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March 2011 | Vol. 3 | No. 3 | Pages 1577–1636 Date of Publication 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

© A. Bijukumar/edited by Robin Abraham

© Robin Abraham

Hypselobarbus jerdoni and Garra hughi

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JoTT Communication

3(3): 1577-1584

Clarias microspilus, a new walking catfish (Teleostei: Clariidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia Heok Hee Ng 1 & Renny K. Hadiaty 2 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2 #03-01, Singapore 117546. 2 Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Gedung Widyasatwaloka, Jalan Raya Jakarta km. 46, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia. Email: 1 heokhee@nus.edu.sg (corresponding author), 2 rkhadiaty@gmail.com 1

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K. Rema Devi Manuscript details: Ms # o2386 Received 18 January 2010 Final received 16 November 2010 Finally accepted 23 February 2011 Citation: Ng, H.H. & R.K. Hadiaty (2011). Clarias microspilus, a new walking catfish (Teleostei: Clariidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1577-1584. Copyright: © Heok Hee Ng & Renny K. Hadiaty 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Author Details: see end of this article. Author Contribution: RKH collected part of the type series and assisted in writing the manuscript. HHN collected data and wrote the remainder of the manuscript. Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Melanie Stiassny (AMNH), John Lundberg (ANSP), James Maclaine (BMNH), David Catania (CAS), Maurice Kottelat (CMK), Mary Anne Rogers (FMNH), Sven Kullander (NRM), Martien van Oijen (RMNH), Douglas Nelson (UMMZ), Jeffrey Williams (USNM), Isaäc Isbrücker (ZMA) and Kelvin Lim (ZRC) for permission to examine material under their care. We thank Soetikno Wirjoatmodjo who collected the first specimens from Pucuk Lembang recognizable as the new species. Thanks are also due to H.B. Munaf and T. Sim, who collected additional specimens. Financial support to RKH by a Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research Visiting Fellowship is acknowledged.

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Abstract: Clarias microspilus, a new species of walking catfish is described from the short coastal rivers draining the western face of the Leuser Mountain Range and debouching into the Indian Ocean in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam province, northern Sumatra, Indonesia. It can be distinguished from Southeast Asian congeners in having a combination of the following characters: distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray 6.5–9.2 % SL; body depth at anus 14.9–18.9 % SL; head width 18.6–21.7 % SL; head depth 12.9–16.0 % SL; interorbital distance 40.5–44.5 % HL; occipital process width 31.7–40.8% HL; 64–68 dorsal-fin rays; 51–56 anal-fin rays; anterior tip of frontal fontanel reaching line through middle of orbit; anterior margin of pectoral spine with 22–34 serrations and posterodorsal margin smooth. Keywords: Aceh, Alas River drainage, Ostariophysi, Southeast Asia Bahasa Indonesia Abstract: Clarias microspilus adalah ikan lele jenis baru yang dideskripsi dari beberapa sungai pendek di sebelah barat Gunung Leuser dan mengalir ke Samudra Hindia, di Propinsi Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, Sumatra, Indonesia. Ikan ini bisa dibedakan dari kerabatnya di Asia Tenggara dengan adanya beberapa kombinasi karakter, yaitu jarak antara ujung occipital process dan pangkal sirip punggung 6,5–9,2 % PS; tinggi badan di anus 14,9–18,9 % PS; lebar kepala 18,6–21, 7 % PS; tinggi kepala 12,9–16,0 % PS; jarak antar mata 40,5–44,5 % PK; lebar occipital process 31,7–40,8 % PK; sirip punggung dengan 64–68 jari-jari; 51–56 jari-jari pada sirip anal; ujung fontanel depan mencapai garis tengan mata; sirip dada sebelah depan mempunyai 22–34 gerigi, sedangkan sisi belakangnya halus.

Introduction The Old World catfish family Clariidae is a moderately diverse group of catfishes (113 species in 16 genera; Ferraris 2007). The family is diagnosed by the following autapomorphies: presence of well-developed mesial cartilage complex connecting the inner mandibular barbels at midline; pars lateralis lying completely dorsal to the pars ventralis of the protractor hyoideus; dorsolateral portion of cleithrum anterioposteriorly elongate; well-developed posterodorsal projection on the opercle; and a prominent ventrolateral crest on the anterior ceratohyal (Diogo 2007). The genus Clarias Scopoli, 1777 is the most speciose in the family Clariidae, accounting for almost half the diversity of the family (56 species; Ferraris 2007). Clarias is naturally distributed in inland water bodies in both Africa and Asia, with the bulk of the species being found in Africa. However, recent studies (e.g. Lim & Ng 1999; Teugels et al. 2001; Sudarto et al. 2003; Ng 2004) have uncovered a greater diversity of Asian taxa than previously known. The genus has also been shown to be paraphyletic, with the Asian species of Clarias needing to be assigned to a separate genus (Teugels & Adriaens 2003; Agnèse & Teugels 2005).

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During ichthyological surveys of Nangroe Aceh Darussalam province in northern Sumatra, specimens of a Clarias species superficially resembling C. batrachus were collected. A detailed study of this material revealed them to belong to an undescribed species, which is named herein as Clarias microspilus, a new species.

Material and Methods Measurements were made point to point with dial calipers and data recorded to tenths of a millimeter. Counts and measurements were made on the left side of specimens whenever possible. Vertebrae and medianfin rays were counted from radiographs, while pairedfin rays were counted under a binocular dissecting microscope. Subunits of the head are presented as proportions of head length (HL). Head length and measurements of body parts are given as proportions of standard length (SL). Measurements follow those of Ng (1999). Asterisks after meristic counts indicate values for holotype. Institutional acronyms follow Ferraris (2007). Clarias microspilus sp. nov. (Image 1) Type material Holotype: MZB 8706, 136.1mm SL; Sumatra: Nangroe Aceh Darussalam Province, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan, Sungai Lembang at Pasilembang (301’N & 97021’E), coll. S. Wirjoatmodjo et al., 26.ii.1999. Paratypes: MZB 4768 (3), 118.7–125.5 mm SL; ZRC 46418 (1), 127.4mm SL; Sumatra: Nangroe Aceh Darussalam province. Kabupaten Aceh Selatan, Kandang (306’N & 97021’E), coll. H.B. Munaf, 15.xi.1982. MZB 8705 (1), 175.7mm SL; Sumatra: Nangroe Aceh Darussalam Province, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan, Sungai Lembang at Pucuk Lembang (306’N & 97028’E), coll. R.K. Hadiaty & A. Mun’im, 02.ix.1997. MZB 8713 (1), 233.2mm SL; Sumatra: Nangroe Aceh Darussalam Province, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan, swamp at Suaq Belimbing (304’N & 97026’E), coll. S. Wirjoatmodjo, 21.ii.1999. ZRC 51917 (4), 127.6–141.6 mm SL; Sumatra: Nangroe Aceh Darussalam Province, Kabupaten Aceh Selatan, Desa Ujung Padang, blackwater swamp along Tapaktuan– 1578

Subulussalam road (301’55.2”N & 97020’17.6”E), coll. T. Sim et al., 18.iv.2009. Diagnosis Clarias microspilus can be distinguished from all Southeast Asian congeners, except for C. intermedius, C. insolitus, C. meladerma, C. olivaceus and C. planiceps, in having a serrated (vs. smooth or rugose, with irregular bumps) anterior margin of the pectoral spine. It differs from C. intermedius and C. meladerma by a longer distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 2.8–5.6), from C. insolitus, C. olivaceus and C. planiceps by a deeper body (14.9–18.9 % SL vs. 9.7– 15.2) and wider head (18.6–21.7 % SL vs. 14.0–18.7). Clarias microspilus further differs from C. intermedius in having fewer rays in the median fins (64–68 vs. 70– 72 dorsal-fin rays and 51–56 vs. 61–62 anal-fin rays), from C. insolitus in having a shorter distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 10.3–12.4), and from C. meladerma in having more serrations (22–34 vs. 14–22) on the anterior edge of the pectoral spine. It is further distinguished from C. olivaceus in having a more posteriorly situated frontal fontanel (the anterior tip of the frontal fontanel reaching to a line through the middle of the orbit vs. to anterior orbital margin), a smooth (vs. weakly serrated) posterodorsal margin of the pectoral spine, a shorter distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 9.3–11.1) and a wider occipital process (31.7–40.8 %HL vs. 25.5–31.5), and from C. planiceps in having a deeper head (12.9–16.0 % SL vs. 9.5–11.5) and smaller interorbital distance (40.5–44.5 % HL vs. 46.4–49.9). Description Biometric data in Table 1. Head depressed; dorsal profile slightly convex and ventral profile almost straight. Bony elements of dorsal surface of head covered with thick skin; bones not readily visible, but sutures sometimes evident. Anterior pair of nostrils tubular and medial to maxillary barbel base. Posterior pair of nostrils bordered by nasal barbels anteriorly and fleshy membrane posteriorly; posteromedial to maxillary barbel base. Eye ovoid, horizontal axis longest, subcutaneous; located dorsolaterally on head. Anterior fontanel short and squat (“shoe-shaped” of

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New walking catfish from Sumatra

