Pit Lions.

Photo by Anamelia de Souza Jesus.

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Open Elephant. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

Semi Open Lutra. Photo by Anamelia de Souza Jesus.

Island Chimpanzee. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

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values significantly higher than those kept in closed, fenced exhibits. The otter, ranked seventh in popularity, is a good example. Despite being a <10 kg species, the otter is kept at an open exhibit, separated from the visitors only by a glass window. Furthermore, in light of the contention that the easiness to spot an animal and the exhibit level of naturalism can greatly influence the popularity of a species (see Clayton & Myers, 2009), the fact that the otter is a charismatic and quite active mammal might also have influenced its popularity (although we did not measure species activity levels). According to Davey (2005), zoo exhibit designers should identify and balance the best combination between the welfare of captive animals, the needs of visitors and the demands of investors. However, this task is particularly challenging given that these interests are rarely compatible. The popularity of the chimpanzee shall also be highlighted. Despite being a middle-sized mammal compared to other African megafauna species exhibited at the zoo, the chimpanzee occupied the top of the popularity list. Several factors might help understand this result: (1) the chimpanzee is our closest living relative, (2) it is maintained in an enriched and obstacle-free island, (3) it is an active species, (4) there was an infant in the exhibit at the time of data collection (although this variable did not predict popularity, the child-like behavior of infant chimpanzees draws visitorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; attention), and (5) it is a flagship popular species that is often target of television documentaries. Other authors have described a similar interest by zoo visitors for gorillas (Bodamer & Sankovic, 2001) and chimpanzees (Clayton et al., 2009). In sum, visitors tended to stop to watch exotic, larger species rather than native, smaller ones. Although this bias may represent a problem for zoo managers, since larger animals have higher maintenance costs, larger and charismatic animals can be the major motivators of zoo visitation. Contributing to the complexity of zoo management decisions are the perceptions of scientists, environmentalists, humane societies and the general public regarding the species pool that is (or should be) displayed. A strong debate occurred at the end of 2010 about the intention of the administration of the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul of importing new giraffes from Africa after the death of both specimens in 2009 and 2010. This is a good example. Whereas most of these stakeholders opposed the

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import, the perception of laypeople (the bulk of zoo visitors) varied from a naïve passionate support to an absolute disapproval. Despite the bias towards exotic species, Latin American zoos should encourage conservation and outreach initiatives involving the less familiar native species to draw the population’s attention to the equally important, and sometimes threatened, regional fauna to better fulfill their role in biodiversity conservation. Investments in educational materials, especially about the native species, are also mandatory for improving visitors’ knowledge, awareness and interest in respecting and protecting wildlife. Conclusions 1. Species weight is the best predictor of mammal popularity at the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul. 2. Exotic mammals were more attractive than native mammals, a likely effect of the presence of African megafauna species. 3. Mammals kept in open and obstaclefree (without fences or other visual barriers) exhibits were more popular than those kept in closed, fenced exhibits.

Pit Tiger. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

Acknowledgements We thank the biologists Renato Petry Leal and Marcelo Link of the Zoological Park of Sapucaia do Sul for allowing this research and biologist Pedro Maria de Abreu Ferreira for critical suggestions on the manuscript. References Balmford, A., G.M. Mace & LeaderN. Williams (1996). Designing the ark: setting priorities for captive breeding. Conservation Biology 10: 719–727. Balmford, A. (2000). Separating fact from artifact in analyses of zoo visitor preferences. Conservation Biology 14: 1193–1195. Bitgood, S., D. Patterson & A. Benefield (1988). Exhibit design and visitor behaviour: empirical relationships. Environment and Behaviour 20: 474–491. Bodamer, M.D. & J.M. Sankovic (2001). “We’re all cousins!” A sampling of public comments at a zoo, reflecting people’s sibling relationship with chimpanzees. In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century. Chicago: Chicago Zoological Society, p. 199–206. Clayton, S., J. Fraser & C.D. Saunders (2009). Zoo experiences: conversations, connections, and concern for animals. Zoo Biology 28: 377–397.

Pit Hippo. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

Closed Brown Howler Monkey. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

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Open Rhinoceros. Photo by Julio Cesar Bicca-Marques

Closed Spectacled Bear. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

Clayton, S. & G. Myers (2009). Conservation Psychology: Understanding and Promoting Human Care for Nature. Chichester: WileyBlackwell. 253 p. Davey, G. (2006). Relationships between exhibit naturalism, animal visibility and visitor interest in a Chinese Zoo. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96: 93–102. Emmons, L.H. & F. Feer (1997). Neotropical Rainforest Mammals. Chicago: Chicago University Press. 281 p. Marcellini, D.L. & T.A. Jenssen (1988). Visitor behavior in the National Zoo’s reptile house. Zoo Biology 7: 329–338. Margulis, S.W., C. Hoyos & M. Anderson (2003). Effect of felid activity on zoo visitor interest. Zoo Biology 22: 587–599. Mitchell, G., S. Obradovich, D. Sumner, K. DeMorris, L. Lofton, J. Minor, L. Cotton & T. Foster (1990). Cage location effects on visitor attendance at Sacramento Zoo mangabey enclosures. Zoo Biology 9: 55–63. Reade, L.S. & N.K. Waran (1996). The modern zoo: how do people perceive zoo animals? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 47: 109–118 Siegel, S. & N.J. Castellan (1988). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 339 p. Silva, M.A.M. & J.M.C. Silva(2007). A note on the relationship between visitor interest and characteristics of the mammal exhibits in Recife Zoo, Brazil. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 105: 223–226. Sokal, R.R. & F.J. Rohlf (1998). Biometry. New York: Freeman. 887 p. Walker, E.P. (1964). Mammals of the World. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins. Ward, P.I., N. Mosberger, C. Kistler & O. Ficher (1998). The relationship between popularity and body size in zoo animals. Conservation Biology 12: 1408–1411.

Open llama. Photo by Karine Galisteo Diemer Lopes.

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Promoting Human Elephant Coexistence among conflict area inhabitants of Coimbatore, South India-Refresher Course R. Marimuthu* The International Elephant Foundation IEF sponsored the Human Elephant Coexistence Training Workshop near Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The workshops were conducted in the Nilgiri Biosphere Nature Park, Thoovaipathy, as well as Vadivelampalayam and Ramanathapuram villages, all in Coimbatore District in 2011. Nilgiri Biosphere Nature Park, Tulsi Trust, South Indian Consumer & Human Rights Protection CouncilKalampalayam Branch, Coimbatore and Iyaragai-Pathukappu Nala Sangam, Madathur were all organizers of the workshops. The education team from Zoo Outreach Organisation administered and delivered the workshops. The HECx workshop mean to educate villagers such that they are capable of changing their attitude towards problem elephants and attempt to coexist with them instead of fighting. Participants included 75 schoolteachers, NGO’s, farmers and students. A few months after the workshops Zoo Outreach Organization ZOO arranged one-day follow-up refresher course for selected participants at Panchayat Union Middle School in Vadivelampalayam, Coimbatore on 10 December 2011. The objective of this review was to reinforce lessons attended earlier and see to what extent they had altered their behaviour and attitude, whether they had influenced others, whether they had problems doing so. New activities, such as additional environmental games and techniques were added. Twenty-two participants from the previous three workshops were selected for this workshop. The workshop started with an informal inaugural where Mr. Thiyagarajan welcomed all and praised ZOO and IEF for their effort to deliver these unique workshops. After introductions, a slide show on the HECx workshops participants had attended was featured and very much enjoyed when participants saw themselves on the screen. An evaluation was carried out to ascertain the impact of the workshops. Participants shared their education activities conducted after the training. They shared problems they had in carrying out education

A farmer sharing his informal HECx education activities

Environmental games: understanding elephant’s communication skills

Participants keen in attending the programme * Education Officer, Zoo Outreach Organisation, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Email: marimuthu@zooreach.org

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Participants were asked to write two constraints of carrying out HECx education programmes in order to give them solution

programmes and were given solutions. Afterwards new environmental games associated with elephants were conducted as well as a lesson on how to plan their own

One of the participants filling out the evaluation questionnaire

education programmes for long and short duration, how to make an Agenda, and how to write a Report. Certificate were also issued to the participants.

