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September 2011 | Vol. 3 | No. 9 | Pages 2033–2108 Date of Publication 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

Larvae of the Odonata family Gomphidae

 

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Dr. Anwaruddin Choudhury, Guwahati, India Dr. Richard Thomas Corlett, Singapore Dr. Gabor Csorba, Budapest, Hungary Dr. Paula E. Cushing, Denver, USA Dr. Neelesh Naresh Dahanukar, Pune, India Dr. R.J. Ranjit Daniels, Chennai, India Dr. A.K. Das, Kolkata, India Dr. Indraneil Das, Sarawak, Malaysia Dr. Rema Devi, Chennai, India Dr. Nishith Dharaiya, Patan, India Dr. Ansie Dippenaar-Schoeman, Queenswood, South Africa Dr. William Dundon, Legnaro, Italy Dr. J.L. Ellis, Bengaluru, India Dr. Susie Ellis, Florida, USA Dr. Zdenek Faltynek Fric, Czech Republic Dr. Hemant Ghate, Pune, India Dr. Dipankar Ghose, New Delhi, India Dr. Gary A.P. Gibson, Ontario, USA Dr. M. Gobi, Madurai, India Dr. Stephan Gollasch, Hamburg, Germany Dr. Michael J.B. Green, Norwich, UK Dr. K. Gunathilagaraj, Coimbatore, India Dr. K.V. Gururaja, Bengaluru, India Dr. Mohammad Hayat, Aligarh, India Dr. V.B. Hosagoudar, Thiruvananthapuram, India Prof. Fritz Huchermeyer, Onderstepoort, South Africa Dr. V. Irudayaraj, Tirunelveli, India Dr. Rajah Jayapal, Bengaluru, India Dr. Weihong Ji, Auckland, New Zealand Prof. R. Jindal, Chandigarh, India Dr. Pierre Jolivet, Bd Soult, France Dr. Rajiv S. Kalsi, Haryana, India Dr. Werner Kaumanns, Eschenweg, Germany Dr. P.B. Khare, Lucknow, India Dr. Vinod Khanna, Dehra Dun, India Dr. Cecilia Kierulff, São Paulo, Brazil Dr. Ignacy Kitowski, Lublin, Poland Dr. Krushnamegh Kunte, Cambridge, USA Prof. Dr. Adriano Brilhante Kury, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Dr. P. Lakshminarasimhan, Howrah, India Dr. Carlos Alberto S de Lucena, Porto Alegre, Brazil Dr. Glauco Machado, São Paulo, Brazil Dr. Gowri Mallapur, Mamallapuram, India Dr. George Mathew, Peechi, India Prof. Richard Kiprono Mibey, Eldoret, Kenya Dr. Shomen Mukherjee, Jamshedpur, India Dr. P.O. Nameer, Thrissur, India Dr. D. Narasimhan, Chennai, India Dr. T.C. Narendran, Kozhikode, India Stephen D. Nash, Stony Brook, USA continued on the back inside cover


JoTT Essay

3(9): 2033–2044

Strategic planning for invertebrate species conservation how effective is it? T.R. New Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia Email: t.new@latrobe.edu.au

Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Michael J. Samways Manuscript details: Ms # o2850 Received 28 June 2011 Final received 09 August 2011 Finally accepted 08 September 2011

Abstract: Activities for invertebrate conservation range from single species programmes to those spanning habitats or landscapes, but at any scale are often largely isolated and not integrated effectively with other efforts. Problems of promoting invertebrate conservation and synergies by effective cooperation are discussed. The rationale of species-level conservation is outlined briefly, with suggestions of how some of the apparent limitations of this approach may be countered in ways that benefit a greater variety of invertebrate life. This essay is intended to promote debate on some of the complex issues involved, and implies the need for careful and well-considered integration of individual conservation tactics into enhanced strategies to increase the benefits from the very limited resources devoted to invertebrate conservation.

Citation: New, T.R. (2011). Strategic planning for invertebrate species conservation - how effective is it? Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2033–2044.

Keywords: Butterflies, conservation strategy, insects, management plans, species conservation, triage.

Copyright: © T.R. New 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

‘You’ve got to accentuate the positive. Eliminate the negative. Latch on to the affirmative’. [Johnny Mercer/Harold Arlen]

Author Detail: Emeritus Professor T.R. New has wide interests in insect systematics, ecology and conservation, and has promoted the value of insect conservation for many years, from local to international scales. Acknowledgements: This essay is based on a contribution to the symposium ‘Foundations of Biodiversity: saving the world’s non-vertebrates’, held at the Zoological Society of London in February 2010, and sponsored by the Society and IUCN. I am very grateful to the organising committee for inviting me to participate, and for the financial assistance received through the Society. Perceptive comments from a reviewer are also appreciated greatly.

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INTRODUCTION The broad term ‘invertebrates’ encompasses a great variety of hyperdiverse animal groups that are poorly documented, for many of which we have only very approximate ideas of their richness, and for which ecological and distributional information is commonly fragmentary to non-existent. Many invertebrates are believed to be under threat from anthropogenic changes, and both ethically and practically need conservation. They contrast dramatically with the more tractable vertebrate groups (mostly with comparatively few species and taxonomy well-understood) and some vascular plants, but have generally been treated by conservation planners in similar ways, focusing on single species management plans, and with agendas based largely on threat status evaluation by similar criteria to those applied to mammals and birds. This one-by-one species approach has severe limitations for invertebrates, not least because of large numbers of threatened species far exceeding resources available to conserve them. Likewise, their enormous taxonomic and ecological variety renders broader conservation prescriptions (beyond obvious generalities) difficult. Part of the perspective in discussing how—and if—better approaches are possible must be to assess our capability to plan and undertake practical conservation for invertebrates, and to assemble and improve conservation strategies to do this. Invertebrate conservation, at species or other level, is not a separate discipline from most vertebrate conservation, despite the vastly different scales of need that flow from enormous richness and ecological variety. Widespread unfamiliarity with

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the organisms tends to foster it being treated as such. ‘Strategic planning’ in military terms is allied to the outcome of a campaign and implicitly demands integration of ‘tactics’, the lower category of planning and practical measures, for anticipated greater collective benefit than summing individual tactics alone. ‘Tactics’ equate to individual species plans or individual measures within these, and ‘strategy’ to any way in which these can be changed, amalgamated or replaced for wider benefit. A central theme is to consider whether invertebrates are disadvantaged, or may become so, in the wider conservation arena without such strategy. The scope of any conservation plan, together with its mission or purpose, may need to be considered very carefully. It should be defined objectively at the outset, together with provision for critical review before it is translated formally into policy and practice. At present, some purported strategies for invertebrate conservation are little more than ‘wishlists’ of ingredients and lack clear evidence of integration or complementarity of purpose or feasibility, although the need for this may be implicit. Most give priority to the importance of conserving the present scenarios or sites where the focal threatened species occur. These may include attempts to re-introduce populations to sites from which the organism has disappeared, or to augment small populations to increase their viability. With the widespread acceptance of climate change, needs for future evolution and dispersal potential are progressively being considered as constructively as possible. Long term strategies, to be assured well beyond the next one or two political terms, are a critical need, together with these incorporating dynamic ‘adaptive management’. Climate change, for example, implies that sites well beyond the current species’ range may be needed to replace present areas of occupancy that will no longer be suitable for habitation. Such considerations, however difficult to address, cannot be ignored and are urgent. Without such long-term perspective, many current management measures may be inadequate. The stated ‘visions’ of conservation strategies tend to be formulated on the idealistic premise of ‘zero extinctions’. Recent flurry of papers on this subject emphasises that, whilst we may indeed wish to heed this ethical ideal, some form of loss is largely inevitable in allocating resources when budgets are constrained (Botterill et al. 2008), with the impracticalities of 2034

completely supporting all deserving cases recognised by scientists, managers and politicians alike. Rational triage, however abhorrent, as a core strategy component has some benefit in enhancing credibility - because it demonstrates that priorities have indeed been set and lays out the grounds or principles for doing so. The major problem with setting priority in this way, most commonly selecting amongst an array of species eligible for support and needing conservation (designated by formal listing, or investigation of need) is simply that each species given priority is at the expense of others. The importance of the process therefore includes deciding what not to do. Triage in this sense is thus acceptance of the possibility of extinction of species excluded from attention (New 1991, 1993 for additional background). The grounds for this selection should ideally be transparent and agreed by wide consensus to avoid acrimony and promote cooperation by stakeholders. Thus, the Red-Listing of selected invertebrate taxa for conservation status priority promoted through the World Conservation Union includes several recent examples for which groups of specialists have agreed conservation status and needs during workshops convened expressly for that purpose. The ensuing reports have provided the first such authoritative accounts for particular taxonomic (e.g. Mediterranean dragonflies: Riservato et al. 2009) or ecological (European saproxylic beetles: Nieto & Alexander 2010) groups. Both these investigations, for example, indicated substantial numbers of threatened species. In addition to scientific knowledge of species’ status and needs, ‘image’ can strongly influence choice of conservation targets and subsequent allocation of limited support resources. Many invertebrates have a less appealing public image than do many vertebrates: the ‘cute and cuddly’ syndrome is still influential, notwithstanding that many threatened vertebrates overtly exhibit neither of these qualities. Nevertheless, it is valuable to understand the grounds on which priorities have been selected amongst species, as possible constructive leads to wider strategy. It is important to acknowledge also that defeatism from the implications of triage is not universal: Parr et al. (2009) cleave to the ideal that ‘we just might save everything’, and that we should indeed aim for zero extinctions. A somewhat different emphasis was presented in the recent ‘European Strategy for Conservation of

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Invertebrates’ (Haslett 2007), namely to recognise the importance of invertebrates, rather than demanding that all be conserved. The Strategy’s vision is ‘A world in which invertebrate animals are valued and conserved, in parallel with all other groups of organisms, now and in the future’. The seven main objectives emphasise recognition and integration of needs and efforts to conserve invertebrates. One objective (no. 6) is echoed widely elsewhere: ‘… inclusion of a fully representative variety of invertebrate species on conservation and environmental management decisions..’. The process of triage or other selection to obtain ‘fully representative variety’ demands rather different priority than triage based purely on level of threat, as tends to flow in many places from IUCN or other categorisation, irrespective of what the invertebrate is or of its ecological role and distribution. There are obvious problems in this ‘omission by necessity’ in emphasising species-level conservation whilst ignoring other, wider, approaches, and three broad packages of strategy options are available; 1. To improve individual species plans to render them increasingly credible, practicable and effective. 2. To expand plans based initially on individual species to promote wider benefits – such as providing for several related species or changing focus for wider habitat considerations. 3. To adopt the commonly-made suggestion of replacing most individual species plans with broader approaches to emphasise landscape and community conservation, so assuring contexts in which the species can survive. These are not mutually exclusive. Many species management plans for invertebrates have been largely ad hoc developments, and many have been produced in isolation from (or with little consideration for) other organisms, even those on the same sites or dependent on the same biotopes. It is pertinent to consider the drivers for developing these plans, and the reasons for their production. These are not restricted to invertebrate plans, of course, but may at times have greater importance for them when combined priority is needed. The three major drivers are (1) legislative obligation, (2) political appeasement, and (3) practical conservation. Each may suffer considerable delay in development, and it is common for the formal obligations for plans that commonly flow from legislative recognition

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of taxa as threatened to take far longer to produce than promised under a given legislation. However, many plans under the first two drivers above are superficial and couched in rather general terms rather than containing well-planned SMART objectives and actions. Further, most of those plans are not fully translated into practice, but remain as ‘ticked off’ on a list of formal obligations. Many conservation plans for invertebrates are necessarily proposed or prepared initially by people who are not invertebrate zoologists. If indeed zoologists, many agency personnel are versed predominantly in vertebrate biology and (1) are outside the area of their primary interest or expertise when dealing with invertebrates and so (2) may give them low priority in relation to dealing with organisms with which they have greater confidence and experience, and (3) may not appraise and criticize the outcomes adequately. Without initial effective peer-review and revision, a plan may be overly bland - and, perhaps, far more tentative than if prepared by a relevant specialist in the organisms involved. A major need is to increase invertebrate expertise in the variety of agencies involved in such documentation, and to move progressively toward scientifically rigorous and adequately resourced conservation plans, rather than being content with superficial alternatives. Nevertheless, political awareness of need for invertebrate conservation is important, and there may thus be a very constructive role for plans in categories 1 and 2 above. But they may not always achieve the major aim of practical conservation. The relevant point of contrast is that many vertebrates already have high public profiles, and are widely accepted politically as ‘worthy’. So-called ‘vertebrate chauvinism’ remains potent in developing conservation policy, and greater levels of interest and knowledge facilitate production of progressively realistic and credible conservation plans. A second contrast in many cases is that of scale of management need. As one common example, small sites which would be dismissed as inadequate for conservation by many vertebrate biologists, and sacrificed, have immense importance for some butterflies and others that can sustain populations on areas of a hectare or less under suitable conditions. Many invertebrates are, or appear to be, point or narrow range endemic species. In management terms, this also involves ecological specialisation - many vertebrate

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foci for conservation are, by comparison with many invertebrates, both geographically and ecologically more widespread: not only are we likely to know much more about their population size and dynamics, but also have a reasonably clear picture of the major threats to them. Almost by default, the resource needs (both consumables and utilities, sensu Dennis et al. 2006) of ecologically specialised insects are more restricted and restricting to the species involved. Following Hanski’s (2005) apposite simile of insect habitats forming a nested hierarchy of scales, and likened to matrioscka dolls, most habitats of threatened insects (many of which have very narrow ecological amplitude, in additional to restricted distributions) equate firmly to ‘small dolls’, so that fine scale refined management may commonly be needed. Equivalent fine detail, of course, occurs also for many vertebrates and for any species this level of management becomes both difficult to define and expensive to prosecute. In an environment in which the limiting costs of conservation are a primary consideration in determining priority, less subtle steps (such as site reservation alone) may be deemed sufficient. From another viewpoint, it is often assumed that areas reserved for particular large or iconic vertebrates (such as forest primates) will effectively also protect everything else that lives there - so that the focal vertebrate is presumed to be an effective umbrella species. This presumption is dangerous and must not be accepted uncritically; simply that a butterfly or snail lives at present in a high ranked protected area such as a National Park that also harbours a threatened parrot, rodent, or ungulate does not secure it in perpetuity. Even in Britain, many population losses of butterflies in such areas have occurred but, conversely, a preserved area may give a secure base for the management needed to foster conservation. For Australian butterflies, Sands & New (2003) urged surveys of protected areas to determine incidence of designated threatened species, and so save the massive costs of private land purchase or assuring security of tenure elsewhere, should already protected populations exist in areas in which management could be undertaken. A protected site is the major need as focus for more detailed conservation, but is no more than that vital first step - detailed management, such as to assure early successional stages on which many invertebrates depend, must be based on individual circumstances, and at this level, some site-specific 2036

management is largely inevitable to sustain particular species or wider representative diversity. Almost invariably, primary research will be needed to focus management effectively. Emphasis on habitats (rather than the species alone) tends to shift the focus of strategies along the gradient ‘species - community -habitat - ecosystem - landscape’, in the expectation that broader scales will prove more cost-effective: for most invertebrates it remains to be proved that this approach is also more conservation-effective. Indeed, for many invertebrates, knowledge is insufficient to formulate any realistic conservation plan extending beyond bland generalities without insights from a strong research component. In many groups, the only people who are familiar with the species in the field are those involved in bringing them to conservation attention - so that even independent peer review of nominations for protection or funding may be difficult to arrange. There is understandable temptation to extrapolate from knowledge of any related species of concern or in the same arena, but this can rarely (if ever) replace information on the focal species. Focus on ‘better known’ groups is common - both knowledge and image impediments may be at least partially overcome for many butterflies, for example, simply because many butterfly species conservation plans have been made and carried into practice to varying extents. In Britain, an initial tranche of 25 butterfly species action plans was made, as working documents, by Butterfly Conservation in 1995. The variety included helps indicate general features applicable elsewhere as well as measures that can be carried across plans for different species. People may thus feel more comfortable working with ‘another butterfly’ than with some less familiar and poorly known animal. By parallel, the large number of vertebrate species plans helps generate confidence in producing others; for many, the research component needed initially may be relatively small, because of the large amount of attention vertebrates have received already. However, few groups of invertebrates can be treated in the same way as butterflies, or birds or mammals some groups of beetles, moths, and terrestrial snails are, perhaps, the main contenders. In contrast, many groups rarely, if ever, appear on conservation agendas - for many (see Wells et al. 1983 on Tardigrada) knowledge is patently inadequate to assess the status

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of any species reliably, and interest in doing so scarcely exists. Substantial taxonomic lacunae persist in the invertebrate conservation portfolio! Haslett (1998) in considering priorities for augmenting the list of insects to be included under the Bern Convention recognised, as have many other commentators, that there are simply too many deserving candidates. Whatever we elect to include, we are ‘spoiled for choice’, principles for selection may differ with different taxonomic groups (depending on level of interest and knowledge), and additional criteria such as habitat factors, global centres of endemism, hotspots of richness, and functional roles might all contribute to selection. Extending the range of criteria in this way helps draw attention to the invertebrate variety and the importance of the biotopes in which they live. Haslett thus noted cave systems, running waters, and saproxylic environments as some which were under-represented by invertebrate listings in Europe, and supporting functionally important invertebrates without which those systems could not persist. Contrast this approach with adding yet more butterflies characteristic of open woodland, heathland, or subclimax vegetation systems, for which other priority species already represent the value and importance of those biotopes. With some further attention to habitat health - as a stated priority in almost all conservation plans - relatively small augmentations have potential to change single species plans to covering an array of co-occurring species, each treated as an individual focus. The major need here may be simply to broaden perspective to emphasise the importance of the community as the context for any focal species to thrive, and that treatment of individual species can have wider effects. This goes beyond the usual tacit and more anonymous umbrella approach because it combines separate management needs of carefully selected species for wider collective benefit. It moves toward a ‘habitat directive’ approach of incorporating broader values. In reality, any and every list of invertebrate species of conservation concern, however these are selected or given priority, will be both (1) too long for all the species to be dealt with individually and (2) too short to be ecologically or taxonomically even reasonably representative of those needing that attention (New 2009 for discussion). Increasingly, selection transcends

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both taxonomic and political boundaries and draws on ecological and distributional knowledge to seek principles as the bases for strategies to achieve this effectively. Political boundaries, such as contiguous countries in Europe or states in North America or Australia, are each subject to geographically restricted legislations, so that policy at the higher national or regional level is needed to harmonise and facilitate conservation beyond those boundaries. A global review of the various national and regional legislative provisions for invertebrate conservation, much as Collins (1987) initiated for Europe, together with critical appraisal of their achievements, may give valuable clues to future needs.

DO WE NEED MORE BUTTERFLY PLANS? Formation of the organisation Butterfly Conservation Europe, coupled with the recent European Butterflies Red Data Book (Van Swaay & Warren 1999) and a treatise on priority sites for butterflies in Europe (Van Swaay & Warren 2003), has emphasised the magnitude of conservation effort needed even for this best-documented and most popular invertebrate group in the world’s best-known regional fauna. It has also revealed effectively the logistic problems of dealing with these needs comprehensively, and with adequate coordination. Regional endemism is strong, with 19 threatened butterfly species restricted to Europe accompanying a further 52 species threatened in Europe but found also beyond Europe. The 19 threatened endemics could justifiably be given priority, but the markedly lower conservation interest for some of the others outside Europe throws the major conservation burden and responsibility onto securing populations within Europe, so that their threatened status within Europe must be taken seriously. Whatever actions ensue, the grounds for conservation need are here clear and soundly investigated. The ‘SPEC’ system applied to the European butterflies, following its development for birds, combines considerations of threat and geographical range (Table 1). Adding the SPECs for political units helps to reveal a geographical pattern of relative need. It does not take into account per se the measures needed, and at its most basic level has simply indicated the sobering scale of needs (and supporting

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Table 1. Concept of ‘Species of European Conservation Concern’ (SPECs) in designating conservation importance, based on (1) global conservation status, (2) European threat status and (3) proportion of world range in Europe (From Van Swaay et al. 2009) (‘Threatened’ is one of Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable) Category

Specification

SPEC 1

Of global concern because restricted to Europe and considered globally threatened.

SPEC 2

Global distribution concentrated in Europe, and considered threatened in Europe.

SPEC 3

Global distribution not concentrated in Europe, but considered threatened in Europe.

SPEC 4

4a

Global distribution restricted to Europe but not considered threatened either globally or in Europe.

4b

Global distribution concentrated in Europe, but not considered threatened either globally or in Europe.

resources) that emerge if we remain committed to single species focus alone. However, from wider considerations of the ecology of European butterflies, several general principles of wide importance emerge (Settele et al. 2009: Table 2). These emphasise the fundamental roles of habitat conservation, including supply of critical resources, the needs to foster conservation in anthropogenic areas - particularly agroecosystems and urban areas and to increase education and support for this, with care not to overgeneralise in any context. Some of

Table 2. Factors that may help guide conservation of butterflies, based on the European fauna (after Settele et al. 2009). Butterflies in modern landscapes cannot survive without active management. Traditional management practices have been (and still are) the driving force for the evolution of plant and animal communities of European ecosystems. A recurrent pattern of dependence on early successional stages is evident. Continuation of natural disturbance (exemplified by landslides, avalanches, outbreaks of defoliating insects, animal grazing) is critical. Many remaining sites are too small for sustaining populations of specialised species, so increased connectivity may be critical for long-term survival. When remnant habitats remain small and isolated (as for many species) management must adopt a mosaic (patchy) approach. Where large habitat areas occur, management should also be mosaic, but to create networks of different land use regimes and intensities. Indirect effects on sites important, in addition to direct alterations. Agri-environment schemes are vital and should target resources needed by wildlife. Support programmes for these need to increase consideration of needs of biodiversity, rather than just expediency. Urban areas are also a primary focus for the future. Avoid unified prescriptions.

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these are important pointers toward wider strategy, involving both landscapes and politicoscapes. Agricultural ecosystems present multiple opportunities for both, such as mosaic management to incorporate conservation needs, together with offsets and trading policy modifications (New 2005; Samways 2007). Achieving any of this necessitates goodwill and demonstration of the benefits, together with inducements for change (such as offset rewards, direct financial compensations, evidence of tangible uses such as pest suppression by conservation biological control, and so on). Multiple examples within the same taxonomic group, such as the European butterflies, (1) help to demonstrate the real scale of need for conservation action; (2) lead toward key general ecological and management themes; (3) increase the difficulties of selection or triage; and (4) lead to increased taxonomic imbalance in assuring invertebrate representation on conservation agendas. Working with ‘what we know’ or ‘what we like’ is both appealing and pragmatic, but may not be enough. It is necessary to capitalize on such ‘well-known’ groups as effectively as possible to promote conservation awareness, and - in that example - using our knowledge of European butterflies as an educational avenue may provide greater collective benefits than insisting on a broader taxonomic array of invertebrates on any local directory - especially when we know virtually nothing about those additional taxa. One major lesson for strategy development results from the disappearance of many butterfly populations from nature reserves in Britain, despite early confidence that they could thrive indefinitely on small (10–100 ha) areas. As noted above, securing a site is not alone sufficient, and the key to preventing loss is fine-scale, information-based management. Butterflies have massive importance for conservation policy, likely to persist, as a flagship group of terrestrial insects, with the plight and treatment of European species serving as models for much of the rest of the world. As a ‘stand-alone’ group, they have potency, with potential to compile suites of specific umbrellas for a variety of ecosystems and places without need to invoke less sensitive vertebrates in this role. Few scientists, I think, would disagree that some priority might be accorded within invertebrates to those that give us sound and subtle information on environmental changes and condition (New 1993) - or

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Table 3. Some criteria that may be useful to select invertebrate groups as priorities in conservation, as ‘tools’ in wider environmental assessment (variously as indicators, flagships, umbrella groups and keystones) (after New 1993). Taxonomy well-known (species recognisable and namable). High diversity (collective responses to environmental changes). Geographically widespread (collective benefits and experience across similar taxa in various places). Abundant/dominant (sufficiently accessible for realistic information). Accessible to standard sampling (can detect responses). Ecology understood (can interpret responses). Occupy key ecological roles (functionally definable, justify use pragmatically) Habitat specific (sufficiently circumscribed for responses to be relatively specific). Respond to changes in environment (increased values as indicators or monitoring tools). Engender public sympathy (advocacy, overcome perception barrier by demonstrated values).

that are keystone species, effective flagship or umbrella species or simply have political and educational value from ‘rarity’ alone. The categories of relative factors (New 1993: Table 3) may augment the generalities suggested above for European butterflies. Despite cautions (see Simberloff 1998) I do not believe we can afford to abandon some focus on individual species in developing invertebrate conservation strategies, but in many contexts the principles of triage - whether based on taxonomy, habitat, ecological role, extent of threat, or other, may need to be subsumed progressively in favour of wider issues. Knowledge and understanding of distributions, biology and systematics will remain highly incomplete, and invertebrate conservationists cannot be persistent apologists for this. An ‘impediment’ can so easily be also an ‘opportunity’ but strategies must heed major practical issues whilst acknowledging the importance of those minutiae in a (non-realistic) ideal world. Focusing on our ignorance, rather than what we do know, weakens our advocacy considerably. Issues include not preparing superficial individualised conservation plans for each of the vast numbers of threatened species that we do not understand adequately - these are rarely competitive for the limited funding or other support available, and simply acknowledging their threat status formally (such as on a widely available advisory list) may accord the same notoriety. Wider plans for either better-known taxonomic groups (e.g. carabids or weta in New Zealand, Maculinea butterflies in Europe, selected Harpalus ground beetles in Britain), or ecological arrays (e.g. saproxylic insects) give initial wider focus and reveal possible generalities or

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common features across constituent species, as well as signaling their importance. Agreement on a suite of focal groups for such treatments, with a well-defined common approach, to include practical milestones and monitoring criteria against SMART objectives, would be invaluable. The ‘Globenet initiative’ (Niemela et al. 2000) was planned to document the urban-rural transitions of carabid beetle assemblages in different parts of the world, for example, but parallels have not proliferated. Standard approaches are difficult to promote - standardised sampling protocols have been proposed for ants (Agosti et al. 2001), but lack of widespread common approaches to evaluation render inter-site and international comparisons of richness and numerical trends almost impossible. For most invertebrates, we simply do not know specifically whether they have ecological ‘importance’, and what the consequences of their demise might be. Collectively, these are the ‘meek inheritors’ (New 2000), often taxonomically orphaned and ecologically neglected, and to which we pay token ethical acknowledgement whilst also being largely helpless to conserve them other than by generalised biotope security as an anticipated umbrella effect. This is usually without assurance that any such areas can be managed for successional maintenance or be resilient to climate change. Most of these species cannot be promoted individually or effectively on ecological importance, even though this is often considerable. Many soil invertebrates play ecological roles that are significant and pivotal in sustaining the ecosystems in which they participate and, as Wall et al. (2001) put it ‘We do know that soil and sediment communities perform functions that are critical for the future of the ecosystems as a whole, although the role of biodiversity in the processes is poorly understood’ (p. 114), coupled with ‘The public is generally unaware of the essential ecosystem services provided by subsurface organisms’ (p. 115). Similar comments could be made for many other aspects of invertebrate ecology, encompassing many taxonomic groups. Many commentators on development of conservation biology over the last few decades (in part summarised in Soulé & Orians 2001) have repeatedly noted a number of themes that are essential to consider - some born of need, others more of frustration and that would be more tangential to core conservation practice. Janzen’s (1997) essay on what conservation biologists

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do not need to know helps to emphasise the need for clear focus. Precise documentation of biodiversity may indeed be distractive, for example. The embracing themes listed by Soulé & Orians, together with reviewing progress since the earlier account by Soulé & Kohm (1989), reveal the many persistent gaps in coverage. Progress might be demonstrated more effectively through smaller scale operations, so that the individual tactics of a concerted strategy have massive political value once demonstrated successful.