H.H. Ng & R.K. Hadiaty

Teugels, 1986); anterior tip reaching to line through middle of orbits. Occipital process rounded. Gill openings narrow, extending from dorsal-most point of pectoral-fin base to isthmus. Gill membranes free from isthmus but united to each other with 8 (n=5) branchiostegal rays. First branchial arch with 5+13 (n=2) or 5+14* (n=3) gill rakers. Mouth subterminal, with fleshy, plicate lips. Oral teeth small and in irregular rows on all tooth-bearing surfaces. Premaxillary tooth band rectangular, with median notch on posterior edge. Dentary tooth band much narrower than premaxillary tooth band

at symphysis, tapering laterally. Vomerine tooth band unpaired, continuous across midline, crescentic and smoothly arched along anterior and posterior margins. Premaxillary and dentary teeth viliform; vomerine teeth subgranular. Barbels in four pairs; long and slender with thick fleshy bases. Maxillary barbel extending to base of fifth or sixth dorsal-fin ray. Nasal barbel, extending nearly to level of base of last pectoral-fin ray. Inner mandibular-barbel origin close to midline; barbel thicker and longer than nasal barbel and extending beyond base of last pectoral-fin ray. Outer mandibular barbel originating posterolateral to

Table 1. Biometric data for Clarias microspilus (n = 11). Holotype

Range

Mean ± SD

Predorsal length

36.4

31.4–36.4

33.8 ± 1.91

Preanal length

49.0

49.0–55.0

51.7 ± 2.13

Prepelvic length

42.4

42.4–46.7

44.5 ± 1.71

Prepectoral length

22.0

20.3–24.3

22.3 ± 1.54

Length of dorsal-fin base

68.3

64.7–69.0

67.3 ± 1.71

Anal-fin length

48.6

47.4–50.5

49.2 ± 1.21

Pelvic-fin length

10.9

9.2–10.9

9.8 ± 0.66

Pectoral-fin length

17.0

12.7–17.2

14.9 ± 1.94

Pectoral-spine length

12.5

9.2–12.5

10.5 ± 1.16

Caudal-fin length

18.7

14.3–19.2

17.2 ± 1.75

Distance between occipital process and dorsal fin

8.9

6.5–9.2

7.9 ± 1.07

Body depth at anus

18.9

14.9–18.9

17.2 ± 1.48

%SL

Caudal peduncle depth

8.1

7.7–9.4

8.4 ± 0.62

Head length

28.1

25.3–28.1

26.9 ± 0.94

Head width

21.7

18.6–21.7

19.8 ± 1.04

Head depth

15.5

12.9–16.0

14.6 ± 1.18

Snout length

31.2

26.6–32.0

29.4 ± 2.09

Interorbital distance

44.0

40.5–44.5

43.0 ± 1.42

Eye diameter

6.3

6.0–7.2

6.3 ± 0.43

Frontal fontanel length

17.3

11.5–17.3

14.4 ± 2.16

Frontal fontanel width

3.4

3.4–6.7

5.3 ± 1.15

Occipital fontanel length

8.4

7.1–12.8

9.6 ± 1.80

Occipital fontanel width

4.2

3.9–5.7

4.8 ± 0.61

Occipital process length

9.4

7.7–14.8

11.0 ± 2.39

%HL

Occipital process width

40.8

31.7–40.8

36.8 ± 3.47

Nasal barbel length

105.0

84.0–105.0

94.8 ± 7.17

Maxillary barbel length

143.7

128.0–154.9

139.8 ± 11.30

Inner mandibular barbel length

91.1

83.3–97.1

90.7 ± 5.80

Outer mandibular barbel length

123.6

110.3–130.6

121.6 ± 7.52

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New walking catfish from Sumatra

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Image 1. Clarias microspilus sp. nov., MZB 8706, holotype, 136.1mm SL; Sumatra: Aceh, Sungai Lembang.

inner mandibular barbel, extending nearly to base of first pelvic-fin ray. Body cylindrical, becoming compressed towards caudal peduncle. Dorsal profile rising very gently from tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin and thereafter almost horizontal to end of caudal peduncle. Ventral profile slightly convex to middle of head and thereafter almost horizontal to end of caudal peduncle. Skin smooth. Lateral line complete and midlateral in position. Vertebrae 20+40=60* (n=1), 19+42=61 (n=3), or 20+42=62 (n=1). Dorsal fin with long base, spanning posterior three1580

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quarters of body; with 64* (n=1), 66 (n=3), or 68 (n=1) rays covered by thick layer of skin and without spine.

Image 2. Left pectoral spine of C. microspilus, MZB 8705, paratype, 175.7mm SL.

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1577-1584

Â


New walking catfish from Sumatra

Dorsal-fin margin straight, parallel to dorsal edge of body. Pectoral fin with small spine, sharply pointed at tip, and 8,i (n=5) rays. Almost entire length of anterior spine margin with 22–34 prominent serrations; posterior spine margin smooth or with uneven asperities (Image 2). Pectoral-fin margin straight anteriorly, convex posteriorly. Pelvic-fin origin at anterior third of body, with i,5 (n=5) rays and convex margin; tip of adpressed fin reaching base of first two or three anal-fin rays. Anus and urogenital openings located at vertical through middle of adpressed pelvic fin. Anal fin with long base and 51* (n=1), 54 (n=2), or 56 (n=2) rays covered by thick layer of skin; margin straight and parallel to ventral edge of body. Caudal peduncle very short. Caudal fin rounded, with i,7,7,i (n=5) principal rays. Coloration In 70% ethanol: Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head and body violet-gray, fading to pale gray on ventral surfaces. Dorsal, anal and caudal fins violet-gray with very thin hyaline distal margin. Pectoral-fin rays violet-gray, with hyaline interradial membranes. Pelvic fins hyaline. Barbels and pectoral spines violetgray dorsally and light grey ventrally. Distribution Known from the short coastal rivers that drain the western face of the Leuser Mountain Range (Fig. 1).

H.H. Ng & R.K. Hadiaty

Etymology From the Greek, mikros, meaning small, and, spilos, meaning spot. The name is used in reference to the very small white spots arranged in a longitudinal and several transverse series on the body.

Discussion Among Southeast Asian Clarias, Clarias microspilus further differs from members of the C. nieuhofii group (C. nieuhofii, C. nigricans and C. pseudonieuhofii) in having a shorter, deeper body (depth at anus 14.9–18.9 % SL vs. 8.7–13.0) with fewer vertebrae (60–62 vs. 74–82), dorsal- (64–68 vs. 82–106) and anal-fin (51–56 vs. 74–87) rays, and the median fins separate from (vs. confluent with) the caudal fin. It is further distinguished from C. anfractus in having a deeper caudal peduncle (7.7–9.4 % SL vs. 6.4–7.3), broader occipital process 31.7–40.8 % HL vs. 22.0–28.2), fewer dorsal- (64–68 vs. 71–77) and anal-fin (51–56 vs. 57–62) rays and the white spots on the body very small and almost invisible (vs. large and prominent), from C. batrachus in having a deeper body (depth at anus 14.9–18.9 % SL vs. 12.5–15.9) and broader occipital process (31.7–40.8% HL vs. 26.1–30.7), from C. batu in having a deeper body (depth at anus 14.9–18.9 % SL vs. 9.0–11.4) with fewer vertebrae (60–62 vs. 67–71), and anal-fin rays (51–56 vs. 61–70), from C. kapuasensis in having a

Figure 1. Collection localities of Clarias microspilus. Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1577-1584

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H.H. Ng & R.K. Hadiaty

wider head (18.6–21.7 % SL vs. 16.9–18.8), longer occipital process (7.7–14.8 % HL vs. 5.2–6.6) and the white spots on the body very small and almost invisible (vs. large and prominent), and from C. leiacanthus in having a shorter distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 8.1–11.7). Clarias microspilus further differs from C. macrocephalus in having a longer distance between thetip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 3.7–4.7), from C. microstomus in having a deeper body (depth at anus 14.9–18.9 % SL vs. 13.0– 13.5), shorter distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 12.8–13.1), wider head (18.6–21.7 % SL vs. 16.2–17.2), narrower interorbital distance (40.5–44.5 % HL vs. 46.7–50.2), from C. pseudoleiacanthus in having a longer distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 4.5–5.6), and from C. sulcatus in having a deeper head (12.9–16.0 % SL vs. 10.6–12.9), broader occipital process 31.7–40.8 % HL vs. 26.3–27.9), and fewer anal-fin rays (51–56 vs. 56–64). Besides the species mentioned in the diagnosis, there are four species of Asian Clarias with a serrated anterior edge of the pectoral spine (C. brachysoma, C. dussumieri, C. fuscus, and C. magur). These species are not found in Sundaic Southeast Asia, and brief comparisons are made with the new species below. Clarias microspilus differs from C. brachysoma (from Sri Lanka) and C. dussumieri (from southern India) in having a shorter distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 9.0–11.1). Clarias microspilus is distinguished from C. fuscus (from northeastern Laos, northern Vietnam, China, Taiwan and Japan) in having more anal-fin rays (51–56 vs. 43–52), a longer distance between the tip of the occipital process and the base of the first dorsal-fin ray (6.5–9.2 % SL vs. 4.8–6.5) and broader occipital process (31.7–40.8 % HL vs. 26.7–30.0), and from C. magur (from the Indian subcontinent) in having a short and squat (vs. long and thin; “sole-shaped” vs. “knife-shaped”) anterior fontanel. We have examined material from the Alas River drainage (which drains the eastern face of the Leuser Mountain Range) that is not conspecific with C. microspilus. These specimens differ from the type 1582