The organiser and coordinators with the participants

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Zoo Miami Harpy Eagle Encounter www.zoolex.org/zoolexcgi/view.py?id=1350 Hung Do, Zoo Exhibits Technician, Zoo Miami (author) Julie Lindenmayer, Senior Zookeeper Birds, Zoo Miami (author) Jing Fang and Monika Fiby, editors for ZooLex LOCATION: 12400 SW 152nd street Miami, FL 33177 U.S.A. Phone: 1-305-5210400. Fax: 1-305-378-6381. URL: http:// www.zoomiami.org. ANIMALS Family: Accipitridae Species: Harpia harpja Common name: Harpy Eagle Capacity: 1.1.1 DESCRIPTION The Harpy Eagle Encounter was incorporated into the Amazon & Beyond Exhibit to offer visitors a chance to view and learn about these birds. The exhibit provides the birds with ample space to fly, and gives them enough space to feel comfortable around patrons. The exhibit has two sides that are joined by a fly-over where the birds can perch directly above visitors as they walk across the bridge below. There are a few large trees on each side to provide shade and perching as well as a few smaller trees that will eventually provide additional perching. The birds have also broken branches off of the trees for use as nesting material. One nest platform on each side allows the birds to choose where to build their nest. There is also rockwork on the north side for this purpose. There is a narrow pool about three feet deep on the north side of the exhibit. Perches

Harpy Eagle. ©Hung V. Do, 2011

were added to the pool by the keepers to allow the birds easier access to the water. A small shift pen is located on each side along with a keeper service area. COSTS USD 1,000,000. The total cost for Amazon & Beyond was 42,000,000 USD. OPENING DATE 7 December 2008 DESIGN Beginning: • Architects: Jones & Jones, Seattle, WA • Interpretives: Lyons/Zaremba, Boston, MA

CONSTRUCTION Beginning: 1 August 2006 • General Contractor: PCL Construction, Orlando, FL • Interactives: Design Craftsmen, East Downing, MI mean annual precipitation PLANTS The exhibit contains plants that are native to Central and South America. The plants provide perching for these large birds, shade and shelter from rain, as well as nesting material. SIZE Amazon & Beyond is approximately 117359 m². The Harpy Eagle Encounter is 356 m².

Perspective View. ©Hung V. Do, 2011

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The aviary is 37.5 by 9.5 meters, the visitor area 8 x 5.5 meters, the keeper spaces 7 by 8 and 2.5 by 2.5 meters. Space allocation in square meters:

Rockwork © Hung V. Do, 2011

use animals

total exhibit 356

visitors

44

others

62

total

462

FEATURES DEDICATED TO ANIMALS Two small holding pens, one on each side of the exhibit, are used mainly for feeding the eagles and conditioning them to be comfortable being closed in the pens. This would allow to catch them easily, weigh, or just keep them away from keepers during exhibit maintenance. There are two nest platforms about 5 meters high with a wooden floor. After two years, the wood has begun to rot. Recycled composite lumber may be a better option than the wood. Each platform has an access door on the mesh for keepers to check the nest. The birds chose to nest on the ground on top of the rockwork where they successfully raised their first chick. The rockwork provides a high place for the birds to perch but it is not easy for keepers to access. Some sort of built in ladder or footholds in the rockwork would allow for the area to be cleaned with fewer disturbances to the birds. FEATURES DEDICATED TO KEEPERS The exhibit has a large service area on its north side and a small one on its south side. These areas are used mainly for tool storage. FEATURES DEDICATED TO VISITORS Located off of the south pond in the Amazonia area of the Amazon & Beyond Exhibit, the visitors exiting the main Flooded Forest gallery will cross a wooden bridge as they approach the Harpy Eagle Encounter. The exhibit encompasses a large footprint that is bisected by a trellis area. As they pass through, they can view the exhibit from either side and from below. The eagles often fly above to traverse from either side of the exhibit. Visitors can catch a glimpse of them up close and in action as they freely soar above and often perch right on top of the trellis, offering an up-close encounter with the birds.

Kiosk. ©Hung V. Do, 2011

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INTERPRETATION The Harpy Eagle Encounter is considered one of “showcase” exhibits in the Amazon & Beyond Exhibit. With this exhibit, the zoo hopes to educate the visitor on not only the basic facts about the eagle, but also the importance of the conservation effort underway to protect these threatened birds. The design team wanted to go beyond signs and posters and chose a design incorporating the latest technologies. There are several interpretive signs and interactive kiosks that allow the visitor to read, touch and interact with the exhibit. As the visitors approach the exhibit, they are confronted with the first group of kiosks. The first kiosk is one of the “Discovery Stations” showcasing the pellets that are regurgitated from these birds. The text explains the importance of these artifacts in studying the birds and how researchers use them in their conservation work.

Nest ©Hung V. Do, 2011

The second group of kiosks display standard bio-facts on the animal species. All of the signage at the exhibit is printed on high pressure laminate (HPL) and mounted in powder coated aluminum frames. Continuing on the path, the visitor will see a replica of a harpy eagle nest that they can interact with by climbing in. The hard rubber nest is made to resemble the look of the intertwined branches that the eagles use to construct their nests. At the trellis area underpass, visitors are greeted by an array of interactive kiosks. First, an exterior 32” LCD monitor plays a short 3 minute movie about the conservation effort in Panama and how researchers find and climb to the nests in the wild to conduct their research. Nearby, there is a button activated kiosk that plays the different calls that these birds make. Visitors can press any of the three buttons to play the corresponding sound file. Next to this kiosk is a replica resin cast of harpy eagle talons to give the visitor a close look at how large these birds really are. Exiting the trellis, there are two more “Discovery Stations” on either side of the walkway. The first kiosk is a coin operated “Slot Machine”. Guest can donate coins to the conservation effort and in return attempt to line up the images on the slot machine wheels.

Pool Area ©Hung V. Do, 2011

Perspective to Harpy Viewing Trellis. ©Hung V. Do, 2011

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The three wheels on the slot machine will spin until the button is pressed to stop them individually. When the images line up, a random sound file will play as the “Pay Out”. Finally, the last kiosk “Discovery Station” is also button operated and plays a short sound file on the ongoing conservation effort conducted by Zoo Miami and our Zoo Ambassador, Ron Magill. The message can be played in both English and Spanish depending on which button is pressed. Upon this, there are daily Keeper Talks where visitors can engage with the staff caring for the eagles. Keepers will often bring artifacts to the talk; replica eggs, feathers, etc. Visitors can interact with the artifacts and ask the keeper any questions they may have. LCD. ©Hung V. Do, 2011

Dry erase note tablets are also displayed on the exhibit giving visitors some additional information about the eagles.

MANAGEMENT The eagles are cared for by a staff of five that is also responsible for five other exhibits. Two keepers are always present during routine cleaning and exhibit maintenance. Keepers also take care of the plants (trimming, watering, and mulching). All interactive and electronics are serviced by the Zoo Exhibit Technician and Maintenance Staff. Routine maintenance is performed periodically to service the hardware in the kiosk as well as media or software updates associated with the exhibit. Nesting Platform. ©Hung V. Do, 2011

RESEARCH Zoo Miami has been providing funding for research on harpy eagles in the wild for the past several years and has also participated in several field expeditions. CONSERVATION In addition to participating in the Harpy Eagle Species Survival Plan (SSP), Zoo Miami has been involved with conservation efforts in Panama working with the Republic of Panama to build a state-of-the-art Harpy Eagle Centre at the Summit Zoo and Botanical Gardens just outside Panama City. The centre opened in 1998 and is used to promote conservation education programs in Panama.

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Wildlife Week 2011 - Education Reports

Mysore school students who participated in the bat, bear, amphibian programmes with their teachers

Wildlife Week programme at Srikantha Balika Proudashala, Mysore Wildlife Week was celebrated in Srikantha Balika Proudashala in Mysore. Programmes were conducted on two Saturdays, on one Saturday a programme was conducted to our Science Club students and they understood many facts about wildlife from the wildlife education packets of bats, bears and amphibians provided by ZOO. They discussed whatever they learned from the programme with teachers and other students. Next Saturday a programme was arranged for other students of the school so that all school children understood the importance of Year of Biodiversity and their responsibility to save our planet. Thank you to ZOO for sending education materials to our children. Submitted by G. Suma, Karnataka. Email:suma.ecomysore@gmail.com

2011. Students from 10-16 years and teachers participated in this programme. The event was organized under the guidance of Baljinder Singh, in-charge of the Eco Club and with the

help of Zoo Outreach Organisation. ZOO provided us education kits on amphibians to create awareness among the students and local community. Mrs. Joginder Kur,

Punjab School Celebrates Wildlife week Wildlife Week 2011 was organized and celebrated by the Eco Club of Govt. Secondary School Dilalpura Mirza, Bathinda, Punjab from 1-7 October

Students were made aware on amphibian conservation by ZOOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poster

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A Science Club student teaching about amphibians conservation to other students at the Mysore School