COMPLEMENTARITY Many sites, across a wide array of ecosystems, have been signaled as having especial conservation importance. These are either general hotspots (Myers et al. 2002), or much more finely delimited areas of value for conservation of particular groups of organisms. They thereby parallel the Butterfly Priority Sites for Europe, but establish a framework of readily acknowledged importance - for birds in particular. Ramsar wetlands, for example, are distributed very widely, and many have considerable importance also for aquatic invertebrates. Moves to include dragonfly conservation (Moore 1997) within the aegis of these reserves are perhaps a priority in helping to overcome the additional logistic restrictions that more obviously independent moves would create. Another example is Birdlife International’s global network of ‘Important Bird Areas’ (IBAs), designated as sites of critical conservation value or that support key species. Their advantages are that, at least for birds, sites can be managed as single units, but combined with limited species-specific conservation where needed. They vary greatly in size, and can collectively cover all relevant ecosystems. Australia’s 314 recently designated IBAs, for example, include examples of most biotopes across the country, together with important island sites, all initiated under a strong support network (Birds Australia) likely to assure continuing interest. More broadly, the UK ‘Sites of Special Scientific Interest’ incorporate individual and occasionally broader invertebrate values. For any of these categories, additional conservation values, including those of notable invertebrate species or communities, might enhance conservation interest. However, if we seek to incorporate invertebrate 2040

conservation into such established initiatives for birds or other organisms, we need to assess carefully what compromises and compatibilities are really possible, particularly in relation to need for any different scales of management. Insects pose different conservation problems to birds in Europe, for example (Thomas 1995), with their needs affecting management. Climate may influence insect distributions far more than those of birds, but a major contrast is that many insects with ecologically specialised needs are often associated with ephemeral successional stages - so that a small patch of habitat/biotope at present suitable may remain so for no more than a decade or so, and often considerably less. Further, restricted dispersal capability may prevent many insects colonising nearby habitat patches as they become suitable, even when these are only a few hundred metres away. In the past, it seems that sensitivity to temperature by many insects may not have been acknowledged sufficiently in conservation planning. Many insects in Britain now depend on traditional farming or forestry practices to maintain suitable conditions, simply because these practices may regenerate early succession at intervals of only a few years. Whilst Thomas’ inferences were largely from studies on butterflies, Moore (1997) noted the importance for dragonflies of habitats outside formal protected areas, and the importance of landscape features is now a central plank in insect conservation advocacy (Samways 2007). Offsets and direct financial subsidies or incentives as tactics to gain sympathetic management of private lands are becoming varied. ‘Value-adding’ for wider conservation benefit takes many forms, but it is still rare for invertebrate conservation to drive major conservation endeavours and thereby become the major benefactors for communities that also include sensitive vertebrate species. In south eastern Australia, the endangered Golden Sun-moth (Synemon plana, Castniidae) is one of a trio of flagship species viewed as critical foci for threatened native grasslands - the three are publicised as ‘a legless lizard, an earless dragon, and a mouthless moth’ but Synemon is accorded at least the same significance as the two reptiles. Perhaps only the most notable invertebrates can be useful in such roles, and in situations where novelty value also persists, in which they can be garnered for political advantage. The world’s largest butterfly (Queen

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Alexandra’s Birdwing, Ornithoptera alexandrae) is a notable example, for highly vulnerable primary forest communities in Papua New Guinea (New 2007, 2011, for background). The ubiquity of invertebrates gives them considerable importance in conservation of particularly restricted or vulnerable habitats - as well as forests and grasslands as above, partulid snails on Pacific islands, dragonflies in wetlands, and a variety of arthropods in caves are simply further examples from an endless possible array.

TARGETS AND TOOLS? The dual foci of invertebrate conservation based on conservation of individual focal taxa (targets), however these are selected, and wider values in ecological assessment or other human terms (tools) will assuredly continue. The balance between these will also continue to be flexible and reflect local needs and complexity. Any single strategy developed cannot therefore be universal or comprehensive, and this reality - even if it appears defeatist - must be accepted as a practical working guide. A number of fields of practical conservation interest that may help progress and integration can be specified, but the major themes of increased education, awareness of need, and appreciation of ecological importance as benefits that cannot be costed fully in dollars, are more difficult to convey. They are the foundation of capitalising on whatever biological knowledge is available but, without that advocacy and acceptance, any science-based strategy is likely to fail. Not least, the needs to transcend political boundaries, to harmonise human needs for land use and resources with adequate conservation, and secure a full range of representative habitats with provision for future changes for biodiversity conservation include both pragmatic compromise and ethical integrity, and many such decisions are deficient without inclusion of invertebrates. It is difficult to decide whether our capability for such wide-ranging strategy design has really improved over recent decades. In common with much other conservation practice (SoulĂŠ & Orians 2001), progress has been made, but central problems continue to dominate. In part, this reflects that the embracing themes are indeed broad, so that tangible progress may

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be assessed more easily from smaller scale approaches - for which invertebrates afford many examples of ecological specialisation, endemism, distribution (etc.) which draw attention to this need for detail to be included within wider strategic moves. A successful strategy must be capable of implementation and assessment, rather than simply remaining as a design document based on unrealistic demands. Initial considerations include (1) existing plans for any focal species, biotope or site, or similar ones from which information can be derived, and (2) how to integrate or augment these for wider benefits, once these have been defined. The full range of interested stakeholders (community, authority, science) should be involved from the initial stages, and continue to be represented on the management team - many plans have in the past failed through not heeding the interests of important community or other constituency groups whose interests are affected by the process. Many strategies initially have narrow focus, because they are stimulated by local issues, but it is pertinent to consider the widest relevant geographical scope from the outset, and how any local strategy may be broadened in effects. The MacMan project, for the five species of large blue butterflies (Maculinea) in Europe, integrated many local conservation interests into a continent-wide approach. Almost a hundred papers across its major themes presented at a recent symposium (Settele et al. 2005) demonstrated the advances and consolidation of knowledge and practice that can occur from such breadth of focus.

POINTERS TO STRATEGY Ad hoc conservation plans may prove excellent investments in many cases but alone can never fill the wider needs for invertebrate conservation. Successes gained are important demonstrations of what can be done, and vital for effective advocacy as case histories for education. Few, however, have been costed adequately (or, at least, have furnished such details for public scrutiny), and almost all have a strong component of volunteer support as a key contributor to success. Further review of species management plans may further aid detection of the common themes needed, and how accountability may differ under different governing authorities (New 2009).

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The scope of the exercise must be clear from the start, with clear definition of the objectives and synopses of the actions proposed, preferably in SMART terms (New 2009). A clear sequential process exists for this, whatever scale is anticipated. Either for an individual plan or a wider strategy, careful planning at the outset may pay dividends. Among these, an objective appraisal of what may be gained, and also of what may be lost, through a wider perspective is wise, together with a frank appraisal of the influences of the compromises that may be needed. For example, evaluation of threats for a snail or beetle may be very different in scale than to a bird or mammal in the same area, and ameliorative micromosaic management may become more difficult to pursue. ‘Smart decision making’, as discussed by Possingham et al. (2001), is critical but - as they pointed out - few protocols exist for answering even very basic questions in conservation management, and perhaps nowhere less so than for invertebrates. Those protocols that have been suggested may be based on single cases rather than on a replicated suite, and on results whose causes are not fully understood. With insect translocations, for example, we often do not know why any particular exercise succeeds or fails, often simply because the outcome is not monitored in sufficient detail (Oates & Warren 1990). Despite increasing awareness of needs for invertebrate conservation, and substantial attempts to ‘accentuate the positive and eliminate the negative’, many of the basic points that have arisen have yet to become established firmly or consistently on political agendas. Yen & Butcher (1997) noted the perception impediments for invertebrates that arise from (1) small size, equated commonly with insignificance; (2) high diversity and abundance, associated with difficulty of study and with lack of vulnerability; (3) adverse publicity associated with pests, nuisances and general antagonists to human interests; (4) entomophobia; (5) their being ‘a low form of life’; and (6) innate reluctance to understand them. The last two points, among those discussed by Kellert (1993) are commonly overlooked but important influences and, as Yen & Butcher emphasised, many of these impediments are encountered by people in early childhood; they are amongst the most important ‘negatives’ to be eliminated. Conservation measures and advocacy for the Elephant Dung Beetle (Circellium bacchus) in 2042

South Africa have helped to change the perspective for elephants emphasised by Poole & Thomsen (1989), and similar examples are becoming more frequent. A successful strategy is one that works! Knowledge and experience are ‘positives’, but it is all-too-easy to get distracted by research that is of fundamental scientific interest and value but may not directly focus on conservation. Many conservation biologists wish primarily to ‘do science’, and can run risks of losing touch with managers whose priorities are founded in a different perspective. A strategy cannot be based on ex cathedra statements: invertebrate conservation biologists and other scientists are not simply talking to their peers, but to the global constituency of people whose interest and livelihood are affected by management decisions. Strategies should ideally be based in truly cooperative endeavour toward realistic agreed objectives, in a cultural environment in which invertebrates do not have to be rescued from political and conservation oblivion. Perhaps the biggest question to address here is whether invertebrate species-level conservation has serious place in future conservation strategy. With the very real and continuing scientific and logistic difficulties, would invertebrates indeed be served better as passengers under any wider umbrella endeavours to which greater support could then be given? If this approach were adopted, could benefits to invertebrates even be measured? Proponents of not focusing specifically on invertebrates are commonly those who dismiss them as ‘too difficult’ or ‘too numerous’; their supporters tend to emphasise the subtle differences in biology and resource uses flowing from ecological and taxonomic variety, some citing values as ‘indicators’ in various contexts. Both recognise the intrinsic difficulties of advocacy and garnering effective support on any wide basis, and the ethical dilemmas that arise from simply ignoring such major components of Earth’s biodiversity. I would urge that we continue to benefit from the understanding of individual species conservation programmes spanning a substantial variety of invertebrate life forms and life styles, to facilitate their participation in wider conservation agendas, and to accept that an important component of our job is to make such strategy work. Careful consideration of the issues noted in this essay, and debate over their worth and feasibility, may contribute to this end.

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REFERENCES Agosti, D., J.D. Majer, L.E. Alonso & T.D. Schultz (eds) (2001). Ants. Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 280pp. Botterill, M.C., L.N. Joseph, J. Carwardine, M. Bode, C. Cook, E.T. Game, H. Grantham, S. Kark, S. Linke, E. McDonald-Madden, R.L. Pressey, S. Walker, K.A. Wilson & H.P. Possingham (2008). Is conservation triage just smart decision making? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23: 649–654. Collins, N.M. (1987). Legislation to Conserve Insects in Europe. London, Amateur Entomologist’s Society, 80pp. Dennis, R.L.H., T.G. Shreeve & H. Van Dyck (2006). Habitats and resources: the need for a resource-based definition to conserve butterflies. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1943–1968 Hanski, I. (2005). The Shrinking World: Ecological Consequences of Habitat Loss. Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany: International Ecology Institute, 307pp. Haslett, J.R. (1998). Suggested Additions to the Invertebrate Species Listed in Appendix II of the Bern Convention. Final Report to the Council of Europe, Strasbourg. Haslett, J.R. (2007). European Strategy for the Conservation of Invertebrates. Nature and Environment No 145. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 91pp. Janzen, D.H. (1997). Wildland biodiversity management in the tropics, pp. 411–432. In: Reaka-Kudla, M.L., D.E. Wilson & E.O. Wilson (eds.). Biodiversity II. Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources. Washington DC,Joseph Henry Press. Kellert, S.R. (1993). Values and perceptions of invertebrates. Conservation Biology 7: 845–855. Moore, N.W. (1997). Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Dragonflies. Gland and Cambridge, IUCN, 28pp. Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, S.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. da Fonseca & J. Kent (2002). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858. New, T.R. (1991). The doctor’s dilemma: or ideals, attitudes and practicality in insect conservation. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 30: 91–108. New, T.R. (1993). Angels on a pin: dimensions of the crisis in invertebrate conservation. American Zoologist 33: 623– 630. New, T.R. (2000). How to conserve the ‘meek inheritors’. Journal of Insect Conservation 4: 151–152. New, T.R. (2005). Invertebrate Conservation and Agricultural Ecosystems. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 354pp. New, T.R. (2007). Broadening benefits to insects from wider conservation agendas, pp. 301–321. In: Stewart, A.J.A., T.R. New & O.T. Lewis (eds.). Insect Conservation Biology. Wallingford, CABI. New, T.R. (2009). Insect Species Conservation. Cambridge,

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Cambridge University Press, 256pp. New, T.R. (2011). Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(6): 1805-1817. Niemela, J., J. Kotze, A. Ashworth, P. Brandmayr, K. Desender, T. New, L. Penev, M. Samways & J. Spence (2000). The search for common anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity: a global network. Journal of Insect Conservation 4: 3–9. Nieto, A. & K.N.A. Alexander (2010). European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles. Gland, IUCN/ Luxembourg, European Union Publications Office, 56pp. Oates, M.R. & M.S. Warren (1990). A review of Butterfly Introductions in Britain and Ireland. Godalming, Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Insects and Worldwide Fund for Nature, 96pp. Parr, M.J., L. Bennun, T. Boucher, T. Brooks, C.A. Chutas, E. Dinerstein, G.M. Drummond, G. Eken, G. Fenwick, M. Foster, J.E. Martinez-Gomez, R. Mittermeier & S. Molur (2009). Why we should aim for zero extinctions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24: 181. Poole, J.H. & J.B.Thomsen (1989). Elephants are not beetles: implications of the ivory trade for the survival of the African elephant. Oryx 23: 188–198. Possingham, H.P., S.J. Andelman, B.R. Noon, S. Trombulak & H.R. Pulliam (2001). Making smart conservation decisions, pp. 225–244. In: Soulé, M.E. & G.H. Orians (eds.). Conservation Biology. Research Priorities for the Next Decade. Washington, Island Press. Riservato, E., J.P. Boudot, S. Ferreira, M. Jovič, V.J. Kalkman, W. Schneider, B. Samraoui & A. Cuttelod (comp.) (2009). Status and Distribution of Dragonflies of the Mediterranean Basin. Gland and Malaga, IUCN, vii+33pp. Samways, M.J. (2007). Insect conservation: a synthetic management approach Annual Review of Entomology 52: 465–487 Sands, D.P.A. & T.R. New (2003). Coordinated invertebrate surveys in Australia’s National Parks: an important tool in refining invertebrate conservation management. Records of the South Australian Museum, Supplementary series 7: 203–207. Settele, J., J. Dover, M. Dolek & M. Konvicka, M. (2009). Butterflies of European ecosystems: impact of land use and options for conservation management. pp. 353–370. In: Settele, J., T. Shreeve , M. Konvicka & H. van Dyck (eds.). Ecology of Butterflies in Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Simberloff, D. (1998). Flagships, umbrellas and keystones: is single-species management passé in the landscape era? Biological Conservation 83: 247–257. Soulé, M. & K.A. Kohm (eds) (1989). Research Priorities for Conservation Biology. Washington DC, Island Press, 97pp. Soulé, M.E. & G.H. Orians (eds) (2001). Conservation Biology. Research Priorities for the Next Decade. Washington DC, Island Press, 328pp.

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Thomas, J.A. (1995). Why small cold-blooded insects pose different conservation problems to birds in modern landscapes. Ibis 137 (supplement): 112–119. Van Swaay, C. & M.S. Warren (1999). Red Data Book of European Butterflies (Rhopalocera). Nature and Environment No 99. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 260pp. Van Swaay, C. & M.S. Warren (2003). Prime Butterfly Areas in Europe: Priority Sites for Conservation. Wageningen, National Reference Centre for Agriculture, 690pp. Van Swaay, C.A.M., D. Maes & M.S. Warren (2009). Conservation status of European butterflies, pp. 322–338 in Settele, J., T. Shreeve T, M. Konvicka & H. van Dyck (eds.).

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Ecology of Butterflies in Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Wall, D.H., P.V.R. Snelgrove & A.P. Covich (2001). Conservation priorities for soil and sediment invertebrates. pp. 99–123. In: Soulé,, M.E. & G.H. Orians (eds). Conservation Biology. Research Priorities for the Next Decade. Washington DC, Island Press. Wells, S.M., R.M. Pyle & N.M. Collins (1983). The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 632pp. Yen, A. & R. Butcher (1997). An Overview of the Conservation of Non-marine Invertebrates in Australia. Canberra: Environment Australia, 346pp.

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JoTT Communication

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Key to the larval stages of common Odonata of Hindu Kush Himalaya, with short notes on habitats and ecology Hasko Nesemann 1, Ram Devi Tachamo Shah 2 & Deep Narayan Shah 3 Centre for Environmental Science, Central University of Bihar, BIT Campus, Patna, Bihar 800014, India Hindu Kush Himalayan Benthological Society, Kausaltar, Nepal. P.O. Box: 20791, Sundhara, Kathmandu, Nepal 3 Senckenberg Research Institutes and Natural History Museums, Department of Limnology and Nature Conservation, Clamecystrasse 12, D-63571, Gelnhausen, Germany. Email: 1 hnesemann2000@yahoo.co.in, 2 ramdevishah@hkhbenso.org (corresponding author), 3 Deep-Narayan.Shah@senckenberg.de 1 2

Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K.A. Subramanian Manuscript details: Ms # o2759 Received 11 April 2011 Final received 22 July 2011 Finally accepted 11 August 2011 Citation: Nesemann, H., R.D.T. Shah & D.N. Shah (2011). Key to the larval stages of common Odonata of Hindu Kush Himalaya, with short notes on habitats and ecology. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2045–2060. Copyright: © Hasko Nesemann, Ram Devi Tachamo Shah & Deep Narayan Shah 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author Details: Hasko Nesemann, Ram Devi Tachamo Shah & Deep Narayan Shah are aquatic ecologists. They are specialized in aquatic macroinvertebrates diversity with a keen interest in freshwater ecology, biogeography, conservation, and ecological water quality monitoring. Author Contribution: HN, RDTS and DNS conducted fieldworks and equally contributed in manuscript preparation. HN illustrated the specimens. Acknowledgements: We want to thank Subodh Sharma (Aquatic Ecology Centre, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Kavre, Nepal), Gopal Sharma (Zoological Survey of India, Gangetic Plains Regional Station, Patna, India), and R.K. Sinha (Centre for Environmental Science, Central University of Bihar, Patna, India) for their help in fieldwork.

 

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Abstract: The order Odonata is one of the most widely studied groups among insects from the oriental region. They colonize in both stagnant and running water bodies of wide water quality. Hitherto, the existing literature on the Odonata contained numerous publications with coloured figures of adults, helpful for identification. Identification key with figures on larval stages, using their coloration as distinguishing characters are largely missing. The current work attempts to provide an identification key to aquatic larvae of the most common families of Zygoptera, Anisoptera and Anisozygoptera with colour illustrations. The specimens were collected from Nepal and India (northern part). Each family is represented by several examples to demonstrate the range of morphological variability. This key helps determination of aquatic larvae Odonata up to family level without enormous efforts in field and laboratory. Keywords: Aquatic insect, damselfly, dragonfly, ecology, identification key, India, Nepal.

INTRODUCTION The modern order Odonata is highly diversified with 5,680–5,747 (accepted) extant species, 864 (accepted) extant subspecies and approximately 600 fossil species (Xylander & Günther 2003; Kalman et al. 2008; van Tol 2008). The highest species number is known from the Oriental region which has more than 1,000 species. From India, exactly 499 species were recorded until 2005 by Mitra and 463 species confirmed by Subramanian (2009). Among all the species and subspecies within this geographical limit, the figure or description is known only for 78 taxa (Mitra 2005). For Nepal the number of species and subspecies was previously 172 published by Vick (1989). Later Sharma (1998) listed 202 taxa and Kemp & Butler (2001) added a new species for the country. In Bhutan, Mitra (2006) has published an actualized Odonata list with 31 taxa, to which the occurrence of Epiophlebia laidlawi around Thimpu can be added (Brockhaus & Hartmann 2009). The taxonomy and knowledge of odonates in the Indian subcontinent and in many other parts of the world is largely based on terrestrial adults. There has been an old tradition in publication of very high quality colour figures for each species since the 18th century (Malz & Schröder 1979). In recent years all known Odonata species from the Japanese Archipelago were published by Okudaira et al. (2005) giving colour figures of both the larvae and the adults. Mitra (2003) has provided an updated list of the regional species

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composition for the different ecoregions of the Indian subcontinent. It allows recognition of the local fauna and the possible presence of their aquatic larvae for the Himalayan region. In contrast, the distinction of aquatic odonates from the same territory is poorly known. Even the identification at the family level remains difficult for many Zygoptera (Superfamilies Coenagrionoidea, Lestoidea) and some Anisoptera (Libellulidae vs. Corduliidae). The classification of the order Odonata at the family level is a matter of controversy/ discussion. The number of families recognized by different authors varies largely. The 15 families in St. Quentin & Beier (1967), 27 families in Trueman & Rowe (2001), 56 families in Xylander & Günther (2003) demonstrate the different views. The present study follows the proposed system of Kalkman et al. (2008) with one addition. The Odonata represents 7% among a total of 76,000 freshwater insect species of the world (Balian et al. 2008). Many species have small distributional ranges, and are habitat specialists; including inhabitants of alpine mountain bogs, seepage areas in tropical rain forests, and waterfalls (Kalkman et al. 2008). Larvae are mostly aquatic and predatory in nature. They feed on small odonates, oligochaetes, chironomids,

bettles, bugs, mayflies, molluscs, even tadpoles and small fishes, thus playing a major role in the aquatic ecosystem. The Odonata richness alone occupies a major component in freshwater macroinvertebrate assemblages. This aspect is clearly shown in Fig. 1 based on data sets of 250 macroinvertebrate samples from various studies (Shah 2007; Tachamo 2007; Nesemann 2009; Tachamo 2010). The order Odonata is an ideal model taxon for the investigation of the impact of environmental warming and climate change due to its tropical evolutionary history and adaptations to temperate climates (Hassall & Thompson 2008). Its assemblages are also considered as surrogates for the insect community structure in water bodies, being capable of indicating changes in the biological integrity of these ecosystems (Silva et al. 2010). This can be proven from the newly developed HKHbios scoring (Ofenböck et al. 2010) list for the Hindu Kush Himalayan river system (Fig. 2). The Odonata at family level alone occupy about 11% of the scoring list with tolerance scores ranging from 5 to 10. The objective of the present study is to fill the gap in the knowledge of the odonata larvae and to provide a pictorial catalogue to help in their identification. Here 31 examples from recent collections are presented to

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give their morphological characters as well as live colour. Colour was studied in living materials. Identification characters of odonata larvae Srivastava (1990) highlighted that the aquatic phase of the life cycle comprises eggs, pro-larval and larval stages, and 70–95 % of the whole life span is passed in water. Larvae undergo approximately 10–20 molts (mostly 11–14), over a period of three months (e.g. some Libellulidae) and about 6–10 years (e.g. Epiophlebiidae) depending on the species. One characteristic shared by all Odonata larvae is the conspicuous grasping labium (mask) (Fig. 3 a–c), used for capturing the prey. At rest stage, the labium is held folded underneath the head. During prey-capture, the labium is shot rapidly forward and the prey is grasped with paired hand-like lateral lobes (palps). Form, size and number of mental setae can be used for family or even genus identification but requires a microscope. Even from the above characters and with mask retracted, identification of larvae to suborder and family is very easy, based on several other features. These are namely the apices of abdomen, number and form of caudal gills, presence of abdominal gills, form, size and number of segments of antennae, presence of teeth along the anterior margin of the lateral lobes (palps) of labium (mask) and anal

 

Figure 2. Taxa Tolerance scores of macroinvertebrates in HKHbios Scoring list (Ofenböck et al. 2010) for different taxonomic groups. HKHbios list consists of 139 families from different taxonomic groups for Hindu Kush Himalaya.

Labium

a

Premental Setae

b

c

Palpal Lope Prementum

Postmentum

Figure 3 a–c. Head with labium of Damselfly larvae a - ventral view of Euphaeidae; b - dorsal view of labium of Coenagrionidae showing the premental setae; c - lateral view showing the resting position of labium.

pyramid with length relationship of epiproct, paraprocts and cerci (Fig. 4 a–b). The identification of larvae (nymphs) even to genus, is often difficult because of the fact that morphological differences are so slight (Pennak 1978,

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b

a

Figure 4 a–b. Odonata Morphology [figs. modified from Fraser 1919b (pl. XXXII fig. 3, pl. XXXVI, fig. 3)]. a - dorsal view of Damselfly larva Protoneuridae: Disparoneura spec.; b - dorsal view of Dragonfly larva Libellulidae: Tramea spec.

p. 557). Therefore, keys must be used with great care. The identification of the collected and figured specimens was mainly based on descriptions given for the Odonata fauna of Japan (Kawai 2005; Okudaira et al. 2005), Malaysia (Yule & Hoi Sen 2004), and a few available publications from the western Himalayan region (Kumar 1973; Mitra 2005). The identification result reached in the present study remains mostly at family level. Only in a few cases the genus or species level could be reached.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Study area The study was carried out in various parts of Nepal and the northern part of India (Fig. 5) between 2005 2048

and 2009. The climate in the region varies from humid sub-tropical to temperate with hot summers from March to early June, the monsoon season from mid-June to September and winter from November to February.  There is a dominance of monsoon rainfall pattern with maximum precipitation in the summer. The region is one of the most fertile and densely populated regions of the world. All the illustrated specimens are with the authors’ personal collection. Illustrated catalogue Zygoptera: Chlorocyphidae The medium-sized larvae (Fig. 6) have two forceps-like caudal gills which are triangular in cross section. They inhabit unpolluted, fast running streams and rivers (Fraser 1919a; Kumar & Prasad 1977).

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Figure 6. Chlorocyphidae [fig. taken from Fraser 1919a (fig. No. XXIII), Libellago sp. (syn. Micromerus), length unknown]

 

Figure 5. Major study sites in Nepal and India.

Chlorocyphidae occur from tropical Africa to Australia   with the highest diversity in the Oriental region (Kalkman et al. 2008). The family is represented with 21 species in India (Subramanian 2009) and five have been recorded from Nepal (Sharma 1998) based on adults. Euphaeidae The larvae (Image 1 a–b) are medium-sized to

large and robust with stonefly-like, flattened body form. They have three very large caudal gills that are saccoid. In addition, there are filamentous gills on the underside of abdominal segments II-VIII that are light grey-blue and un-pigmented (Image 1b). These characters allow easy identification of the family in the field. Euphaeidae (and some related families) are distributed from the Mediterranean in the west to Japan b

a

Image 1 a–b. Euphaeidae - Habitat: a - Khimti Khola, central Nepal, length 29.3mm; b - Yangi Khola, Pokhara, western Nepal. Length 21mm. 2049

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in the east. These pollution-sensitive larvae are highly specialized on lotic microhabitats. They are locally common in fast running streams and smaller rivers of the Himalayan middle mountains. They prefer unpolluted waters with low organic load. Usually they are found on the underside of large stones in high water current of riffles and rapids together with large stoneflies of the family Perlidae. Earlier Euphaeidae were often united with other similar forms as families Polythoridae and Epallagidae (Xylander & Günther 2003). Calopterygidae The family is also known as broad-winged Damselflies (Image 2). The larvae of the family has a shorter middle gill than lateral gills that are triangular in cross section without visible veins. Prementum is diamond shaped with deep median cleft. Palpal lobes are deprived of setae. First segment of antenna is longer than or equal to the combined length of the remaining antennal segments. The body size ranges between 30–40 mm. The family has cosmopolitan distribution and contains 171 species worldwide. They are most often found at the edge of streams with slow flowing water. In the study area, they were clinging to root masses and overhung on twigs. Synlestidae The caudal gills of Synlestidae (Image 3) are short, broad and leaf like rounded, with oval apices and a smaller median lobe. Prementum or palps do not hold any setae. The mentum is deeply cleft. The palpal lobes have a long moveable hook and two robust spines. The adults are large, metallic green or bronzeblack damselflies inhabiting in forested streams. A distinct ‘breaking joint’ or area of weakness occurs at the base of each caudal gill. In our study, Synlestidae occurred in pristine rocky mountain streams at an elevation of 1600m. Amphipterygidae (including: Philogangidae) The deeply pigmented aquatic larvae (Image 4) are typical running water species which have a flattened body and bear long 7-segmented antennae. They may be larger than other damselflies and have a stonefly-like appearance. The palpal lobes of the labium have three spines and one movable hook. Their long gills are of 2050

Image 2. Calopterygidae Habitat: Sano Khahare Khola, Maghi gau, central Nepal. Length 38mm.

 

Image 3. Synlestidae ‑ Habitat: Bagmati River, Kathmandu, central Nepal. Length 36.5mm.

saccoid type. They are rare in the  Himalayan region with a few scattered records from Nepal (Kemp & Butler 2001) and northeastern India from Darjeeling to Assam and Meghalaya (Prasad & Varshney 1995). This family includes around 10–12 species of 4–5 genera in the tropical and oriental region. They share generally plesiomorhic characters and might be an ancient relict line within the Zygoptera (Dudgeon 1999; Kalkman

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Image 4. Amphipterygidae Habitat: Poyang, China. length 24.5mm.  

Image 5. Platystictidae Habitat: Jakeshwori Khola, Melamchi, central Nepal. Length 15mm.

et al. 2008, 2010). The genus Philoganga is often   separated as subfamily or family (Subramanian 2009).

Platystictidae The larvae of the Platystictidae family (Image 5) possess more or less saccoid gills as in Euphaeidae, but do not bear any abdominal gills. The palpal lobes of the labium consist one spine and one movable hook. The colour pattern of the body is pale and somewhat

Image 6. Protoneuridae ‑ Habitat: Ghate Khola (Inlet of fishpond), Hetauda, central Nepal. Length: 13mm.

 

spindly with large bulbous eyes. The Platystictidae are widespread in South Asia to Southeast Asia (New Guinea) and are also known from central America and the northern part of South America. The larvae are found in small forested streams. Around 191–213 species are known worldwide (Kalkman et al. 2008; van Tol 2008). Protoneuridae The larvae of this family (Image 6) have twosegmented leaf-like caudal gills of similar shape and length. The gills are clearly divided into a thickened dark proximal portion and a thin, paler distal part. The anterolateral margins of the labial mentum are fringed with tiny teeth. One premental seta is situated on either side of the midline of the mentum. There are three setae on the palpal lobes. This family has delicate aquatic larvae with flattened bodies and relatively long antennae; the long, slender legs are fringed with setae. The posterior margin of the head forms two lateral horn-like extensions, whereas it is smoothly rounded in Coenagrionidae. Protoneuridae have a wide distribution in tropical and subtropical zones but they are insufficiently known and not generally recognized as family by traditional odonatology. Protoneuridae inhabit in a narrow range of slowly running and stagnant waters. The most abundant fauna is found in wetlands and lentic zones

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Image 7. Platycnemididae Habitat: Jagadishpur Reservoir, Lumbini, central Nepal. Length 15mm.