series of C. microspilus in having a long and thin (“knife-shaped” vs. short and squat, “sole-shaped”) frontal fontanel and the presence of irregular asperities (vs. serrations) on the anterior edge of the pectoralfin spines. Current evidence indicates the Alas River material is conspecific with material from Java identified as C. batrachus (fide Ng & Kottelat, 2008). Comparative Material Clarias anfractus: ZRC 42598 (holotype), 176.4 mm SL; ZRC 43392 (2 paratypes), 140.4–151.9 mm SL; Borneo: Sabah, Danum, forest stream 600m into conservation area, tributary of Sungai Segama. FMNH 68095 (2 paratypes), 166.3–172.1 mm SL; FMNH 68096 (1 paratype), 204.2mm SL; Borneo: Sabah, Tawau district, Kalabakan, Sungai Tibas camp, Sungai Tawan, 4025’N & 117028’E. C. batrachus: NRM 54718 (neotype), 174.1mm SL; UMMZ 155807 (3), 168.0–215.0 mm SL; Java: vicinity of Bandung. UMMZ 70684 (1), 101.2mm SL; Java: Kali Mandiku Jember. UMMZ 155704 (3), 193.1–206.2 mm SL; Java: vicinity of Bogor. UMMZ 155708 (3), 136.8–153.0 mm SL; UMMZ 155710 (5), 55.3–139.0 mm SL; UMMZ 155711 (5), 162.0–209.0 mm SL; Java: Ranu Lamongan, lake at Klakah. UMMZ 155709 (1), 172.2mm SL; Java: Ranu Klidungan. UMMZ 155801 (1), 116.6mm SL; Java: Cikedang, tributary to Citanduy, 1.5km N of Ciawi. UMMZ 155802 (2), 128.7–131.9 mm SL; Java: Ciwalen, tributary of Citanduy at Godebak between Panaunbangan and Panjalu. UMMZ 155803 (5), 128.0–152.0 mm SL; Java: vicinity of Singaparna. UMMZ 155805 (3), 81.8–159.7 mm SL; Java: Citi’is (creek), just below road near mouth in Cimanuk, 3km N of Garut. UMMZ 155806 (3), 153.6–183.9 mm SL; Java: vicinity of Jakarta. UMMZ 155809 (1), 187.5mm SL; Java: vicinity of Tasikmalaja. UMMZ 213398 (1), 170.4mm SL; Java: vicinity of Bobotsari (near Gunung Slamet). ZRC 2585 (4), 170.1–244.8 mm SL; Java: Cilebut. C. batu: ZRC 40087 (holotype), 245.0mm SL; ZRC 40088 (8 paratypes), 101.3–228.0 mm SL; Malaysia: Pulau Tioman, Sungai Baharu, on right side of TekekJuara trail. - ZRC 40089 (9 paratypes), 179.0–305.0 mm SL; Malaysia: Pulau Tioman, Sungai Nipah. C. brachysoma: ZRC 41607 (1), 94.8mm SL; Sri Lanka: Galle District, Kanneliya forest. C. dussumieri: MNHN B-0687 (syntype), 222mm

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New walking catfish from Sumatra

H.H. Ng & R.K. Hadiaty

SL; India: Mahé (photograph examined). C. fuscus: UMMZ 100586 (1), 188.0mm SL; China: Canton. ZRC 43356 (1), 234.0mm SL; China: Fujian province, Fuzhou. ZRC 51957 (1), 91.2mm SL; China: Hainan Island, stream on road from Shibi to Wanquan. ZRC 51958 (2), 110.8–156.7 mm SL; Vietnam: Da Nang province, Song Thuy Loan drainage, Suoi Lanh, feeder stream to Suoi Mo, Ban Na foothills. ZRC 43333 (3), 155.4–169.4 mm SL; Vietnam: Hung Yen province, market at Hung Yen. Additional data from Arai & Hirano (1974). C. insolitus: MZB 6112 (holotype), 122.5mm SL; BMNH 2001.1.15.98-103 (7 paratypes), 53.5–139.7 mm SL; Borneo: Kalimantan Tengah, Barito River drainage; small stream flowing into Sungai Rekut (tributary of Sungai Busang) about 1.5km upstream from the Project Barito Ulu base camp on Sungai Busang. C. intermedius: ZRC 46110 (1 paratype), 192.5mm SL; ZRC 46111 (1 paratype), 186.4mm SL; ZRC 46112 (1 paratype), 175.4mm SL; ZRC 46113 (1 paratype), 174.0mm SL; Borneo: Kalimantan Tengah, Kereng Bengkirai. C. kapuasensis: Data from Sudarto et al. (2003). C. leiacanthus: AMNH 217796 (1), 168.9mm SL; Malaysia: Selangor, small stream 800 m from road junction to Batu Arang on Rawang–Kuala Selangor road. ZRC 2596 (2), 93.4–109.5 mm SL; Malaysia: Pahang, Kuala Tahan. ZRC 11678–11679 (2), 109.8–

202.9 mm SL; Singapore: Nee Soon Swamp Forest. ZRC 25669 (1), 124.8mm SL; Malaysia: Pahang, 69km on Mersing–Kuantan road. ZRC 37758 (10), 49.1–129.5 mm SL; Borneo: Sarawak, Bako National Park, Ulu Assam, stream I. ZRC 39105 (4), 37.0–150.0 mm SL; Sumatra: Riau, stream near Pangkalankasai, 43km from Rengat on Rengat–Jambi road. ZRC 39961 (2), 56.9–120.7 mm SL; Malaysia: Johor, 3–4 km towards Kukup after Sri Bunian turnoff. ZRC 39985 (5), 23.8–177.5 mm SL; Malaysia: Johor, Pontian, Kampung Parit Tekong. ZRC 40131 (1), 97.7mm SL; Java: Java Barat, Bogor, tributary of Cipinang Gading. ZRC 40267 (3), 89.7–109.0 mm SL; Borneo: Brunei, Belait district, Sungai Sepam, draining into Sungai Ingei. ZRC 43244 (2), 111.8–125.9 mm SL; Sumatra: Sumatera Selatan, Sungai Sentang. C. macrocephalus: ZRC 30465 (1), 223.7mm SL; Malaysia: Pahang, Sungai Jelai. ZRC 43825 (5), 125.9–160.4 mm SL; Thailand: Narathiwat province, market at Sungai Kolok. C. magur: UMMZ 187861 (3), 210.7–212.7 mm SL; Bangladesh: Comilla, pond at Hajiganj, 29km north of Chandpur. UMMZ 208609 (1), 163.3mm SL; Bangladesh: Kunti Choumaham, PS Kaska, roadside ditch 27km south of Brahmabaria. UMMZ 208766 (1), 147.8mm SL; Bangladesh: Piyain Gang River below Sangram, 3km below bridge at Indian border. UMMZ 244686 (1), 183.1mm SL; India: West Bengal, market at Mathabhanga.

Key to the species of Clarias known from Sumatra 1

Pectoral spine with regular serrations on anterior margin..........................................................................2 Pectoral spine smooth or with irregular bumps on anterior margin...............................................................4

2

Distance between tip of occipital process and base of first dorsal-fin ray 6.5–11.1% SL; 22–34 serrations on anterior edge of pectoral spine; body typically without irregular black blotches .............................................3 Distance between tip of occipital process and base of first dorsal-fin ray 2.8–3.7% SL; 14–22 serrations on anterior edge of pectoral spine; body typically with irregular black blotches .............................C. meladerma

3

Anterior tip of frontal fontanel reaching line through middle of orbit; posterodorsal margin of pectoral spine smooth; body depth at anus 14.9–18.9% SL; head width 18.6–21.7% SL; distance between tip of occipital process and base of first dorsal-fin ray 6.5–9.2% SL; occipital process width 31.7–40.8% HL.............. ...............................................................................................................................C. microspilus sp. nov. Anterior tip of frontal fontanel reaching through anterior orbital margin; posterodorsal margin of pectoral spine weakly serrated; body depth at anus 13.4–15.2% SL; head width 16.0–18.7% SL; distance between tip of occipital process and base of first dorsal-fin ray 9.3–11.1% SL; occipital process width 25.5–31.5% HL…… ...................................................................................................................................................C. olivaceus

4

Body very elongate, with 74–81 total vertebrae, 85–100 dorsal-fin rays and 73–91 anal-fin rays.......C. nieuhofii Body moderately elongate, with 54–71 total vertebrae, 62–74 dorsal-fin rays and 47–60 anal-fin rays....... 5

5

Distance between tip of occipital process and base of first dorsal-fin ray 5.4–6.5; anterior profile of head ovoid when viewed dorsally; frontal fontanel long and thin..................................................................C. batrachus Distance between tip of occipital process and base of first dorsal-fin ray 7.1–10.9% SL; anterior profile of head gently curved when viewed dorsally; frontal fontanel short and squat...................................C. leiacanthus