Principal delivered the lecture on “We and Our Wildlife”. Activities such as exhibition of wild animals pictures, poster-making competition and guest lectures were organized. The activities carried out by the eco-club members and students spread awareness to save animals, biodiversity and create love with animals. The principal and school faculty members gave prizes to the winners. Submitted by: Mr. Baljinder Singh, Punjab. Email: baljinder2004@gmail.com

organized at Baidhyardighi and Chandranagar High Schools. Five thousand eco-development committee members, school students and other

animal lovers took part in a procession at eight places carrying colourful banners and placards in respect of wildlife conservation. Following day another drawing competition was held at the zoo. Quiz and debates were held on 25 & 30 Oct respectively. The state level wildlife week programme came to an end on 19 Oct, when the Hon’ble Minister for Forests was Chief Guest. PCCF (T) and local MLA also participated. He gave away prizes to the competition winners and inaugurated new office building for the director of the zoo and open stage for conducting awareness programme. Submitted by: A.K. Bhowmik, Director, Sepahijala Zoological Park. Email: dszoo141@gmail.com

Sepahijala Zoo, Tripura: 57th Wildlife Week celebration Report Sepahijala Zoo is a unique Nature Conservation center where two in-situ conservation and one ex-situ conservation centers exists with full Central Government assistance. Observance of 57th Wildlife Week Celebration started at Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary from 2 October 2011 followed by various programmes such as Shramdan (cleaning), divisional, district and state level debate and quiz competitions, talk on wildlife conservation, film show, procession, tug of war, bicycle race, drawing competition and walking. On the same day, 129 staff of Sepahijala Zoo cleaned the entire aviary section and three men and three women workers were honored for their dedicated performance. Divisional level debate on the topic “Is wildlife conservation compatible with development”? was held on 17 October. Bishalgarh School XII students participated. On 19 & 29 October talk on wildlife conservation was given at Sri Nagar Garordhi H.S School and Latiachara High School for about 600 students. On 18 & 31 October a wildlife film show was

Mr. Ajit Kumar Bhowmik conducting bat conservation awareness session during his talk

Wildlife conservation rally attended by Eco development committee members, school students and volunteers

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A Case Study on Indian Vulture (Gyps indicus) rescued in Orchha, Madhya Pradesh, India Amita Kanaujia1 and Sonika Kushwaha2 Abstract Once in millions, the vultures are now struggling for their survival. Scientists have reported 92-99% decline in vulture population in mid 1990s. Various reasons have been given for their rapid and unanticipated decline. A case study was done on a juvenile of Gyps indicus which was found in almost unconscious state in Cenotaphs at Orchha, Madhya Pradesh, India, during the month of June, 2009. The vulture was restless, breathing heavily and showed neck dropping. It was very weak, unable to stand for long and incapable of flying. After twelve days of nursing with ORS, water and proper food, finally the juvenile recovered and flew away. There has been similar rescue operations in Jodhpur as insufficiency of good and safe nesting sites reduces the breeding success and increases the chick’s mortality. In this case the juvenile was weak due to lack of food availability and extremely high temperature. Key words: Juvenile, vulture, Gyps indicus, heat stroke, diclofenac Introduction Once in millions, the vultures are now struggling for their survival. Scientists have reported 92-99% decline in vulture population in mid 1990s (Prakash, 1999). What was once described as the most prominent bird species in the world, no longer holds this title (Gentleman, 2006). Population declines have been associated with high rates of mortality affecting all age classes (Prakash 1999, Gilbert et al. 2002), with annual mortality estimated between 22% and 50% (Green et al. 2004).

Fig 1: Map of study area

Like other parts of India, Orchha too had large vulture population until they started decreasing unexpectedly in mid-90‘s. Diclofenac use was banned in Orchha in March 2006, as declared by Indian Government. But vultures failed to gain attention inspite of their swift decline leading them towards extinction. Study Area Orchha lies in Tikamgarh district of northern Madhya Pradesh. It lies between the Jamni, a tributary of Betwa and Dhasan rivers. It extends between the latitude 240 26' and 250 34' N and between 780 26' and 790 21' Longitudes (fig. 1). The total geographical area of Tikamgarh District is 5048.00 Sq. Km. The year may be divided into four seasons. May is generally the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature at about 43 degree celsius and low 29 degree celsius. On individual day temperature may rise upto about 47 degree Celsius. The driest part of the year is summer season when the relative humidity is less than 20 percent in the afternoons. Case Study 6-18 June 2009 DAY 1: 6th June 2009, SaturdayMr. Shymlal, Caretaker, Archaeological Department, Orchha provided information about a sick vulture that had fallen down from its nest, while learning to fly (Time: 12:15 pm). The temperature was very high, about 440C. The vulture was approximately 5 month old juvenile, Gyps indicus. On

Fig 2: Juvenile found in unrecoverable condition

reaching the place, the juvenile was found sitting in the hedge. It was kept in the shade. It collapsed there and was breathing heavily. After 10-15 minutes, water was kept in an earthen container. It was prompted to drink water. It tried to drink water but was unable to take it. It was covered with a wet cloth. On close examination a small wound mark was seen on the front part of neck. No other injury was seen. Fecal matter was collected (greenish in color). It was observed for 4 hours. During this time, it dropped its neck very often and closed its eyes. The neck dropping behavior was previously thought to be a sign of illness but it is now thought to be a mechanism of thermoregulation as well as a predatory avoiding strategy 1&2

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow Email:kanaujia.amita@gmail.com, sonika.jhs@gmail.com

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DAY 3 and 4: 8th (Monday) & 9th June 2009 (Tuesday) Some chicken was fed to the juvenile, which it ate at once.. It tried to walk and rested at intervals with neck dropping and eyes closed (fig 6). Its wings and head were sprayed with water to relieve it from the high temperature. The juvenile enjoyed this and showed no counter attacks. ORS was filled in the earthern water bowl. In that area 3-4 water bowls were kept, but it was astonishing to see that the juvenile drank water only from the bowl which was filled with ORS. It walked upto the other water bowls but to drink water it returned back to the first one. DAY 5: 10th June 2009 (Wednesday) Mr Shyamlal informed that the juvenile made an attempt to fly but failed. Chicken was provided to it and water was kept with ORS (fig 7). A mongoose that died in road accident was also given. It consumed only half of it. Fig 4: Juvenile examined for injuries

It was observed that it did this more often when humans were around. Neck dropping is exhibited when a solitary vulture is approached by humans but, while feeding in flocks, this behavior is not usually exhibited, even when humans approach (Pande et al., 2011). Its wings and head were wetted with water to relieve it from the burning high temperature, as previous days. Activities were same as previous days.

Fig 5: On 2nd day, found sitting at the same place

especially when in close proximity to humans (Watson et al. 2008). Mr. Shymlal was instructed to keep more water for it before closing the monument. DAY 2: 7th June, 2009 (Sunday) Next day, during morning time around 9:30 am, the juvenile was found sitting at the same place where it was left. Fecal matter was spotted at 2-3 places but could not be collected. The water bowl was filled with ORS (8 teaspoon sugar + 1 teaspoon salt in 1 litre water) (fig 5). It drank water at regular intervals (fig 6). It was observed for 2 hours. The forest officials were also informed about the vultureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s condition and they permitted to nurse it. Dr. Dixit (Veterinarian, Orchha) was called with the Forest Officials. After examining the juvenile he said it was a case of heat stroke and lack of food needed during the flight period and also guided us for the treatment of heat stroke, besides providing food to the juvenile.

Fig 6: Rested at intervals with neck dropped and eyes closed

The vulture dropped its neck and showed symptoms of heat stroke due to high temperature. This was due to extremely high temperature (450C) and hot local winds, too. Its condition was almost same as previous day. Two ectoparasites were collected during examination. It was kept under the tree shade instead of the monument. Before leaving it was placed back in the monument. Fig 7: Towards recovery

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to poisoning in all cases. fig 8 shows that the juvenile adopted neck dropping behaviour, which was considered as symptom of avian gout after which the bird died. But here inspite of this neck dropping, the juvenile recovered and survived. Neck dropping was seen in other healthy adults as a response to high temperature. Some studies suggest that this may be a thermoregulatory response since this posture is seen mainly during hot weather. (Vulture Territory Facts and Characteristics: Asian White-backed Vulture).

Fig 8: Cheerup! the worst is yet to come! - Philander Chase Johnson

Fig 9: The Final Flight

DAY 6: 11th June 2009 (Thursday) It took a small flight and sat on the lower portions of the monument (Cenotaphs). Kept sitting there and returned back for feeding (fig 8). It kept walking all around the monument and rested in shade. DAY 7: 12th June 2009 (Friday) It looked absolutely healthy. It took flight like other juveniles (fig 9). Once in a day time (mostly after 2 pm) it came under the tree for feeding. Food was left under the tree after 1 pm DAY 8-13: 13th -18th June 2009 Food was kept for it daily. If this juvenile did not come as per the normal time flesh pieces were kept on the upper floor of cenotaphs, where other juveniles finished it in no time.