 

of rivers and streams in lowlands and plains. In the study area, they occurred numerously together with Coenagrionidae in submerged macrophytes of ponds, reservoirs and lakes. The general color appearance of the observed larval forms is uniform light yellow brown. The identification of genus- or species level is almost impossible due to the high number of taxa with completely unknown larvae. Platycnemididae The caudal gills of the larvae are very long, their length is approximately the same as the abdomen with apices somewhat pointed or attenuated and inconspicuous tracheal branching (Image 7). The gills are not usually clearly divided into proximal and distal portions. The third segment of antenna is slightly longer than the second. The anterolateral margins of the labial mentum are not toothed. The records of larvae in the study area are rare. The family occurs at elevations ranging from about 200m to 1900m. The figured specimen (Image 7) was found in the littoral section of Jagadishpur reservoir (197m). Coenagrionidae (Synonym: Agrionidae) The larvae have leaf-like caudal gills of similar shape and length. The gills are not usually distinctly divided into proximal and distal portions. The caudal gills are shorter than the abdomen, with rounded apices 2052

and conspicuous tracheal branching. The anterolateral margins of the labial mentum are not toothed and 3-5 premental setae are usually situated on either side of the midline of the mentum. The third segment of antenna is shorter than the second. This family has the highest species number among all Zygoptera with 1,080 taxa and a worldwide distribution. Coenagrionidae (Image 8a–d) inhabit a wide range of running and stagnant waters; the most diversified fauna is found in wetlands and lentic zones of rivers and streams. In the study area, they occurred numerously together with Libellulidae in submerged macrophytes of ponds, reservoirs and lakes. The general color appearance included light yellow brown forms, dark striped forms, and bright green to dark brown forms. The distinction between Coenagrionidae and Protoneuridae is very easy based on the form of head and color but the identification of genus or species level is almost impossible due to the high number of taxa with completely unknown larvae. Anisoptera: Gomphidae The general body shape of Gomphidae (Image 9 a–b) is compact, and elongate with an ovate dorsoventrally flattened abdomen. The legs and often the whole larval body is covered with various types of hairs, setae, and spines. The antennae are foursegmented with the third segment enlarged. The tarsi of the first two pairs of legs are two-segmented. The labial mentum is more or less quadrate and the anterior margin of labial mentum is never cleft. The larvae mostly inhabit running waters and are highly diversified in lowlands at floodplains of large rivers. Worldwide there are more than 966 species known. All Gomphidae are burrowers in sediment. The larvae process various morphological adaptations to different sediment types. Despite their burrowing lifestyle some Gomphidae are very good swimmers too. The larval body of sand and silt (Psammopelal, Pelal) burrower is covered with fine hairs. Living specimens have attracting light greenish colour (Image 9a). They occur in moderately polluted water bodies. In case of fine gravel (akal) burrower, only the legs are covered with fine hairs. The third antenna segment is broadened spooned-shaped (Image 9b). Living specimens have yellow-orange brownish colour. They occur in non/slightly and moderately polluted river

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a

b

 

c

d

 

 

Image 8 a–d: Coenagrionidae – Habitat: a & b - Dhobi Khola near Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, central   Nepal; c - Ghodaghodi Tal, Kailali, far western Nepal; d - Ghate Khola (Inlet of fishpond), Hetauda, central Nepal. Length: (a) 18.2mm; (b) 12.5mm; (c) 14.5mm; (d) 13mm. a

b

 

stretches. The figured specimen (Image 9b) was found in the same habitat of Aphelocheirus spp. (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Aphelocheiridae). Lindeniinae This subfamily (Prasad & Varshney 1995, p. 403) or family (Hawking & Theischinger 1999, p. 25) (Image 10) comprises the genera Sieboldius, Ictinogomphus and Gomphidia in Asia and Australia. Kalkman et al., (2008) does not include Lindeniinae (or Lindeniidae)

Image 9 a–b. Gomphidae - Habitat: (a) Ganga River, right bank at Ghandi Ghat, Patna (Bihar) Northern India; (b) Bijayapur Khola, Pokhara, western Nepal. Length: (a) 21mm; (b)18mm.

 

as a separate taxon. The larvae are very large and robust with circular flattened abdomen. Previously they were placed into the family Gomphidae, but differ in several characters and life style. The labium is enlarged and much broader than in Gomphidae. The colour of the body is dark ochre-brown. Lindeniinae larvae are not sediment-inhabiting; they are exclusive climbers on submerged macrophytes. They colonize large stagnant water bodies and slowly running rivers from lowlands up to 800m. Larva

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Image 10. Lindeniinae Habitat: Phewa Lake wetland, Pokhara, western Nepal. Length: 20.5mm.

was found climbing on submerged macrophytes in a lentic zone of Metapotamon-type (large   river). They were recorded in a moderately polluted water body. It is locally abundant in floating macrophytes, found in Nepal (Phewa Tal wetlands, Begnas Tal effluent) and India (Jharkhand, upper Subernarekha River and Maharashtra, Tahoba wetland), preferring Eichhornia crassipes as substrate. Lindeniidae were already separated from the majority of Gomphidae on subfamily level as Hageniinae by several authors (St. Quentin & Beier 1968, p. 8). More recent publications raise them to family level (Xylander & Günther 2003, p. 141).

a

b

Aeshnidae Aeshnidae larvae (Image 11 a–d) are the largest among odonata reaching more than 5cm length. The larvae are rather elongated with a robust, cylindrical abdomen and very large eyes. The antennae are six or seven-segmented and filamentous. The tarsi of all legs have three segments. The labial mentum is widest in the distal portion and narrowing towards the posterior part with a cleft in the anterior margin. The body surface of the larvae is smooth, without any hairs, setae or bristles. The larval colour display a wide range from light yellow, bright green, ochre brown to dark brownish often with segmentally arranged dark patterns on the dorsal side of the abdomen. Within the family Aeshnidae, the subfamily Anactinae is mainly confined to the Ethiopian and Oriental regions with range extension of some species into the temperate Palearctic. In the Indian subcontinent, they are found sporadically in various undisturbed, natural, slightly and moderately polluted waters. They are nowhere abundant or common and only small numbers of individuals were observed. Cordulegastridae The body of Cordulegastridae larvae (Image 12) is elongate and covered with bristles or tufts of setae. The distal margin of the palpal lobes of labium is with large irregular teeth which interlock with those on the corresponding lobe. The anterior margin of the mentum is cleft. The colour appearance is dominated c

  Image 11 a–d. Aeshnidae - Habitat: a - Gaur municipality pond, Rautahat, central Nepal; b - Punpun River, Gaurichak,   Patna, northern India; c - Khimti Khola, central Nepal; d - Punyamata Khola, Nagarkot hill, central Nepal.   Length (a) 53mm; (b) 10.3mm; (c) 30.5mm; (d) 26.5mm 2054

d

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Image 12. Cordulegastridae ‑ Habitat: Pengul Khola, Sindhupalanchwok, central Nepal. Length: 33.5 mm.

by a dark brown background with some blackish markings, regularly arranged on the   dorsal side of the abdominal segments. The family has a limited distribution range in the Palearctic and Oriental regions. The larvae are crawlers on sand and muddy sediments of fast running cool streams and rivers, especially in the Himalaya. They usually lay half buried in the surface sediment layer and wait for prey. The larvae are pollutionsensitive and demand highly oxygenated water. They are not common and were recorded during the present study only from the upper stretches of small rivers and streams of natural forests above 1500m. Macromiidae The legs of Macromiidae (Image 13) are very long, giving the larvae a “spidery” appearance. The abdomen is depressed and more or less circular in outline. On the head, a small “horn” is present between the antennal bases. The labium bears rather long, regular teeth along the distal margins of the palpal lobes. The family has a worldwide distribution but their occurrence is restricted in the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones except South America. There are approximately 120 species known. They prefer running water with low organic input and are found in slightly to moderately polluted stretches. A few Macromia and Epophthalmia species are recorded from northern India and Nepal (Sharma 1998; Mitra

Image 13. Macromiidae - Habitat: Mahadev Khola, Bhaktapur, central Nepal. Length: 23.5mm.

 

2003). The Macromiidae are recently raised to family level, previously they were placed as subfamily Epophthalmiinae into family Corduliidae. They are frequently recorded from the upper regions of undisturbed forest streams in the Himalayan middle mountains from 800 to 1970 m. The figured specimen might belong to Macromia moorei moorei, which is spread widely over the northern Indian subcontinent. The larvae occur on coarse-grained sand or gravel substrate (Psammal, Akal) deposited behind or under large stones. Corduliidae The larvae of Corduliidae (Image 14 a–b) resemble Libellulidae, but their size is usually larger and the body is more firm than the latter ones. Their legs are rather short and the apex of the femur does not extend beyond abdominal segment VIII. The abdomen is not markedly depressed or circular in outline. The cerci are generally more than one-half as long as paraprocts. The total number of species is 255 worldwide; in Asia the family is less represented. Historically, there was no clear distinction between the three families Libellulidae, Corduliidae and Macromiidae. They all were placed into a single family Libellulidae. More recently fundamental characters of the anal pyramid allow distinguishing larvae. In Corduliidae, the length of cerci exceeds always more than half as long as epiproct, whereas in Libellulidae the length of cerci is less than half as long as epiproct (Okudaira et al. 2005, p. 360). They were rarely collected in the study area from slowly running stretches of stream and river

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a

b

Image 14 a–b: Corduliidae - Habitat: a - Dhobi Khola near Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, central Nepal; b - Ghate Khola (Inlet of fishpond), Hetauda, central Nepal. Length: (a) 26.3mm; (b) 22mm.

  with moderate to heavy pollution. It is not possible to recognize and separate them in the field from Libellulidae; proper identification can be only done in a laboratory with a microscope.

Libellulidae The larvae (Image 15 a–g) are minute to mediumsized and have a delicate comparatively soft body. Their legs are rather short and the apex of the femur does not extend beyond abdominal segment VIII. The abdomen is not markedly depressed or circular in outline. The cerci generally are not more than onehalf as long as paraprocts. The family Libellulidae, the largest family of Anisoptera has a cosmopolitan distribution with more than 970–1,012 described species. The larvae are very similar in appearance and shape to Corduliidae but differ by their anal pyramid. In Libellulidae, the length of the cerci is less than half as long as epiproct. Body colour of the different species may cover a wide range from bright yellow, light greenish to dark brown. Larvae are usually very abundant in all types of stagnant waters and are able to colonize successfully even in small water bodies with low oxygen where other odonates cannot survive. Anisozygoptera: Epiophlebiidae The larvae are somewhat slender and elongate; with a slight petiolation at the base of the wing pad. The minute and very short antennae are with five 2056

 

segments. The larval body is very hard and firm covered with tubercles, but lacking any bristles. The family is extremely rare with isolated discontinuous relict distribution in Japan and the Himalaya only. The family is certainly recorded from Mesozoic onwards (Nel & Jarzembowski 1996). There are only two extant species, regarded as ‘living fossils’. Epiophlebia superstes are recorded only from Japan while Epiophlebia laidlawi are recorded from the Himalayan regions of Bhutan, India and Nepal. The life cycle of the Epiophlebia superstes is better known, including adults, terrestrial phase, and egg deposition; adults of E. laidlawi are not yet found. The larvae are limited on natural upper regions of fast running forest streams with good water quality. Small larvae prefer rapids and riffles with embedded stream bottom; they are highly pollution-sensitive and live only in Epirhithron- to Metarhithron-type of biocoenotic zone (Nesemann et al. 2008, 2011). The young larvae (Image 16a) differ markedly in dorsal colour, having dark pigmentation only on abdominal segments 2 to 5, and 9. Large larvae have generally brownish or nearly blackish appearance with dorsal metameric pattern on abdomen (Image 16b). The distinguishing of male and female individuals by the presence of ovipositor is only possible for larger larvae from 8mm body length onwards (Nesemann et al. 2008, 2011).

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a

b

 

e

c

 

 

f

d

 

g

Image 15 a–g. Libellulidae - Habitat: a - Cha Khola (irrigation channel), Kuntabesi, central Nepal; b - Nagdaha pond, Lalitpur, central Nepal; c - Kumhrar park, “Bivalvia” pond, Patna, northern India; d - Taudaha Lake, Kirtipur, central Nepal; e - Kumhrar park, “Phoenix” pond, Patna, northern India; f & g - spring pools in Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, central Nepal. Length (a) 24mm; (b) 11.5mm; (c) 12.2mm; (d) 12.5mm; (e) 13.8mm; (f) 18mm; (g) 18mm.

 

a

b

 

Image 16 a–b. Epiophlebiidae (Epiophlebia laidlawi) - Habitat: a - Sim; b - Simbhanjyang Khola, Daman, central Nepal. Length: (a) 8.6mm; (b) 23mm.

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References

Figure 7. Lestidae [fig. taken: Kawai 1985: 62 (fig. no. 3a), Lestes sp. (length unknown)]

TAXONOMIC KEY

 

The order Odonata can be divided into two distinct groups or suborders: Damselflies (Zygoptera) and Dragonflies (Anisoptera). Damselflies larvae are usually more slender than dragonflies and their abdomen terminates in three caudal filaments (gills) resembling leaves. Dragonflies larvae are much more robust with an abdomen terminating in five points consisting of a pair of cerci, a pair of paraprocts, and a single epiproct. In both damselflies and dragonflies, the shape of the lower lip (labium) can be a diagnostic character for separating families. The shape of antennal segments is also an important character in identification of odonates.

Balian, E.V., H. Segers, C. Le´v`eque & K. Martens (2008). The freshwater animal diversity assessment: an overview of the results. Hydrobiologia 595: 627–637. Brockhaus, T. & A. Hartmann (2009). New records of Epiophlebia laidlawi Tillyard in Bhutan, with notes on its biology, ecology, distribution, zoogeography and threat status (Anisozygoptera: Epiophlebiidae). Odonatologica 38(3): 203–215. Dudgeon, D. (1999). Tropical Asian Streams: Zoobenthos, Ecology and Conservation. Hong Kong University Press, HKU, 291–316pp. Fraser, F.C. (1919a).The larva of Micromerus lineatus Burm. Records of the Indian Museum 16: 197–198+Pls 23. Fraser, F.C. (1919b). Descriptions of New Indian Odonate Larvae and Exuviae. Records of the Indian Museum 16: 459–467+Pls 32-37. Hawking, J. & G. Theischinger (1999). Dragonfly Larvae (Odonata): A Guide to The Identification of Larvae of Australian Families and to the Identification and Ecology of Larvae from New South Wales. Identification guide (Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology (Australia) No. 24, New South Wales, 240pp. Hassall, C. & D.J. Thompson (2008). The effects of environmental warming on Odonata: a review. International Journal of Odonatology 11(2): 131–153. Kalkman V.J., V. Clausnitzer, K.D.B. Dijkstra, A.G. Orr, D.R. Paulson & J. van Tol (2008). Global diversity of dragonflies (Odonata) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 351–363. Kalkman V.J., Choong, C.Y,, A.G Orr & K. Schütte (2010). Remarks on the taxonomy of Megapodagrionidae with emphasis on the larval gills (Odonata). International Journal of Odonatology 13: 119–135. Kawai, T. (ed.) (1985). An Illustrated Book of Aquatic Insects of Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, viii+409pp (Reprint from 2001). Kawai, T. & K. Tanida (2005). Aquatic Insects of Japan: Manual with Keys and Illustrations. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, 1342pp. Kemp, K.G. & S.G. Butler (2001). Some Dragonfly records from Phewa Tal, Pokhara, Nepal with notes on Philoganga

Key to Odonata suborders

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1.

Larvae slender, head wider than thorax and abdomen; abdomen terminating in three long caudal leaf-or sac-like gills (these gills are fragile and are sometimes broken off and lost)... Zygoptera (Damselflies)

2.

Abdomen rather short and stout, lacking caudal gills; head usually narrower than thorax and abdomen; five short stiff, pointed appendages at tip of abdomen ending in five points; the three largest of which form an ‘anal pyramid’ …......................................................................................…Anisoptera (Dragonflies)

3.

Larvae stout, elongate with a slight petiolation at the base of the wing pad; antennae with five segments; body covered with tubercles, but lacking bristles, body firm; extremely rare and restricted in the Himalayas (Nepal, India and Bhutan)……................................................…...Anisozygoptera (Relict Dragonflies): one family with one species: Epiophlebiidae (Epiophlebia laidlawi) (Image 16 a&b) Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | September 2011 | 3(9): 2045–2060


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Key to Zygoptera Families

1. Two forceps-like caudal gills (the median gill is minute) which are triangular in cross section………. ....... ................................................................................................................ ..............Chlorocyphidae (Fig. 6) - Three caudal gills that are sac-, leaf-, or blade-like………...............................................………….……..2

2. Filamentous gills on the underside of abdominal segments II-VIII…......... ………… ………………… …… ……… ……..............................................................................................……..Euphaeidae (Image 1 a-b) - No filamentous gills on the underside of abdominal segments II-VIII …...................................................3

3. First antennal segment longer than the combined length of subsequent segments; anterior margin has a well-developed median cleft ..…………............................................................. Calopterygidae (Image 2) - First antennal segment much shorter than the combined length of subsequent segments..... ....... .. .....4

4. Labium distinctly spoon-shaped and strongly tapered posteriorly ………….……………...Lestidae (Fig. 7) - Labium quadrate or more or less triangular in shape, with palpal lobes bearing moveable hooks or spines at the tips, and lacks setae on the mentum or palpal lobes…………..............………....................5 - Labium with setae on the mentum or palpal lobes………………...............................................................8 5. Gills leaf-like with rounded apices…………..............................................................Synlestidae (Image 3) - Gills more or less saccoid……………………….............................................…………..............................6

6. Delicate aquatic larvae with flattened bodies and relatively long antennae; long, slender legs fringed with setae…….......................................................................................................................................... 7 7. Larvae may be large and deeply pigmented; palpal lobes of the labium with three spines and one movable hook ……..............…......…………………Amphipterygidae (including: Philogangidae) (Image 4) - Pale, somewhat spindly larvae with large bulbous eyes; palpal lobes of the labium with a single spine and one movable hook…..................................................................................…..Platystictidae (Image 5) 8. Gills clearly divided into a thickened dark proximal portion and a thin, paler distal part; one premental seta is situated on either side of the midline of the mentum; anterolateral margins of the labial mentum fringed with tiny teeth ……...........…………………………….....…………………Protoneuridae (Image 6) - Gills not usually clearly divided into proximal and distal portions; anterolateral margins of the labial mentum are not toothed; usually more than one premental seta on either side of the midline of the mentum….............................................................................................................................…............... 9 9. Caudal gills long (approximately the same length as the abdomen); third segment of antenna longer than the second...............................................................................................Platycnemididae (Image 7) - Caudal gills shorter than the abdomen; third segment of antenna shorter than the second; 3-5 premental setae are usually situated on either side of the midline of the mentum…................................ ................................................................................................................. Coenagrionidae (Image 8 a-d) Key to Anisoptera Families 1. Labial mentum or palpal lobes more or less flat; without setae on the mentum or (usually) the palpal lobes ....................................................................................................................................................... 2 - Labial mentum or palpal lobes are mask-or bowl-shaped; setae usually occur on the mentum and are always present on the palpal lobes …….…………………… …………………………...............................3 2. Antennae four-segmented, with the 3rd segment enlarged; tarsi of the first two pairs of legs are two- segmented; labial mentum more or less quadrate; anterior margin of labial mentum is never cleft, A. With elongated abdomen,burrowing in substrate ………...............................….Gomphidae (Image 9 a-b) B. With circular and widened abdomen, climbing on macrophytes……………...…….Lindeniinae (Image 10) - Antennae six or seven-segmented and filamentous; tarsi of all legs have three segments; labial mentum widest in the distal portion and narrowing towards the posterior with a cleft in the anterior margin......... ......... ................................................................................................................Aeshnidae (Image 11 a–d)

3. Body elongate and covered with bristles or tufts of setae; distal margin of the palpal lobes of the labium with large irregular teeth; anterior margin of the mentum is cleft......Cordulegastridae (Image 12) - Body short and stout; anterior margin of the mentum is cleft....................................................................4

4. Legs very long giving the larvae a ‘spidery’ appearance; abdomen depressed and more or less circular in outline; a small ‘horn’ may be present between the antennal bases................ Macromiidae (Image 13) - Legs rather short; abdomen not markedly depressed or circular in outline ……………… … ………...... 5 5. Cerci generally more than one-half as long as paraprocts ……...….................Corduliidae (Image 14 a-b) - Cerci generally not more than one-half as long as paraprocts ….................... Libellulidae (Image 15 a-g)

Montana (Selys) (Zygoptera: Amphipterygidae). Notulae Odonatologicae 5(7): 85–96. Kumar, A. & M. Prasad (1977). On the larvae of Rhinocypha (Odonata: Cholorocyphidae) from Garhwal hills. Oriental Insects 11(4): 547-554.

Malz, H. & H. Schröder (1979). Fossile Libellen – biologisch betrachtet. – Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe Nr. 9: 1-46 (Fossil Dragonflies – Biological view [in German]). Mitra, T.R. (2003). Ecology and biogeography of Odonata with special reference to Indian Fauna. Records of the

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Key to the larval stages of Odonata

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Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. 202: 1-41+Plate 1-4. Mitra, A. (2005): Life history pattern and larval development of Neurothemis fulvia Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae) from Dehra Dun valley, India: A comparative analysis with two other species of the genus. Annals of Forestry 13(2): 311– 322. Mitra, A. (2006). Current status of the Odonata of Bhutan: A checklist with four new records. The Journal of Renewable Natural Resources Bhutan 2(1): 136–143. Nesemann, H., R.D.T. Shah, D.N. Shah & S. Sharma (2008). Morphological development of Epiophlebia laidlawi, a relict Himalayan Dragonfly. Abst. Paper in Proceeding of 18th International Symposium of Odonatology Nagpur, 43pp. Nesemann, H. (2009). Aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates’ biological diversity and their use in habitat quality assessment at the Himalayan hot spots of Ganges River Basin. PhD Thesis. Kathmandu University, xv+204pp. Nesemann, H., R.D.T. Shah, D.N. Shah & S. Sharma (2011). Morphological characters of Epiophlebia laidlawi Tillyard larvae, with notes on the habitat and distribution of the species in Nepal (“Anisozygoptera”: Epiophlebiidae). Odonatologica 40: 191–202. Ofenböck, T., O. Moog, S. Sharma & T. Korte (2010). Development of the HKHbios: a new biotic score to assess the river quality in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Hydrobiologia 651(1): 39–58. Okudaira, M., M. Sugimura, S. Ishida, K. Kojima, K. Ishida, & T. Aoki (2005). Dragonflies of the Japanese Archipelago in Color. Hokkaido University Press, 593pp. Shah, D.N. (2007). Ecological and water quality status of river and irrigation channels of lower gangatic plains moist deciduous forest of Nepal. MSc Thesis. Tribhuvan University. xiii+71pp. Sharma, S. (1998). An inventory of the aquatic insects of Nepal used as bio-indicators of water pollution. A report

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to the secretariat of the university grants commission, Kathmandu, Nepal. St. Quentin, D. & M. Beier (1968). Odonata (Libellen). In: Beier, M. (ed.): “Handbuch der Zoologie’’. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches. IV. Band: Arthropoda - 2. Hälfte: Insecta, 2. Teil: Spezielles 4(2): 1–39. Subramanian, K.A. (2009) A Checklist of Odonata (Insecta) of India. Zoological Survey of India Western Regional Station, Pune-411 044 Maharashtra, India, December 2009, Ebook, pp. 1-38 zsi.gov.in/checklist/Odonata_Indica_151209.pdf. Downloaded on 20 December 2010. Tachamo, R.D. (2007). Ecological and Water Quality Status of Middle Hill Rivers of Central Nepal. MSc Thesis. Tribhuvan University. xiii+72. Tachamo, R.D. (2010). Identifying key environmental variables structuring benthic macroinvertebrates for stream typology of Indrawati River System, Nepal. MSc Thesis. UnescoInstitute for Water Education, xiii+60pp Trueman, J.W.H. & R.J. Rowe (2001). Odonata. Dragonflies and damselflies. <http://tolweb.org/ Odonata/8266/2001.01.01> On-line version dated 01 January 2010. van Tol, J. (2008). Catalogue of the Odonata of the World. National Museum of Natural History (Naturalis), Leiden. The Netherlands. < http://www.odonata.info>. On-line version dated 03 January 2010. Vick, G.S. (1989). List of the Dragonflies recorded from Nepal, with a summary of their altitudinal distribution (Odonata). Opuscula Zoologica Fluminensia 43: 1–21. Xylander, W.E.R. & K.K. Günther (2003). Ordnung Odonata, Libellen. – In: Dathe, H.H. (ed.): Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie. Band 1: Wirbellose Tiere. 5. Teil: Insecta, 121– 142pp. Yule, C.M. & H.S. Yong (eds.) (2004). Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malayasian Region. Academy of sciences, Malaysia, Vii+861pp.

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JoTT Communication

3(9): 2061–2070

Reproductive ecology of Shorea roxburghii G. Don (Dipterocarpaceae), an Endangered semievergreen tree species of peninsular India A.J. Solomon Raju 1, K. Venkata Ramana 2 & P. Hareesh Chandra 3 1,2,3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India Email: 1 ajsraju@yahoo.com (corresponding author), 2 vrkes.btny@gmail.com, 3 hareeshchandu@gmail.com

Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K.R. Sasidharan Manuscript details: Ms # o2763 Received 13 April 2011 Final received 19 July 2011 Finally accepted 29 August 2011 Citation: Raju, A.J.S., K.V. Ramana & P.H. Chandra (2011). Reproductive ecology of Shorea roxburghii G. Don (Dipterocarpaceae), an Endangered semievergreen tree species of peninsular India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2061–2070. Copyright: © A.J. Solomon Raju, K. Venkata Ramana & P. Hareesh Chandra 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author Detail: see end of this article

Abstract: Shorea roxburghii is an Endangered semievergreen tree species restricted to peninsular India in the Eastern Ghats. Leaf shedding and leaf flushing are annual events while flowering is not annual, but when it does flower, in March, it shows massive blooming. Massive blooming, drooping inflorescence with pendulous flowers, ample pollen production, gradual pollen release as a function of anther appendage and aerodynamic pollen grains - all suggest anemophily. The characteristics of nectar secretion, hexose-rich sugars and amino acids in nectar are additional adaptations for entomophily. The plant is functionally self-incompatible, obligately outcrossing and ambophilous. The natural fruit set does not exceed 15% despite the plant being ambophilous. Scarabaeid beetle by causing flower damage and bruchid beetle by using buds, flowers and fruits for breeding greatly affect fruit set rate and thus the success of sexual reproduction in this plant species is also affected. Seeds are non-dormant, the embryo is chlorophyllous while the fruits are on the plant. Healthy seeds germinate as soon as they reach the forest floor but their establishment is seemingly affected by resource constraints due to the rocky habitat. The study suggests that non-annual flowering, massive flowering for a short period, high bud/flower and fruit infestation rate, absence of seed dormancy and rocky habitat could attribute to the endangered status of S. roxburghii. Keywords: Ambophily, anemochory, bud, flower and fruit predation, self-incompatibility, Shorea roxburghii.

Introduction

Author Contribution: AJSR has done part of the field work and write-up of the manuscript while VR and HC were involved in field work and provided assistance in writing. Acknowledgements: This study is a part of the research work carried out under an All India Coordinated Research Project on Reproductive Biology of RET Tree species funded by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi sanctioned to AJSR. We thank Dr. V.V. Ramamurthy, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, for identification of some insects reported in the present study.

 

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Shorea is an important timber genus with most of its species classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2011). James & Chan (1991) stated that Shorea species are insect pollinated; a variety of insects have been implicated in its pollination. Shorea species occurring within one habitat and sharing the same insect pollinators, flower sequentially to prevent competition for pollinators (James & Chan 1991). S. megistophylla, an endemic canopy tree species in Sri Lanka has been reported to be pollinated by Apis bees (Dayanandan et al. 1990). Shorea flowers with large yellow elongate anthers have been reported to be pollinated by bees while those with small, white anthers by thrips. Thrips are implicated as pollen vectors for several Malaysian species of Shorea (Appanah & Chan 1981). In India, the genus Shorea is represented by S. assamica, S. robusta, S. tumbuggaia and S. roxburghii. S. robusta is an anemophile with explosive pollen release pollination mechanism (Atluri et al. 2004). S. tumbuggaia is a Data Deficient (Ashton 1998a) semievergreen tree species restricted to the southern Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It is anemophilous as well as anemochorous (Solomon Raju et al. 2009). S. roxburghii is a semievergreen Endangered (Ashton 1998b) tree species of peninsular India, which is included in the list of medicinal

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plants of conservation areas of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh (Rani & Pullaiah 2002; Jadhav & Reddy 2006). It is a constituent species of southern tropical dry deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats (Chauhan 1998) and extends its distribution to dry evergreen or deciduous forest and bamboo forest, often on sandy soils in Burma, Thailand, Indochina and peninsular Malaysia in tropical Asia. It is an important timber and resin source; the latter is used as a stimulant and for fumigation (Ashton 1963, 1982; Anonymous 1985). There is absolutely no information on the reproductive ecology of this species, hence the present study was contemplated to provide a comprehensive account on its reproductive ecology and discuss the same in the light of relevant published information.