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C. meladerma: ZRC 38979 (6), 172.8–185.5 mm SL; Sumatra: Jambi, Pasar, Angso Duo. ZRC 40798 (2), 85.3–105.9 mm SL; Thailanad: Chantaburi Province, downstream of Nam Tok Phliu 12031’14.0”N & 102010’36.1”E. C. microstomus: MZB 9336 (holotype), 122.9mm SL; ZRC 45776 (8 paratypes), 96.1–130.0 mm SL; Borneo: Kalimantan Timur, Kayan river drainage, Ladang near Sungai Pingai, 200’9.6”N & 11509’13.8”E. C. nigricans: MZB 10705 (holotype), 307.5mm SL; ZRC 45590 (2 paratypes), 197.4–315.1 mm SL; Borneo: Kalimantan Timur, market in Samarinda. ZMA 121.631 (5 paratypes), 232.4–305.0 mm SL; Borneo:Kalimantan Timur, Samarinda. C. olivaceus: ANSP 27280 (holotype), 241.8mm SL; ANSP 27281 (3 paratypes), 157.5–209.5 mm SL; Sumatra: Padang. CAS 108051 (1), 216.0mm SL; USNM 193033 (9), 113.0–149.8 mm SL; Sumatra: Lake Toba at Prapat. ZRC 41697 (8), 116.2–231.7 mm SL; ZRC 43236 (2), 204.8–222.1 mm SL; Sumatra: Jambi province, Kerinci, Sungai Penuh market. C. planiceps: FMNH 68103 (22 paratypes), 70.8– 210.8 mm SL; Borneo: Sarawak, Third Division, tributary of Baleh River, between Sungai Entunau and Sungai Putai. USNM 323727 (1 paratype), 297.3mm SL; Borneo: Sarawak, Batang Balui, tributary stream, Batang Belahui. C. pseudoleiacanthus: Data from Sudarto et al. (2003). C. pseudonieuhofii: Data from Sudarto et al. (2004). C. sulcatus: ZRC 22665 (holotype), 180.5mm SL; ZRC 22666 (1 paratype), 207.0mm SL; Malaysia: Terengganu, Pulau Redang, stream on east slope of west ridge. ZRC 22717 (1 paratype), 96.5mm SL; Malaysia: Terengganu, Pulau Redang, stream behind Pasir Panjang on east slope of east ridge. References Agnèse, J.F. & G.G. Teugels (2005). Insight into the phylogeny of African Clariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes): Implications for their body shape evolution, biogeography, and taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36(3): 546–553. Arai, R. & H. Hirano (1974). First record of the clariid catfish, Clarias fuscus, from Japan. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 21(2): 53–60. 1584

Diogo, R. (2007). Morphological Evolution, Adaptations, Homoplasies, Constraints and Evolutionary Trends. Catfishes as a Case Study on General Phylogeny and Macroevolution. Science Publishers, Enfield, x+491pp. Ferraris, C.J. (2007). Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes) and catalogue of siluriform primary types. Zootaxa 1418: 1–628. Lim, K.K.P. & H.H. Ng (1999). Clarias batu, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Clariidae) from Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 6: 157–167. Ng, H.H. (1999). Two new species of Clarias from Borneo (Teleostei: Clariidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 47(1): 17–32. Ng, H.H. (2004). Clarias sulcatus, a new walking catfish (Teleostei: Clariidae) from Pulau Redang. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 15(4): 289–294. Ng, H.H. & M. Kottelat (2008). The identity of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), with the designation of a neotype (Teleostei: Clariidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153(4): 725–732. Sudarto, G.G. Teugels & L. Pouyaud (2003). Description of two new Clarias species from Borneo (Siluriformes, Clariidae). Cybium 27(2): 153–161. Sudarto, G.G. Teugels & L. Pouyaud (2004). Description of a new clariid catfish, Clarias pseudonieuhofii from West Borneo (Siluriformes: Clariidae). Zoological Studies 43(1): 8–19. Teugels, G.G. (1986). A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces; Clariidae). Annales du Musee Royal de l’Afrique Centrale (Zoologie) 247: 1–199. Teugels, G.G. & D. Adriaens (2003). Taxonomy and phylogeny of Clariidae. An overview, pp. 465–487. In: Arratia, G., A.S. Kapoor, M. Chardon & R. Diogo (eds.). Catfishes. Volume I. Science Publishers, Enfield, xvi+487pp. Teugels, G.G., Sudarto & L. Pouyaud (2001). Description of a new Clarias species from Southeast Asia based on morphological and genetic evidence (Siluriformes, Clariidae). Cybium 25(1): 81–92.

Author Details: Heok Hee Ng graduated with a PhD from the University of Michigan in 2006 and has been working on the taxonomy of Asian catfishes since 1994. Now at the Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research in Singapore, his current research focus is on sisoroid taxonomy and systematics. Renny Hadiaty was awarded her bachelor’s degree from the University of General Soedirman at Central Java in 1985.  She has been on the research staff of The Research Center for Biology since, working on Southeast Asian freshwater fish diversity.   She has been involved in several collecting expeditions in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua, and having described more than 20 fish species. 

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JoTT Communication

3(3): 1585-1593

Freshwater fish fauna of the Ashambu Hills landscape, southern Western Ghats, India, with notes on some range extensions Robin Kurian Abraham 1, Nachiket Kelkar 2 & A. Biju Kumar 3 TC 11/1123, YMR Junction, Kowdiar P.O., Nanthencode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695003, India Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695581, India Email: 1 robinabrahamf50@gmail.com, 2 rainmaker.nsk@gmail.com (corresponding author), 3 bijupuzhayoram@gmail.com

1,2 3

Abstract: A systematic, updated checklist of freshwater fish species of the west-flowing drainages of the Ashambu (Agasthyamala) Hills landscape in the southern Western Ghats of Kerala, India is provided, with notes on occurrence, status and ecology of endemic and threatened species. The checklist incorporates information from a review of taxonomic, exploratory and ecological literature concerning the area. A total of 103 species have been reported from the landscape, with 25 endemic to the Western Ghats. Range extension of four species, viz. Garra mcclellandi, G. hughi, Hypselobarbus jerdoni and Puntius mahecola is reported from the Ashambu Hills landscape.

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K. Rema Devi Manuscript details: Ms # o2528 Received 27 July 2010 Final received 18 December 2011 Finally accepted 03 March 2011

Keywords: Ashambu Hills, endemics, fish diversity, Garra, Puntius, Hypselobarbus, range extension, threatened species, Western Ghats.

Citation: Abraham, R.K., N. Kelkar & A.B. Kumar (2011). Freshwater fish fauna of the Ashambu Hills landscape, southern Western Ghats, India, with notes on some range extensions. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1585-1593.

Introduction

Copyright: © Robin Kurian Abraham, Nachiket Kelkar & A. Biju Kumar 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. For Author Details, Author Contribution and Acknowledgements: See end of the article.

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The Western Ghats mountain range extends along the west coast of India and is crisscrossed with streams, which form the headwaters of several major rivers providing water to the plains of peninsular India. The Ghats represent a globally critical ecosystem and biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000). Freshwater fish diversity is very high, with around 288 species and a high rate of endemism (>50%) (Daniels 2002; Dahanukar 2004). The southern Western Ghats that comprise the Ashambu (Agasthyamala) Hills landscape in Kerala form a biogeographically unique ecoregion (Nair 1991). As with several other taxa, this region is very rich in fish species diversity and endemism (Bossuyt et al. 2004). The west flowing rivers south of the Shenkottah/Ariyankavu pass have not been extensively surveyed for fish diversity. Most surveys to date have been conducted either in easily accessible sites or in limited localities along individual rivers. In this paper we provide a systematic, updated checklist of freshwater fishes across five important rivers of Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram districts of Kerala, namely, Kallada, Ithikkara, Vamanapuram, Karamana and Neyyar, based on the available literature, secondary data and field-sampling along these rivers in the Ashambu Habitat preferences and anthropogenic threats have been Hills landscape. listed for each species included in the checklist, along with ecological and threat information. This can facilitate the identification of conservation priorities for freshwater fish diversity in the region.  

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Materials and Methods The Kerala part of the Ashambu Hills covers the region southward from the Shenkottah/Ariyankavu Pass with three wildlife sanctuaries (WLS) and two reserve forests (RF) and is contiguous with the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) to the east, in Tamil Nadu (Fig. 1). The Kallada, Ithikkara, Vamanapuram, Karamana and Neyyar are the main rivers in this landscape, that, with the exception of Ithikkara (origin at 240m), originate at elevations above 1500m from wildlife sanctuaries or semiprotected reserve forests (Basak et al. 1995). These rivers proceed westward to meet the Arabian Sea, passing through a land-use gradient with midland areas dominated by rubber plantations and a lowland matrix of coconut/mixed-garden/paddy cultivation and rural to semi-urban/urban areas. The study was conducted from May 2009 to June 2010. A preliminary checklist of fish species was prepared based on an exhaustive review of published literature, field guides, ecological studies, short notes and reports, taxonomic assessments and previous checklists from here and neighbouring regions (Silas 1951; Menon 1987; Jayaram 1981, 1991, 2010; Pethiyagoda 1994; Devi et al. 1996, 2005; Tekriwal & Rao 1999; Sheeba

Garra mclellandi State border

Garra hughi

Proected Area Boundary

Hypselobarbus jerdoni Lowland

Midland

1999; Arunachalam 2000; Biju et al. 2000; Martin et al. 2000; Cherian et al. 2001; Daniels 2002; Bhat 2003, 2004; Easa & Shaji 2003; Dahanukar et al. 2004; Thomas 2004; Raagam & Devi 2004; Pethiyagoda & Kottelat 2005a; Raghavan et al. 2007, 2008; Johnson & Arunachalam 2009; Eschemeyer & Fong 2010). This checklist includes 103 fish species belonging to 53 genera and 24 families (Table 1). Taxonomic treatment is based on Eschmeyer & Fong (2010) and Jayaram (2010). For primary data collection, 20 sampling locations were selected across the five rivers along the southern Western Ghats (Fig. 1), with uniform coverage of highland, midland and lowland areas. Sampling locations represented four broad land-use types (wildlife sanctuary/reserve forest, rubber plantation, coconut plantation/mixed-garden/paddy, semi-urban/ urban area). Sites at higher elevations and coastal areas were randomly surveyed to record restricteddistribution endemics or occasional estuarine/marine species. The fish surveys and identification were carried out through non-destructive sampling by using sampling methods suited to the nature of river course, stream order, flow, presence of aquatic vegetation and local human disturbance. Visual surveys, cast nets, gill-nets and hooks and lines were used to sample fish

Puntius machecola machecola Puntius Highland Highland

Sampling Sampling sites sites

Figure 1. Map showing study area with locations indicated, where species’ range extension were recorded in the Ashambu Hills (© Robin Abraham) 1586

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1585-1593


Fish fauna of Ashambu Hills

R.K. Abraham et al.