In the last few years, the breeding population of long-billed vultures and their chicks are facing serious threats of habitat loss and other biotic pressures (Chhangani, 2003). The observations divulge that juveniles while ready to take flights face various hurdles such as food availability, climatic challenges, injury due to falling from nests and attacks by dogs or other animals. It is therefore suggested that the breeding sites should be surveyed and monitored regularly from December (eggs are laid) to June (juveniles ready to fly) so that if any injured bird is seen, it can be hospitalized and rescued. This is very important from conservation point of view since vultures are slow breeders, laying a single egg in a year. The rescue programmes for eggs and juveniles will surely increase the breeding rate success of these critically endangered scavengers and help them in their journey towards survival. References Chhangani, A.K., S.M. Mohnot & B.Chadha (2003). Treatment of Indian long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus) at Jodhpur, Rajasthan. INTAS POLIVET Vol. 4(1): 102–104. Gilbert, M., M.Z. Virani, R.T. Watson, J.L. Oaks, P.C. Benson, A.A. Khan, S. Ahmed, J. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood & Q.A. Shah (2002). Breeding and Mortality of Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Bird Conserv. Int. 12: 311–326. Green, R.E., I. Newton, S. Shultz, A.A. Cunningham & M. Gilbert (2004). Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population decline across the Indian Subcontinent. J.App.Ecol.41: 793–800. Mundy, P., D. Butchart, J.A. Ledger & S.E. Piper (1992). The vultures of Africa. South Africa: Acorn Books. Pande, S., P. Pandit, R.M. Ponkshe, S. Pawar & A. Mishra (2011). Behavioural and virological studies on a rescued Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis from Western Maharastra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(1): 1490–1492. Prakash, V. (1999). Status of vultures in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan with special reference to population crash in Gyps species. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96: 365–378. Watson, R.T., M. Gilbert & M. Virani (2008). Neckdropping posture of Oriental White-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in close proximity to human observers. Journal of Raptor Research 42: 66–67.

Conclusion The whole study shows that the juvenile suffered from heat stroke as well as lack of proper food. The temperature variations also seemed to have contributed to its critical condition. It rained 4-5 days before this incident and after that the temperature rose upto 44-450C with strong local winds. The juvenile, already weak and due to scarcity of food failed to cope up with the high temperature. This case shows that neck dropping in vultures may not be correlated

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Knowledge about Owls among general public in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu R. Santhanakrishnan1, A. Mohamed Samsoor Ali2 and U. Anbarasan3 Introduction Owls included in two families: Tytonidae and Strigidae (Clark et al. 1978) are nocturnal raptors and are reflected in folk-lore and mythology. They are characterized by prominent forward facing eyes surrounded by a facial disc and an upright position. Being nocturnal in habit, noiseless in flight, and capable of uttering several vocalizations, owls are persecuted due to superstitious beliefs. India has 33 species of owls (Manakadan & Pittie 2002) from about 225 species known from the world (http:\ \www.globalowlproject.com).

Table 1: General knowledge of owl habitats in Madurai District Habitats % respondents Trees Temple towers Holes in buildings an wells Forests Rocky mountains No response

Table 2: General knowledge of owl food in Madurai District Food % respondents

Recently, the study of owls is given importance due to their economic and ecological values. Owls play an important role in the biocontrol of insect and vertebrate pests (Kumar 1985; Santhanakrishnan 1987), and in India several studies address aspects like their natural history, nesting and perch sites, vocalizations, behaviour, nest box utilization, food habits, developmental biology, etc. (Kanakasabai et al. 1995, 1996; Chandrasekhara & Nameer 2003; Jadhav & Parasharya 2003; Nagarajan et al. 2002; Pande et al. 2004; Verzhutskii & Ramanujam 2002; Ramanujam 2007; Vanitha & Kanakasabai 2009). Across the world, including in India, humans and owls has a curious love-hate relationship. Though the cultural relationship between man and owls can be traced back to the Vedic period (Pande et al. 2007) our understanding of the biology and ecology of some species of owls is still incomplete as compared to other raptors. Across the world owls appear in myth, superstition, literature, folklore and owl images are depicted on coins, medallions, carvings and sculptures. In India, on one hand, owls are considered as bad omen and on the other hand they are considered wise. Some superstitions linked to owls in India are: • Death is associated with owls when an owl perches on the roof of anyones house or when the owl constantly hoots near the house. • If a traveler dreams of an owl, it signaled that he would be robbed or shipwrecked. • The flesh or eyes of owls cure some diseases. • The word owl is used in a derogatory manner. In this paper we describe and compare the cultural relationships between owls and human communities based on interview studies in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods The present study was carried out in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, India, lies between 9°56' N and 78°07' E, and is situated on the banks of the River Vaigai. The total geographical area of the district is about 10,88,622 sq.km and topography is simple and flat as well as hilly in few areas. Paddy is the predominantly cultivated crop in the study area; however other crops such as sugarcane, banana, jasmine, betlevine, groundnut and sorghum are also cultivated in different regions. The District receives rainfall during October-December (north-east monsoon); the summer temperature reaches a maximum of 40°C and the winter minimum is of 26°C. The average annual precipitation is about 850mm. In Madurai district, 183 persons were interviewed between 2008 and 2009. The questionnaires were typed in English and Tamil and circulated among different target groups like farmers (n=73), temple workers (n=30), land owners

40.6 24.6 12.3 10.1 6.2 6.2

Insects Rodents Lizards and insects Snakes Birds Frogs Rodents, birds and lizards Fruits and vegetables

30.1 28.3 17.6 6.5 5.8 5.2 4.6 1.9

Table 3: Classification of owl in Madurai District Classification Bad omen Beneficial Just a bird Harmful Fearing Others

% respondents 53.3 20.5 14.5 6.2 3.5 2.1

(n=36), students (n=24) and public (n=20). The interviewed persons were 37.7% females and 62.3% males and ranged in age from 15 to 69 years. The literacy level of the interviewed group is as follows: illiterate (28.4%), semiliterate (32.8%) and literate (38.8%). Results General owl knowledge Around 43% of respondents liked owls because of their inestimable service as destroyers of insect and rodent pests. However, remaining respondents (57%) dislike owls because of their threatening face with large eyes and scary screeching calls during the night hours. In Madurai, 54.2% knew two species of owls (Spotted Owlet Athene brama and Barn Owl Tyto alba), 33.3% knew only one species (Spotted Owlet) and 12.4% knew three species (Spotted Owlet, Barn Owl and Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis). Majority of the respondents (77.7%) disagree that owls attack human beings. Owl habitats and food The group listed different owl habitats in the study area and 40.6% listed trees as major owl habitats (Table 1). Insects (30.1%) and rodents (28.3%) were listed as main owl prey

1&3

Department of Zoology, Saraswathi Narayanan College, Perungudi, Madurai. Email: rskbarnowl@yahoo.co.in 2 Present Address: Division of Environmental Impact Assessment, Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON), Anaikatty, Coimbatore. E-mail: amsamsoor@yahoo.co.in (Corresponding author)

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in the study area. Interestingly, peoples also answered that owls eat lizards, snakes, birds and frogs (Table 2). Owl hunting More than 60% of the respondents answered owls are being hunted for food (30.3%) and medicinal purposes (23.7%) by a nomadic tribe “kuravas”. They also stated owl meat particularly liver (3.9%), eyes (2.6%) and flesh could cure the diseases associated with lungs (9.2%) and eye related problems (25.5%). Owl beliefs Over 69% of the respondents had strong beliefs and superstitions about owls. 80.6% peoples replied that screech of owls at night hours in roof of house cause sudden death and 19.4% peoples mentioned owls a sign of evil and misfortune. 72.3% respondents believed that have not seen directly any such incident (death) but heard about such news from older peoples. Owl perches Nearly 56% of the respondents (mainly farmers and land owners) provided artificial perch sites in their agricultural field to attract owls. All such perching sites were made out of coconut stick (23.8%), bamboo poles (17.4%), casuarina poles (11.5%) and available wooden sticks. 65% of the farmers confirmed that such artificial perching sites were used by owls during night hours while searching the prey to swoop down the kill. Owl classification The respondents were also asked to classify owls based on their knowledge and beliefs. A majority of peoples classified owls as bad omen (53.2%). Some farmers found that owls as beneficiary birds and young students replied owls as just a bird (Table 3).