Materials and Methods Shorea roxburghii populations growing on rocky areas at Akasaganga, Papavinasanam and Talakona sites of Tirupati Hills of the Eastern Ghats (Talakona— 13040’N & 79019’E, elevation 744m; Akasaganga and Papavinasanam are 3km apart from each other but both the sites are about 80km to the west of Talakona) in Andhra Pradesh State were selected for study during 2008–2010. The study aspects included flowering, fruiting, seed dispersal and seedling ecology. Ten inflorescences, two each from five trees were tagged and followed for their flowering duration. Thirty flowers collected from six trees were used to record floral details. Mature flower buds on ten inflorescences were tagged and followed for recording the time of flower opening. The same flowers were followed for recording the time of anther dehiscence. The pollen grain characteristics were recorded by consulting the book of Bhattacharya et al. (2006). Pollen production per flower was calculated following the method described by Cruden (1977). Pollen fertility was assessed by staining them in 1% acetocarmine. Stigma receptivity and nectar volume, sugar concentration and sugar types were recorded by following the protocols given in Dafni et al. (2005). Nectar was also analyzed for amino acid types by following the paper chromatography method of Baker & Baker (1973). Fifty mature buds, five each from 10 inflorescences on five trees were bagged a day before anthesis, without manual self pollination, to know whether fruit set 2062

occurs through autogamy. Another set of 50 mature buds was selected in the same way, then emasculated and bagged a day prior to anthesis. The next day, the bags were removed and the stigmas were brushed with freshly dehisced anthers from the flowers of the same tree and rebagged to know whether fruit set occurs through geitonogamy. Five trees each at Akasaganga, Papavinasanam and Talakona were selected for manual cross-pollination and open-pollination. Fifty flowers were used per tree for manual cross-pollination. For this, mature buds were emasculated and bagged a day prior to anthesis. The next day, the bags were removed; freshly dehisced anthers from the flowers of another tree were brushed on the stigma and rebagged. Ten inflorescences on each tree were tagged for fruit set in open pollination. The bagged flowers and tagged inflorescences were followed for four weeks to record the results. Observations on flower visitors and their foraging activity period with reference to pollination were made by using binoculars. The insect species visiting the flowers and the forage sought by them were recorded. Five-hundred flowers collected at random from 20 trees were examined to record the percentage of flower damage by the scarabaeid beetle. Another set of 500 flowers collected from 20 trees were examined for flower infestation rate by the bruchid beetle. Further, 385 fallen fruit were collected to record fruit infestation rate by the same bruchid beetle. Fruit set rate, maturation and fruit fall timing and dispersal aspects were observed in the field. Field observations were made to record natural seed germination and establishment rate. One-hundred mature fruits collected from the trees were sown in an experimental plot to record seed germination rate.

Results Shorea roxburghii is a semievergreen tree species. Leaf shedding, flowering and leaf flushing are annual events in this species. Leaf shedding occurs during the winter season from mid-November to midFebruary (Image 1a). About a week later, leaf flushing begins and ends in July (Image 1b). Flowering begins in the first week of March and ceases by the end of March at population level. A tree flowers for about three weeks only. Trees grow up to a height of 12m and flowering at canopy level is quite visible

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Reproductive ecology of Shorea roxburghii

A.J.S. Raju et al.

b

a

c

g

f

l

d

h

i

m

e

k

j

n

o

Image 1 - Shorea roxburghii: a - Leaf shedding stage; b - Leaf flushing followed by flowering; c - Flowering paniculate drooping inflorescence; d - Flower; e - Stamen arrangement and anthers equipped with appendage; f - Pollen grain; g - Ovary with style and stigma; h - Trifid stigma; i & j - Bruchid beetle larva in mature buds; k-o - Insect foragers k - Apis dorsata; l - Apis cerana; m - Apis florea; n - Trigona iridipennis; o - Vespa cincta.

from a long distance due to the presence of newly emerging bright green leaves. Inflorescence is a

drooping terminal or axillary racemose panicle with an average of 37Âą6 flowers which anthese over an

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average period of 5±2 days (Image 1c). Flowers are pedicellate, hang downwards, milky white with light reddish tinge, fragrant, 2cm long and 3cm across, bisexual, zygomorphic, cup-like at base and star-like terminally (Image 1d). Sepals are five, blunt-lobed, 0.7cm long, light green, imbricate, basally united into a cup, free terminally and persistent. Petals are five, milky white, fragrant, 2.2cm long, connate at base forming a cup-like structure, free terminally. Stamens are 15, free, arranged closely in two whorls to the base of the corolla; inner row consists of five stamens while outer row with ten stamens. They are situated below the level of stigma. Each stamen consists of a 0.2cm long filament with a 0.2cm long anther. Anthers are light yellow, dorsifixed but appear to be basifixed; tetrasporangiate and dehisce by longitudinal slits ca. 30min after anthesis. The connectival part of the filament of each anther extends into a 0.3cm long sterile tip constituting “anther appendage” (Image 1e). The pollen production per anther is 3,379.8±196.62 grains, and per flower it is 50,697. The pollen grains are yellow, powdery, radially symmetric, tricolporate, 24.9µm long and have reticulate exine with muri separated by lumina (Image 1f). In a flower, fertile pollen is 92% while the remaining 8% is sterile. Pollen to ovule ratio is 8,449.5:1. Ovary is semi-inferior, syncarpous with three united locules having a total of six light yellow ovules on axile placentation. Style is 0.6cm long, semi-wet and extended into a trilobed stigma (Image 1g,h). The petals, stamens, style and stigma fall off on the third day while the sepals remain until the fruits fall off. The flower opening occurs at 0500–0600 hr while anther dehiscence occurs after three hours. The petals being twisted in bud gradually unfold and spread upwards gradually giving a star-like appearance. The cup-like flower base with stamens is exposed to the outside environment. The flowers are nectariferous and each flower produces 2.15±0.28 µl of nectar. The nectar sugar concentration is 11.7±1.9 % consisting of glucose, fructose and sucrose but the first two sugar types are dominant. The nectar also contains both essential and non-essential amino acids; the essential ones are histidine, arginine, iso-leucine and threonine while the non-essentials are proline, aspartic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, glysine, tyrosine and cystine. The stigma lobes are erect and united in bud but unfold at anthesis indicating receptivity which lasts 2064

for two days by being in semi-wet state; it is dry and shows signs of withering by the end of the second day. The same duration of stigma receptivity was recorded when tested with hydrogen peroxide. The flowers in the hanging position do not allow nectar flow along the length of the corolla since it is in a minute quantity and held intact by the ovary base and staminal filaments. The pollen release from dehisced anthers was gradual when the flowers were shaken manually. The dehisced anthers became empty after 3–5 manual shakes. This gradual pollen release was considered to be an adaptation for anemophily. The insects probing the flowers for forage collection also caused the anthers to release pollen gradually. The flowers were foraged during day time by eight insect species belonging to Hymenoptera [Apis dorsata (Image 1k), A. cerana (Image 1l), A. florea (Image 1m), Trigona iridipennis (Image 1n) and Vespa cincta (Image 1o)], Diptera [Helophilus sp. (Image 2a)] and Lepidoptera [Euploea core (Image 2b) and Tirumala limniace (Table 1)]. Bees were found to collect both nectar and pollen; they were regular foragers throughout the flowering season. Their foraging activity pattern showed two schedules, one during 0700–1200 hr with hectic activity and the other during 1600–1800 hr with low activity. Wasps and fly foragers were also regular but only a few individuals visited the flowers. They foraged for nectar only during the forenoon period from 1000 to 1200 hr (Fig. 1). Nymphalid butterflies were also exclusive nectar foragers but their visits were not consistent during the day. The data collected on the foraging visits of these foragers on a given day

Table 1. List of insect foragers on Shorea roxburghii Family

Scientific Name

Common Name

Apis dorsata

Rock Bee

Apis cerana

Indian Honey Bee

Apis florea

Dwarf Honey Bee

Trigona iridipennis

Stingless Bee

Vespa cincta

Potter Wasp

Helophilus sp.

Hoverfly

Euploea core

Common Indian Crow

Tirumala limniace

Blue Tiger

Hymenoptera Apidae

Vespidae Diptera Syrphidae Lepidoptera Nymphalidae

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c

d

b

a

g

f

j

e

h

k

n

i

l

m

o

p

Image 2. Shorea roxburghii: a - Helophilus sp.; b - Euploea core, c – e - Juvenile and adult Popillia impressipyga; f - Early stage of fruit; g - Maturing fruit; h - Mature fruit; i - Fruit without calyx; j – l - Fruits infested with Bruchid beetle larva; m - Seedling mortality; n – p - Growing seedling.

indicated that bees accounted for 77%, wasps and flies each 5% and butterflies 13% of the total foraging

visits (Fig. 2). All insects after landing probed the flowers for nectar and/or pollen. Both nectar and

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No. of foraging visits

60 Apis dorsata

50

Apis cerana

40

Apis florea

30

Trigona iridipennis

20

Vespa cincta

10

Helophilus sp.

0 0600

0700

0800

0900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

Time (h) Figure 1. Hourly foraging activity of insects on Shorea roxburghii

flowers subsequently fell off. An unidentified bruchid beetle was found to be breeding in flowers and the 70 flowers hosting this beetle were found subsequently 60 to be falling off without fruit set. In each flower, there 50 was only one green coloured larva of this beetle (Image 40 30 1i,j) and the larva falls off along with the petals and 20 stamens. The larvae upon reaching the ground pupate 10 within the soil to produce adults. Flower infestation 0 Bees Wasp Fly Butterflies rate by this beetle was 36.6%. Insect order The manual pollinations for autogamy and Figure 2. Forgaing visits of different categories of insects geitonogamy did not set fruit while those of on Shorea roxburghii xenogamous pollinations set fruit ranging from 15.7 to 28.4 %. The fruit set was 8.4–15.4 % in openpollen collecting insects were found to be contacting   pollinations (Table 2). The number of fruits set in the anthers and stigma invariably while collecting open-pollinations at inflorescence level was 5.03±0.52. the forage and such contact with the sex organs was Each fruit produces only one seed against the actual considered to be resulting in pollination. Trigona number of six ovules. The fruits take about five weeks bees tended to stay mostly on the same tree for forage to mature and fall to the ground by the end of May collection effecting mostly selfpollinations while Apis (Image 2f-g). They are winged and wings represent bees and wasps made frequent inter-tree flights in sepals which are accrescent in that they are thickened search of more pollen/nectar causing cross-pollination and three of them expand into wings and are larger than simultaneously. The flies tended to forage mostly on the other two sepals (Image 2h). They are 1.41±0.29 the same tree; it could effect mostly selfpollinations. gm in weight while the fruits without winged sepals The nymphalid butterflies being inconsistent foragers are 1.18 ± 0.26 (Image 2i). The fruits show colour also made frequent inter-tree flights in search of nectar change from green to brown to dark brown gradually and finally become dry. The fruit wall is free from and in doing so effecting crosspollinations. Further, swarms of Coleopteran Popillia calyx, woody, with a thin inner membranous lining impressipyga (Scarabaeidae) (Image 2c-e) were found invaginated into the folds of cotyledons and split into to be consistent flower-feeders. Its newly emerging two parts at the apex. The seed is non-dormant and the offspring especially juveniles fed on the sap of floral embryo is chlorophyllous. The fruits also contained the same bruchid beetle petals while the adults on all parts of the flowers effecting the success of sexual reproduction to a great which was found in flowers. Each fruit contained a extent. The breeding site of this beetle was not known. single larva which was creamy white in colour. The Flower damage rate by this beetle was 48% and these larva feeds on the internal soft parts of the developing 90

% of foraging visits

80

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Table 2. Fruit set under open pollinations and manual xenogamous cross-pollinations in Shorea roxburghii at three sites in the Tirumala Hills Per cent fruit set (open pollination)

Per cent fruit set (hand crosspollination)

AG1

8.5

26.4

AG2

12.4

21.6

AG3

9.4

15.7

AG4

7.3

28.4

AG5

15.4

21.5

PV1

13.5

17.5

PV2

12.6

18.5

PV3

7.3

21.3

PV4

9.8

18.3

PV5

11.8

19.4

TK1

8.4

22.6

TK2

11.7

24.5

TK3

13.5

28.4

TK4

6.5

19.4

TK5

14.8

27.3

Tree number

AG - Akasaganga; PV - Papavinasanam; TK - Talakona

fruit and emerges from the exit hole drilled by it (Image 2j-l). When the fruit falls to the ground, the larva leaves the fruit through the hole for pupation in the soil. The pupal stage was observed for six weeks but there was no emergence of adult in the lab set up; this long period was considered as dormant stage of pupa for the emergence of the adult when conditions are favourable in the forest soil. Further, in 2% of fallen fruits, the larva remains inside to pupate and produce the adult beetle. Fruit infestation rate was 87%. The dry winged fruits fall to the ground and disperse within a 10â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20 m area of the tree due to wind action. Healthy seeds germinate in field conditions following monsoon showers. A small number of seedlings withered initially (Image 2m) while most of them perished after some growth and development. Finally, a few seedlings grew continually (Image 2np). Seed germination rate was 8% in the experimental plot.

Discussion Shorea roxburghii is an important constituent of deciduous forests in the Eastern Ghats. It is a semievergreen tree species due to its very brief leafless

state during the dry season. Leaf shedding, leaf flushing and flowering occur almost sequentially one after the other. Leaf flushing however extends beyond fruit dispersal. In S. robusta and S. tumbuggaia also, these three phenological events occur in sequence (Singh & Kushwaha 2005; Raju et al. 2009). In S. roxburghii, the flowering is not an annual event as only a few trees flowered at each study site but leaf shedding and flushing occurred annually. Flowering occurred on all branches of the tree. In S. tumbuggaia also, flowering is not annual and in the flowering individuals, the flowering is restricted to branches which are exposed to sunlight (Raju et al. 2009). The flowering period is very brief in S. roxburghii while its duration is further reduced in S. tumbuggaia (Raju et al. 2009). In both the species, the flowering pattern represents the massive flowering pattern in which more flowers are produced per day during the flowering period (Gentry 1974; Opler et al. 1980). Mass flowering is considered as a property of the individuals of a plant species (Bawa 1983) and this pattern of flowering may have evolved among individuals of S. roxburghii for effective pollen movement between trees. The new leaves are known for their photosynthetic efficiency and hence have the ability to provide the required photosynthate to the growing fruits. In S. roxburghii, the flowers are morphologically and functionally bisexual. The absence of fruit set in autogamy and geitonogamy suggests that the plant is self-incompatible. The sterile pollen present in the flowers appears to be a derived trait to promote self-incompatibility. The protogyny is an important functional mechanism to promote out-crossing but it is weak in this species. Bertin & Newman (1993) stated that protogyny is a characteristic associated with selfcompatible anemophilous flowers to reduce selfing rate. S. roxburghii being self-incompatible exhibits weak protogyny and hence it is a residual character and does not serve to achieve cross-pollination. On the contrary, S. tumbuggaia and S. robusta are selfcompatible anemophiles; but protogyny is weak in the former while it is strong in the latter species (Atluri et al. 2004; Raju et al. 2009). In S. roxburghii, the drooping inflorescence, hanging flowers with compactly arranged anthers at the base and held above by anther appendages and the exposed cup-like flower base collectively aid in the gradual dispersal of pollen by wind. Gradual pollen release occurs when the flowers

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are manually shaken; it suggests that wind force does not make the anthers release the pollen at once, hence there is an in-built device for the gradual and economical release of pollen from oscillating flowers due to wind force. As the flowers are at the canopy level, the wind force can easily make flowers release pollen into the air and then carry the same to the receptive stigmas of flowers on different trees. The pollen grain size is a characteristic typical aerodynamic particle, which permits effective wind transport and deposition on the stigma through impaction (Gregory 1973; Reddi 1976) and the characters such as reticulate exine and muri separated by lumina may reduce terminal velocity and contribute to the increased dispersal range of the pollen (Niklas 1985). Synchronous anthesis and high pollen production enable anemophily to be more effective. In S. robusta and S. tumbuggaia also, a similar pollen release mechanism and anemophily exist (Atluri et al. 2004; Raju et al. 2009). The study sites experienced moderate turbulent atmospheric conditions especially during the forenoon period and this favoured efficient transport of the entrained pollen (Mason 1979). The self-compatible S. robusta and S. tumbuggaia are strictly anemophilous. The flowers of both the species do not secrete nectar and hence pollen is the only floral reward for the insects which visit them. Atluri et al. (2004) reported that honey bees may visit S. robusta for pollen collection and their foraging activity is of no use to this plant. Raju et al. (2009) reported that the stingless bee, Trigona iridipennis visits S. tumbuggaia for pollen collection and its foraging activity is important for self-pollination due to its slow mobility. The fruits formed from selfed-flowers have been considered to be abortive. In S. roxburghii, the flowers are nectariferous and produce hexose-rich nectar with low sugar concentration. Since the flowers offer both nectar and pollen, they attract nectar and pollen foraging bees, nectar foraging wasps, flies and butterflies; flies are important for self-pollination and all the other insects for both self-and cross-pollination. Their foraging activity on S. roxburghii flowers is not in line with the generalization that they visit flowers rewarded with sucrose-rich nectar with high sugar concentration (Baker & Baker 1982, 1983; Cruden et al. 1983). The nectar of S. roxburghii is also a source of four of the ten essential amino acids and seven nonessential amino acids (DeGroot 1953). They add taste to the nectar and serve as an important cue for insects to 2068

pay visits to the flowers; and the insects while collecting the forage effect pollination. The amino acids are especially important for the growth and development of flower-visiting insects (DeGroot 1953). Therefore, S. roxburghii being a self-incompatible species has evolved to produce nectar with sugars and amino acids as rewards to attract insects for increasing the crosspollinate rate. The ability to have both anemophily and entomophily is adaptive for S. roxburghii to set fruit to permitted level through cross-pollination. The function of a pollination system involving both wind and insects as vectors of pollen transfer is referred to as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ambophilyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Culley et al. 2002) and hence S. roxburghii is functionally ambophilous. S. roxburghii flowers attract two beetle species. The scarabaeid beetle causes flower damage by sucking sap from petals and the damaged flowers whether pollinated or un-pollinated fall off. The bruchid beetle uses the floral buds for its breeding. A single larva emerges when the buds mature and bloom; such buds and flowers fall off together with the larvae without fruit set. The bud and flower infestation rate by these two beetle species is very high and hence have a great bearing on the success of sexual reproduction in S. roxburghii. In S. roxburghii, the fruits mature quickly during the dry season. They are winged, light-weight and characteristically produce a single seed. The embryo is chlorophyllous while on the parent plant, suggesting that the seed is non-dormant and such a characteristic may aid in better survival in unpredictable habitats with irregular supply of light, nutrients and water during the germination period (Maury 1978; MauryLechon & Ponge 1979). A similar situation exists in S. tumbuggaia (Raju et al. 2009). The winged character of fruits is seen in most dipterocarps and it is an important adaptation for dissemination by wind (Ashton 1982). The winged structure of the sepals allows 1-seeded fruits to gyrate toward the ground and hence the seed dispersal is anemochorous. Seeds disperse by wind to a short distance only, due to the semi-closed nature of the canopy cover of the forest. The dispersal of winged fruits takes place much more efficiently by wind if the forest is of the open, seasonal, dry deciduous type (Maury-Lechon & Curtet 1998). The seeds fallen on the ground have no possibility for further dispersal by the sweeping action of the wind due to litter accumulation and grass growth in

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the study sites during rainy season. In S. tumbuggaia, seed dissemination by wind takes place up to a distance of 10m (Raju et al. 2009) and up to 2km in S. albida (Ashton 1982). Different insect species attack seeds of Shorea species during their development (Singh 1976). Insect pests attack at the pre- or post-dispersal stage of the seed; in the pre-dispersal stage, the pest attacks the fruit on the tree before dispersal while in the postdispersal stage, the pest attacks fruits on the ground (Toy 1988). In S. roxburghii, the same bruchid beetle which uses buds and flowers for breeding also attacks at an early stage of the development of the fruit. Its larva leaves through the exit hole created by it when the mature fruits fall to the ground. It pupates in the soil and perhaps, produces an adult only when favourable conditions return to the forest floor to repeat its life cycle. Khatua & Chakrabarti (1990) reported that many bruchid species spend a dormant stage as pupae in the soil and it holds true in the case of the bruchid beetle which is a pest of the seeds of S. roxburghii. Further, in a small percentage of fallen fruits, the larva remains within, pupates and produces an adult beetle suggesting that the beetle has the ability to use the fruit for its entire life cycle. The same bruchid beetle attacks the co-occurring S. tumbuggaia seeds in the study sites but the per cent of infested seeds is comparatively less due to its late flowering which occurs for two weeks in the last week of April and the first week of May (Raju et al. 2009). They also reported that in India, the seed weevil Sitophilus (Calandra) rugicollis attacks seeds of Shorea robusta, survives as a dormant adult in the forest floor and emerges with the first monsoon rain, which coincides with the commencement of seed fall (Khatua & Chakrabarti 1990). Mass fruiting appears to favour seed predators, but it can also be a strategy to escape complete seed destruction (Janzen 1974). Seed predation can be very high, and the crop can be completely wiped out. Natawiria et al. (1986) observed that weevils (Curculionidae) damage 40–90% of the seeds of Shorea pauciflora, S. ovalis, S. laevis and S. smithiana. In S. tumbuggaia, seed damage is 70% and only about half of the remaining healthy seed crop established seedlings in the forest (Raju et al. 2009). In S. roxburghii, seed predation is 87% suggesting that this tree is threatened by bruchid beetle in terms of reproductive success. In S. roxburghii, fruit set in open pollination is up

A.J.S. Raju et al.

to 15% while it has almost doubled in manual crosspollination. This suggests that fruit set does not exceed beyond 30% even if the cross-pollination rate increases by wind and insects. The tree appears to have resource constraints to increase fruit set; the rocky nature of the forest floor with dry conditions during the fruit set period is perhaps the main constraint. Such a low fruit set in open-pollination has also been reported in S. tumbuggaia in the same study sites by Raju et al. (2009). The study suggests that non-annual flowering, massive flowering for a short period, high bud/ flower and fruit infestation rate, and the absence of seed dormancy could be attributed to the endangered status of S. roxburghii. Field situation relating to the mortality rate of seedlings and the seed germinate rate evidenced in the experimental plot also substantiate this conclusion.

REFERENCES Anonymous (1985). Dipterocarps of South–Asia. RAPA Monograph 4/85, FAO Regional Office for the Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. Appanah, S. & H.T. Chan (1981). Thrips: the pollinators of some dipterocarps. Malaysian Forester 44: 234–252. Ashton, P.S. (1963).Taxonomic note on Bornean Dipterocarpaceae. Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore 20: 229–284. Ashton, P.S. (1982). Dipterocarpaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I 9: 237–552. Ashton, P. (1998a). Shorea tumbuggaia. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www. iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2011. Ashton, P. (1998b). Shorea roxburghii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www. iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2011. Atluri, J.B., S.P.V. Ramana & C.S. Reddi (2004). Explosive pollen release, wind pollination and mixed mating in the tropical tree Shorea robusta (Gaertn. F. (Dipterocarpaceae). Current Science 86: 1416–1419. Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1973). Amino acids in nectar and their evolutionary significance. Nature (London) 241: 543–545. Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1982). Some chemical constituents of floral nectar of Erythrina in relation to pollination and systematics. Allertonia 3: 25–37. Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1983). A brief historical review of the chemistry of floral nectar, pp. 126–152. In: Bentley, B. & T. Elias (eds.) The Biology of Nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York. Bawa, K.S. (1983). Patterns of flowering in tropical plants. pp. 395–410. In: Jones, C.E. & R.J. Little (eds.) Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology. Scientific and Academic

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Editors, New York. Bertin, R.I. & C.M. Newman (1993). Dichogamy in angiosperms. Botanical Reviews 59: 112–152. Bhattacharya, K., M.R. Majumdar & S.G. Bhattacharya (2006). A Textbook of Palynology (Basic and Applied). New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd., Kolkata, 352pp. Chauhan, K.P.S. (1998). Framework for Conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity: action plan for the Eastern Ghats region. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Conservation of Eastern Ghats, EPTRI, Hyderabad, 345– 358pp. Cruden, R.W. (1977). Pollen–ovule ratios: a conservative indicator of breeding systems in flowering plants. Evolution 31: 32–46. Cruden, R.W., S.M. Hermann & S. Peterson (1983). Patterns of nectar production and plant-pollinator coevolution. pp. 80– 125. In: B. Bentley & T. Elias (eds.) The Biology of Nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York. Culley, T.M., S.G. Weller & A.K. Sakai (2002). The evolution of wind pollination in angiosperms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 361–369. Dafni, A., P.G. Kevan & B.C. Husband (2005). Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest Ltd., Canada, 590pp. Dayanandan, S., D.N.C. Attygalla, A.W.W.L. Abeygunasekara, I.A.U.N. Gunatilleke & C.V.S. Gunatilleke (1990). Phenology and floral morphology in relation to pollination of some Sri Lankan dipterocarps. pp. 103–133. In: Bawa, K.S. & M. Hadley (eds.) Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants. UNSESCO, Paris and Parthenon Publishing Group, England. DeGroot, A.P. (1953). Protein and amino acid requirements of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.). Physiologia Comparata et Oecologia 3: 197–285. Gentry, A.H. (1974). Flowering phenology and diversity in tropical Bignoniaceae. Biotropica 6: 64–88. Gregory, P.H. (1973). Microbiology of the Atmosphere. Leonard Hill, London, 377pp. IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2011. Jadhav, S.N. & K.N. Reddy (2006). Threatened medicinal plants of Andhra Pradesh. ENVIS–SDNP Newsletter Special Issue, EPTRI, Hyderabad pp. 18–28 James, La V. & H.T. Chan (1991). Confirmation of sequential flowering in Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). Biotropica 23: 200– 203. Janzen, D.H. (1974). Tropical blackwater rivers, animals and mast fruiting by the Dipterocarpaceae. Biotropica 6: 69–103. Khatua, A.K. & S. Chakrabati (1990). Life history and seasonal activity of sal seed weevil, Sitophilus (Calandra) rugicollis Casey (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Indian Forester 116: 63–70. Mason, C.J. (1979). Principles of atmospheric transport. pp. 85–95. In: R.L. Edmonds (ed.) Aerobiology: The Ecological Systems Approach, Dowden, Hitchinson & Ross, Inc., Pennsylvania. 2070

Maury, G. (1978). Dipterocarpacees: du fruit a la plantule. These de doctorat d’etat, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, 3 Vols. IA: 243p; IB: 432p; II: 344p. Maury-Lechon, G. & L. Curtet (1998). Biogeography and evolutionary systematics of Dipterocarpaceae, pp. 5–44. In: Appanah, S. & J.M. Turnbull (eds.). A Review of Dipterocarps: Taxonomy, Ecology and Silviculture. Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia. Maury-Lechon, G. & J.F. Ponge (1979). Utilisation de l’ analyse multifactorielle des correspondences pour l’etude des caracteres des fruits–germinations, embryons et plantules de Dipterocarpacees. pp. 107–127. In: G. Maury-Lechon (ed.) Dipterocarpacees: Taxonomie-Phylogenie-Ecologie, Memoires du Museum National d’ Histoire Naturelle, Serie B, Botanique 26, Editions du Museum, Paris. Natawiria, D., A.S. Kosasih & A.D. Mulyana (1986). Some insect pests of dipterocarp seeds (in East Kalimantan and Java). Buletin Penelitian Hutan, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan 472: 1–8. Niklas, K.J. (1985). The aerodynamics of wind-pollination. Botanical Reviews 51: 328–386. Opler, P.A., G.W. Frankie & H.G. Baker (1980). Comparative phenological studies of shrubs and treelets in wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 68: 167–188. Raju, A.J.S., K.V. Ramana & K.H. Jonathan (2009). Anemophily, anemochory, seed predation and seedling ecology of Shorea tumbuggaia Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), an endemic and globally endangered red listed semi-evergreen tree species. Current Science 96: 827–833. Rani, S.S. & T. Pullaiah (2002). A taxonomic survey of trees in Eastern Ghats. Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Conservation of Eastern Ghats, EPTRI, Hyderabad, 5–15pp. Reddi, C.S. (1976). Floral mechanism, pollen productivity and pollen incidence in Madhuca indica Gmelin, with remarks on the mode of pollination. New Botanist 3: 11–16. Singh, K.D. (1976). Timber Seed Pests. Seed Technology in the Tropics. Singh, K.P. & C.P. Kushwaha (2005). Paradox of leaf phenology: Shorea robusta is a semi-evergreen species in tropical dry deciduous forests in India. Current Science 88: 1820–1824. Toy, R.J. (1988). The pre-dispersal insect fruit-predators of Dipterocarpaceae in Malaysian rain forest. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Aberdeen, 248pp.