Table 1. An annotated checklist of freshwater fish species known from the Ashambu Hills landscape. This checklist is derived from previous literature and updated by species sampled during our study (species for which preferred habitat, elevation range and occurrence are mentioned). Threats

Preferred Habitat

Elevation Range

Occurrence in Rivers

Chanda nama Hamilton

HL

Ru

m

KLD

Parambassis dayi + Bleeker

HL

Species Ambassidae

Parambassis thomassi + (Day) Pseudambassis ranga (Hamilton-Buchanan)

HL, DY, IN

Ru

m

KLD, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL

Ru

m

KLD, KAR, NEY

Ru, Pl

l,m,h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Anabantidae Anabas testudineus Bloch

HL, IN, DY

Anguillidae Anguilla bengalensis Gray

HL

Anguilla bicolor McClelland

HL

Aplocheilidae Aplocheilus lineatus (Valenciennes)

HL

Pl

l,m

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Aplocheilus blockii (Arnold)

HL

Pl

m

NEY

Pl

l,m

KLD, KAR, NEY

Pl

m, h

NEY

Pl

m, h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Ru, Pl

m

NEY

+

Bagridae Batasio travancorica + Hora & Law

HL, DY

Horabagrus brachysoma + (Gunther)

HL, DY

Mystus armatus Day

HL

Mystus bleekeri (Day)

HL

Mystus cavasius Hamilton-Buchanan

HL

Mystus keletius (Valenciennes)

HL

Mystus malabaricus (Jerdon)

HL, DY

+

Mystus montanus Jerdon

HL

Mystus oculatus Valenciennes

HL

Mystus vittatus Bloch

HL

Balitoridae Bhavania australis + Jerdon

HL

Ra

h

KLD

Travancoria jonesi + Hora

HL

Ra, Ri

h

KLD, VAM

Nemacheilus denisoni + Day

HL

Nemacheilus pulchellus + Day

HL

Nemacheilus triangularis Day

HL

Ra, Ru, Ri

m,h

KLD, VAM, KAR, NEY

+

Cobitidae Pangio goaensis Tilak

HL

Lepidocephalichthys thermalis (Valenciennes)

HL

Ra, Ru, Ri

m,h

KLD

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

l,m

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Belonidae Xenentodon cancilla Hamilton-Buchanan Channidae Channa gachua Bloch & Schneider

HL, DY, IN

Ru, Pl

l,m

VAM

Channa marulius Hamilton-Buchanan

HL, DY, IN

Ru, Pl

l,m

VAM, KLD

Channa striata (Bloch)

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

l,m

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL, DY, OF

Ru, Pl

m

KLD

Etroplus maculatus (Bloch)

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

l,m

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Etroplus suratensis (Bloch)

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

l

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Channa diplogramma +, ^ (Day) Cichlidae

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Species Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters)

R.K. Abraham et al.

Threats

Preferred Habitat

Elevation Range

Occurrence in Rivers

-

Ru, Pl

l,m

NEY, KLD

Clariidae Clarias dussumieri + Valenciennes Heteropneustes fossilis Bloch

HL, OF, IN

Pl

m

KLD, NEY

HL, DY

Pl

l,m

NEY

HL

Ru

m

KLD

Clupeidae Dayella malabarica + (Day) Cyprinidae Laubuca dadyburjori + Menon

HL

Salmophasia boopis + Day

HL, DY

Salmophasia balookee (Sykes)

HL, DY

Ru

m

NEY

HL

Ru, Pl

l,m,h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Esomus danricus Hamilton-Buchanan Esomus thermoicos Valenciennes Devario aequipinnatus (McClelland) Devario malabaricus (Jerdon)

HL

Ru, Pl

l,m,h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Rasbora daniconius (Hamilton)

HL

Ru, Pl

l,m,h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL, DY

Ru

l,m

NEY

Ra, Ru

m, h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

Pl

m

KLD, NEY

Pl

m, h

KLD, VAM, KAR, NEY

+

Amblypharyngodon melettinus (Valenciennes) Amblypharyngodon microlepis (Bleeker) Barilius bakeri + Day

HL HL, EX

Barilius bendelisis Hamilton-Buchanan

HL

Barilius gatensis + Valenciennes

HL

Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus

-

Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes

-

Labeo dussumieri + Valenciennes

HL, EX

Labeo rohita Hamilton-Buchanan

HL

Labeo calbasu Hamilton-Buchanan Tor malabaricus + (Jerdon)

HL HL, OF, DY, EX

Catla catla Valenciennes

-

Cirrhinus mrigala Hamilton-Buchanan

-

Garra mcclellandi +, RE (Jerdon)

HL, DY, EX

Ra, Ru

h

NEY

Garra mullya (Sykes)

HL, DY, EX

Ra, Ru, Pl, Ri

l, m, h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL

Ra, Ru, Pl, Ri

h

KLD, VAM, NEY

HL, OF, DY, EX, IN

Ru, Pl

m, h

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

m

KLD

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

m

KLD

HL, DY, IN

Ru, Pl

m

KLD

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

m, h

KLD, ITK, VAM, NEY

HL, EX, DY

Ru, Pl

m

KLD

Garra hughi +,

RE

Silas

Garra surendranathanii Shaji, Arun & Easa Horalabiosa joshuai Silas Hypselobarbus curmuca + (Hamilton) Hypselobarbus kolus + (Sykes) Hypselobarbus kurali Menon & Rema Devi +

Osteobrama bakeri + Day Puntius arulius Jerdon

HL HL, EX

HL

Puntius bimaculatus (Bleeker) Barbodes carnaticus + (Jerdon)

HL, DY, IN HL

Puntius chola Hamilton-Buchanan

HL, DY, IN

Puntius conchonius Hamilton-Buchanan

HL, DY, IN

Puntius denisonii Day

HL, DY, OF

+

Puntius dorsalis (Jerdon) Puntius exclamatio

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+, ASH

Pethiyagoda & Kottelat

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Fish fauna of Ashambu Hills

Species Puntius fasciatus + (Jerdon) Puntius filamentosus (Valenciennes) Puntius undescribed +, ASH Hypselobarbus jerdoni RE (Day) Puntius mahecola +,

RE

(Valenciennes)

Puntius parrah Day

R.K. Abraham et al.

Threats

Preferred Habitat

Elevation Range

Occurrence in Rivers

HL, DY

Ru, Pl, Ri

m, h

KLD, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL, DY, IN

Ru, Pl

m

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL

Ru, Pl

m

ITK

HL, EX, DY

Ru, Pl

m

KLD

HL, IN

Ru, Pl

m

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR, NEY

HL

Ru, Pl

m

KAR

HL, OF, IN, DY

Ru, Pl

l, m

KLD, ITK, NEY

Ru, Pl, Ri

m

KLD, ITK, KAR, NEY

HL

Ru

l, m

KAR

Puntius narayani (Hora) +

Puntius sarana subnasutus + Valenciennes Puntius tambraparniei + Silas Puntius ticto Hamilton-Buchanan Puntius vittatus Day

HL HL, EX, DY, IN HL

Gobiidae Sicyopterus griseus Day Awaous gutum Hamilton-Buchanan

HL

Ru

l, m

KAR

HL, DY, IN

Ru

l, m

KLD, ITK, VAM, KAR

HL

Ru, Pl

l

KLD

HL, OF, DY, IN

Ru, Pl, Ri

l, m, h

KLD, NEY

Ru, Pl

l, m

KLD, NEY

HL, DY

Ru, Pl

m, h

NEY

Ompok malabaricus (Valenciennes)

HL, DY, EX

Ru, Pl

m, h

NEY, KLD

Wallago attu Bloch & Schneider

HL, DY, OF

Glossogobius giuris Hamilton-Buchanan Hemiramphidae Hyporamphus limbatus Valenciennes Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede) Macrognathus guentheri (Day)

HL, DY

Nandidae Pristolepis marginata + Jerdon

HL, DY

Notopteridae Notopterus notopterus Pallas

HL

Osphronemidae Pseudosphronemus cupanus (Cuvier)

HL, DY

Siluridae Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch) +

Sisoridae Glyptothorax annandalei Hora

HL

Glyptothorax madraspatanus + Day

HL

Synbranchidae Monopterus fossorius Nair Microphis cuncalus Hamilton-Buchanan

HL, OF, DY HL

Tetraodontidae Carinotetraodon travancoricus + Hora & Nair

HL, OF

Author names in brackets indicate redescriptions. Rivers: KLD – Kallada; ITK – Ithikkara; VAM – Vamanapuram; KAR – Karamana; NEY – Neyyar. PA – Protected Area; NPA – Non-Protected Area. Elevation range: l – low (0–30 m); m – mid (30–200 m); h – high (200–1800 m). RE – Range extension to the Ashambu Hills Landscape; ^ - Taxonomy following new molecular study showing that the Indian species of Giant Snakehead; previously C. micropeltes should be treated as a distinct species C. diplogramma (Adamson et al. 2010). Endemism: + – Western Ghats; ASH – Ashambu Hills. Preferred Habitat: Ru – Run; Ri – Riffle; Ra – Rapid; Pl – Pool. Threats: HL – Habitat Loss; DY – Dynamite Fishing; OF – Overfishing; EX – Exotic species; IN – Industrial Pollution.