Recent Trends in Wildlife Research, A.V.C. College, Mannampandal. Pp. 56–60. Kanakasabai, R., P. Neelanarayanan & R. Nagarajan (1996). Sexual dimorphism in Barn Owl (Tyto alba). Newsletter for Birdwatchers 36: 55. Kumar, T.S. (1985). The Life History of the Spotted Owlet (Athene brama brama, Temminck) in Andhra Pradesh. Raptor Research Centre, Hyderabad, India. Manakadan, R. & A. Pittie (2002). Standardized English and Scientific names of the birds of the Indian subcontinent. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 42(3): 1–35. Nagarajan, R., K. Thiyagesan, R. Natarajan & R. Kanakasabai (2002). Patterns of growth in nestling Barnowls. Condor 104: 885–890. Pande, S., A. Pawashe, D.B. Bastawade & P.P. Kulkarni (2004). Scorpions and molluscs: Some new dietary records for Spotted Owlet Athene brama in India. Newsletter for Ornithologist 1(5): 68–70. Pande, S., S. Pande & R. Yosef (2007). Uluka (Owl) in Sanskrit literature. World Owl Conference, 31 October-4 November. Gronningen, The Netherlands. Ramanujam, M.C. (2007). A catalogue of auditory and visual communicatory traits in the Indian Eagle Owl Bubo benghalensis (Franklin, 1831). Zoos’ Print Journal 22(8): 2771–2776. Santhanakrishnan, R. (1987). Studies on population, food habits and nesting of Barn Owl, Tyto alba (Scopoli) in a portion of Cauvery river basin. M.Phil. Dissertation, Bharathidasan University, Trichy, India. Vanitha, V. & R. Kanakasabai (2009). Prey selection by the Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) in captivity. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(7): 361–365. Verzhutskii, B. & M.C. Ramanujam (2002). On the prey of the Collared Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena (Pennant) at Auroville, Pondicherry. Zoos’ Print Journal 17(11): 939–940.

Conclusion In today’s world we have learned that most of the owls superstitious are just stories, born in a time when people were fearful and trying to find answers to their lives and environment. However, many of these legends survived over time. Their wide starring eyes give them a wise appearance, while the ability to turn their head around makes them fascinating and mysterious creature. Tufts of feathers on the top of an owl’s head give them the appearance of horned devils and their piercing cries add to the spook effect found in the ancient folklore of many countries. Acknowledgements Authors are thankful to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, for providing financial support for the present study. We are grateful to Principal and Management of Saraswathi Narayanan College (Autonomous), Madurai for facilities and encouragement. We are thankful to Mr. P. Muthukumar, Field Assistant, for accompanying us during the field trips. References Chandrasekhara, S. & P.O. Nameer (2003). Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus) in Kerala, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 18 (10): 1235. Clark, R.J., D.G. Smith & L.H. Kelso (1978). Working bibliography of Owls of the World. Raptor Information Centre, National Wildlife Federation, Washington. 319pp. Jadhav, A. & B.M. Parasharya (2003). Some observations on the nesting behaviour and food of the Spotted Owlet Athene brama. Zoos’ Print Journal 18(8): 1163–1165. Kanakasabai, R., P. Neelanarayanan & R. Nagarajan (1995). Artificial perches use by Common Barn Owl (Tyto alba stertens) in rice field. In: Proceeding National Symposium on

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A case report of tuberculosis in a captive Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) D.T. Fefar*1, B.M. Jivani, R.A. Mathukiya, V.V. Undhad, D.J. Ghodasara, B.P. Josh, C.J. Dave and K.S. Prajapati Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a one of the important chronic infectious disease caused by acid fast bacilli of the genus mycobacterium, has a wide host range which includes elephants, llamas, deer, urial, tapiers, antelope, sheep, binturongs, lesser pandas (Liston & Soparkar, 1924), giraffe, wild sheep, mouse deer (sen gupta, 1974), blackbuck, sambar, chital, gaur (Rao, 1989), barking deer, hog deer, mithun and nilgai (Fox,1923). Besides this it is found affecting carnivores, primates, perissodactylids, marsupials, rodents, amphibians (Arora, 1994) and birds (Lesser whistling teal and pigeon) in captivity (Rao et al., 1982). Methodology A carcass of 23 year old female Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) from Kamala Nehru Zoological Garden, Ahmedabad was brought for a post mortem examination at Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Anand Agricultural University, Anand with history of illness since one month and no response to treatment. Impression smear was prepared from caseative nodules from mesenteric lymph node and stained by ziehl neelson for demonstration of acid fast bacilli. All affected organs were collected for detailed histopathological examination. Routine paraffin embedded tissue section were examined after H.E staining. Results and Discussion The postmortem examination revealed pale and icteric visible mucous membranes as well as yellowish subcutaneous tissues with huge amount of ascitic fluid in the abdominal cavity. Both the lungs revealed presence of large numbers of caseative nodules of various sizes. The peritoneal surface of diaphragm, peritoneum and spleen showed numerous caseative nodules. A cocconut size caseative mass was found in one of the mesentric lymph node. Mehrotra et al., (1999) have reported micro and macro abscess throughout viscera in a sloth bear that died at Jaipur zoo. Sreeniwas Gowda et al. (1983) also reported tuberculosis in sloth bear with similar lesions on

Fig 1. Microabcesses in throughout mesentery cord

Fig 2. Tuberculous nodules in lung parenchyma

various visceral organs. Liver was icteric and cirrhotic in nature. The impression smears prepared from the caseative nodules and paraffin section showed abundant presence of short stumpy acid fast tubercular bacilli that ressemble Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Histopathological examination of various affected organs revealed presence of granulomatous nodules characterized by caseative necrosis along with infiltration of chronic

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inflammatory cells. Bhat et al., (2005) also reported a case of tuberculosis in a sloth bear with similar findings. Conclusion Diseases play a significant role in determining demography of all living *1

Corresponding Authour: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science and A.H., Anand Agriculture University, Anand-388001. E-mail: fdhaval@gmail.com

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Fig 3: Presence of adudant acid fast bacilli in Impression smear from tubercle.

Fox, H. (1934). Disease in Wild Mammals and Birds. Lippincott, Philadelphia. Ghosal, M.L. (1923). Tuberculosis in a deer. Indian Veterinary Journal 10: 43. Liston, W.G. & M.B. Soparkar (1924). Bovine Tuberculosis in India. An outbreak of tuberculosis among animals in the Bombay Zoological Gardens. Indian journal of medical research XI: 671–680. Mehrotra, P.K., Sudhlir Bhargava, Sheela Choudhary, & B.B.L. Mathur (1999). Tuberculosis in sloth bear at jaipur zoo. Zoos’ Print Journal 14(7): 68. Rao, A.T., L.N. Acharjyo & B.C. Nayak (1982). Tuberculosis in some ungulates and primates at Nandan Kanan Biological Park. Indian Journal Pathplogy and Microbiology. 25: 199– 202. Sen Gupta, M.R. (1974). A preliminary report on disease and parasite of zoo animals, birds and reptiles. Indian Journal of Animal Health. 13: 15–24. Sreenivas Gowda, R.N., G.L. Pandurang & S.J. Sheshadri (1983). Disseminated tuberculosis in a bear. National Symposium on Disease of Dairy Animals. Indian Association of Veterinary Pathology, Bangalore.

Fig 4: Presence of caseative necrosis surrounded by chronic inflammatory cells and fibrosis

beings. From the conservation perspective, infectious diseases play a major role in determining the persistence, distribution, and abundance of wild populations in their natural ecosystems and tuberculosis is one of ancient infectious disease causing high morbidity and mortality in wild fauna. There is easy and high frequency of spread of organism from animals to human leads more zoonotic importance. With this aspect there is urgent need to detect or identify the

affected animals by modern molecular diagnostic techniques. References Arora, B.M. (1994). Wildlife Diseases in India. Periodical expert book agency. Associated offest press, Delhi. First edition, 30pp. Bhat, M.N., S. Yathiraj, RaviRaidurg; G. Sudha & G.S. Murthy (2005). Tuberculosis in a sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) - a case report. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 25 (2): 138.

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A preliminary report of Phumdis from Narthamalai hills, Pudukkottai District, Tamil Nadu D. Senthil* Phumdis are commonly known as floating grass Islands found on the water bodies. In India, it is reported from Loktak Lake, Manipur. During a field visit, it was interested to note a small piece of Phumdis found in a natural pond located (10.501720 N, 78.75771 E) on a hill near Narthamalai, Pudukkottai District of Tamil Nadu and the thickness of it varied from 25-30 cm above the water surface appearing in two distinct zones and it absorbs their nutrients from the water and accumulating them for their growth and survival (WISA & LDA 2002). Information of floating nature of Grass Island was provided by the local people and this was confirmed by location of Grass Island in different places compared to the field photos and the Google earth image. References WISA & LDA (2002). Management of Phumdis in Loktak Lake, pp. 9–23. In: Trisal, C.L & T.H. Manihar (eds.). Proceedings of a Workshop held at Imphal, Manipur.