Author Details: Dr. A.J. Solomon Raju, Professor and Head in the Department of Environmental Sciences, is on the editorial board of several international journals. He is presently working on endemic and endangered plant species in southern Eastern Ghats forests with financial support from University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. K. Venkata Ramana and P. Hareesh Chandra are Junior Research Fellows working in All India Coordinated Research Project on Reproductive Biology of Four Rare Endangered and Threatened (RET) Tree species namely, Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott. & Endl., Eriolaena lushingtonii Dunn (Sterculiaceae), Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. (Myrtaceae) and Shorea roxburghii (Dipterocarpaceae) of Andhra Pradesh, funded by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, under the supervision of Dr. A.J. Solomon Raju.

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JoTT Communication

3(9): 2071–2077

Western Ghats Special Series

Reproductive biology of Puntius denisonii, an endemic and threatened aquarium fish of the Western Ghats and its implications for conservation Simmy Solomon 1, M.R. Ramprasanth 2, Fibin Baby 3, Benno Pereira 4, Josin Tharian 5, Anvar Ali 6 & Rajeev Raghavan 7 Conservation Research Group (CRG), St. Albert’s College, Kochi, Kerala 682018, India Integrated Rural Technology Center (IRTC), Mundur, Palakkad, Kerala, India 5 Department of Zoology and Environmental Science, St. John’s College, Anchal, Kerala 691306, India 7 Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NZ, United Kingdom Email: 1 mariyasimmy@gmail.com, 2 ramprasanthmanasam@gmail.com, 3 fibinaqua@gmail.com, 4 bennopereira@gmail.com, 5 josinc@stjohns.ac.in, 6 anvaraliif@gmail.com, 7 rajeevraq@hotmail.com (corresponding author) 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 2

Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Neelesh Dahanukar Manuscript details: Ms # o2608 Received 20 October 2010 Final received 13 September 2011 Finally accepted 15 September 2011 Citation: Solomon, S., M.R. Ramprasanth, F. Baby, B. Pereira, J. Tharian, A. Ali & R. Raghavan (2011). Reproductive biology of Puntius denisonii, an endemic and threatened aquarium fish of the Western Ghats and its implications for conservation. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2071–2077. Copyright: © Simmy Solomon, M.R. Ramprasanth, Fibin Baby, Benno Pereira, Josin Tharian, Anvar Ali & Rajeev Raghavan 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author Detail, Author Contribution and Acknowledgements see end of this article.

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Abstract: This study presents fundamental information on the reproductive biology of Puntius denisonii, an endemic and threatened aquarium fish of the Western Ghats Hotspot. Results are based on the observations from three river systems, Chandragiri, Valapattannam and Chaliyar. Maximum observed total length in P. denisonii was 162mm and 132mm for males and females, respectively. Males attained sexual maturity at a lower size than females with mean size at first maturity determined as 85.33±1.52 mm for males and 95.66±1.15 mm for females. Puntius denisonii spawned from October to March with minor differences in the peak breeding months between the three river systems, which were studied. Sex ratio deviated significantly from 1:1 and was skewed in favour of males. Absolute fecundity varied from 376 (fish of 102mm total length) to 1098 (fish of 106mm total length) eggs. Currently, the closed seasons for P. denisonii have been put in place during June, July and October based on the (mis)assumption that the species breeds during these three months. However, the results of the present study have helped us to understand more about the reproductive biology of the species so as to recommend more appropriate seasonal closures. The months from October until March need to be designated as a closed season for protecting the breeding population of P. denisonii. Keywords: Conservation, endemic fish, Puntius denisonii, reproduction, threatened, Western Ghats.

INTRODUCTION Unsustainable collection of endemic freshwater fish for the aquarium trade is an emerging conservation issue in the tropics, which has resulted in the population decline of several species such as the Asian Arowana Scleropages formosus (Rowley et al. 2009), Silver Arowana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Moreau & Coomes 2006), Celestial Pearl Danio Danio margaritatus (Roberts 2007) and Bala Shark Balantiocheilos

This article forms part of a special series on the Western Ghats of India, disseminating the results of work supported by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF), a joint initiative of l’Agence Française de Développement, Conservation International, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan, the MacArthur Foundation and the World Bank. A fundamental goal of CEPF is to ensure civil society is engaged in biodiversity conservation. Implementation of the CEPF investment program in the Western Ghats is led and coordinated by the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE).

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melanopterus (Ng & Tan 1997). Nevertheless, wild caught aquarium fish industry receives little attention from ichthyologists, local governments and conservation organizations throughout the world, with very little research, and no legislative controls (Moreau & Coomes 2007; Rowley et al. 2009). The Western Ghats (WG), an exceptional Hotspot of freshwater fish diversity and endemism in peninsular India (Kottelat & Whitten 1996; Dahanukar et al. 2004) is an important region for aquarium fish collections (Tlusty et al. 2008). More than a hundred species including several threatened endemics are currently collected and exported from this region (Raghavan 2010). Similar to other parts of the world, aquarium fish collections in WG are open access and unregulated, raising concerns about their ecobiological impact (Raghavan 2010). Several endemic species are known to be facing serious population decline due to indiscriminate collections for the trade (Kurup et al. 2004; Raghavan et al. 2009). One such endemic species, which is currently considered to be under severe threat from the aquarium pet trade is the Denison Barb (AKA Red Lined Torpedo Barb and Miss Kerala), Puntius denisonii, a small- to medium- sized cyprinid having an extremely restricted distribution in the southern WG (Prasad et al. 2008). Due to its limited distributional range in the southern WG and declining populations, P. denisonii was assigned Vulnerable species status in the IUCN Red List (Devi & Boguskaya 2009). The recently completed IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessments in the WG has categorised this species as Endangered (Ali et al. 2010). Nevertheless, this species is poorly known with no information on its micro level distribution, life history, ecology and demography (Raghavan et al. 2010). The objective of this study was to understand the reproductive biology of P. denisonii, and discuss its implications on the conservation of wild populations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Samples for the present study were purchased from aquarium fish collectors operating in three major rivers of the southern WG, viz., Chandragiri, Valapattannam and Chaliyar (Fig. 1) between December 2008 and November 2009. Fish were received live in packed 2072

polythene bags and euthanized immediately by immersing in ice-slurry. Subsequently they were preserved in 4% formaldehyde and transferred to the laboratory, where each individual was tagged, measured (Total Length TL), weighed (Total Weight TW) and sexed (by internal sexual characteristics or by examining gonads under a dissecting microscope). Gonads were subsequently removed, weighed (GW) and preserved in 4% formaldehyde, while matured ovaries with visible eggs were preserved in Gilson fluid (100ml 60% alcohol, 800ml water, 15ml 80% nitric acid, 18ml glacial acetic acid, 20g mercuric chloride) to break down ovarian tissues. Gonado somatic index (GSI) was calculated as 100 X GW (TW-GW)-1 and used to delineate the spawning season. The length at which 50% of male and female fish were in maturing stages III and IV was taken as the minimum length at first maturity (Bagenal 1978). Deviation from the expected 1:1 sex ratio was analyzed using chi-square test (Corder & Foreman 2009). Absolute fecundity (AF) was estimated by weighing all the eggs in the ovary and also by counting three sub samples of eggs from different parts of the ovary. Relative fecundity (RF) was calculated as TF/ TW. Relationship of AF with both TL and TW were determined by plotting the points on a log-log scale as these are expected to be allometric relationships described by a general power function y = axb, where y is the dependent variable, x is independent variable, b is the scaling exponent and a is the normalization constant (Kharat et al. 2008). A least square line was fitted to the scatter of the data and the significance of the relationship was determined from coefficient of determination (R2) and uncertainty in the prediction of the exponent by calculating its standard error.

RESULTS Of 1,080 fish analysed, 792 (73.33%) were mature, composed of 570 males (52.77%) and 222 females (20.55%). Sex ratio of P. denisonii from all three rivers deviated significantly from the expected 1:1 and was extremely skewed in favour of males (Table 1). GSI in all three river systems peaked during October to March with minor differences between rivers (Fig. 2). Peak maturity of P. denisonii in Chandragiri and Valapattannam rivers were observed during December

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Karnataka

Valapattannam

Tamil Nadu

Kerala

Figure 1. The three river systems from where P. denisonii were collected in southern India

and, in the Chaliyar River during February. No temporal variation in spawning season could be observed even though the three rivers from where the fish samples originated were located at different latitudes (Fig. 1). In P. denisonii, males start to mature earlier than females (Table 1). Mean sizes at first maturity was 85.33±1.52 mm TL (male) and 95.66±1.15 mm TL (females). Absolute fecundity (AF) in P. denisonii from the Chandragiri River system varied from 376

(102mm TL) to 1098 (106mm TL) with a mean of 762.66±264.270 eggs/fish (n=12), while relative fecundity (RF) was between 36.11 and 94.65 with a mean of 70.44±22.79 eggs. Although we obtained several fecund female specimens of P. denisonii from the other two rivers as well, they were released back into the stream without sacrificing for our study. This was done taking into consideration the threatened status of the species, and based on our assumption that the same

Table 1. Maximum observed length, minimum size at first maturity and sex ratio of Puntius denisonii from three river systems of Western Ghats River

Max length (mm TL)

Min size at maturity (mm TL)

Sex ratio (M:F)

Male

Female

Male

Female

Ratio

Chi Square (χ2)

Chaliyar

110

100

84

97

1:0.35

63.947*

Chandragiri

162

132

87

95

1:0.36

49.717*

Valapattannam

136

105

85

95

1:0.57

19.810*

* - P < 0.0001

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5

Chandragiri 4

Valapattannam

Gonado Somatic Index

Chaliyar 3

2

1

December

November

October

September

August

July

June

May

April

March

February

January

0

Figure 2. Annual changes in the mean Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) of Puntius denisonii from three river systems of Western Ghats (error bars denote standard deviation).

 

7.3 7.1

Log Absolute Fecundity (AF)

6.9 6.7 6.5 y = 26.69x -117.3 R2 = 0.873 n = 12

6.3 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.5 4.62

4.625

4.63

4.635

4.64 4.645 4.65 Log Total Length (TL)

4.655

4.66

4.665

4.67

Figure 3. Relationship between Total Length and Absolute Fecundity in Puntius denisonii from Chandragiri River

species may show similar range of fecundity between river systems. The relationship of absolute fecundity with total length was best explained as logAF = 26.69 logTL – 117.3 (Fig. 3) and the relationship of absolute fecundity with total weight was better explained as logAF = 9.55 logTW – 16.10 (Fig. 4). 2074

DISCUSSION Although sex ratio of a fish may deviate from the normal 1:1 due to a number of factors (Nikolsky 1963; Alp et al. 2003) extremely skewed ratios such as those observed in the present study are very rarely

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7.5 7.3

Log Absolute Fecundity (AF)

7.1 6.9 6.7 6.5

y = 9.55x -16.10 R2 = 0.596 n = 12

6.3 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.5 2.32

2.34

2.36

2.38 2.4 Log Total Weight (Tw)

2.42

2.44

2.46

Figure 4. Relationship between Total Weight and Absolute Fecundity in Puntius denisonii from Chandragiri River

encountered. One possible reason for this skew in P. denisonii could be the differential habitat occupation of the sexes. i.e., females preferring deeper waters and therefore being less vulnerable to capture and males on the other hand living in shallow areas from where they are easily caught. Such differential habitat occupancy by sexes has been earlier observed in tropical fish (Macuiane et al. 2009; Lewis et al. 2005). Skewed ratios may also occur as a result of the differences in instantaneous natural mortality between sexes (Vincentini & Araujo 2003). However, there is no information on the demography of P. denisonii to support such an argument. Results obtained in this study on the spawning season are contrary to the information in gray literature. P. denisonii was reported to spawn during June-August with mature specimens observed from May (Radhakrishnan & Kurup 2005). However, the annual dynamics of GSI from three river systems of WG observed in this study indicated that P. denisonii breeds during October to March. As the first step towards conservation, the State Department of Fisheries in Kerala (India) has issued an order, restricting collection and exports of P. denisonii from the rivers of the region (Clarke et al. 2009). Several management measures including quotas, restrictions on gears, catch size, and a seasonal closure of fishery have been enforced (Mittal et al.

2009). Currently, the closed seasons for P. denisonii have been put in place during June, July and October (Clarke et al. 2009) based on the assumption that the species breeds during these three months. However, results of the present study provide hard evidence that this seasonal closure is mistimed and has been designed without proper understanding of the biology of this species. Absolute fecundity of P. denisonii is extremely low when compared to other cyprinids such as P. sarana (Chandrasoma & de Silva 1981) and Rasbora daniconius (Nagendran et al. 1981). However, three endemic cyprinids threatened by aquarium collections in Sri Lanka, P. nigrofasciatus, P. cumingi and P. pleurotaenia are known to have a low absolute fecundity (151–638 for 46–64 mm TL) (de Silva & Kortmulder 1976; Chandrasoma et al. 1994) similar to P. denisonii. As the scale of the body increases the relationship depicting change in lengths and weights of different body parts change as allometric relationships. As per Euclidian geometry, the lengths of two tissues should show an exponent of one and the relationship depicting change in length versus weight should show an exponent of 1/3 depicting isometric relationships. Kharat et al. (2008, p. 13) suggested that if the volume of each egg is constant, then the fecundity should scale as unity with the ovary volume and as a result,

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at a constant density, the fecundity should change as a cube of length of the fish and as unity with weight of the fish under isometry. On the contrary, in our analysis the fecundity changed as 27th power of length and 10th power of the weight of the fish. Our results show that the scaling exponent of the relationship of absolute fecundity with both total length and total weight in P. denisonii were significantly different from the values suggested by Euclidian geometry and thus the fecundity grows non-isometrically. As a result, the larger fish (length and weight) have drastically more fecundity then the slightly smaller individuals. Thus, larger specimens contribute more to reproduction in the species and the removal of larger individuals from a population will have a drastic impact on the demographics and subsequently on the status. The peculiar characters of reproduction including an extremely low absolute fecundity and a skewed sex ratio will undoubtedly hamper natural recruitment, influence population dynamics and lead to low population levels in P. denisonii. This cyprinid may therefore be unsuited for large scale collections for the pet trade. The present study has also revealed that closed seasons, the most important conservation plan for P. denisonii implemented by the local government in Kerala is wrongly timed, and has little or no impact on the protection of wild stocks. There is hence an urgent need for re-designing conservation strategies for the species based on biological information such as those generated in this study. The closed season for protecting the breeding population of P. denisonii in the rivers of northern Kerala should be put in place from October to March.

REFERENCES Ali, A., R. Raghavan & N. Dahanukar (2010). Puntius denisonii In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 August 2011. Alp, A., C. Kara & H.M. Buyukcapar (2003). Reproductive biology of brown trout, Salmo trutta macrostigma Dumeril 1858, in a tributary of the Ceyhan River which flows into the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 19: 346–351. Bagenal, T.B. (1978). Aspects of fish fecundity, pp. 75–101. In: Gerking, S.D. (ed). Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production. Blackwell, London. 2076

Chandrasoma, J. & de Silva (1981). Reproductive biology of Puntius sarana, an indigenous species and Tilapia rendalli, an exotic, in an ancient man-made lake in Sri Lanka. Fisheries Management 12: 17–28. Chandrasoma, J., H.C. Chin & H.P. Amandakoon (1994). Reproductive biology and breeding of Cuming’s Barb (Puntius cumingii Gunther). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 10(2–3): 209–214. Clarke, M. (2009). Why ban won’t protect Puntius denisonii. Practical Fish Keeping Magazine http://www. practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/pfk/pages/sitemap.php/show_ article.php?article_id=717 accessed 19th June 2009. Corder, G.W. & D.I. Foreman (2009). Nonparametric Statistics for Non-Statisticians: A Step-by-Step Approach. Wiley, 247pp. Dahanukar, N., R. Raut & A. Bhat (2004). Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of Biogeoography 31: 123–136. de Silva, S.S. & K. Kortmulder (1976). Some aspects of the biology of three species of Puntius (=barbus) Pisces Cyprinidae, endemic to Sri Lanka. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 27(2): 182–194. Devi, R. & N. Boguskaya (2009). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2009.2; www.iucnredlist.org accessed on 8 November 2009. Kharat, S.S., Y.K. Khillare & N. Dahanukar (2008). Allometric scaling in growth and reproduction of a freshwater loach, Nemacheilus mooreh (Sykes 1839). Electronic Journal of Ichthyology 4(1): 8-17. Kottelat, M. & T. Whitten (1996). Freshwater biodiversity in Asia with special reference to fish. World Bank Technical Paper 343. Washington, USA. Kurup, B.M., K.V. Radhakrishnan & T.G. Manojkumar (2004). Biodiversity status of fishes inhabiting rivers of Kerala (S. India) with special reference to endemism, threats and conservation measures, pp. 163–182. In: Welcome, R.L. & T. Petr (eds.). Proceedings of LARS2. 2nd Large Rivers Symposium. Mekong River Commission (MRC) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Lewis, D.S. & N.F. Fontoura (2005). Maturity and growth of Paralonchurus brasiliensis females in southern Brazil (Teleostei, Perciformes, Sciaenidae). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21: 94–100. Macuiane, M.A., E.K.W. Kaunda, D.M. Jamu & G.Z. Kanyerere (2009). Reproductive biology and breeding of Barbus paludinosus and B. trimaculatus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Lake Chilwa, Malawi: implications for fisheries management. African Journal of Aquatic Science 34(2): 123–130. Mittal, R. (2009). Business unusual: Conserving Miss Kerala. Aquarama Magazine 12: 7–9. Moreau, M.A. & O.T. Coomes (2007). Aquarium fish exploitations in Western Amazonia: conservation issues in Peru. Environmental Conservation 34(1): 12–22. Moreau, M.A. & O.T. Coomes (2006). Potential threat of the

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international aquarium fish trade to silver arawana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum in the Peruvian Amazon. Oryx 40: 152–160. Ng, P.K.L. & H.H. Tan (1997). Freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia: potential for the aquarium fish trade and conservation issues. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 1: 79–90. Nagendran, R.,  K. Shakuntala, G.N. Natarajan & H.R.K. Vasan (1981). Observations on the fecundity of the cyprinid Rasbora daniconius (Hamilton). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Science) 90(4): 381– 388. Nikolsky, G.W. (1963). The Ecology of Fishes. Academic Press, London. Prasad, G., A.P.H. Ali & R. Raghavan (2008). Threatened Fishes of the World: Puntius denisonii Day (Cyprinidae) Environmental Biology of Fishes 83(2): 189– 190. Radhakrishnan, K.V. & B.M. Kurup (2005). Aspects of life history traits of Puntius denisonii (Day), an endemic and threatened ornamental fish of Kerala. Sustain Fish 2005 International Symposium on Sustainability of Fish Production Systems and Appropriate Technologies for Utilization. Cochin University of Science and Technology, 16–18 March 2005. Kochi, India. Abstract SAQ E18 Raghavan, R. (2010). Ornamental fisheries and trade in Kerala, pp. 169–197. In: Sonnenschein, L. & A. Benziger (eds.). Fish Conservation in Kerala. World Aquariums and Oceans Federation, St. Louis, USA. Raghavan, R., G. Prasad, A.P.H. Ali, B. Pereira, F. Baby & M. Ramprasanth (2010). Miss Kerala added to the IUCN Red List of threatened species. Current Science 98(2): 132. Raghavan, R., G. Prasad, A.P.H. Ali, B. Pereira & L. Sujarittanonta (2009). Damsel in distress - the tale of Miss Kerala, Puntius denisonii (Day) an endemic and endangered cyprinid of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India Aquatic Conservation - Marine and Freshwater ecosystems 19(1): 67–74. Raghavan, R., G. Prasad, A.P.H. Ali & L. Sujarittanonta (2007). ‘Boom and Bust Fishery’ in a Biodiversity Hotspot - Is the Western Ghats (South India) losing its most celebrated ornamental fish, Puntius denisonii, Day? Current Science 92(12): 1671–1672. Rowley, J.J.L., D.A. Emmet & S. Voen (2008). Harvest, trade and conservation of the Asian Arowana, Malayalam Abstract: Scleropages formosus in Cambodia. Aquatic Conservation - Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(7): 1255–1262. Tlusty, M.F., S. Dowd & R. Raghavan (2008). Saving forests through the fisheries: ornamental fisheries as a means to avoid deforestation. Ornamental Fish International Journal 56: 21–25. Vincentini, R.N. & F.G. Araujo (2003). Sex ratio and size structure of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest 1823) (Perciformes Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 63(4): 559–566.

S. Solomon et al. Authors: Simmy Solomon works on taxonomy and conservation of freshwater fishes of Western Ghats. M.R. Ramprasanth works on biology and captive breeding of indigenous ornamental fishes of Kerala. Fibin Baby works on taxonomy and biology of freshwater fishes of Kerala. Benno Pereira is interested in research on fish genetics and aquaculture with an emphasis on native fishes of Kerala. Josin Tharian is interested in the connectivity between systematic conservation planning and freshwater biodiversity. Anvar Ali is interested in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of freshwater fishes of Western Ghats. Rajeev Raghavan is interested in research that addresses the connectivity between freshwater biodiversity, conservation and livelihoods in Western Ghats. Author Contributions: BP, AA and RR designed the study; SS, MRR and FB carried out the field and laboratory work; AA, JT and RR carried out the analysis; RR wrote the manuscript; RR was the Principal Investigator of the projects from which the current manuscript originated. Acknowledgements: We thank Rateesh, Naushad and Santosh for help with the collection of samples; Shylaja Menon and Santhi P.S. (CRG, St. Albert’s College, Kochi) for assistance in the laboratory; Ambily Nair (University of Hasselt, Belgium) and Siby Philip (University of Porto, Portugal) for their help during the preparation of the manuscript. Thanks are also due to an anonymous reviewer and the subject editor for suggesting necessary modifications that greatly improved the manuscript. Funding for this study came from the North of England Zoological Society-Chester Zoo Conservation Grant (UK), Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF)-Western Ghats Small Grants and Columbus Zoo (Ohio- USA) Conservation Grant to the senior author.

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3(9): 2078–2084

Osteobrama bhimensis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): a junior synonym of O. vigorsii Shrikant S. Jadhav 1, Mandar Paingankar 2 & Neelesh Dahanukar 3 Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Vidyanagar, Akurdi, Pune, Maharashtra 411044, India Prerana Heights, Flat No. B13, Balaji Nagar, Dhankawadi, Pune, Maharashtra 411043, India 3 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Sai Trinity, Garware Circle, Pune, Maharashtra 411021, India Email: 1 shrikantj123@yahoo.com, 2 mandarpaingankar@gmail.com, 3 n.dahanukar@iiserpune.ac.in (corresponding author) 1 2

Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Anonymity requested Manuscript details: Ms # o2841 Received 22 June 2011 Final received 17 July 2011 Finally accepted 15 August 2011

Keywords: Conspecific, junior synonym, Osteobrama bhimensis, Rohtee vigorsii.

Citation: Jadhav, S.S., M. Paingankar & N. Dahanukar (2011). Osteobrama bhimensis (Cypriniformes:Cyprinidae): a junior synonym of O. vigorsii. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2078–2084. Copyright: © Shrikant S. Jadhav, Mandar Paingankar & Neelesh Dahanukar 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author Detail: Shrikant S. Jadhav is Scientist A at the Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune. He works on taxonomy and distribution of freshwater fishes and has published several papers in this area. Mandar Paingankar is a molecular biologist and works on vector biology with an emphasis on host parasite interactions. He works on animal ecology as a hobby. Neelesh Dahanukar works in ecology and evolution with an emphasis on mathematical and statistical analysis. He is also interested in taxonomy, distribution patterns and molecular phylogeny of freshwater fishes. Author Contribution: SSJ and ND put forth the concept. SSJ, MP and ND collected the data, analyzed the data and wrote the paper. Acknowledgements: We are thankful to Dr. R.M. Sharma, Scientist-D and Officer-in-charge, Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Akurdi, Pune, and Dr. G.M. Yazdani for encouragement and support. We are grateful to Varsha Mysker for providing two specimens of Osteobrama vigorsii from Bhima River at Kollakur, Karnataka. We are also grateful to two anonymous referees for critical comments on an earlier draft of our manuscript.

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Abstract: Osteobrama bhimensis (Singh & Yazdani) was described from the Ujani wetland on Bhima River in Maharashtra, India, about 100 km downstream of the type locality of O. vigorsii (Sykes). Based on examination of the type material of O. bhimensis and comparison with O. vigorsii collected from different localities in the Krishna and Godavari River systems, we show that O. bhimensis is conspecific with O. vigorsii.

INTRODUCTION Sykes (1839) described Rohtee vigorsii (now Osteobrama) from the Bhima River at Pairgaon (approx. 18.5060N & 74.7040E). Although the types of this species are missing (Eschmeyer & Fricke 2011), Sykes (1841) provided a clear illustration of the species and gave an adequate description for purposes of identification. The species is widely distributed in the Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi river systems of peninsular India and is common throughout its range (Dahanukar 2011). Singh & Yazdani (1992) described Osteobrama bhimensis from the Ujani Wetland on Bhima River, about 100km downstream of the type locality of O. vigorsii. Osteobrama bhimensis has since been considered a valid species by most authors (e.g., Menon 1999; Jayaram 2010). Even though Singh & Yazdani (1992) considered O. bhimensis to be closely related to O. cotio, owing to the lack of barbels, their figure of O. bhimensis resembles O. vigorsii more than it does O. cotio. Singh & Yazdani (1992) did, however, mention the similarity between O. bhimensis and O. vigorsii and sought to distinguish the two species through a number of characters (discussed below). Recently we had an opportunity to study all the type material, comprising the holotype and five paratypes, of O. bhimensis currently in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune. We compared the type material of O. bhimensis with specimens of O. vigorsii from the Krishna and Godavari river systems. Our study suggests that O. bhimensis and O. vigorsii are conspecific.

METHODS Data collection The type material of Osteobrama bhimensis, comprising of the holotype and five paratypes, was available in the fish collection of the

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Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune (ZSI Pune). Specimens of O. vigorsii and O. cotio peninsularis were available in the Wildlife Information Liaison Development, Coimbatore (WILD) and ZSI Pune. Morphometric and meristic data were recorded following Jayaram (2010). Measurements were taken point to point using dial calipers to the nearest hundredth of an inch and then converted to millimetres. Subunits of the body are presented as a percent of standard length (SL) and subunits of the head are presented as a percent of head length (HL). All pored scales were counted for reporting the lateral lines scales. We dissected three specimens of O. vigorsii (P/2671, 110mm SL; P/2672, 105mm SL and P/2673, 128mm SL) to resolve the structure of the urohyal bone.

Aurangabad, collected on 13.x.1999 by P.P. Kulkarni. Osteobrama cotio peninsularis: 1 ex., WILD-11PIS-015, Mula-Mutha River at Yerawada (18.5420N & 73.8770E), collected on 07.i.2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2595, Indrayani River at Markal (18.6730N & 73.9840E), collected during 2009–2010 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2443, Nira River at Bhor (18.1530N & 73.8430E), collected on 01.i.2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2684, Mula River at Paud (18.5290N & 73.6110E), collected on 08.vi.2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 3 ex., ZSI Pune P/2685, Mula-Mutha River at Yerawada (18.5430N & 73.8790E), collected on 16.vi.2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar.

Material examined Osteobrama bhimensis: Holotype, 06.ix.1989, Bhima River, Saha Village (approx. 18.1330N & 75.0930E), Indapur Taluka, Pune District, Maharashtra, coll. D.F. Singh (ZSI Pune P/1235). Paratypes, 5 ex., collection data same as holotype (ZSI Pune P/1236). Osteobrama vigorsii: 1 ex., WILD-11-PIS-017, Mula-Mutha River at Yerawada (18.5420N & 73.8770E), collected on 14.i.2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2670, Bhima River at Koregaon-Bhima (18.6470N & 74.0540E), collected on 25.v.2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2672, Mula-Mutha River at Yerawada (18.5420N & 73.8770E), collected on 07.i.2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2673, Krishna River at Wai (17.9560N & 73.8790E), collected in March 2011 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2671, Nira River at Bhor (18.1530N, 73.8430E), collected in December 2009 by N. Dahanukar & M. Paingankar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2674, Wasumbre tank (approx. 17.2980N, 74.5790E) in Sangli District, collected on 16.vi.1979 by A.S. Mahabal; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2676, Mutha River at Warje (18.4810N, 73.8160E), collected on 24 February 1999 by N. Dahanukar; 1 ex., ZSI Pune P/2675, Mula River at Aundh (18.5680N & 73.8110E), collected on 02.vi.1999 by N. Dahanukar; 2 ex., unregistered, Bhima River at Kollakur (17.0860N & 76.7640E), collected on 10.v.2011 by Varsha Mysker; 3 ex., ZSI Pune P/2105, Godavari River at Kaigaon (approx. 19.6240N, 75.0260E) in Gangapur Taluka,

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION One of the most important characters that Singh & Yazdani (1992) used for diagnosing Osteobrama bhimensis was the absence of barbels. Our study of the type material of O. bhimensis revealed that the holotype and all the paratypes of O. bhimensis do in fact possess a pair of rudimentary maxillary barbels (Image 1), a character state also present in O. vigorsii.

Image 1. Rudimentary maxillary barbels in Osteobrama bhimensis (a) holotype (ZSI Pune P/1235) and (b) one of the paratypes (ZSI Pune P/1236).