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© Robin Abraham

a

© Robin Abraham

b

© A. Bijukumar/edited by Robin Abraham

c

d

Image 1. Species whose range extensions have been recorded in the study. (Images not to scale) a - Garra mcclellandi b - Garra hughi c - Hypselobarbus jerdoni d - Puntius mahecola (male).

© A. Bijukumar/edited by Robin Abraham

species. Species richness data were collected. We also opportunistically collected these data from local fishermen fishing at the same locations. Fish species were identified with the aid of taxonomic keys and field guides (Jayaram 1981, 2010; Easa & Shaji 2003). Information on threats to and ecology of species was also collected based on observation, measurements 1590

of stream-related ecological covariates and semistructured interviews with local key-informants.

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Fish fauna of Ashambu Hills

Results A checklist of 103 freshwater fish species for this region was prepared using information from available literature and our sampling. The total number of species sampled by us was 58, belonging to 35 genera and 16 families (Table 1). Of these, 25 species were endemic to the Western Ghats. Four range extensions to southern Kerala were recorded, viz. Garra mcclellandi, Garra hughi, Puntius mahecola and Hypselobarbus jerdoni. Garra mcclellandi was recorded in the Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Garra hughi has been recorded in our study, from the higher elevations (above 900m) of the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Palode Reserve Forest and the Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary (Fig. 1, Images 1–4). Hypselobarbus jerdoni is a new record for the Kallada River with in the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kulathupuzha River, a tributary of the Kallada in Kulathupuzha Reserve Forest. This now forms the southernmost record for this species. Puntius mahecola was collected from all five sampled rivers. Sand-mining was found to be the most significant threat to the fish fauna, followed by dynamite fishing. Important, but rare indigenous food fishes such as Tor malabaricus were particularly threatened by dynamite fishing and the increased presence of exotic species such as Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis mossambicus introduced in reservoirs and lowland areas. We observed niche overlap between exotic and indigenous species, and in some cases, (e.g. Cyprinus carpio and Tor malabaricus), exclusion of local species by exotic ones.

Discussion The present paper provides an updated checklist with the latest taxonomic revisions and range extensions for five river basins of the Ashambu Hills landscape. Studies in this region over the last five decades, from Silas (1951) to Thomas (2004) are restricted in scope, with incomplete coverage of rivers and streams across the elevation gradient of the Agasthyamalai ranges and a focus on particular taxonomic groups. We have made the best use of sporadic prior information on fish fauna in developing this checklist, and hope it will serve as a guide to policy makers, managers and

R.K. Abraham et al.

conservationists. The range extensions that we report here underline the need for more intensive surveys across this region. Garra mcclellandi was recorded earlier from the upper reaches of the Kaveri basin, the Nilgiris and Periyar Lake (Gopi 2000) and the current record of this species from Neyyar is the southward extension of this species. The type locality of G. hughi is the Anamalai Hills, with distribution including the Cardomon and Palani Hills and northern and central rivers of Kerala, and the present report confirms its presence throughout the higher reaches of southern Kerala, up to the southernmost river, Neyyar. However, G. hughi had been recently recorded in the Kallar River of Palode Reserve Forest (Johnson & Arunachalam 2009). According to Jayaram (2010), Hypselobarbus jerdoni is distributed in the Deccan along the Western Ghats down south to the Anamalai Hills, and its southern record was previously from the Chalakkudy River in Kerala (Gopi 2000). The present record confirms its presence further south to the Kallada River in the Ashambu Hills. Pethiyagoda & Kottelat (2005b) considered Puntius mahecola as a valid species and considered P. amphibius as its synonym. These authors re-described the species, with specimens collected from the Kallada River, sampled by us as well. The descriptions of the specimens collected by us were found to be in perfect taxonomic agreement with Pethiyagoda & Kottelat (2005a,b) and we record the presence of this species in all the rivers sampled by us. The earlier reports of P. mahecola from the Western Ghats, which were probably female specimens of P. filamentosus, thus remain to be critically analysed. We identified sand-mining and dynamite fishing to be the most destructive threats to freshwater fishes of this area. These practices seem to have caused severe habitat destruction and declines of rare substratedwelling loach fishes, and many important native food fishes. An example of this is Tor malabaricus, the Malabar Mahseer, which was reported to have been facing extreme population decline across the landscape, mainly attributed to dynamite-fishing. We mostly obtained this species from within protected areas, where dynamite-fishing was absent or negligible. Pollution, dumping of acidic wastes from rubber plantations and introduction of invasive exotic food fishes into dam reservoirs and lowland river areas were the other most critical threats.

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This broad-scale survey and sampling provides basic data for occurrence of fish species across the land use gradient in the region, for further targeted sampling to compare these different areas for their contribution to fish conservation, while assessing the magnitude of threats from existing practices (direct and indirect). Our paper thus provides the first step for detailed research on the freshwater fish fauna of the west-flowing rivers of the Ashambu Hills landscape, mainly with regards to taxonomic, ecological and conservation studies. The conservation approaches suggested in this landscape include strict control over sand mining and unscientific fishing practices such as dynamiting and poisoning, the formation of river sanctuaries outside existing protected areas, construction of fish ladders in dams, in situ and ex situ conservation strategies (with the consideration that fish are also part of Indian wildlife), controlling pollution, and minimizing the threats posed by increasing numbers and diversity of exotic fish species.

References Adamson, E.A.S., D.A. Hurwood & P.B. Mather (2010). A reappraisal of the evolution of Asian snakehead fishes (Pisces, Channidae) using molecular data from multiple genes and fossil calibration. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(2): 707–717. Arunachalam, M. (2000). Assemblage structure of stream fishes in the Western Ghats (India). Hydrobiologia 430: 1–31. Bhat, A. (2003). Diversity and composition of freshwater fishes in river systems of central Western Ghats, India. Environmental Biology of Fishes 68: 25–38. Bhat, A. (2004). Patterns in the distribution of freshwater fishes in rivers of central Western Ghats, India and their associations with environmental gradients. Hydrobiologia 529: 83–97. Biju, C.R., K.R. Thomas & C.R. Ajithkumar (2000). Ecology of hill streams of Western Ghats with special reference to fish communities. Final Report. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India, 203pp. Bossuyt, F., M. Meegaskumbura, N. Beenaerts, D.J. Gower, R. Pethiyagoda, K. Roelants, A. Mannaert, M. Wilkinson, M.M. Bahir, K. Manamendra-Arachchi, P.K.L. Ng, C.J. Schneider, O.V. Oommen & M.C. Milinkovitch (2004). Local endemism within the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Science 306: 479. Basak, P., E.J. James & M.D. Nandeshwar (1995). Water Atlas of Kerala. Central Water Resources Development and 1592

Management Institute, Calicut, Kerala, India, 82pp. Cherian, P.T., K.R. Devi, T.J. Indra, M.B. Raghunathan & V.M.S. Kumar (2001). On the ichthyofauna of Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 99(1–4): 95–110. Dahanukar, N., R. Raut & A. Bhat (2004). Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of Biogeography 31: 123– 136. Daniels, R.J.R. (2002). Freshwater fishes of Peninsular India. Universities Press, Hyderabad, 287pp. Devi, K.R, T.J. Indra, & K.G. Emiliyamma (1996). On the fish collections from Kerala deposited in the Southern Regional Station, Zoological Survey of India, by NRM, Stockholm. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 95 (3–4): 129–146. Devi, K.R, T.J. Indra, M.B. Raghunathan & M.S. Ravichandran (2005). Fish fauna of the Anamalai hill ranges, Western Ghats, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 20(3):1809–1811. Easa, P.S. & C.P. Shaji (2003). Biodiversity Documentation for Kerala—Part 8: Freshwater Fishes. KFRI Handbook No.17, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala, India, 10–35pp. Eschmeyer, W.N. & J.D. Fong (2010). Species of fishes by family/subfamily. URL: <http://research.calacademy.org/ research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.html>. Online Version. Accessed on 26 May 2010. Gopi, K.C. (2000). Freshwater fishes of Kerala State. pp. 5676. In: Ponniah, A.G. & A. Gopalakrishnan (eds.). Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP, India. IUCN (2010) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 March 2010. Jayaram, K.C. (1981). The Freshwater Fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka – A Handbook. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India, 475pp. Jayaram, K.C. (1991). Revision of the Genus Puntius Hamilton. Records of the Zoological Survey of India – Occasional Paper No. 135, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India. Jayaram, K.C. (2010). The Freshwater Fishes of the Indian Region. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, 616pp. Johnson, J.A. & M. Arunachalam (2009). Diversity, distribution and assemblage structure of fishes in streams of southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(10): 507–513. Tekriwal, K.L. & A.A. Rao (1999). Ornamental Aquarium Fish of India. Kingdom Books, United Kingdom, 144pp. Martin, P., M.A. Haniffa & M. Arunachalam (2000). Abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates and fish in the Tamiraparani River, south India. Hydrobiologia 430: 59–75. Menon, A.G.K. (1987). The Fauna of India and the Adjacent Countries – Pisces, Vol. IV. Teleostei – Cobitidae, Part I: Homalopteridae. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata,