*

Plot No 22, 6th Cross Street, Lakeview Avenue, Iyyappan Nagar, Madipakkam, Chennai – 600 091, Tamil Nadu. sentild@gmail.com

Narthamalai

We have moved …. Our New Address Is: Zoo Outreach Organization (ZOO) / Wildlife Information & Liaison Development (WILD) 96, Kumudham Nagar, Vilankurichi Road, Coimbatore 641035, Tamil Nadu, India Our New Phone Numbers are: Ph: +91 422 2665298, 2665450. Fax: +91 422 2665472 Email: zooreach@zooreach.org www.zoosprint.org, www.zooreach.org, www.southasiantaxa.org, www.pterocount.org, www.southasianprimatenetwork.org, www.threatenedtaxa.org Best wishes ZOO Crew

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Successful treatment of Leptospirosis in a captive lioness -- a case report K.S. Subramanian1, K. Vijayarani

2

and R. Thirumurugan3

Introduction Incidence of leptospirosis has been reported in wild animals like oppossums, rats, mongooses (Rim et al., 1993) captive tigers and lion (Arora, et al., 1985). Some of them act as carriers, potentially shedding the organisms in urine and transmitting the infection to other animals. This paper reports the incidence of leptospirosis in a captive lioness and its successful treatment.

Haematological parameters studied S. No 1

History and Observation An adult lioness belonging to rescue and rehabilitation centre of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai was noted to have heamaturia. She was straining whilst urinating and was anorectic for 5 days. The lioness was physically restrained in squeeze cage and blood sample was collected from the lateral coccygeal vein. The blood sample was analysed for haematology, biochemistry and leptospiral organisms. Results and Discussion Haematological examination revealed normal parameters but biochemical parameters revealed elevated levels of BUN and Creatinine (147.96 mg / dl and 1.82 mg /dl respectively). Serological examination of the blood sample by dark field microscopy which revealed the presence of leptospiral organisms. Examination of blood smears was negative for haemoprotozoan infection. In addition, the serum sample was subjected to latex agglutination test to identify whether the organism is in a pathogenic or nonpathogenic state (Levett et al., 2005 ) which revealed positive results indicating that the lioness is infected with pathogenic leptospira though the species of leptospira could not be identified. Doxycycline Hcl was administered @ 5mg/kg body weight orally mixed with fresh liver for 21 days and the lioness was monitored for the intake of medicine. The lioness started taking beef from 4th day after treatment and the colour of the urine changed to light pink with reduced straining on the 6th day of treatment. The lioness was shifted to a new nearby enclosure and rodent control measures were strengthened. In the second week the colour of the urine had become normal. She was urinating without straining and the lioness recovered completely. The lioness was closely monitored for 15 days after recovery for reoccurrence of any clinical signs, even though post recovery testing could not be done. The lioness was eating normally, urination and defecation and did not show any signs of illness. Arora (2003) reported that leptospirosis was serologically diagnosed in a 21 month old male tiger with clinical signs like anorexia, pyrexia, distress, clonic spasms etc., Treatment was not successful and the animal died on 4th day of illness. Blood serum collected just before death was found to be positive for Leptospira autumnalis. The elevated levels of BUN and Creatinine may be probably due to anorexia related dehydration, reduced micturition and concentration of urine and all this combined together would have contributed for the manifestation of symptoms mentioned above.

Haematological parameters Hemoglobin (g % )

Values 10.5

Normal ranges * 8 - 12

2

PCV (%)

35

35 – 40

3

RBC (mill / c mm)

5.18

7–8

S. No 1

Biochemical parameters studied Biochemical parameters Values Normal ranges * BUN (mg/dl) 67.89 16 – 58

2

Creatinine (mg/dl)

1.57

0.7 – 4.0

3

Total Protein (g/dl)

7.93

4.4 – 9.1

4

Albumin (g/dl)

2.27

1.9 – 4.6

5

Glucose (mg/dl)

75.21

28 – 309

6

ALT (IU/l)

6.32

10 – 138

7

AST (IU/l)

1.78

2 – 82

8

Total Bilirubin (mg/dl)

0.14

0 – 1.0

As rodents and mangooses act as reservoirs, captive and free ranging wild animals are susceptible to leptospiral infection and many times the status of infection goes undiagnosed for want of appropriate clinical samples. In this case, the veterinary intervention, diagnostic sampling and treatment at the right time has yielded successful results. Prophylactic measures such as rodent control, proper drainage and sanitation are carried out as a precaution to protect other zoo animals. Summary A case of leptospirosis in a captive lioness and its successful treatment is reported. References Arora, B.M., P.N. Kumar & N.S. Parihar (1985). Health monitoring and Disease surveillance in captive and free wildlife. Annual Scientific Report. Centre for Wildlife Conservation, IVRI, Izatnagar (UP). Arora, B.M. (2003). Indian Wildlife Diseases and Disorders. Association of Indian Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians, Bariely. Pp. 82 Levett, P.N., R.E. Morey, Turner & R.E. Mayer (2005). Detection of pathogenic leptospires by real time quantitative PCR. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 54: 45–49. Rim, B.M., C.W. Rim & L. Kakoma (1993). Leptospirosis serology in Korean wild animals. Journal of Wildlife diseases. 29: 602–603.

Acknowledgement: The authors thank the Director, Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai and TANUAVS for the facilities provided. 1

Department of Wildlife Science, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai 600 007, Tamil Nadu. Email: drkswildlifevet@gmail.com 2 Associate Professor, Department of Animals Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai 600 007, Tamil Nadu. 3 Zoo Veterinarian, Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

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Cross reactivity of deer immunoglobulin G (IgG) with antibovine IgG conjugate Chintu Ravishankar1, D. Nandana 2, Anneth Alice John3, M.R. Reni4, Mathew Sebastian5, George Chandy6 and S. Anoop7 Abstract Many approaches to elucidate the evolutionary relationship between ruminants and deer have been undertaken. We report a study conducted to find out the cross-reactivity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) and chital (Axis axis) to antibovine (AB) IgG horse radish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Various dilutions of bovine, sambar deer, chital and guinea pig sera were reacted against various dilutions of AB HRP conjugate and the optical density (OD) values noted. Results of the study indicated that there is cross reactivity between bovine and deer (sambar deer and chital) immunoglobulins which was evidenced by color development in ELISA. It was also noted that the AB HRP conjugate detected sambar deer IgG to a greater extent than chital IgG. However, on statistical analysis, it was seen that there was significant difference between the OD values. Hence it is concluded that there exists antigenic similarity between deer and bovine IgG and that even the sambar deer IgG differ antigenically from that of chital. Keywords Cross-reactivity, immunoglobulin G, sambar deer, chital, bovine, ELISA Abbreviations AB – Antibovine; BSA - Bovine serum albumin; ELISA Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; H2O2 - Hydrogen peroxide; H2SO4 - Sulphuric acid; HRP - Horse radish peroxidase; IgG - Immunoglobulin G; OD - Optical density; OPD - Ortho phenylenediamine dihydrochloride; PBS Phosphate buffered saline; PBST - Phosphate buffered saline with 0.05% Tween 20 Introduction Suborder Ruminantia under Order Artiodactyla has families Tragulidae, Giraffidae, Cervidae (deer), Moschidae, Antilocapridae, and Bovidae (antelopes, cattle, gazelles, goats, sheep, and relatives), and a number of extinct groups. These families present common anatomical characters like fused naviculars and cuboids, missing upper incisors to name few (Myers 2001). Cross-reactivity of immunoglobulin molecules of different species have been used as a criterion for finding out the phylogenetic relatedness between species (Nollens et al. 2008). In this paper, we describe the results of a study conducted to find out the cross-reactivity of IgG of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) and chital (Axis axis) with that of bovines (Bos indicus) employing ELISA. Materials and methods Sambar deer, chital, bovine and guinea pig sera used in the study were from a small scale serum bank maintained in the Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookot. The serum from all the four species were tested separately against AB IgG HRP conjugates using ELISA. Bovine serum was used as the homologous serum (which binds maximally with AB

conjugate and guinea pig serum as the heterologous one (which being very much different phylogenetically from bovines binds minimally). Briefly the test was carried as per the procedure described below. Two fold dilutions of bovine serum starting from (1:1000 to 1:1,28,000) were made in carbonate – bicarbonate coating buffer (pH 9.6). Hundred microlitres each of 1:1000 diluted serum was dispensed in first five wells of the first column of an ELISA plate. Similarly the next dilution (1:2000) was dispensed in first five wells of the second column and so on till the last dilution (column eight). The plate was incubated overnight at room temperature in a humid chamber. After the incubation, the contents of the wells were discarded and the wells washed five times with PBS pH 7.4 containing 0.05% Tween 20 and tapped dry in lint free towel. The unbound sites in each well were blocked with 200µl of 1% BSA in PBS for 2 hours at 37°C and the plate washed and dried as before. Two fold dilutions of the AB HRP conjugate (starting from 1:1000 to 16,000) were prepared in PBST BSA (1% BSA in PBST) and 100µl each of 1:1000 dilution was loaded in the first 8 wells of the first row of the plate; 1:2000 dilution added in a similar manner to the second row and so on till the fifth row (1:16,000). The plate was incubated at 37°C for 1 hour, after the incubation, washed and dried as before. Hundred microlitres of 0.04% OPD in citrate buffer pH 4.0 containing 0.05% of 30 volume H2O2 was dispensed in all the wells in which the above reagents were added and the plate incubated for 10 minutes in dark at 37°C for color development. Then 100µl each of 1.25M H2SO4 was dispensed into all the wells to stop color development. The OD of each of the wells was read using an ELISA reader at 490 nm. In a similar manner, the experiment was done separately for sambar deer, chital and guinea pig sera. The OD values for the serum dilutions (1:1000 to 1:28,000) of the four species for each dilution of AB conjugate (1: 1000, 1:2000 and so on) were analysed using single factor ANOVA to find out statistical significance. For each conjugate dilution, the OD values of bovine were compared with other three species i.e. the species pairs bovine/ sambar deer, bovine/chital and bovine/guinea pig, using student’s t test (Zar 2010). Results The highest OD values for any dilution of serum/conjugate combination tested were obtained for homologous serum and conjugate i.e. between bovine serum/AB conjugate. As expected, guinea pig serum showed very little color development even at very low dilutions and hence negligible