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Indeed, if the character state ‘barbels present’ were applied to specimens of O. bhimensis using Singh & Yazdani’s (1992) own key, the species keys out as O. vigorsii. Singh & Yazdani (1992) suggested that O. bhimensis is related to O. cotio and compared it with two subspecies of O. cotio, namely O. cotio cotio and O. cotio cunma. Even though these authors did not explicitly mention why they consider O. bhimensis to be affined to O. cotio, it appears they considered the absence of barbels in O. bhimensis to be synapomorphic in the O. bhimensis-O. cotio group. Our data, however, does not suggest a closer relationship between O. bhimensis and O. cotio than that between the former species and O. vigorsii, for two reasons. First, the holotype and all the paratypes of O. bhimensis do possess rudimentary barbels (Image 1). Second, the morphometric and meristic data of O. bhimensis do not coincide substantially with O. cotio, an observation that was also made by Singh & Yazdani

(1992). Interestingly, Singh & Yazdani (1992) did not compare O. bhimensis with O. cotio peninsularis described by Silas (1952) from Poona [= Pune], which is close to the type locality of O. bhimensis. Our comparison suggests that O. bhimensis differs from O. cotio peninsularis in a number of characters including ii22–ii24 (vs. ii27–ii32 in O. c. peninsularis) anal fin rays, 26-30 (vs. 17–18) predorsal scales, 72–79 (vs. 55–56) lateral-line scales and head length 26.0–28.3 % SL (vs. 22.3–24.0 % SL). The type material of O. bhimensis and the figure given in Singh & Yazdani (1992, fig. 1), however, is consistent with Sykes’ (1842) description and figure of O. vigorsii, a species very widely distributed across the Krishna and Godavari river systems of the northcentral part of the peninsular India. A comparison of the morphometric data of the type series of O. bhimensis with the material of O. vigorsii referred to herein, from a number of locations across the Krishna River and Godavari basins (Fig. 1), suggests that

190N

180N

170N

160N

730E

740E

750E

760E

770E

sampling sites for Osteobrama vigorsii 0

50km

type locality of Osteobrama vigorsii type locality of Osteobrama bhimensis

Figure 1. Study area showing sampling sites and type localities of Osteobrama vigorsii and O. bhimensis. 2080

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Table 1. Comparison of ranges of morphometric and meristic data of the type series of Osteobrama bhimensis (ZSI Pune P/1235 and ZSI Pune P/1236, total 6 specimens) and the 13 specimens of O. vigorsii listed in Material Examined. Character

Osteobrama bhimensis (N=6)

Osteobrama vigorsii (N=13)

Morphometrics Total length (mm)

168–270

123–190

Standard length (mm)

135–212

96.4–147

Body depth

30.0–33.1

30.6–35.6

Head length

26.0–28.3

24.4–28.7

Predorsal length

52.0–54.6

50.2–54.8

Dorsal to caudal length

50.9–53.5

50.1–57.5

Distance between pectoral and ventral

15.7–17.9

15.8–18.4

Distance between ventral to anal fin

19.1–22.1

17.4–38.9

Pectoral to anal distance

34.3–39.5

33.9–40.8

Preanal length

60.4–63.1

56.7–63.2

Caudal peduncle length

16.4–19.2

15.0–19.7

Caudal peduncle depth

10.4–11.2

10.3–11.7

Snout length

23.0–26.8

25.3–30.6

Eye diameter

26.9–30.2

23.9–30.7

Interorbital width

21.7–23.6

19.7–26.4

Predorsal scales

26–30

26–28

Lateral line scales

72–79

75–78

Scale rows between lateral line and base of pelvic fin

11–11½

11–11½

Scale rows between lateral line and origin of dorsal fin

13–15

13–14

As a percentage of SL

As a percentage of HL

Meristics

Dorsal fin rays Pectoral fin rays Ventral fin rays Anal fin rays

I,8

I,8

i,13–i,14

i,13–i,14

i,8–i,9

i,8–i,9

ii,22–ii,24

ii,22–ii,23

the morphometric and meristic data of O. bhimensis substantially overlap with those of O. vigorsii (Table 1, Appendix A, B). Further, comparison of images of the types of O. bhimensis with those of O. vigorsii from a variety of sources, and the illustration of Sykes (1841) iteself, shows a remarkable resemblance (Image 2). Although Singh & Yazdani (1992) were aware of the resemblance between O. bhimensis and O. vigorsii, they separated the former from the latter based on the absence of barbels (vs. presence), 13–17 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base (vs. 11–11½ ), the possession of 24–32 predorsal scales (vs. 33–37), and the structure of urohyal. As already mentioned, the entire type series of O. bhimensis possesses rudimentary maxillary barbels, a character state shared with O. vigorsii. Although Singh &

Yazdani (1992, Table 2) mention the number of transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base as 13-15, we count 11 or 11½ (Table 1), which is the same range also for O. vigorsii (Hora & Misra 1940; Singh & Yazdani 1992; see also Table 1). The predorsal scales of O. bhimensis and O. vigorsii also have overlapping ranges (Table 1). An additional difference that Singh & Yazdani (1992) used to differentiate O. bhimensis from O. vigorsii was the shape of the urohyal. This is a single median triradiate bone with the anterior tip connected to the ventral hypohyals, the antero-dorsal part of which is connected to the first basibranchial and the posterior part of which is connected to the pectoral girdle by means of muscles (Johal et al. 2000). The shape of the urohyal of O. vigorsii (Image 3) matches

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S.S. Jadhav et al.

Image 2. Osteobrama bhimensis and O. vigorsii. (a) Osteobrama bhimensis holotype (ZSI Pune P/1235, 138mm SL), (b) O. bhimensis paratype (ZSI Pune P/1236, 143mm SL), (c) O. vigorsii from Bhima River at Koregaon-Bhima (ZSI Pune P/2670, 110mm SL), (d) O. vigorsii from Nira River at Bhor (ZSI Pune P/2671, 110mm SL), (e) O. vigorsii from Bhima River at Kollakur (unregistered, 126mm SL) and (f) original drawing of O. vigorsii, reproduced laterally inverted, from Sykes (1841).

Image 3. Urohyal bone (ZSI Pune P/2683) of Osteobrama vigorsii (P/2673, 128mm SL). (a) Lateral view and (b) dorsal view.

 

  2082

that of O. bhimensis as illustrated in fig. 2 of Singh & Yazdani (1992). Singh & Yazdani (1992) suggested that the urohyal of O. vigorsii exhibits a radial process on the vertical plate, which is absent in O. bhimensis. However, in the three specimens of O. vigorsii we dissected, there is no such radial process (note that in Image 3a the thickened area on the lower surface is merely an undulation, not a process). Further, Singh & Yazdani (1992) mention that the dorsal spread ends in equal wings in O. bhimensis, while it ends in unequal wings in O. vigorsii. Our specimens of O. vigorsii show the dorsal spread to end in two equal wings (Image 3b). Therefore, the difference between the urohyals of O. bhimensis and O. vigorsii mentioned by Singh & Yazdani (1992) do not, in fact, exist. We did not dissect any of the type specimens of O. bhimensis. However, it is important to note that even though Singh & Yazdani (1992) mentioned that they studied the urohyal bone of O. bhimensis and O. vigorsii, they omitted to mention which specimens were used for their study. It is clear that none of the types of O. bhimensis have been dissected or cleared and stained. The present study shows, therefore, that all the differences stated by Singh & Yazdani (1992) as distinguishing O. bhimensis from O. vigorsii do not in fact exist: the two nominal species are in fact conspecific and, O. vigorsii being the senior one, is valid, while O. bhimensis must now be placed in its synonymy. Dahanukar (2010) assessed the IUCN conservation status of Osteobrama bhimensis as Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) (IUCN 2001) owing to the

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Osteobrama bhimensis synonymy

S.S. Jadhav et al.

Appendix A. Morphometric and meristic data of type material of Osteobrama bhimensis. Paratypes (ZSI Pune P/1236)

Holotype (ZSI Pune P/1235)

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

Total length (mm)

173

270

178

182

171

168

Standard length (mm)

138

212

146

143

137

135

Body depth

30.1

31.7

31.5

33.1

31.3

30.0

Head length

26.4

26.0

28.0

28.3

27.3

26.6

Predorsal length

52.0

53.4

52.9

54.6

54.6

54.4

Dorsal to caudal length

53.3

52.4

50.8

53.5

51.2

51.3

Distance between pectoral and ventral

17.9

16.9

15.7

17.2

16.8

17.2

Distance between ventral to anal fin

20.5

19.7

19.0

20.8

22.1

21.3

Pectoral to anal distance

39.5

36.5

34.3

37.3

35.9

38.8

Preanal length

61.5

60.8

60.4

62.3

63.1

62.9

Caudal peduncle length

18.2

18.3

17.5

18.0

16.4

19.2

Caudal peduncle depth

11.0

11.0

10.3

11.1

11.2

11.0

Snout length

24.7

24.3

26.4

26.9

23.3

22.8

Eye diameter

30.1

27.0

26.9

29.6

27.5

28.1

Interorbital width

22.5

21.9

21.8

23.0

23.5

22.0

27

28

30

27

27

26

Character Morphometric

As a percentage of SL

As a percentage of HL

Meristic Predorsal scales Lateral line scales

74

79

75

72

74

75

Scales between lateral line and pelvic fin

11.5

11.5

11.5

11.5

11.5

11

Scales between lateral line and dorsal fin

13

14

14

14

15

14

Dorsal fin rays

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

Pectoral fin rays

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,13

i,14

Ventral fin rays

i,8

i,9

i,9

i,8

i,9

i,9

ii,22

ii,22

ii,23

ii,22

ii,24

ii,23

Anal fin rays

fact that the species is known only from its type locality in the Ujani wetland, with an Extent of Occurrence of 260km2 and threats to the habitat and the species due to increasing urbanization, agricultural pollution and invasive exotic fishes. Dahanukar (2010) also noted the need to validate the taxonomy of this nominal species because of its remarkable similarity to O. vigorsii. In the current study we have established that O. bhimensis is not a valid species but a junior subjective synonym of O. vigorsii.

REFERENCES Dahanukar, N. (2010). Osteobrama bhimensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1.

<www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 June 2011. Dahanukar, N. (2011). Osteobrama vigorsii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 June 2011. Eschmeyer, W.N. & R. Fricke (eds.) (2011). Catalog of Fishes electronic version. http://research.calacademy.org/ ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. Online version dated 5 May 2011. Downloaded on 20 June 2011. Hora, S.L. & K.S. Misra (1940). Notes on fishes in the Indian museum. XL. On fishes of the genus Rohtee Sykes. Records of the Indian Museum 42(1): 155–172. IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, ii+30pp. Jayaram, K.C. (2010). The Freshwater Fishes of The Indian Region. Second Edition. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, 616pp. Johal, M.S., H.R. Esmaeili & K.K. Tandon (2000). Reliability

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Appendix B. Morphometric and meristic data of Osteobrama vigorsii from Krishna and Godavari river systems. Krishna river system: Ml - Mula River (ZSI Pune P/2675); Mt - Mutha River (ZSI Pune P/2676); MM1 - Mula-Mutha River (WILD-11-PIS-017); MM2 - Mula Mutha River (ZSI Pune P/2672); BK - Bhima River at Koregaon (ZSI Pune P/2670); N - Nira River at Bhor (ZSI Pune P/2671); BKo1 - Bhima River at Kollakur (unregistered); BKo2 - Bhima River at Kollakur (unregistered); Kr - Krishna River at Wai (ZSI Pune P/2673), S - Wasumbre tank in Sangli District (ZSI Pune P/2674). Godavari river system: 3 examples, Godavari River at Kaigaon (ZSI Pune P/2105). Godavari river system

Krishna river system

Character Ml

Mt

MM 1

MM 2

BK

N

BKo 1

BKo 2

Kr

S

Total length (mm)

136

161

156

133

141

146

159

190

164

139

Standard length (mm)

113

123

122

105

110

110

126

147

128

110

Body depth

32.1

30.6

34.3

35.0

34.6

33.5

34.0

34.4

34.5

34.3

Head length

27.3

27.4

26.2

25.6

26.7

27.6

27.0

28.7

27.3

Predorsal length

53.4

51.1

53.4

52.0

54.8

53.7

51.7

54.0

54.6

Dorsal to caudal length

53.6

50.8

51.9

53.0

52.6

55.7

52.4

53.9

Distance between pectoral and ventral

16.7

17.7

17.5

18.4

16.7

18.4

16.3

16.5

Distance between ventral to anal fin

20.8

38.9

21.2

19.9

22.6

19.2

20.0

Pectoral to anal distance

35.7

36.6

37.5

36.3

38.0

34.5

Preanal length

61.1

62.5

60.1

61.2

62.0

61.3

Caudal peduncle length

16.4

18.1

16.7

16.7

19.7

Caudal peduncle depth

10.9

10.8

11.3

11.2

11.1

Snout length

28.0

27.8

28.1

27.7

Eye diameter

29.0

30.7

28.3

Interorbital width

19.7

19.7

25.9

Predorsal scales

28

28

Lateral line scales

78

Scales between lateral line and pelvic fin

#1

#2

#3

123

125

139

96.4

98.2

110

33.7

34.0

35.6

26.1

25.2

25.1

24.4

53.2

50.5

50.2

52.9

55.2

50.1

56.7

54.7

57.5

16.3

16.7

16.9

15.8

17.0

20.7

20.9

20.4

17.8

17.4

18.4

40.8

36.4

37.0

38.4

35.7

35.6

33.9

63.2

61.8

61.8

61.2

59.4

56.7

57.5

18.4

16.6

15.9

19.0

15.0

18.1

15.7

15.6

10.3

11.0

11.6

11.6

11.1

11.1

10.5

11.0

28.7

28.4

29.2

25.3

30.3

30.6

30.6

29.1

28.1

28.5

28.2

25.0

25.4

24.7

27.8

25.7

27.1

25.9

23.9

22.4

22.6

23.1

26.4

23.6

21.4

21.8

21.9

23.7

26.1

27

27

26

27

27

28

28

28

26

27

28

76

75

78

75

76

75

77

77

78

76

77

77

11

11

11.5

11.5

11.5

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

Scales between lateral line and dorsal fin

14

14

13

13.5

13.5

13.5

14

14

14

14

13.5

13.5

13.5

Dorsal fin rays

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

I,8

Pectoral fin rays

i,14

i,14

i,13

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

i,14

Ventral fin rays

i,8

i,8

i,8

i,9

i,9

i,9

i,9

i,9

i,9

i,8

i,8

i,8

i,8

ii,23

ii,23

ii,23

ii,23

ii,22

ii,22

ii,23

ii,23

ii,22

ii,23

ii,23

ii,23

ii,23

Morphometric

As a percentage of SL

As a percentage of HL

Meristic

Anal fin rays

of urohyal bone of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val. 1844) for age determination. Current Science 79(1): 27–28. Menon, A.G.K. (1999). Check list - fresh water fishes of India. Occasional Paper No. 175. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. 366pp. Silas, E.G. (1952). Further studies regarding Hora’s Satpura hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India 18(5): 423-448.

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Singh, D.F. & G.M. Yazdani (1992). Osteobrama bhimensis, a new cyprinid fish from Bhima River, Pune District, Maharahtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 89(1): 96-99. Sykes, W.H. (1839). On the fishes of the Deccan. Proceedings of the General Meetings for Scientific Business of the Zoological Society of London 1838(6): 157–165. Sykes, W.H. (1841). On the fishes of the Dukhun. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 2: 349–378.

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JoTT Short Communication

3(9): 2085–2089

Badis singenensis, a new fish species (Teleostei: Badidae) from Singen River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India K. Geetakumari 1 & Kento Kadu 2 Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal, Manipur 795003, India Present addresss: ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795004, India 2 Department of Zoology, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh 791102, India Email: 1 geetameme@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 kentokadu@yahoo.com 1

Abstract: A new species of Badis from Singen River, Brahmaputra basin in Arunachal Pradesh, India, has the following combination of characters: a conspicuous round black blotch postero-dorsally on opercle at the base of opercle spine covering many scales; three distinct black blotches at dorsal fin base: the first, behind the third spine; the second, behind the sixth dorsal spine and the third, behind the fifth and sixth soft dorsal rays. The species differs from its nearest congeners, B. assamensis and B. blosyrus by the presence of a black blotch at the base behind the fifth soft anal fin ray. Keywords: Arunachal Pradesh, Brahmaputra basin, new fish, Perciformes.

The Indo-Burmese genus Badis Bleeker is characteristic in having an opercle with a single sharp spine at its postero-dorsal corner; contiguous spinous and soft dorsal fins; the base of the soft part longer than that of the spinous part; anal fin with three

Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K. Rema Devi Manuscript details: Ms # o2531 Received 02 August 2010 Final received 06 June 2011 Finally accepted 12 August 2011 Citation: Geetakumari, K. & K. Kadu (2011). Badis singenensis, a new fish species (Teleostei: Badidae) from Singen River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2085–2089. Copyright: © K. Geetakumari & Kento Kadu 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to Prof. W. Vishwanath, Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University for his valuable suggestions; to Dr. D.N. Das, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Itanagar for his valuable help and to Dr. Kenjum Bagra, Research Officer, Arunachal Pradesh, Biodiversity Board, Itanagar for his precious information. The first author records her thankfulness to Department of Biotechnology for financial assistance for DBT-RA programme. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

spines; lateral line pores tubed and interrupted; jaws, vomer and palatines with villiform teeth; scales both ctenoid and cycloid; 2-4 dentary foramina; 3-toothed hypobranchial; short pelvic fin in males, not reaching the first dorsal spine; short dorsal fin lappets and rounded caudal fin (Kullander & Britz 2002). As many as 14 species of Badis are currently treated valid, of which six are from Brahmaputra drainage—Badis assamensis Ahl, B. badis (Hamilton), B. blosyrus Kullander & Britz, B. dibruensis Geetakumari & Vishwanath, B. kanabos Kullander & Britz, and B. tuivaiei Vishwanath & Shanta; five from Irrawaddy drainage—B. corycaeus Kullander & Britz, B. ferrarisi Kullander & Britz, B. kyar Kullander & Britz, B. pyema Kullander & Britz, and B. ruber Schreitmiiller and one each from Matamohuri River drainage, of Takaupa River basin and Mae Nam Khwae Noi drainage, respectively, B. chittagongis Kullander and Britz, B. siamensis Klausewitz and B. khwae Kullander and Britz. During field surveys in northeastern India during 2008–2009, 27 specimens of an undescribed Badis were collected from Singen River, Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh (Fig. 1). The species is herein described as Badis singenensis sp. nov. Materials and Methods Measurements were made with dial calipers to the nearest 0.1mm and expressed as percentages of standard length (SL). Counts and measurements were made on the left side of specimens under a PC-based binocular stereozoom microscope (Olympus SZ40) with transmitted light. Counts and measurements followed Kullander & Britz (2002), clearing and staining of specimens for osteology after Hollister (1934) and identification and nomenclature of bones

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Badis singenensis, a new species

K. Geetakumari & K. Kadu

Figure 1. Map showing distribution of Badis singenensis sp. nov.

and vertebral counts after Greenwood (1976). For branchial toothplate count, the first gill arch on the left side of the specimens was taken and plates starting from hypobranchial to epibranchial of the outer side were counted. Type specimens are deposited in the Manipur University Museum of fishes (MUMF) and Rajiv Gandhi University Museum of Fishery (RGUMF)

Badis singenensis sp. nov. (Image 1a-c) Type material Holotype: 25.ii.2008, 22.3mm SL, 27054’18.72”N & 94°55’21.12”E, Brahmaputra drainage, Singen River, Saku-Kadu Village, Arunachal Pradesh, India, coll. Rikge Kadu & Kento Kadu (MUMF-Per 112). Paratypes: 26 exs., RGUMF 0218-0225, 27.0– 37.0 mm SL, same data as of holotype; MUMF-Per 113-131, 19, 24.4-42.0 mm SL, data as for holotype; MUMF Per-119-120, 2, dissected, cleared and stained for osteology.

  a

b

c

Image 1. a - Side view of Badis singenensis sp. nov. (uncat.) showing colouration; b - (RGUMF- 0218, paratype, female); c - (RGUMF- 0219, paratype, male)

Diagnosis The new Badis singenensis sp. nov. is with the following combination of characters: a conspicuous black blotch posterodorsally on opercle, at the base of opercle spine, round and usually covering portion 2086

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Badis singenensis, a new species

of several scales; three distinct dark blotches at dorsal fin base, first blotch behind third spine, second behind sixth dorsal spine and third behind the fifth and sixth soft dorsal ray; another distinct black blotch at the base of anal fin behind the fifth soft anal fin ray; tooth plate count 5; scales in lateral row 25-26; interorbital width 9.2–13.3% SL; upper jaw length 7.6–8.8% SL; lower jaw length 9.4–10.2% SL; head length 30.2–34.6% SL. Description Morphometric data and counts are in Tables 1 & 2, respectively. Frequency distributions of meristic characters are in Table 3 and comparison with related species, in Table 4. Body elongate, moderately compressed laterally. Predorsal profile in small specimens straight, sloping at some angle similar prepelvic profile in larger specimens and more strongly as the size increases. Head pointed in lateral aspect. Orbit situated in anterior half of head at about mid-lateral axis of body and moderately large, diameter about one-third of head length. Mouth oblique and moderately large, protrusible, lower jaw slightly projecting beyond upper, maxilla reaching to ⅓ of orbit. Opercular spine slender, with a sharp tip. Palatine, vomer and parasphenoid toothed. Pores: dental three, anguloarticular two, preopercular six, nasal three, supraorbital three, extrascapular two, supracleithral two, posttemporal two, coronalis one, lachrymal three, infraorbital pores three. A row of free neuromasts extending across the gap between lachrymal and anteriormost infraorbital. Scales strongly ctenoid on sides, cycloid on top of head. On the ventral side, the sizes of the scales become reduced towards the posterior side. Predorsal scales anterior to coronalis pore 4-5, posteriorly 8-9. Cheek and opercular scales ctenoid, 4-5 rows of scales on cheek. Three rows of scales on opercle, one row each on preopercle, subopercle and interopercle, a few scales anterior to cheek cycloid. Lateral line divided into two segments, with anterior segment more dorsally located than posterior segment. Upper lateral line begins at dorsal origin of operculum. Lower lateral line begins at vertical through the posterior end of anal fin origin, vertically centered along length of caudal peduncle. Circumpeduncular scale rows nine above, nine below lateral line, totaling 19. Dorsal fin scale cover up to 3-4 scales wide; anal fin scale cover three

K. Geetakumari & K. Kadu

Table 1. Proportional measurements of Badis singenensis sp. nov. in percentage of standard length except standard length. Paratypes N=26 Holotype

Mean

Min.

Max.

S.D.

32.9

32.0

30.2

34.6

1.6

7.1

7.8

6.9

9.2

0.9

Orbital diameter

12.9

10.4

8.1

12.9

1.9

Interorbital width

9.4

10.7

9.2

13.3

1.5

Upper jaw length

8.2

8.3

7.6

8.8

0.4

Lower jaw length

9.4

9.8

9.4

10.2

0.4

Body depth

29.4

30.2

29.4

30.6

0.5

Pelvic fin length

25.9

24.7

23.4

25.9

0.9

Pelvic to anal fin distance

29.4

30.9

27.6

37.2

3.3

Standard length (mm)

0.85

Head length Snout length

Table 2. Counts of Badis singenensis sp. nov. Counts

Holotype

Paratypes Min.

Max.

D

15/7

15/7

15/8

P

14

14

14

A

iii,6

6

7

Lateral scale rows

32

29

32

Lateral line count

21/5

21/4

21/5

Lateral transverse scales

1½/1/7

1½/1/7

1½/1/7

Circumpeduncular scales

19

19

20

Toothplate count

5

5

Vertebrae

28

28

scales wide. Scales in vertical row 1½ above, seven below lateral lines. Toothplates on the first branchial arch five, vertebra 28 (16/12). Dorsal fin with long base, anterior insertion vertically above the pectoral fin insertion and posterior insertion at vertical through base of last anal-fin ray. Soft dorsal and anal fins with rounded tips reaching to almost about ½ or ⅓ of caudal fin. Caudal fin rounded. Pectoral fin rounded, extending about ⅔ distance to anal- fin origin. Pelvic fin elongated and pointed, inner branch of second soft ray longest, not reaching up to vent, but terminating close to vent in some large specimens. Head length, orbital diameter, interorbital width, upper jaw length and lower jaw length respectively (30.2–34.6), (8.1–12.9), (9.2– 13.3), (7.6–8.8) and (9.4–10.2) % SL.

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Table 3. Frequency distribution of meristic characters a

Dorsal fin counts (spines/soft rays) Specimens

15/8 1

15/7 8

16/9 3

17/8 3

7 3

8 3

b

Anal fin counts Specimens

5 2

6 7

c

Pectoral fin counts Specimens

13 4

14 11

d

Lateral scale rows Specimens

29 1

30 3

31 9

32 -

33 2

e

Lateral line scale counts (upper/lower scales) Specimens

20/5 1

21/4 1

20/6 1

21/5 10

22/4 2

f

Tooth plate Specimens

5 3

6 1

g

Vertebrae number Specimens

15/13 2

15/14 1

Table 4. Comparison of proportional measurements in % SL and counts of Badis singenensis sp. nov. with related species. Proportions

B. singenensis sp.nov.

B. assamensis

B. blosyrus

Tooth plate count

5

7–9

10–13

Interorbital width

11.25(9.2–13.3)

5.4(4.8–6.0)

7.4(6.4–8.0)

Upper jaw length

8.2(7.6–8.8)

10.3(9.7–10.9)

12.8(12.0–13.6)

Lower jaw length Head length Scales in lateral row

9.8(9.4–10.2)

13.7(12.7–14.6)

17.4(16.3–18.5)

32.4(30.2–34.6)

31.9(29.2–34.5)

37.4(36.0–38.8)

26(25–26)

28–29

27(27–28)

Colouration Live colours: body dark slaty gray dorsally, paler on sides, each scale with reddish tinge; dorsal fin reddish, tips of fin rays black. Caudal fin orange, paired fins and anal fin slaty gray with reddish tinge. Posterodorsally on opercle, at base of opercular spine, a rounded black spot covering 3-4 scales. Three distinct dark black blotches surrounded by red coloration at dorsal fin base: the first behind the third dorsal spine, the second behind the sixth dorsal spine and the third, behind the fifth dorsal soft ray. A black blotch at the base behind the fifth soft anal fin ray. In 10% formalin: supraorbital stripe prominent, rounded black opercular spot prominent. Body with 5–6 broad black bars. Black bar on caudal peduncle well separated from the preceeding bar between posterior ends of dorsal and anal fin bases. Black blotches on dorsal fin base and soft anal fins prominent. Dorsal fin gray with narrow, contrasting white margin, and each lappet with a blackish submarginal stripe. Sexual dimorphism Males have brighter body colour than their female 2088

counterpart. In the male vertical bars on posterior portion of lateral body are more distinct than on the female which are less distinct or absent. During the breeding season (April to June) males develop a red coloured mark on their soft dorsal and soft anal fin and in some female specimens red coloured marks were observed in lateral scales. Females have a deeper body height than the males. Etymology The species is named after the Singen River, Arunachal Pradesh, type locality of the species. Distribution Presently known only from Singen River at SakuKadu Village, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh, Brahmaputra drainage, northeastern India. Discussion Badis singenensis is distinguished from all its congeners by the presence (vs. absence) of black blotches on the dorsal fin and one on the soft anal fin. It further differs from its nearest congener, B. assamensis

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Badis singenensis, a new species

in having fewer tooth plates (5 vs. 7–9), scales in lateral row (25–26 vs. 28–29); wider interorbital region (9.2–13.3 vs. 4.8–6.0% SL); shorter upper jaw (7.6–8.8 vs.9.7–10.9% SL) and lower jaw (9.4–10.2 vs. 12.7–14.6% SL). It is also distinguished from B. blosyrus in having fewer tooth plates (5 vs. 10–13); less scales in lateral row (25–25 vs. 27–28); shorter head length (30.2–34.6 vs. 36.0–38.8% SL); wider interorbital space (9.2–13.3 vs. 6.4–8.0% SL); shorter upper jaw (7.6–8.8 vs.12.0–13.6%SL) and lower jaw (9.4–10.2 vs. 16.3–18.5%SL). Badis singenensis differs from its congeners from the Brahmaputra basin, viz., B. badis, B. dibruensis, B. kanabos and B. tuivaiei by the presence (vs. absence) of black blotch on the soft anal fin. It further differs from B. badis in having wider interorbital space (9.2– 13.3 vs. 6.5–8.3% SL) and shorter lower jaw (9.4–10.2 vs. 11.3–14.5% SL). It also differs from B. dibruensis in having longer upper jaw (7.6–8.8 vs. 6.1–6.9% SL) and lower jaw (9.4–10.2 vs. 7.8–8.3% SL). It further differs from B. kanabos in having wider interorbital space (9.2–13.3 vs. 7.3–8.6% SL) and shorter lower jaw (9.4–10.2 vs. 11.0–13.5% SL). It also further differs from B. tuivaiei in having wider interorbital space (9.2–13.3 vs. 5.6–7.2% SL) and shorter lower jaw (9.4–10.2 vs 10.9–16.4). The new species differs from all the five species of the Irrawaddy drainage in the presence (vs. absence) of opercle blotch and in the presence (vs. absence) of black blotch on the soft dorsal fin. It further differs from B. ferrarisi in having longer interorbital width (9.2–13.3% SL) and longer lower jaw (11.3–12.8 vs. 9.4–10.2% SL). Badis singenensis also differs from B. siamensis and B. khwae in the absence (vs. presence) of opercle blotch and from B. chittagongis in absence (vs. presence) of opercle blotch. Kullander & Britz (2002) classified the species of Badis into five groups viz., B. ruber, B. assamensis, B.