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India, 259pp. Myers, N., R.A. Mittermier, C.G. Mittermier, G.A.B. Da Fonseca, & J. Kent (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858. Nair, S.C. (1991). Southern Western Ghats. Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), New Delhi, India, pp. 15&58. Pethiyagoda, R. (1994). Threats to the indigenous freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka and remarks on their conservation. Hydrobiologia 285: 189–201. Pethiyagoda, R. & M. Kottelat (2005a). A review of the barbs of the Puntius filamentosus group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) of southern India and Sri Lanka. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 12: 127–144. Pethiyagoda, R. & M. Kottelat (2005b). The identity of the South Indian Barb Puntius mahecola (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 12: 145–152. Raagam, P.M. & K.R. Devi (2004). An overview of the hill trouts (Barilius spp.) of the Indian region. Zoos’ Print Journal 20(4): 1847–1849. Raghavan, R., P.H. Anvar Ali & G. Prasad (2007). Need for a comprehensive reassessment of the conservation status of critically endangered freshwater fishes of Kerala. Current Science 92: 721–723. Raghavan, R., G. Prasad, P.H.A. Ali & B. Pereira (2008). Fish fauna of Chalakudy River, part of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, Kerala, India: patterns of distribution, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 3119–3131. Sheeba, S. (1999). Certain aspects of the ecology of the Ithikkara River. PhD Thesis. Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Silas E.G. (1951). Fishes from the High Range of Travancore. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 50: 323–330. Singh, K. (1998). Handbook of Environment, Wildlife and Forest Protection Laws in India. Natraj Publishers, New Delhi, India, 467pp. Sreekantha, M.D., D.K. Mesta., G.R. Rao, K.V. Gururaja & T.V. Ramachandra (2007). Fish diversity in relation to landscape and vegetation in central Western Ghats, India. Current Science 92: 1592–1603. Thomas, R.K. (2004). Habitat and distribution of hill-stream fishes of southern Kerala (South of Palghat Gap). PhD Thesis. Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

Author Details: Robin Kurian Abraham is a conservation ecologist with a keen interest in freshwater ecology and biogeography, animal behavior and conservation. He has been involved in the study of river ecosystems of the southern Western Ghats for almost seven years now. Nachiket Kelkar is a wildlife biologist and has studied river dolphins, green turtles and community ecology of fishes in freshwaters, estuaries, coral reefs and seagrass meadows. His main interests are in population ecology and statistical modeling. Dr. A. Biju Kumar is a senior lecturer at department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala. His areas of specializations include biodiversity informatics, and taxonomy and ecology of aquatic life. He has authored 18 books, more than 50 research papers and over 200 popular articles.

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Author Contribution: RKA headed the project, conducted fieldwork, co-ordinated funding, and compiled the species checklist from reviews of taxonomic literature. NK contributed to planning the research and sampling design, data organization and analysis, and writing. ABK guided the first two authors in species identification, taxonomic assessments of species sampled and also provided data from his fieldwork conducted in parallel, in the Ashambu Hills landscape. Acknowledgements: We thank the Conservation Leadership Program for having provided funding support for the study, and the Kerala Forest Department for providing research permits and logistic support. We are grateful to Ajith Kumar, WCS-India, and Uma Ramakrishnan, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru for their support throughout the study and to R. Rajesh, Chacko, Chandrankutty, Francis, Sukumaran and Thomas Ammavan, who helped conduct field work and provided logistic support. We are also grateful to C.P. Shaji, P.H. Anvar Ali, Rajeev Raghavan and Kurian Mathew Abraham who helped in confirming species identification.


JoTT Short Communication

3(3): 1594-1600

3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium

Special Series

Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India A.J. Solomon Raju 1, K. Venkata Ramana 2 & P. Vara Lakshmi 3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh 530003, India Email: 1 ajsraju@yahoo.com (corresponding author), 3 varalakshmi83@gmail.com 1,2,3

Abstract: Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March–April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15–18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the nonessential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season. Keywords: Butterflies, nectar source, psychophily, Wendlandia tinctoria.

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: K.R. Sasidharan Manuscript details: Ms # o2503 Received 06 July 2010 Final received 26 October 2010 Finally accepted 15 February 2011 Citation: Raju, A.J.S., K.V. Ramana & P.V. Lakshmi (2011). Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1594-1600. Copyright: © A.J. Solomon Raju, K. Venkata Ramana & P. Vara Lakshmi 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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Adult butterflies that visit a wide variety of available flowers are considered to be opportunistic foragers (Courtney 1986). However, studies conducted to date, indicate that butterfly species show distinct flower preferences (Erhardt & Thomas 1991). Later, Kunte (2000) also stated that butterflies do not feed indiscriminately from any flower that they might find. They prefer certain floral nectars with specific chemical composition. Their visits to different flowers also depend on other factors like floral colour, shape, size, position and arrangement in the inflorescence. For a butterfly, a flower must offer a reasonable reward, yet may physically restrict access to the reward. Access may be limited by a complex flower structure demanding particular foraging skills. Faegri & van der Pijl (1979) stated that the floral features such as large, red or blue, narrow, tubular flowers with deep nectaries and often yellow rings or other markings on the petals which function as nectar guides are important for butterfly visitation. Gunathilagaraj et al. (1998) reported that butterfly flowers are often regular, tubular and sweet-smelling. Butterfly flower is typified by red, yellow or blue upright flowers that have diurnal anthesis. Opler (1983) suggested that corolla colour and shape, positioning of sexual parts, position on plant, presence of nectar guides, fragrance, and time of anthesis play important roles in the selection of flower foragers. Baker & Baker (1982, 1983) described

This article is part of the peer-reviewed Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium (3ALCS-2010) jointly organized by the IUCN SSC South Asian Invertebrate Specialist Group (SAsISG); Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University; Zoo Outreach Organisation and Wildlife Information Liaison Development, held from 25 to 29 October 2010 at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. http://www.zooreach.org/3alcs2010.html

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Key nectar source for butterflies

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two categories of flowers with reference to flowerbutterfly relationships. The first category is “true butterfly flowers” which are characterized by deep, narrow corolla tubes with relatively copious sucroserich nectar. The second category is “bee and butterfly flowers” which are characterized by short-tubed corolla with hexose-rich nectar for which Asteraceae members have been shown to be excellent examples. The findings of the present study on the floral biology

of Wenlandia tinctoria and its mutual association with butterflies have been examined in the light of these generalizations in order to adjudicate W. tinctoria as a key nectar resource for butterflies during the summer season at the study site. Materials and Methods Wendlandia tinctoria trees occurring at the Seshachalam Hills of the southern Eastern Ghats

b

c

a

d

g

f

e

h

i

j

k

Image 1. Wendlandia tinctoria a - habit; b - inflorescence; c - bud; d & e - flower; f - Pachilopta hector; g - Papilio clytia; h - Catopsilia pyranthe; i - Danaus genutia; j - Euploea core; k - Tirumala septentrionis Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1594-1600

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Results Plant phenology and Floral biology: Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species with scattered distribution in the forest (Image 1a). The field surveys in the entire forest area covering an extent of 50km2 showed that the population of this species is limited to about 25 trees only. The leaves are glabrous and elliptic-lanceolate borne opposite each other. New leaf flushing occurs during the rainy season adding a bright green look to the foliage. The flowering occurs from the third week of March to the third week of April. The flowering is almost synchronous in all individuals. The flowers are borne in clusters of terminal paniculate inflorescences (Image 1b). The flowers open at 0600 hr (Image 1c–e). The petals unfold exposing the stigma and stamens beyond the length of the corolla tube. The flowers are small, 6–7 mm long, tubular, white with a yellow tinge, odourless, regular and bisexual. The calyx is very small with five light green fused sepals. The corolla is tubate tipped with five lobes, 5mm long, white and conceals nectar. The stamens are five each with dithecous anthers having versatile fixation, very small and situated below the stigma; the anthers appear star-like at the mature bud stage but take different postures after anthesis. The style is erect and terminated with spathulate bifid stigma. Nectar is produced in minute amounts which stands at 0.6 ± 0.12 µl per flower and is collected at the base of corolla tube. The nectar sugar concentration ranged from 15% to 18%; the sugar types include sucrose, fructose 1596

16 16

14 14 12 12   No. species No. ofofspecies

10 10 8 8   6 6   4 4   2 2   0 0   Hesperiidae

es

pe

rii da

e

e

ni da

ae Ly c

al id a

e

Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Family of butterflies

ph

e

Pieridae

Pi er id a

pi lio n

id a

e

Papilionidae

H

ym

Figure 1: Family-wise number of butterfly species foraging for nectar on Wendlandia tinctoria

N

Pa

of Andhra Pradesh were used for the study during the summer season of 2009. The details of flower morphology such as flower sex, shape, size, colour, odour, sepals, petals, stamens and ovary were described. Ten fresh flowers were used to measure the total volume of nectar/flower. The nectar sugar concentration was measured by using a Hand Sugar Refractometer (Erma, Japan) as per Dafni et al. (2005). Nectar analysis for sugar types was done as per the Paper Chromatography method of Harborne (1973). Nectar analysis for amino acid types was done as per the Paper Chromatography method of Baker and Baker (1973). Regular observations were made on butterflies visiting the flowers for nectar to record the number of foraging visits species-wise and then family-wise in order to assess the importance of W. tinctoria as a key nectar source during the summer season.