1

Assistant Professor, 2Undergraduate student, Undergraduate student, 4Research Assistant, 5Associate Professor (Statistics), 6Assistant Professor. 7Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookot, Lakkidi P.O., Wayanad, Kerala. 1E-mail: chinturavi@rediffmail.com (corresponding author), 6E-mail: georgechandy73@yahoo.com 3

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Table 1. Mean OD values for sera dilutions (1:1000 to 1:1,28,000) for various dilutions of conjugate and P values for comparison by single factor ANOVA AB conjugate

1: 1000

1:2000

1:4000

1:8000

1:16000

dilutions Bovine

1.3381

a

0.6835

a

0.3981

a

0.2505

a

0.1561a

Sambar

0.4460

b

0.2298

b

0.1469

b

0.1089

b

0.0866

b

Chital

0.1171c

0.0888

b

0.0836

b

0.0763

b

0.0730

b

Guinea Pig

0.0890c

0.0765

b

0.0761

b

0.0740

b

0.0709

b

P value

2.05 x 10-11

2.3 x 10-9

1.25 x 10-8

4.59 x 10-9

1.35 x 10-8

Data subjected to logarithmic transformation for statistical analysis. Means with different superscripts in a column are significantly different (P<0.05) cross reactivity to the AB conjugate indicating it’s dissimilarity to that of bovine IgG. Serum of sambar deer and chital showed varying degrees of cross reactivity to the conjugate as evidenced by varying color development. It was also noticed that the AB conjugate could distinguish sambar deer and chital serum at different levels. Sambar deer serum showed higher OD values than chital serum for corresponding dilutions indicating a greater cross reactivity with AB conjugate but statistically significant only at conjugate dilution of 1: 1,000 (Table 1). Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) among OD values for the serum dilutions of the four species for a particular dilution of AB conjugate (Table 1). Bovine serum showed significantly higher OD values compared to the other three species sera in all dilutions.

Discussion and Conclusions Various streams of research probing into the phylogeny of Ruminantia and Cervidae have been undertaken. These include studies employing inhibition of radioimmunoprecipitation of immunoglobulin antigens (Curtain and Fudenberg 1973) and the sequence analysis of mitochondrial control region (Allard et al. 1992). In this study by employing ELISA, evidences are been presented for cross-reactivity between IgG of two deer species with AB conjugate indicating antigenic similarity between the IgG of these three species. Though similar studies employing deer serum and AB conjugates have not been reported, the results agree with the findings of Cap et al. 2002 that Bovidae and Cervidae (deer) are sister clads based on behaviour. Though the AB conjugate detected variable antigenic difference between the two deer sera under test, the comparable cross-reactivity of the IgG

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of sambar deer and chital with AB conjugate indicate the antigenic similarity of the molecule with bovine IgG. References Allard, M.W., M.M. Miyamoto, L. Jarecki, F. Kraus & M.R. Tennant (1992). DNA systematics and evolution of the artiodactyl family Bovidae. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89(5): 3972–3976. Cap, H., S. Aulagnier & P. Deleporte (2002). The phylogeny and behaviour of Cervidae (Ruminantia Pecora). Ethology Ecology and Evolution 14: 199–216. Curtain, C.C. & H.H. Fudenberg (1973). Evolution of the immunoglobulin antigens in the Ruminatia. Biochem Genet 8(3): 301–309. Myers, P. (2001). Artiodactyla. <http:// animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/ accounts/information/Artiodactyla.html>. On-line version dated 18 March 2010. Nollens, H.H., C. Ruiz, M.T. Walsh, F.M.D. Gulland, G. Bossart, E.D. Jensen, J.F. McBain & J.F.X. Wellehan (2008). Cross-reactivity between immunoglobulin G antibodies of whales and dolphins correlates with evolutionary distance. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15(10): 1547–1554. Zar, J.H. (2010). Biostatistical Analysis. Pearson Education Incorporated, New Jersey, viii+944 pp.

Acknowledgement The authors thank the Associate Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookot, for providing the facilities for conduct of the study.

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Announcements

The 2012 International Aquarium Congress (IAC) is now just 10 months away. Your host, the Two Oceans Aquarium in Cape Town, South Africa, looks forward to welcoming you to our shores from 9 to 14 September 2012. The IAC, which takes place every four years, is the most important and prestigious event for the public aquarium industry. It has been held in several countries, but 2012 marks the first year that the congress will take place in the Southern Hemisphere and on African soil. Click here to view the provisional 2012 IAC programme: http://iac2012.co.za/congress/ preliminary_programme/congress_programme/ Register now and save Early-bird registration is now open at a reduced rate. You'll pay just ZAR5 500 if you register between now and 31 January 2012. Click here to register now: http://iac2012.co.za/ congress/register/ Keynote speakers announced We are delighted to announce the three guest speakers who will be delivering keynote addresses during the opening ceremony of the 2012 IAC on 10 September 2012. Dr Camille Parmesan was ranked by Reuters ISI Web of Science as the second most highly cited author in the field of climate change in 2010. Read more: http:// iac2012.co.za/blog/entry/ dr_camille_parmesan_to_speak_at_2012_international_ aquarium_congress/ Dr Elin Kelsey will deliver a keynote for the 2012 IAC that positions "hope" as an emerging narrative for aquariums around the world. According to Kelsey, "Aquariums have a unique ability to engender emotional connections between people, animals and environments." Read more: http://iac2012.co.za/blog/ entry/ dr_erin_kelsey_brings_hope_to_2012_international_aqu arium_congress/ Emeritus Professor George Branch is a world-renowned authority on the southern African marine environment. His passionate and entertaining lectures inspire a huge appreciation and understanding of the marine world. Read more: http://iac2012.co.za/blog/entry/

professor_george_branch_to_explore_two_oceans_at_2 012_international_aquariu/ Call for papers Prospective presenters are now invited to submit their abstracts for papers or posters to be presented at the 8th International Aquarium Congress (IAC) in Cape Town, South Africa from 9 to 14 September 2012. Click here to learn about our themes and submission guidelines: http://iac2012.co.za/ congress/call_for_papers/ Sponsor and exhibit At the 2012 IAC, you will have the opportunity to meet with key decision makers in exhibitory, conservation, sustainability and education fields. Top management personnel from aquariums from around the world are expected to attend. We offer a unique opportunity to exhibit to leading industry professionals from around the world. Click here to learn more about our exhibition options: http://iac2012.co.za/exhibit/ We also have a number of sponsorship and exposure opportunities to suit your budget and requirements, from top-end endorsements to green initiatives, as well as a host of advertising and advertorial opportunities. Click here to learn more about our sponsorship opportunities: http://iac2012.co.za/sponsor/ About the Two Oceans Aquarium The southern tip of the African continent is the meeting place of two mighty and bountiful oceans, the Indian and the Atlantic. The Two Oceans Aquarium on the V&A Waterfront, Cape Town is ideally positioned to showcase the incredible diversity of marine life found in these two oceans. The Aquarium is one of the top tourist attractions in Cape Town and over 3000 living sea animals, many of which are endemic to southern African waters, can be seen in this spectacular underwater nature reserve. Visit the Two Oceans Aquarium website for more information: http://www.aquarium.co.za/

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The 4th International Congress on Zoo Keeping 9-13 September 2012 Singapore