K. Geetakumari & K. Kadu

corycaeus, B. kyar and B. badis group. They reported B. assamensis group to be characteristic in having an opercle blotch and believed that more numbers of undescribed species of the group exist in the region. The new species under description belongs to the B. assamensis group. Comparative materials Badis assamensis: MUMF Per-51-54, 4, 41.6–55.8 mm SL; India; Assam, Dibrugarh, Dibru River; Badis assamensis: RGUMF-0180, 2, 49–52 mm SL, Dibang river, Lohit, Arunachal Pradesh, India; B. badis: MUMF Per-55-65, 11, 23.5–28.7 mm SL; India; Manipur, Barak River; Badis badis: RGUMF- 0149, 5, 23–40 mm SL, Mebang River, Arunachal Pradesh, India; B. blosyrus: MUMF Per-66-68, 3, 36.8–38.9 mm SL; India; Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit River; B. dibruensis: MUMF- Per 95, Holotype, 1, 37.3mm SL; India; Assam, Dibrugarh, Dibru River; B. ferrarisi: MUMF Per- 69-75, 7, 32.0–44.0 mm SL; India; Manipur, Lokchao River; B. kanabos: MUMF Per-7681, 6, 48.7–54.9 mm SL; India; Manipur, Barak River; B. tuivaiei: MUMF 5125-5132, 8, 53.5–59.4 mm SL; India; Manipur, Tuivai and Irang River.

References Greenwood, P.H. (1976). A review of the family centropomidae (Pisces, Perciformes). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 29(1): 1–81. Hollister, G. (1934). Clearing and dyeing fish for bone study. Zoologica 12: 89–101. Kullander, S.O. & R. Britz (2002). Revision of the family Badidae (Teleostei: Perciformes), with description of a new genus and ten new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 13(4): 295–372.

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JoTT Short Communication

3(9): 2090–2094

Distribution of the Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae) in Gujarat State, India Sandeep B. Munjpara 1, B. Jethva 2 & C.N. Pandey 3 Junior Research Fellow, GEER Foundation, Indroda Nature Park, P.O. Sector-7, Gandhinagar 382007, Gujarat, India Asian Waterfowl Census Coordinator, Wetland International, C-101, Sarthak Apartment, Kh-0, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382007, India 3 Additional Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Sector-10, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382007, India Email: 1 sandeepmunjpara@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 bharatjethva2000@yahoo.co.in, 3 pandeycn08@rediffmail.com 1 2

Abstract: The last surviving population of the Indian Bustard (IB) of Gujarat State was found to be distributed in the coastal grasslands of the Abdasa and Mandvi talukas of Kachchh District. The major part of the present distribution range of IB falls in the Abdasa Taluka and a small portion of this range falls in the Mandvi Taluka of Kachchh District in Gujarat. Geographically, this distribution of the IB is located on the northern coast of the Gulf of Kachchh. The total area of this distribution range of the IB in Gujarat covers a total of 996.4km2 area. The entire area of the distribution range is more or less flat as compared to the surrounding typical topography of Kachchh District. The area within the distribution range of IB is mainly composed of grassland followed by open flat land. Keywords: Distirbution, Indian Bustard, Kachchh, Naliya grasslands.

Distribution is the ecological occurrence of a species in geographical areas, and information on distribution of any animal plays an important role in ecological research because the size, shape, orientation of the Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Rajiv S. Kalsi Manuscript details: Ms # o2756 Received 08 April 2011 Final received 03 August 2011 Finally accepted 02 September 2011 Citation: Sandeep B. Munjpara, B. Jethva & C.N. Pandey (2011). Distribution of the Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae) in Gujarat State, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2090–2094. Copyright: © Sandeep B. Munjpara, B. Jethva & C.N. Pandey 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: We are thankful to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India for financially supporting the present study. We sincerely acknowledge the valuable support received from Gujarat Forest Department. We extend our deep gratitude towards the forest officers of Kachchh Circle who constantly helped us out during various field visits. We are grateful to the staff members of GEER Foundation for helping and supporting our various activities for the project. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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distribution range and distribution pattern explains the conservation status of a species on a spatial scale. Such information is important for formulating future management strategies for the species under study. In view of the paucity of such information on the Critically Endangered (Bildlife Internation 2008) Indian Bustard (IB) [also known as the Great Indian Bustard (GIB)] in Gujarat, the present study was conducted to demarcate the boundaries of their distribution range in Gujarat based on systematic and scientific data collection. Study area This study was carried out in Naliya grasslands and surrounding areas in Abdasa as well as adjoining talukas (i.e. Mandvi, Lakhapat and Nakhtrana) of Kachchh District (Fig. 1). The area is located in the southwestern province of the district. On the southern side, it joins with the Gulf of Kachchh. Low precipitation and frequent drought condition in this area do not support the growth of big tree species; moisture from the air supports the growth of grass. Ecologically, this area is of the type of 5A/DS 4-Dry grassland with few scattered patches of 5A/DS 2-Dry Savannah forest as per Classification of Forest Types of India (Champion & Seth 1968). The study area was composed of both continuous and discontinuous patches of grassland. A part of the area was covered with only grasses and forbs, while other areas had grass cover as well as scattered bushes of Acacia spp., Prosopis juliflora, P. cineraria, Zizyphus spp., Salvadora spp.,and Caparis spp. Methods Preliminary information on the distribution of Indian Bustards in Gujarat was collected with the help of secondary literature and consultation with experienced ornithologists and nature lovers. The area under the intensive study (i.e. Naliya grassland) was

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Distribution of Indian Bustard

Figure 1. Stuey area

visited at least once a month. A total of 22 field visits were made from May 2006 to October 2007 and each field visit was of 4 to 10 days. The field visits were made to ensure data collection in all the seasons of the year as well as breeding and non-breeding phases of the species. Field observations were made with the help of powerful binoculars (Nikon-10X50) and spotting scope (Nikon-20X80). During each field visit, various physical and ecological parameters were noted upon sighting of the Indian Bustard [e.g. time of sightings, number of individuals (group size), their sex/age group (Male/Female/Juvenile), vegetation type where birds were sighted, activities of the birds, and the location of the birds]. The location of each sighting of the bustards was noted using GPS for studying distribution patterns and habitat preferences with respect to grass species, vegetation pattern etc. Results The population of Indian Bustards was found to be distributed in the coastal grasslands of the Abdasa and Mandvi talukas of Kachchh District (Fig. 2). This area is located in the southwestern province of Kachchh District in Gujarat (Fig. 2). A major part of the present distribution range of Indian Bustards falls in the Abdasa Taluka and a small portion of this range falls in the Mandvi Taluka of Kachchh District in Gujarat. The main locations of sightings of the species were grasslands and scrublands of some villages of Mandvi and Abdasa Taluka such as Bhanad, Kunathia, Naliya, Kalatalav, Jakhau, Jasapar, Gahdavada plot,

S.B. Munjpara et al.

 

Bhavanipar, Budiya, Rampar, Jasapar, Vinghaber, Khauda, Lala, Lala Bustard Sanctuary, Lathedi, Bhachunda, Parjav, Ranpar, Sandhan, Suthari, Udheja Van and Vinjan (GPS locations in Table 1). Geographically, this distribution of Indian Bustard was located on the northern coast of the Gulf of Kachchh and the western-most part of the state and the country. This population, distributed in Kachchh District, is known to be the last surviving population of Indian Bustards in Gujarat State as the species is not found to breed or be localized in any other parts in the state. The total area of this distribution range of Indian Bustard in Gujarat covered 996.4km2. The Indian Bustard’s population was distributed in 0.51% of the total area of Gujarat State and 2.18% total area of Kutch District. The distribution range lie between 23012’32.3”– 23011’1.1”N to 68040’14.4”–6909’26.4”E in an eastwest direction and from 23017’28.1”–2300’8.8”N to 68054’25.3”–6903’54.0”E in a north-south direction. The distribution range of the Indian Bustard overlapped the revenue land of more than 37 villages, forest areas and “Kachchh Bustard Sanctuary” in Gujarat. The spread of the distribution range of Indian Bustards started from Mothala Village in the east to Jakhau Village in the west and from Tera Village in the north to Babhadai Village (of Mandvi tehsil) in the south. The entire area of the distribution range was more or less flat as compared to the surrounding topography typical of Kachchh District. The habitat use pattern within the distribution range of the Indian Bustard suggested that the majority of the area was composed of grassland (28%) followed by open flat land (27%). Discussion Apart from the present distribution range, the Indian Bustard was not sighted anywhere else in the state throughout the study period. The Indian Bustard once had a widespread distribution in Saurashtra and Kachchh (Fig. 3). In Kathiawar Peninsula, it was found in all areas except the forest areas of Gir, Girnar and Bardahills (Dharmakumarsinhji 1957). From 1950 to 1979 the distribution range of Indian Bustard was restricted to five districts of Gujarat i.e. Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendranagar, Jamnagar and Bhavnagar. Later they were sighted in Velavadar National Park, Bhavnagar in 1980 (Rahmani & Manakadan 1990). By the end of the 1980s a few birds were recorded from Surendranagar and Rajkot (Rahmani & Manakadan 1990) (Fig. 3).

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S.B. Munjpara et al.

NAKHATRANA ABDASA

Naliya

Kunathia

Jakhau Vinghaber Lala

Bhanada

GIB singhtings Distribution range Taluka boundary

MANDVI

Grassland area

Figure 2. Annual distriution of Indian Bustard in Kachchh (Gujarat) between 2006â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2007

In Jamnagar, it was last sighted from 1985 to 1986 at Ghoghera Talab and Kalyanpur Taluka. At the end of 1990 Indian Bustard became rare in most parts of the state and the distribution range was restricted to the Kachchh District. After the year 1990 no sighting records of the Indian Bustard were made from other areas of the state except Kachchh. However, recently, a pair of Indian Bustards was recorded for a short duration in the grasslands of Velavadar National Park in Saurashtra region in December 2005 (V. Rathod, RFO, Gujarat Forest Department pers. comm.). Apart from this, very recently in May 2008 one individual Indian Bustard was observed (Yogendra Shah pers. comm.) in the sparse saline grassland habitat of Little Rann of Kachchh in Surendranagar District of Gujarat. These recent records suggest that the Indian Bustard may be dispersing from the source population either from its distribution in Gujarat or from Rajasthan. It is also likely that the populations of Indian Bustard in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan and the grasslands of Kachchh are mixing. It is likely that the birds are moving along the marginal grass patches on the edge of Great 2092

Rann and Little Rann of Kachchh in Banaskantha, Patan and Surendranager districts in Gujarat. The Indian Bustard is confirmed to be distributed only in six states of India that include Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat (Rahmani 2006). The Indian Bustard is not only locally extinct from its former range, it has also disappeared from the three sanctuaries declared 25 years ago for its protection (Rahmani 2006). One of these is Gaga Bustard Sanctuary, which lies in the Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat. It is in this context that the present distribution range in Kachchh has great conservation significance as the present distribution range has been holding the population of the Indian Bustard for a long duration compared to many other habitats in Gujarat and across India (Fig. 3).

References BirdLife International (2008). Ardeotis nigriceps. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version

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S.B. Munjpara et al.

Table 1. GPS coordinates of Indian Bustardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sightings in study area

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

dd 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23

Latitude mm 09 09 09 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

ss 07.7 50.3 54.6 29.9 43.8 46.6 49.4 53.6 56.1 56.8 57.2 00.4 00.7 01.1 02.9 06.5 08.9 10.3 15.4 17.9 18.8 20.5 24.8 25.4 27.4 31.8 35.8 37.9 36.9 40.8 42.2 43.8 49.2 49.8 50.9 51.2 52.4 52.9 53.6 59.2 59.8 00.0 04.9 05.6 09.0 09.8 11.5 11.6 11.9 12.5 13.4 13.8 14.3 14.4 14.8 15.7 15.9 19.5 21.2 22.1

dd 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 69 68 68 69 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68

Longitude mm 45 45 45 49 43 42 42 43 07 49 44 07 48 50 44 42 49 49 42 50 48 49 42 41 50 49 50 51 51 51 51 50 49 50 51 48 50 50 51 51 49 50 51 51 50 50 49 49 51 49 51 50 49 50 50 49 49 48 49 52

ss 43.7 39.1 37.7 32.4 54.2 56.7 56.8 04.5 20.1 18.8 01.6 09.7 25.8 19.3 06.4 55.5 31.7 51.0 57.7 48.4 15.5 13.3 44.5 46.6 20.1 16.8 10.2 05.5 56.6 21.4 08.6 48.5 22.1 24.3 19.8 53.2 16.9 18.2 10.1 16.1 27.1 31.2 11.2 06.2 04.5 08.2 44.6 59.6 00.3 16.3 02.2 41.0 33.1 56.2 29.9 35.3 11.4 42.2 00.1 00.8

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118

23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23

Latitude 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 17

22.2 23.7 28.9 33.3 37.3 42.8 43.8 44.2 45.0 47.6 48.0 49.3 49.8 50.0 50.5 51.6 51.9 59.8 00.9 04.1 08.8 13.2 15.8 17.4 19.4 20.8 24.5 25.4 25.5 27.1 30.4 30.7 33.4 33.5 36.1 37.7 38.9 39.8 44.5 45.8 46.6 48.9 50.7 56.9 00.0 02.7 05.6 08.1 11.3 25.1 27.3 42.2 44.1 09.1 11.3 42.6 49.8 09.8

68 68 68 68 68 69 68 69 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 69 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 69 69 68 68 69 68 68 68 68 68

Longitude 48 50 50 51 51 00 48 03 48 50 50 50 51 51 58 55 55 59 58 51 49 50 47 57 57 58 57 59 57 57 59 58 57 59 57 59 58 58 00 58 57 58 59 57 58 57 57 58 01 01 58 59 01 56 55 55 55 54

16.0 58.8 44.4 37.1 09.3 17.8 59.6 01.3 38.2 26.3 48.9 35.9 59.3 52.0 00.5 20.4 20.4 20.8 11.6 03.0 25.5 06.7 36.6 10.4 23.9 04.9 47.8 05.2 27.5 28.0 10.9 21.1 14.1 41.7 52.8 16.3 25.1 42.6 17.5 21.0 53.2 23.1 30.9 03.8 12.3 38.8 48.0 14.6 03.2 16.7 00.5 26.4 00.0 27.3 31.3 33.7 56.2 14.4

dd - degree; mm - minute; ss - second * Many times, more than one bird was sighed at the same locations

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S.B. Munjpara et al. a

b

c

d

e

Recent sighting of Indian Bustard in Little Rann of Kuchchh

Distribution range of Indian Bustard Locations/site of occurrence of Indian Bustards

Figure 3. Shrinking of distribution range of Indian Bustard in Gujarat. Maps adapted from 3(a) - Dharmakumarsinhiji (1957); 3(b) - Rahmani & Manakadan (1990); 3(c) - Rahmani & Manakadan (1990) and Rahmani (2001); Incidental sightings of the species of 2005 and 2008 have not been shown in the map which indicates 3(d) - distribution from 2001 onwards; 3(e) - Based on present study and incidental sighting.

2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2011. Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A Revised Survey of Forest Types of India. Government of India Publication, New Delhi, 404pp. Dharmakumarsinhiji, K.S. (1957). Ecological Study of the Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Vigor) (Aves: Otididae) in Kathiawar Peninsula, Western India. Journal of Zoological Society of India 9: 140–152.

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Rahmani, A.R. & R. Manakadan (1990). The past and present distribution of the Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Vigors) in India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 87: 175–194. Rahmani, A.R. (2001). The Godawan Saga: Great Indian Bustards in decline. Sanctuary (Asia) 21(1): 24–28 Rahmani, A.R. (2006). Need to Start Project Bustards. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 20pp.

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JoTT Note

Distribution of six little known plant species from Arunachal Pradesh, India S.S. Dash 1 & A.A. Mao 2 Botanical Survey of India, Arunachal Pradesh Regional Centre, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh 791111, India Email: 1 ssdash2002@yahoo.co.in (corresponding author), 2 aamao2001@yahoo.co.in

Arunachal Pradesh being a part of the HimalayaEast Himalaya biogeographic zone (Rodgers et al. 2000) is also the confluence point of three biogeographic realms, namely, the Afro-tropical, the Indo-Malayan and the Indo-Chinese (Takhtajan 1969). It harbours a unique composition of different plant communities, influenced by various factors including rainfall, temperature, humidity and altitude (Biswas 1966). The biodiversity of Arunachal Pradesh is supported by a wide range of endemic species and various fragile ecosystems. More than 82% of the geographical area of the state is covered with forests, which are the custodians of c. 29% flowering plants of India (Hajra & Mudgal 1997). During the recent floristic survey conducted in the Kurung Kumey District of Arunachal Pradesh, six interesting species were collected which were known only from the type locality. The present collection of these species from areas other than the type localities confirms that they may have a wider distribution in this region. Out of the six species, Dalbergia thomsonii Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: P. Lakshminarasimhan Manuscript details: Ms # o2688 Received 31 January 2011 Final received 13 August 2011 Finally accepted 29 August 2011 Citation: Dash, S.S. & A.A. Mao (2011). Distribution of six little known plant species from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2095–2099. Copyright: © S.S. Dash & A.A. Mao 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to Director, Botanical Survey of India, and Kolkata for encouragement and facility. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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Benth., Larsenianthus assamensis S. Dey, Mood & S. Choudhury and Plectocomia himalayana Griff. are reported for the first time from the state while Begonia silhetensis (A.DC.) C.B. Clarke, Larsenianthus arunachalensis M. Sabu, Sanoj & T. Rajesh Kumar and Tricarpelema glanduliferum (J. Joseph & R.S. Rao) R.S. Rao show extended distribution. These species are provided with the valid name, citation, family name in parenthesis, followd by the specimens studied, a short description, phenology data, critical field notes and photographs for easy identification. The herbarium where the specimens were available are also given in parenthesis. (CAL: Central National Herbarium; ARUN: Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India, Arunachal Pradesh Regional Centre). 1. Begonia silhetensis (A. DC.) C.B. Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 636. 1879; Golding & Kareg. in Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 60: 233. 1986. Casparya silhetensis A. DC., Prodr. 15(1): 277. 1864. (Begoniaceae) Specimens studied: Arunachal Pradesh: Abor Hills, I.H. Burkill 37376 (CAL); Kurung Kumey District: On way from Sangram to Koloriang, S.S. Dash 31223 (ARUN); NEFA (Kameng), G.Panigrahi 6029 (CAL). Succulent herbs with tuberous, fibrous rootstock. Stem 35–90 cm high, glabrous. Leaves obliquely ovate-cordate, 16–28 x 13–22 cm, glabrous, glaucous and whitish beneath, shaggy on both surfaces, base broadly cordate, margins finely denticulate, often glandular at dentate tips, apex acute or acuminate, broadly palmately veined with 7–8 further forked midribs; stipules ovate, 1–1.5 cm long, apex acuminate; petioles 15–50 cm long, glabrous or occasionally covered with whitish hairs, often purple tinged. Inflorescence in scapes, 5–12 cm long. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers: white or pinkish-white; sepals two, oblanceolate or oblong-ovate, 1–1.8 x 0.8– 1.5 cm; petals usually two, occasionally 3–10, cyclic; stamens numerous, yellowish. Female flowers: sepals and petals similar to male flowers; styles bifid, connate at base. Fruits globose, 1.5–4.5 cm across, glabrous to densely brownish hairy, often variegated. Flowering & Fruiting: January–June.

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Six little known plants

S.S. Dash & A.A. Mao © S.S. Dash

Image 1. Begonia silhetensis (A. DC.) C.B. Clarke

Ecology: Found in gregarious patches on forest floors, moist and damp grounds of primary forests, 800–1500 m. Notes: After type, this species was first collected by I.H. Burkill from the Abor Hills of Arunachal Pradesh on 24.xi.1911 and was known only from its type locality till it was recollected from Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh on 24.iii.1957 by G. Panigrahi. While exploring the Kurung Kumey District, the species was again collected and a good population was found scattered along the primary forest floors. 2. Dalbergia thomsonii Benth. in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4 (Suppl.): 33.1860; Baker in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 236. 1876; Sanjappa, Legumes India 141. 1992. Amerimnon thomsonii (Benth.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 159. 1891. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) Specimens studied: Arunachal Pradesh: Kurung Kumey District: Kurung River to Yangtey, S.S. Dash 32834 (ARUN); Lower Subansiri District: Yazali, G.D.Pal 1265 (ARUN); West Siang District: on way to Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, S.S. Dash 32280 (ARUN). Large woody climbers. Stem glabrous; branchlets lenticellate. Leaves 10–15 cm long, petioles terete; 2096

leaflets imparipinnate, oblong-elliptic or elliptic, 2–3.5 x 1–2 cm, glabrous on both surfaces, base cuneate or rounded, margins entire, apex emarginate; lateral veins 7–8 pairs, prominent beneath; petiolules 3–4 mm long, terete; stipules 4–5 mm long. Inflorescence in axillary and terminal panicles, corymbose at first; branches ascending and ultimate becoming scorpioid. Flowers deciduous; bracts acuminate. Calyx minutely pubescent, unequally 5-lobed; upper 2-lobed, rounded at apex, connate at base; lower 3-lobed. Petals pinkishwhite; standard suborbicular or elliptic-obovate, 7–10 x 5–8 mm, emarginate at apex; wings oblong; keels boat shaped. Anther filaments unequal, connate with a sheath at base. Pods greenish, narrowed at base, strap shaped, 5–10 x 2.5–4 cm, indehiscent, glabrous. Seed one. Flowering & Fruiting: July–January. Ecology: Found occasionally in the primary dense forests, 400–1200 m. Notes: Dalbergia thomsonii Benth. is endemic to Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura (Kumar & Sane 2003). This species was first collected from Arunachal Pradesh by G.D. Pal from Yazali of Lower Subansiri District and wrongly identified as Dalbergia assamica Benth. [synonym of Dalbergia lanceolaria L.f. var. assamica (Benth.) Thoth.]. The species was again collected by one of us (SSD) from subtropical primary forests of Kurung Kumey and West Siang districts. Dalbergia thomsonii Benth. can be differentiated from the other climbing species of the genus Dalbergia of Arunachal Pradesh by the presence of emarginate elliptic leaves, axillary and terminal panicled inflorescence which are initially corymbose later becoming ascending scorpioid.

© S.S. Dash

Image 2. Dalbergia thomsonii Benth.

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3. Larsenianthus arunachalensis M. Sabu, Sanoj & T. Rajesh Kumar in PhytoKeys 1: 28, fig 4 & Pl. 1D. 2010. (Zingiberaceae) Specimens studied: Arunachal Pradesh: Kurung Kumey District: along the Wabia River, on way to Parlo, S.S. Dash 31721 (ARUN). Herbs, 1–1.5 m high. Rhizomes c. 1.9cm across, hard, fibrous, slightly aromatic, inner colour pale brown. Leaves 2–4 per flowering shoot, elliptic-oblong, 35–75 × 11–18 cm, base narrowly attenuate, margins entire, apex finely acuminate; lateral veins depressed below; basal leaf sheath red, glabrous; petioles 15–25 cm long, glabrous; ligules lanceolate 6–12 × 2–2.5 cm, glabrous, apex attenuate. Inflorescence terminal on leafy shoots, erect, 25–65 cm long; spikes elliptic, 11–15 x 3–4 cm; floral bracts deep red, spirally arranged and closely imbricate, orbicular to broadly elliptic, 2–2.7 × 2.5– 2.8 cm, coriaceous, glabrous, apex acute; bracteoles tubular, longer than bracts. Flowers conspicuous, 2–4 per bract. Calyx tubular, pale red, white towards base, 1.4–1.6 cm long, glabrous, apex trilobed; floral tube red, 3.2–3.3 cm long; dorsal lobe reflexed, sparsely pubescent; lateral lobes glabrous. Lateral staminodes orbicular to broadly elliptic, pinkish-white; labellum red to creamy yellow towards base, 20–25 × 2.5–3 mm; fertile stamens red; anthers creamy-yellow, arching like a fish-hook. Ovary trilocular; stigma white, bulbous, margins ciliate, exserted. Flowering & Fruiting: July - September. Ecology: Occasionally found in dense and extremely moist primary forests, 1200–1500 m. Notes: This species was recently described by Sabu et al. from Lohit District of Arunachal Pradesh (Kress et al. 2010) and was known only from the type locality. While surveying the Kurung Kumey District, the species was collected by one of us (SSD) from a single locality where c. 150 adult plants were growing. The occurrence of this species in Kurung Kumey District shows that the species might have a wider distribution in the state. It is interesting to note that the specimens collected from Kurung Kumey District differ from the protologue by its complete nature of glabrousness. Studies on the herbarium specimens as well as live plants in the field, could not confirm the hairy nature of leaf ligules, pubescent nature of the leaf lamina with silvery hair, twisting condition of the leaf apex and pubescent nature of the floral bract as mentioned in the protologue.

S.S. Dash & A.A. Mao © S.S. Dash

Image 3. Larsenianthus arunachalensis M.Sabu, Sanoj & T. Rajesh Kumar

4. Larsenianthus assamensis S. Dey, Mood & S. Choudhury in PhytoKeys 1: 26, fig.3 & Pl. 1C. 2010. (Zingiberaceae) Specimens studied: Arunachal Pradesh: West Siang District: on way to Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, S.S. Dash 32218 (ARUN). Rhizomatous herbs, 60–80 cm high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 20–35 × 5–7 cm, glabrous above, glaucous beneath, base narrowed to a leaf sheath, margins entire, apex finely acuminate; leaf sheaths 5–11 cm long, drying brown, whitish inside; ligules bilobed. Inflorescence terminal, usually on a reflexed peduncle, erect, 7–9 x 3–8 cm, glabrous; involucral bracts deep red, 3–4 x 0.7–1 cm, acuminate at apex; floral bracts overlapping, closely clasping to each other, 2–3 x 0.8–1.3 cm, conspicuously veined. Flowers white, 1-3 per bract. Calyx tubular. Corolla lobes linear-lanceolate; lobes conspicuous. Staminodes reddish, ovate, with a reflexed labellum of 2–2.5 cm long; fertile stamens whitish, light orange outside arched at base, oblong. Ovary trilobed. Flowering & Fruiting: July–September. Ecology : Occasionally found in the primary dense forests, 300–700 m. Notes: This species was recently described from Barail Wildlife Sanctuary, Cachar District, Assam by Dey et al. and was known only from two locations in the sanctuary (Kress et al. 2010). The present collection from the Kane Wildlife Sanctuary (West Siang District) establishes northern extension of the species and its first record for the state of Arunachal Pradesh. During the survey, only 10–15 plants were observed in the field.

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© S.S. Dash

Image 4. Larsenianthus assamensis S.Dey, Mood & S. Choudhury

5. Plectocomia himalayana Griff. in Calcutta J . Nat. Hist. 5: 100.1845; Karthik et al., Fl. Ind. Enum. Monocot. 21. 1989; Govaerts & J. Dransf., World Checklist Palms 180. 2005. (Arecaceae) Specimens studied: Arunachal Pradesh: Kurung Kumey District: Miri to Yangtey, S.S. Dash 31341(ARUN). Scandent shrubs. Stems up to 20m long, ascending. Leaf sheaths tomentose, densely spiny; spines straight, arranged in wavy manner, oblique at mouth. Petioles very short, often clasping to stem. Leaves 2–3.5 m long; pinnae linear-lanceolate, narrowed to a long filiform cirrate apex; rachis flattened, tomentose, lower part sometimes spiny, upper part heavily armed with recurved spines (grapnels). Male rachis zigzag; bracteoles minute; inflorescences axillary; peduncles drooping, covered with densely overlapping floral bracts broadly ovate or rhombic, 4–5 cm long, apex acuminate; calyx tubular, finely tomentose outside, apex acuminate. Fruits globose, spherical, reddishbrown on maturity. Flowering & Fruiting: August–March. Ecology: Common in dense subtropical forests, 500–2000 m. Notes: This species is distributed from Nepal to China (Yunnan). In India it was known to occur in Sikkim. The present collection from Kurung Kumey District forms the basis for the first report of its distribution in Arunachal Pradesh. Vegetatively, the species is easily confused with the scandent species of Calamus in wild, but can be differentiated by the presence of sharp spines on wavy lamellae, long filiform leaf tips, drooping inflorescence and rachilla 2098

© S.S. Dash

Image 5. Plectocomia himalayana Griff.

often hidden by broad bracts. Traditionally the pith of this species is used as fodder and the stem fiber is used for making houses and baskets by the Nishi tribe. 6. Tricarpelema glanduliferum (J. Joseph & R.S. Rao) R.S. Rao in J. Indian Bot. Soc. 59 (Suppl.): II(III). 1980; Karthik. et al. Fl. Ind. Enum. Monocot. 31. 1989; Faden in Novon 17: 167. 2007. Aneilema glanduliferum J. Joseph & R.S. Rao in J. Indian Bot. Soc. 47: 367. 1969. (Commelinaceae) Specimens studied: Arunachal Pradesh: Kurung Kumey District: near Palin, S.S. Dash 31334 (ARUN). Herbs. Stems up to 85cm high, puberulous or glabrous. Leaves lanceolate, 11–17 x 1–5 cm, upper surface papillose-hispid, hispid only on veins beneath, finely acuminate at apex, hispid-ciliate at margins, narrowed to very short petiole-like base; sheaths widely cylindric, 2.2–3 cm long; upper leaves almost overlapping. Inflorescence 5–17.5 cm long, densely glandular-pubescent, terminal; bracteoles leaving scars; flowers borne near ends of branches; pedicels 1–1.5 cm long. Flowers pale mauve to bright blue.