The 4th Conference of the International Congress of Zookeepers will be held in Singapore in 2012, hosted by Wildlife Reserves Singapore. Theme: “Many Voices, One Calling” Wildlife Reserves Singapore is proud to host in conjunction with the ICZ the 4th International Congress on Zoo Keeping, from September 9th to 13th, 2012. This conference themed “Many Voices, One Calling” hopes to bring together keepers and zoo professionals from around the World for the objectives of enhancing the professionalism of Zoo Keepers and the welfare of the wild animals in their care. Delegates from every country have much to contribute. We encourage keepers to share their knowledge and experiences in the field of Zoo Keeping with their fellow keepers at this momentous event. We look forward to hear your Many Voices committing to our One Calling. See you in Singapore 2012! Call for Papers You are invited to submit abstracts of papers, posters & workshops on any aspect of zoo work. Abstracts for oral and poster presentations should be written in English, no more than 600 words long in MS Word® format. If you want to run a workshop focused on developing zoo keeper skills, please send a short description. Please mark ‘ICZ Abstract’ and send to: Paul Howse, ICZ Steering Committee at papers@iczoo.org Estimated attendance is 300 - 400 zoo professionals from over 30 countries. Deadline for abstracts is April 1, 2012 Registration Registrations to the congress will open around February 2012. For those planning a budget registration costs will be around SGD 550-600. This will include Icebreaker event, Gala dinner, Silent Auction evening, Night Safari event, Lunch and Morning Tea Monday – Thursday and afternoon tea on two days. Buses to the venues and return will be provided from 2-3 locations in downtown Singapore at certain times. Click here to get in contact with the congress coordinator Scholarschip A limited number of scholarships are available for keepers from primarily developing countries who are unable to gain other financial support to attend the 4th International Congress on Zookeeping 9-13 September 2012. The money will be used to pay registration fees, travel expenses and accommodation. To apply you need to fill out the application below and either email it or mail it to Liz Romer c/- 13 Mary Street, Beacon Hill, NSW Australia 2100. Applications close 1 June 2012 – though may be awarded sooner depending on demand and number available. For more details visit http://www.iczoo.org/singapore2012.php

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Magazine of Zoo Outreach Organisation ZOO’s PRINT Publication Guidelines

Publication Information

We welcome articles from the conservation community of all SAARC countries, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries if relevant to SAARC countries’ problems and potential.

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Type — Articles of semi-scientific or technical nature. News, notes, announcements of interest to conservation community and personal opinion pieces.

Editor: Sally R. Walker Associate Editors: R.V. Sanjay Molur and Daniel B. Ayyachamy Managing Editor: Latha G. Ravikumar Editorial Assistant: R. Marimuthu

Feature articles — articles of a conjectural nature — opinions, theoretical, subjective. Case reports: case studies or notes, short factual reports and descriptions. News and announcements — short items of news or announcements of interest to zoo and wildlife community Cartoons, puzzles, crossword and stories Subject matter: Captive breeding, (wild) animal husbandry and management, wildlife management, field notes, conservation biology, population dynamics, population genetics, conservation education and interpretation, wild animal welfare, conservation of flora, natural history and history of zoos. Articles on rare breeds of domestic animals are also considered. Source: Zoos, breeding facilities, holding facilities, rescue centres, research institutes, wildlife departments, wildlife protected areas, bioparks, conservation centres, botanic gardens, museums, universities, etc. Individuals interested in conservation with information and opinions to share can submit articles ZOOS’ PRINT magazine. Manuscript requirements: Articles should by typed into a Word format and emailed to zooreach@zooreach.org. Avoid indents, all caps or any other fancy typesetting. You may send photos, illustrations, tables. Articles which should contain citations should follow this guideline: a bibliography organized alphabetically and containing all details referred in the following style: surname, initial(s), year, title of the article, name of journal, volume, number, pages. Editorial details: Articles will be edited without consultation unless previously requested by the authors in writing. Authors should inform editors if the article has been published or submitted elsewhere for publication.

Zoo Outreach Organisation Trust Committee and Sr. Staff Managing Trustee: Sally R. Walker Chairman Trustee: R. Nandini Executive Director Trustee: R.V. Sanjay Molur Finance Director Trustee: Latha G. Ravikumar Scientist: B.A. Daniel Researcher: R. Marimuthu Other staff: B. Ravichandran, R. Pravin Kumar, K. Geetha, S. Radhika, Arul Jagadish, K. Raveendran, S. Sarojamma ZOOs’ PRINT magazine is informal and newsy as opposed to a scientific publication. ZOOS’ PRINT magazine sometimes includes semi-scientific and technical articles which are reviewed only for factual errors, not peer-reviewed. Address: Zoo Outreach Organisation Post Box 5912, 96, Kumudham Nagar, Vilankurichi Road Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 035, India Phone: +91 422 2665298 Fax: +91 422 2665472 E-mail: zooreach@zooreach.org Website: www.zooreach.org, www.zoosprint.org


ANNOUNCEMENT: UFAW Animal Welfare Conference “Recent advances in animal welfare science III” 21st June 2012 Animal welfare is a cross-disciplinary area of science that is attracting increasing interest and funding and is being widely employed to guide and inform legislation and practice relating to the use of animals. Much, however, still remains to be understood. As part of its commitment to improving the way we understand and care for animals, the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare is holding the third of a series of one-day conferences on ‘Recent advances in animal welfare science’ on 21st June 2012. Programme details: The following speakers will be contributing talks to the conference: • Lambton SL, CJ Nicol, JL McKinstry, M Friel, J Walton and CA Weeks (University of Bristol, UK) -- Testing a • •

• • •

• • • • •

• •

management package designed to reduce injurious pecking in loose-housed commercial laying hen flocks Baker SE and DW Macdonald (University of Oxford, UK) -- Assessing the relative humaneness of vertebrate pest control methods in the UK Smulders TV, BA Robertson, O Rhys, L Holmes, MS Turner, RB D’Eath, PW Wilson, IC Dunn and T Boswell (University of Newcastle, Scottish Agricultural College and University of Edinburgh, UK) -- Food-restricted broiler breeders: Does chronic hunger lead to chronic stress? Rowan AN and M Jones (Humane Society International, USA and UK) -- Developing benchmarks for assessing the success of dog management approaches around the world Ellwood SA, RPD Atkinson, DW Macdonald and SE Baker (University of Oxford, UK and The Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee, USA) -- The mechanical performance of currently unregulated spring-traps for use with rats, mice and moles Part C, J Kiddie, W Hayes, D Mills, DB Morton and LM Collins (Queen’s University Belfast, Royal Veterinary College, University of Lincoln and University of Birmingham, UK) -- Dogs at home: A comparison of welfare physiology and behaviour at home and in a boarding kennel environment de Haas EN, TB Rodenburg, J ten Napel and B Kemp (Wageningen University, The Netherlands) -- Behavioural development of feather pecking in commercial laying hens – the past or the present? Bateson M, G Feenders and K Klaus (University of Newcastle, UK) -- Effects of hand-rearing on the cognition and behaviour of caged European starlings Leach MC, K Klaus, AL Miller, M Scotto di Perrotolo, SG Sotocinal and PA Flecknell (University of Newcastle, UK and McGill University, Canada) -- The assessment of post-vasectomy pain in mice using behaviour and the Mouse Grimace Scale Viitasaari E, L Hänninen, M Heinonen, M Raekallio and A Valros (University of Helsinki, Finland) -- The benefits of ketoprofen administered intramuscularly 3 days post partum in sows Packer RMA, A Hendricks and CC Burn (The Royal Veterinary College, UK) -- How long and low can you go? A preliminary investigation of exaggeration of back length and reduction in leg length as a risk factor for intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) Nasr MAF, J Murrell, LJ Wilkins and CJ Nicol (University of Bristol, UK and Zagazig University, Egypt) -- The effect of two classes of opioid drug on the landing ability of laying hens with and without keel fractures Hothersall B, G Caplen, CJ Nicol, AE Waterman-Pearson, CA Weeks and JC Murrell (University of Bristol, UK) -Challenges of determining links between pain and lameness in broiler chickens

There will be a poster session during the lunch break which will feature over 50 presentations. Further details, including the full programme of speakers and a registration form, can be found on the UFAW website http://www.ufaw.org.uk/ conference2012.php. Registration is from 8.30, with talks starting at 9.30 and ending at 17.10. Other details: UFAW intends these regular conferences provides a forum at which the broad community of scientists, veterinarians and others concerned with animal welfare can come together to share knowledge and practice, discuss advances and exchange ideas and views. As part of this commitment, and to ensure that the meeting is accessible to widest range of those with an interest in animal welfare, UFAW aims to keep the registration fee to attend the conferences low, this year it is just £25. Note: This price includes refreshments but delegates will need to make their own arrangements for lunch. Venue: The conference is being held in York, in the medieval Merchant Adventurers’ Hall, Fossgate YO1 9XD. Located next to the pedestrianised centre of York and built in 1357, the timbered Hall and Undercroft make up one of the best preserved medieval guild halls in the world. Background to UFAW: UFAW, the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, is an internationally-recognised, independent, scientific and educational animal welfare charity. The organization promotes high standards of welfare for farm, companion, laboratory and captive wild animals and those with which we interact in the wild. Contact Details: Stephen Wickens, Development Officer, UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire, AL4 8AN, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1582 831818; Fax: +44 (0) 1582 831414; Website: www.ufaw.org.uk; Email: wickens@ufaw.org.uk


Zoo's Print February 2012