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was described from Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh. Tricarpelema glanduliferum is very similar to Tricarpelema giganteum (Hassk.) H. Hara which occurs commonly in Eastern Himalaya. However, the former species can be differentiated from the latter by the presence of multicellular glandular hairs in inflorescence and pedicels. Due to their close morphological similarity, either of the species is often overlooked by the collectors, unless both the species are in flowering condition. The present collection of this rare species made on 08 September 2009 from Arunachal Pradesh after a lapse of 46 years after type collection from an area other than the type locality also confirms occurrence of this species in India. © S.S. Dash

Image 6. Tricarpelema glanduliferum (J. Joseph & R.S. Rao) R.S. Rao

Sepals oblong-elliptic, margins scarious, apex hooded, 4–5 x 3 mm, glandular-pubescent. Petals obovate, rounded, c. 6 x 5 mm. Ovary narrowly ellipsoid, c. 3 x l mm, tapering upwards into style, glabrous; style c. 9mm long, filiform, twisted at apex. Fruiting branch stout, upward curving, each bearing single capsule. Capsule segments narrowly oblanceolate. Flowering & Fruiting: July–October. Ecology: Scattered along river banks or stream sides, 700–1800 m. Notes: Tricarpelema glanduliferum (J. Joseph & R.S. Rao) R.S. Rao is known to occur in India (Arunachal Pradesh) and Vietnam. This species

REFERENCES Biswas, K.P. (1966). Plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas.Government Press, Calcutta, 540pp, Hajra, P.K. & V. Mudgal (1997). Diversity in Hotspots - An Overview. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 1-12pp Kress, W.J., J.D. Mood, M. Sabu, L.M. Prince, S. Dey & E. Sanoj (2010). Larsenianthus, a new Asian genus of Gingers (Zingiberaceae) with four species. PhytoKeys 1: 15–32. Kumar, S. & P.V. Sane (2003). Legumes of South Asia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, p.176. Rodger, W.A., H.S. Panwar & V.B. Mathur (2000). Biogeographical Classification of India in Wildlife Protected Area Network in India: A Review (Executive Summary). Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, 49pp. Takhtajan, A. (1969). Flowering Plants, Origin and Dispersal. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 310pp.

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New distributional record of Gentiana tetrasepala Biswas (Gentianales: Gentianaceae) from the Valley of Flowers National Park, Garhwal Himalaya C.S. Rana 1, V. Rana 2 & M.P.S. Bisht 3 State Medicinal Plants Board Uttarakhand, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248006, India, 2,3 Department of Geology, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand 246174, India Email: 1 drcsir@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 virendrarana3@yahoo.co.in, 3 mpbisht@gmail.com 1

Endemic plants are more prone to extinction for various reasons as they are habitat specific. Because of unstable habitats, in a small area with a limited population they are extra stressed. Therefore, such endemics must be prioritized for conservation efforts (Rawat 2009). Considering this, we have been trying to locate the populations of alpine endemics in the Garhwal Himalaya and succeeded in rediscovering Arenaria curvifolia Majumdar after 121 years (Rawat & Rana 2007) and Dicranostigma lactucoides Hk. f. et Thoms. after 150 years (Rawat et al. 2009). After our recent floristic survey in relation to glacial recession and the upward shift of the vegetation at the alpine Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K.S. Negi Manuscript details: Ms # o2572 Received 15 September 2010 Final received 29 April 2011 Finally accepted 10 August 2011 Citation: Rana, C.S., V. Rana & M.P.S. Bisht (2011). New distributional record of Gentiana tetrasepala Biswas (Gentianales: Gentianaceae) from the Valley of Flowers National Park, Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2100–2103.

meadows of the Valley of Flowers National Park (VoFNP) (Image 1), we report here the recollection of Gentiana tetrasepala Biswas along with the causes of recent threats and the high need of conservation. Gentiana tetrasepala was described by Biswas in 1938 on the basis of specimens collected by J.F. Duthie (No. 3166 CAL) from Ralam Valley (Kumaon Garhwal) on 26 August 1884. Since then the species was never recorded leading to the general assumption that the species had either become extinct or is not a distinct and taxonomically valid species (Garg 1987). Chowdhery & Murti (2000) mentioned this species among the red taxa as per IUCN’s criteria of red taxa (IUCN 1994). It was placed under the ‘IK’ (insufficiently known) category as per the Indian Red Data Book (Nayar & Shastry 1987). Rawat (2009) suggested that it be placed under the category ‘I’ (indeterminate). This species has a restricted geographical range (one small population in the alpine zone of VoFNP, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand). It has a very habitat-specific occurrence and seems partially affected by the recent upward shifting of the vegetation due to global warming and regional climatic variations. More recently, Rawat (2009) re-discovered this species from Madhu Ganga Valley in Kedarnath (4700m) in Rudarprayag District after a long gap of 123 years. Our specimen (CSR-GUH 19587) collected from Kunth Khal (3800m) (Image 2) above Bhyundar Ganga (Garhwal Himalaya) in August 2009 suggests a wider range and protection in a World Heritage Site (VoFNP) unlike the population recorded by Rawat (2009) in a highly disturbed site. The voucher specimens are

© Dr. C.S. Rana

Copyright: © C.S. Rana, V. Rana & M.P.S. Bisht 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to Dr. G.S. Rawat, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun for going through the manuscript and constructive criticism and to Dr. R.C. Sundriyal, Director Herbal Research & Development Institute, Mandal-Gopeshwar, Chamoli for providing laboratory facilities. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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Image 1. Wide view of Valley of Flowers National Park

 

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New record of Gentiana tetrasepala

C.S. Rana et al. © Dr. C.S. Rana

© Dr. D.S. Rawat

 

Image 3. Gentiana tetrasepala Biswas

Image 2. Kunth Khal (Habitat of Gentiana tetrasepala)

deposited at the Herbarium of Garhwal University (GUH), Srinagar, Garhwal and Pantanagar University Herbarium (PUH) (441/2) (Image 3). The present collection outside the type locality (Barjikang Pass in Ralam Valley of Kumaon Garhwal) indicates a wider range of distribution, though it is still an endemic of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. The noticeable threats to its survival (i) and potential threats (ii, iii) are: (i) Invasion of timberline species i.e. Selinum vaginatum (Edgew.) C.B. Clarke, Solidago virgaurea L., Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo, Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet, Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth., Potentilla atrosanguinea Lodd. ex Lehm, Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims.) C.B. Clarke, Malaxis cylindrostachya O. Kuntze, Meconopsis aculeata Royle, Saxifraga stenophylla Royle, and Stellaria decumbens Edgew. towards permanent snowline (Rana et al. 2010). (ii) Inevitable replacement of habitat in unstable reducing glacial cover and snow covers. (iii) Global warming and regional climate change induced upward shift of sub-alpine flora which produce habitat replacement. Korner (1999) strongly suggested a similar consequential stress on alpine vegetation. Global warming and micro-climatic changes are known to induce upward range shift (some times downward) of the plant species (Grabher et al. 1994; Grace et al. 2002; Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Dubey et al. 2003; Lenior et al. 2008; Xu et al. 2009; Rana et al. 2010).

 

If, the aforesaid reference trends are applied to only the well known protected population (habitat) of G. tetrasepala it will certainly disappear within the next few decades. The reason being that it is an obligatory seeder (annual) and is restricted to open high elevation terrain and it exhibits fast responses to climatic variation i.e. upward shift of the alpine plant species (Rana et al. 2010). G. tetrasepala occupies sparsely vegetated stable slopes where ample open spaces are available for seeds to reach the soil level and germinate (Rawat 2009). However, rising temperatures, longer season length, and increased N2 supply alone or in combination will open the alpine terrain for invaders from lower elevations and create pressure for an upward shift of alpine plant species towards the snowline (Rana et al. 2010). In such cases the existing habitat will allow other species from the lower alpine slopes to occupy available spaces making it a close vegetated slope. Consequently, G. tetrasepala will be eliminated due to unavailable open spaces at existing altitudes (Rawat 2009). Simultaneously, an upward shift is also possible in this terrain where the area is meadow and it is likely that soil will be available there even after half a century due to the recent disappearance of glacial mass, volume, area and length (Mehta et al. 2011). The area where a population is located in the debris slide zone was earlier a grazing land of local livestock, which is now conserved. These few hundred plants of the species protected from anthropogenic pressure are at risk from upwards shifting of the alpine plant species (Grabher et al. 1994; Grace et al. 2002; Dubey et al. 2003; Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Lenoir et al. 2008;

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New record of Gentiana tetrasepala

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Image 4. Map showing current distribution record of Gentiana tetrasepala

Xu et al. 2009; Rana et al. 2010). Considering a single extant population of few hundred individuals, the annual nature of the species, the severity of unpredictable climate and the stress posed by the upward shift of sub-alpine flora due to the recent climatic and glacial variations, its status must be reassessed as it is threatened. The present habitat of G. tetrasepala has provided an opportunity for its conservation but at the same time further studies need to be carried out with concerns of recent environmental changes and habitat replacement in the Valley of Flowers National Park. Gentiana tetrasepala Biswas in Hk. f. Ic. Plant 4: ser.5.t. 3359. 1938; Garg, Gentianaceae of Northwest Himalaya, 107, 1987; Rawat, Nat. Acad. Sci. Lett. 169-172. 2009. A tiny, glabrous, annual, alpine herb, 0.8–3 cm across. Root slender, filiform, branched. Stem branched at base; diffuse, 0.5–1 cm long, ascending in 2102

flowering, prostrate in fruit, glabrous, thin, greenish. Leaves radical 2-3 pairs, leaves of lowermost pair rounded to obovate-spathulate, cauline leaves obovate to pandurate, 2-5 x 1.5–3 mm; elliptic-lanceolate, entire, mucronate, recurved, glabrous, 1.5–2.0 x 2–4 mm, sessile. Flowers solitary, terminal on branches, pedicellate, 4-merous, 2–4 mm long, greenish. Calyx lobes four, 2–4 mm long, green, tube 2–2.5 mm, constricted at the upper end, lobes spreading, dissimilar, reflexed in fruit, ovate to lanceolate, 1–1.5 mm long, margins scarcely cartilaginous, entire, glabrous, acute. Corolla dull-white, shorter than calyx but slightly exceeding calyx tube, elliptic, 2–3.5 mm long, 4 lobed, lobes erect, very small, scarcely exceeding 0.5mm, entire, obtuse or rounded, plicae broadly triangular, slightly smaller than corolla lobes, incised or bidentate, acute. Stamens four, very small, inserted on the middle of corolla tube, filaments as long as or shorter than anther, filiform, 0.5–1 mm; anther

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New record of Gentiana tetrasepala

ovate-oblong, included in corolla tube. Ovary elliptic or obovate, 1–1.5 x 2–3 mm, shortly stipitate, with orange-yellow nectariferous ring at base; style short, slender; stigma with two partially circinate lobes. Fruit a capsule with 3–7 mm long stipe, exserted of corolla tube at maturity, 3x4 mm, obovate, opening halfway down only, halves reflexed. Seeds brown, ovate-oblong, 1x0.75 mm, 15–25 per capsule. Flowering and fruiting: July–October.

References Chowdhery, H.J & S.K. Murti (2000). Plant Diversity and Conservation in India - An Overview. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, 303pp. Dubey, B.R., J, Yadav, R. Singh & Chaturvedi (2003). Upward shift of Himalayan Pine in Western Himalaya, India. Current Science 85: 1135–1136. Garg, S. (1987). Gentianaceae of Northwest Himalaya: A Revision. Today and Tomorrow’s Printing & Publication, New Delhi, 342pp. Grabher, G., M. Gottfried & H. Pauli (1994). Climate effects on mountain plants. Nature 369: 448. Grace, J., F. Berninger & L. Nagy (2002). Impact of climate change on the tree line. Annals of Botany 90: 537-544. IUCN (1994). Red list categories. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. ICUN, Gland, Switzerland. Korner, C. (1999). Alpine Plant Life. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Lenoir, J., J.C. Gegout, P.A. Marquet, P. Ruffray & H.

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Brisse (2008). A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century. Science 320: 1768-1771. Mehta, M., D.P. Dobhal & M.P.S. Bisht (2011). Change of Tipra glacier in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, between 1962 and 2008. Progress in Physical Geography DOI No: 10.1177/0309133311411760.Page No. 1-18. Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Shastry (1987). Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Vol. I. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 367pp. Parmesan, C. & G.A. Yohe (2003). Globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37–42. Rana, C.S., V. Rana & M.P.S. Bisht (2010). An unusual composition of the plant species towards zone of ablation (Tipra glacier), Garhwal Himalaya. Current Science 99: 574–577. Rawat, D.S., H. Singh & C.S. Rana (2009). New distributional records of Dicranostigma lactucoides and Dipcadi serotianum from Uttaranchal. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 32–34. Rawat, D.S. & C.S. Rana (2007). Arenaria curvifolia Majumdar (Caryophyllaceae): an endangered and endemic Himalayan herb rediscovered. Current Science 92: 1486–1487. Rawat, D.S. (2009). A presumed extinct endemic alpine herb Gentiana tetrasepala rediscovered after 123 years: will it survive? National Academy Science Letters 32: 169–172. Xu, J., G.R. Edward, A. Shrestha, M. Eriksson X. Yang, Y. Wang & A. Wilkes (2009). The melting Himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity and livelihoods. Conservation Biology 23: 520-530.

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New site record of Ichthyophis kodaguensis Wilkinson et al., 2007 (Amphibia: Ichthyophiidae) in the Western Ghats, India Gopalakrishna Bhatta 1, K.P. Dinesh 2, P. Prashanth 3 & R. Srinivasa 4 Department of Biology, BASE Educational Services Pvt. Ltd, Basavanagudi, Bangaluru, Karnataka 560004, India 2 Western Ghats Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Calicut, Kerala 673006, India 3 Agumbe Rainforest Research Station, Agumbe, Karnataka 577411, India 4 Alva’s Pre-University College, Moodabidri, Karnataka 575002, India Email: 1 gkbmanipura@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 dineshcafe@gmail.com, 3 prashanth.arrs@gmail.com, 4 srinivaszoology@gmail.com 1

The Caecilian amphibian Ichthyophis kodaguensis was recently described by Wilkinson, Gower, Govindappa and Venkatachalaiah (2007) on the basis of seven specimens in the collection of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Mumbai. Out of seven, six of the type specimens were collected from Venkidds Valley Estate (12.261930N & 75.6892460E), Kodagu, Karnataka State, India in 2002 and for the other type material the collection locality is not precise, but mentioned was the Western Ghats region Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K.V. Gururaja Manuscript details: Ms # o2729 Received 17 March 2011 Final received 21 July 2011 Finally accepted 05 September 2011 Citation: Bhatta, G., K.P. Dinesh, P. Prashanth & R. Srinivasa (2011). New site record of Ichthyophis kodaguensis Wilkinson et al., 2007 (Amphibia: Ichthyophiidae) in the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2104–2107. Copyright: © Gopalakrishna Bhatta, K.P. Dinesh, P. Prashanth & R. Srinivasa 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: GB is grateful to the Directors, BASE, Bengaluru for their unstinting support. DKP is thankful to the Officer-in-Charge, ZSI, Kozhikode for encouragement and PP to the Director, ARRS, Agumbe, for the encouragement. We are highly indebted to Manipal University, Manipal for the technical support. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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of Karnataka and Kerala between 2001 and 2003 (Wilkinson et al. 2007). Based on a single collection of I. kodaguensis in 2006 February Molur & Molur (2011) reported this species from Rainforest Retreat, Coorg, which is 30km north of type locality. The description of I. kodaguensis increased the striped species of Ichthyophis in the Western Ghats to four in number with I. beddomei (Peters), I. tricolor (Annandale) and I. longicephalus (Pillai) being the others. Availability of specimens in the museum for the study of caecilians is always challenging for the researchers (Gower et al. 2011). All the striped forms of Ichthyophis available in the Western Ghats are known by a good number of specimens except for I. longicephalus which has only two specimens in the museum and that too in a poor state of preservation (Pillai & Ravichandran 2005; Wilkinson et al. 2007). For any further taxonomic and distributional details of these striped forms of Ichthyophis we suggest to refer to Bhatta (1998), Pillai & Ravichandran (2005) and Wilkinson et al. (2007). Against this backdrop a new report of the described species from new geographical locations adds more into the extended precise range and gives a better understanding of metric and meristic variability within the species. On 18 June 2006, during the search for the secretive limbless amphibians on a good rainy day in the abandoned mixed orchard, predominantly with coffee plantations at Basarekattae (13.346020N & 75.3560920E) (Fig. 1), Koppa Taluk, Chickmagalur District, Karnataka State, we encountered three egg clutches of which one was with a striped mother. In the nearby area we got two more striped forms which were identified as Ichthyophis beddomei and one individual of Gegeneophis carnosus. The external appearance and the colour pattern of the caring parent superficially resembled I. beddomei but with traceable differences. We made further samplings on 25th June 2006, a rainy day, for detailed studies from the adjacent coffee plantation which was 200m from our earlier study site. During this search we encountered four Gegeneophis carnosus, one striped form of Ichthyophis and an egg clutch without a caring parent. The striped form of Ichthyophis was collected for further studies. Both collection habitats were from less attended

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | September 2011 | 3(9): 2104–2107


Record of Ichthyophis kodaguensis

G. Bhatta et al.

Figure 1. Distribution details of Ichthyophis kodaguensis in Western Ghats

coffee plantations with good canopy and perennial source of water with humus rich black soil supporting a good earthworm population. Meristic and metric data of the two above specimens collected did not fit into the key provided by Pillai & Ravichandran (2005); but matched the recent key provided by Wilkinson et al. (2007) for I. kodaguensis (Image 1). Hence we confirmed the identity as I. kodaguensis, with the following diagnostic characters of Wilkinson et al. (2007); an Ichthyophis having a total length ranging from 232 to 265 mm (Table 1), with narrow lateral yellow stripes extending from close to eye to level of vent, broken across collars, weakly indicated on lower jaw; body uniformly dark chestnut brown above and paler lilac grey-brown below; body sub-cylindrical, dorsolaterally compressed, tapering towards the vent with a small terminal cap; sub

terminal snout projecting slightly beyond the mouth; eyes surrounded by a narrow whitish rim; tentacular aperture close to eye (1.6â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2.0 mm) than naris (2.8â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3.0 mm), visible dorsally and more clear in lateral view; teeth small, bicuspid with strongly recurved apices and the dentaries are slightly larger than others; annular counts range 307 and 309; in life dorsally uniform dark chestnut brown, snout anterior to eyes are slightly paler in colour (Image 1), ventrally fleshy brown, in lateral position narrow longitudinal stripes of metallic yellow with irregular wavy margins, width of the stripe narrow down both anteriorly towards head and posteriorly at the vent; anteriorly yellow lateral stripe appears as a distinct spot on the first collar and latter tapers along the upper jaw fading out at the level of eye, but weakly indicated in the lower jaw merging with the whitish lip border; posteriorly, stripes terminate quite abruptly

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Record of Ichthyophis kodaguensis

G. Bhatta et al.

 

© G. Bhatta

Image 1. Ichthyophis kodaguensis in life from Basarekattae, Western Ghats

Table 1. Morphometric and meristic details of Ichthyophis kodaguensis from new locality and type locality, Western Ghats. ZSI/WGRC/ V/A/645A

ZSI/WGRC/ V/A/645B

4179*

4180*

4181*

4182*

4183*

4184*

4185*

Total length

265

232

267

269

247

262

274

268

158

Head length

8.0

7.0

5.3

8.3

8.0

8.4

9.0

-

5.9

Head width at jaw angle

7.8

6.4

7.5

7.4

7.3

6.7

7.8

-

5.3

Distance between nostrils

2.0

1.6

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

-

1.6

Distance between tentacles

6.0

5.0

5.7

5.2

5.2

5.0

5.3

-

3.9

Distance between tentacle and snout tip

4.5

4.0

4.5

3.3

3.6

3.5

4.3

-

3.2

Distance between tentacle and jaw angle

4.0

3.6

4.7

4.5

4.6

4.6

5.1

-

3.5

Distance between tentacle and nostril

3.0

2.8

2.9

2.6

2.5

2.7

2.5

-

1.9

Reg No.

Distance from eye to tentacle

2.0

1.6

1.9

2.0

1.7

1.7

2.0

-

1.3

Total number of primary annuli

307

309

295

278

292

306

305

299

284

Tail folds

7

7

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Number of premaxillary-maxillary teeth

48

46

48

43

45

42

49

48

38

Number of vomeropalatine teeth

47

48

50

43

47

44

50

52

41

Number of dentary teeth

44

43

40

42

38

39

43

44

33

Number of splenial teeth

28

27

26

25

26

28

31

30

-

* data from Wilkinson et al. 2007

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Record of Ichthyophis kodaguensis

on anterior margin of first complete annulus anterior to vent. The morphological and morphometric data provided from the new locality for I. kodaguensis adds more into the variability in meristic and metric data within the species. Wilkinson et al. (2007) collected several specimens of the species from an agricultural habitat in a single day; Molur & Molur (2011) reported this species from organic cardamom and coffee plantations in Coorg; notably for our collection habitat preference was in areca orchard/coffee plantations, which further aid in understanding the biology of the species. Also our observation for I. kodaguensis extends the range of distribution to about 125km aerially north of type locality without much difference in elevation. The materials studied are deposited in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India, WGRC, Kozhikode.

G. Bhatta et al.

References Bhatta, G. (1998). A field guide to caecilians of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Biosciences 23(1): 73–85. Gower, D.J., D.S. Mauroa, V. Giri, G. Bhatta, V. Govindappa, R. Kotharambath, O.V. Oommen, F.A. Fatiha, J.A. Mackenzie-Doddsa, R.A. Nussbaumf, S.D. Biju, Y.S. Shoucheh & M. Wilkinsona (2011). Molecular systematics of caeciliid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) of the Western Ghats, India. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59(2011): 698–707 Molur, S. & P. Molur (2011). A new record of Ichthyophis kodaguensis. Frog leg 16: 21–23. Pillai, R.S. & M.S. Ravichandran (2005). Gymnophiona (Amphibia) of India, A taxonomic study. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 172: 1–26. Wilkinson, M., D.J. Gower, V. Govindappa & G. Venkatachalaiah (2007). A new species of Ichthyophis (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae) from Karnataka, India. Herpetologica 63(4): 511–518.

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JoTT Note

3(9): 2108

Extension of the known distribution of the genus Herdonia Walker (Lepidoptera: Thyrididae) to the Yeoor Hills, Maharashtra, India Dinesh Vigneshwar Valke 17/34 Vijaynagari Annex, Ghodbunder Road, Thane, Maharashtra 400601, India Email: dinesh.valke@gmail.com

The Thyridid genus Herdonia Walker occurs from Papua New Guinea (Watson & Whalley 1986) northwards to China (Hampson 1892) and westwards to the Kumaon Himalaya in the Indian state of Uttarakhand (Smetacek 2008). In India, three species belonging to the genus are known to inhabit a narrow belt along the Himalaya and in northeastern India. On 19 June 2011, a single specimen of this moth was photographed in Yeoor Hills, Maharashtra (19.2431970N & 72.9354630E, elevation 100m) along a trail in a semievergreen forest in a part of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park. It was resting on the upper side of a leaf of a low growing plant during the daytime in the manner characteristic of the genus (Image 1). The moth settles with the wings outspread and the forelegs and midlegs extended, so that it rests at an angle of roughly 600 to the substrate, with the anal angle of the hind wing and the anal angle of the forewing resting against the substrate while the costae of the forewings are held at an angle of roughly 600 between the verso surfaces. Date of publication (online): 26 September 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 September 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Peter Smetacek Manuscript details: Ms # o2913 Received 13 August 2011 Finally accepted 30 August 2011

Copyright: © Dinesh Vigneshwar Valke 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: I thank Ryan Brookes, Mahad, Maharashtra, India for identifying the specimen from the photo, and Peter Smetacek, Bhimtal, Uttarakhand, India for guiding me in documenting this sighting.

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© Dinesh Valke

Image 1. Herdonia near thaiensis at Yeoor Hills, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra.

of the known range of the genus, from the Himalayan foothills to the northern Western Ghats. The specimen photographed is placed near Herdonia thaiensis Inoue, although it is not possible to place it with certainty at the species level until at least one specimen is examined. Since obtaining a specimen will entail special permissions from various protected areas authorities, which, as an individual it will be difficult for the author to obtain and by which time the flying season will certainly be over, the present report is intended to draw the attention of future workers to the presence of this elusive genus in the region. REFERENCES

Citation: Valke, D.V. (2011). Extension of the known distribution of the genus Herdonia Walker (Lepidoptera: Thyrididae) to the Yeoor Hills, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(9): 2108.

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Many of the members of this family are local species, suggesting that they require particular conditions in order to colonise an area. In the Himalaya, members of this genus are usually found in forested areas with heavy rainfall. They are on the wing very briefly during the year and are never found in large numbers. The present record represents a major extension

Hampson, G.F. (1892). Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma - Moths Vol.1. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 23+527pp. Smetacek, P. (2008). Moths recorded from different elevations in Nainital District, Kumaon Himalaya, India. Bionotes 10(1): 5–15. Watson, A. & P.E.S. Whalley (1983). The Dictionary of Butterflies and Moths in Colour. Peerage Books, London, 14+296pp.

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | September 2011 | 3(9): 2108

 


Dr. K.S. Negi, Nainital, India Dr. K.A.I. Nekaris, Oxford, UK Dr. Heok Hee Ng, Singapore Dr. Boris P. Nikolov, Sofia, Bulgaria Dr. Shinsuki Okawara, Kanazawa, Japan Dr. Albert Orr, Nathan, Australia Dr. Geeta S. Padate, Vadodara, India Dr. Larry M. Page, Gainesville, USA Dr. Malcolm Pearch, Kent, UK Dr. Richard S. Peigler, San Antonio, USA Dr. Rohan Pethiyagoda, Sydney, Australia Mr. J. Praveen, Bengaluru, India Dr. Robert Michael Pyle, Washington, USA Dr. Muhammad Ather Rafi, Islamabad, Pakistan Dr. H. Raghuram, Bengaluru, India Dr. Dwi Listyo Rahayu, Pemenang, Indonesia Dr. Sekar Raju, Suzhou, China Dr. Vatsavaya S. Raju, Warangal, India Dr. V.V. Ramamurthy, New Delhi, India Dr (Mrs). R. Ramanibai, Chennai, India Dr. M.K. Vasudeva Rao, Pune, India Dr. Robert Raven, Queensland, Australia Dr. K. Ravikumar, Bengaluru, India Dr. Luke Rendell, St. Andrews, UK Dr. Anjum N. Rizvi, Dehra Dun, India Dr. Leif Ryvarden, Oslo, Norway Prof. Michael Samways, Matieland, South Africa Dr. Yves Samyn, Brussels, Belgium Dr. K.R. Sasidharan, Coimbatore, India Dr. Kumaran Sathasivam, India Dr. S. Sathyakumar, Dehradun, India

Dr. M.M. Saxena, Bikaner, India Dr. Hendrik Segers, Vautierstraat, Belgium Dr. Subodh Sharma, Towson, USA Prof. B.K. Sharma, Shillong, India Prof. K.K. Sharma, Jammu, India Dr. R.M. Sharma, Jabalpur, India Dr. Arun P. Singh, Jorhat, India Dr. Lala A.K. Singh, Bhubaneswar, India Prof. Willem H. De Smet, Wilrijk, Belgium Mr. Peter Smetacek, Nainital, India Dr. Humphrey Smith, Coventry, UK Dr. Hema Somanathan, Trivandrum, India Dr. C. Srinivasulu, Hyderabad, India Dr. Ulrike Streicher, Danang, Vietnam Dr. K.A. Subramanian, Pune, India Mr. K.S. Gopi Sundar, New Delhi, India Dr. P.M. Sureshan, Patna, India Dr. Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Dehradun, India Dr. R.K. Verma, Jabalpur, India Dr. W. Vishwanath, Manipur, India Dr. Gernot Vogel, Heidelberg, Germany Dr. Ted J. Wassenberg, Cleveland, Australia Dr. Stephen C. Weeks, Akron, USA Prof. Yehudah L. Werner, Jerusalem, Israel Mr. Nikhil Whitaker, Mamallapuram, India Dr. Hui Xiao, Chaoyang, China Dr. April Yoder, Little Rock, USA English Editors Mrs. Mira Bhojwani, Pune, India Dr. Fred Pluthero, Toronto, Canada

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Journal of Threatened Taxa ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

September 2011 | Vol. 3 | No. 9 | Pages 2033–2108 Date of Publication 26 September 2011 (online & print) Essay

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