Family of butterflies

Figure 1. Family-wise number of butterfly species foraging for nectar on Wendlandia tinctoria

and glucose but the last is more dominant. The nectar contains both essential and non-essential amino acids. The essential amino acids are arginine and histidine while non-essential amino acids are alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The flowers remain in place for four days and fall off subsequently. Foraging activity of butterflies: The butterflies foraging for nectar included 25 species representing Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae (Fig. 1, Table 1). The Papilionidae and Pieridae each was represented by two species, Lycaenidae by five species, Nymphalidae by 15 species, and Hesperiidae by a single species. The papilionids were Pachliopta hector (Image 1f) and Papilio clytia (Image 1g). The pierids were Catopsilia pyranthe (Image 1h) and C. pomona. The nymphalids were Danaus genutia (Image 1i), D. chrysippus, Euploea core (Image 1j), Tirumala septentrionis (Image 1k), T. limniace (Image 2a), Hypolimnas bolina (Image 2b), H. misippus (Image 2c), Precis iphita (Image 2d), Phalanta phalantha (Image 2e), Neptis hylas (Image 1f), Junonia lemonias (Image 2g), J. hierta, Ariadne merione, Acraea violae and Parantica aglea (Image 2h). The lycaenids were Jamides celeno (Image 2i), Arhopala amantes (Image 2j), Lampides boeticus (Image 2k), Spindasis vulcanus (Image 2l) and Everes lacturnus. The hesperiid was Borbo cinnara (Image 2m). Of these, the individuals of nymphalid butterflies were more than those of other families at the flowers throughout the flowering season. The data collected on the foraging visits of butterflies of each

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Table 1. List of nectar feeding butterflies on Wendlandia tinctoria Common Name

Papilionidae Pachliopta hector

Crimson Rose

Papilio aglea

Common Mime

Pieridae

40 40 30   30 20   20

Danaus genutia

Striped Tiger

D. chrysippus

Plain Tiger

Junonia lemonias

Lemon Pansy

Junonia hierta

Yellow Pansy

Precis iphita

Chocolate Pansy

Euploea core

Common Indian Crow

Ariadne merione

Common Castor

Acraea violae

Tawny Coster

Tirumala septentrionis

Dark Blue Tiger

T. limniace

Blue Tiger

Hypolimnas bolina

Great Eggfly

H. misippus

Danaid Eggfly

Phalanta phalantha

Common Leopard

Neptis hylas

Common Sailer

Parantica aglea

Glassy Tiger

Lycaenidae Jamides celeno

Common Cerulean

Arhopala amantes

Large Oak Blue

Lampides boeticus

Pea Blue

Spindasis vulcanus

Common Silver Line

Everes lacturnus

Indian Cupid

Hesperiidae Rice Swift

Sphingidae Coffee Hawk Moth

family showed that nymphalids made 63%, lycaenids 18%, papilionids 9%, pierids 7%, and hesperiids 3% of total visits (Fig. 2). The aggregated arrangement of flowers provides a comfortable landing place for butterflies and this arrangement also enables them to probe several flowers in each visit in succession for nectar before their departure. The clusters of paniculate inflorescences borne terminally stand out prominently and the butterflies were found to be attracted to them even from a long distance. All

Lycaenidae

e

rii da

pe es

Ly c

ae

ni da

e

al id a

ph

ym

Hesperiidae

e

Nymphalidae Family of butterflies

H

Figure 2: Family-wise percentage of foraging visits of butterflies on Wendlandia tinctoria

N

Pa

Nymphalidae

Pieridae

e

Papilionidae

Pi er id a

0 0

e

Common Emigrant

id a

C. pomona

pi lio n

Mottled Emigrant

Cephonodes hylas

50 50

10 10

Catopsilia pyranthe

Borbo cinnara

60 60 Percent of of visits Percent visits

Scientific Name

70 70

Family of butterflies

Figure 2. Family-wise percentage of foraging visits of butterflies on Wendlandia tinctoria

these butterflies stretched out their proboscis to reach the floral base to access nectar; while doing so the proboscis invariably contacts the stigmatic lobes and hence effects pollination. The butterflies frequently moved between individual plants of W. tinctoria which occur scattered in the forest; this inter-plant foraging activity was considered to be important in promoting cross-pollination. Further, the diurnal hawkmoth, Cephonodes hylas (Image 2n) also foraged for nectar during dawn hours. Discussion Burkhardt (1964) and Faegri & van der Pijl (1979) characterized butterfly-flowers as mentioned in the introduction section. Baker & Baker (1983) reported that the short-tubed flowers tend to be hexose-rich and if grouped in conspicuous inflorescences provide an excellent standing platform for foragers, and attract, both butterflies and short-tongued bees. Cruden et al. (1983) also stated that hexose-richness appears to prevail in the nectar of short-tubed flowers. These authors also documented that the nectars of most butterfly-pollinated flowers fall within the range of 15 to 25% sugar concentration. Kingsolver & Daniel (1979) suggested that the nectar sugar concentrations of 20–25% optimize the net energy gain by the butterflies. In W. tinctoria, the floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated hexose-rich nectar accounting for 21–26% sugar concentration characterize psychophily. Nectar is a potential source of amino acids for the nutrition of butterflies. Naturally, butterfly nectars are

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c

a

b

d

f

e

g i

j

k

h l

m

n

Image 2. Butterflies observed on Wendlandia tinctoria a - Tirumala limniace; b - Hypolimnas bolina; c - Hypolimnas misippus; d - Precis iphita; e - Phalanta phalantha; f - Neptis hylas; g - Junonia lemonias; h - Parantica aglea; i - Jamides celeno; j - Arhopala amantes; k - Lampides boeticus; l - Spindasis vulcanus; m - Borbo cinnara; n - Cephonodes hylas

1598

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Key nectar source for butterflies

rich in amino acids (Baker & Baker 1983). Butterflies require ten essential amino acids but all of them are not normally found in all nectars. Usually, three to four essential amino acids and several non-essential amino acids are found in floral nectars (Baker & Baker 1982; 1983). Baker & Baker (1986) reported that the amino acids add taste to the floral nectar and it depends on their concentration. Their presence serves as an important cue for butterflies to make flower visits and in the process effect pollination. In W. tinctoria, the nectar contains two essential (arginine and histidine) and eight non-essential amino acids. Its nectar is an important source for two of the ten essential amino acids required by butterflies during adult life for their growth and development (DeGroot 1953). Nonessential amino acids are metabolized by butterflies from the food they take; however, floral nectar provides some of these amino acids instantaneously. The nectar of W. tinctoria provides alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. Gardener & Gillman (2002) mentioned that if local soil conditions favour higher amino acids in the nectar then local populations of butterflies may derive certain benefits. Adult feeding on amino acid rich food has been shown to increase longevity and reproductive ability in certain heliconine butterflies (Gilbert 1972; Dunlap-Pianka et al. 1977). A later study on a temperate species Euphydryas editha showed that amino acids in the adult diet led to heavier eggs (Murphy et al. 1983). Jervis & Boggs (2005) reported that the butterflies are agents of selection for higher nectar amino acid production. The requirement of amino acids during adult stage of the butterfly is related to the larval nutritional condition. The larval food plant has a key role in the evolution of the flower-butterfly mutualism, and demonstrates that the importance to butterfly reproduction, and of different nutrient source varies with butterfly nutritional state. Gardener & Gillman (2001) reported that soil conditions can affect the amino acid complement of nectar. This may have implications for plant-butterfly interactions, as local populations of butterflies may benefit from the increased amino acid content of the nectar and preferentially visit plants growing in high nutrient conditions. The fidelity of butterflies to W. tinctoria during the flowering phase attests the fact that butterflies are in need of amino acids present in this nectar and in the process of acquiring the amino

A.J.S. Raju et al.

acids, it is contributing to pollination. In W. tinctoria, the inflorescences with clusters of flowers provides an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The retention of flowers for four days appears to be an adaptive trait for the plant to enhance its attractiveness to butterflies. With these floral, structural and functional characteristics, W. tinctoria has been found to be foraged by butterflies of all five families of Lepidoptera. The short-tubed flowers facilitate butterflies with any length of proboscis to collect nectar easily. The flowers being small in size with minute amounts of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar. Overall, the search for nectar by butterflies due to the production of minute amounts of nectar at flower level contributes to both self- and cross-pollination. W. tinctoria attracts more number of individuals and species of nymphalid butterflies when compared to those of other families of butterflies suggesting that nymphalid butterflies use this plant as an important nectar source. The psychophily is advantageous for the plant because butterflies do not collect pollen for themselves but only carry pollen on their proboscis and effect pollination while collecting nectar. Therefore, the study shows that W. tinctoria with massive flowering is quite attractive to butterflies and it is a keystone tree species for them since it provides them with nectar for a period of about one month during summer season in the dry deciduous forest ecosystem of Seshachalam Hills. There are no other plant species in flowering which attract a diversity of butterflies to this extent during the flowering period of W. tinctoria and hence this tree species plays a crucial role for the local butterflies for their nutrition for one month during summer season.

References Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1982). Chemical constituents of nectar in relation to pollination mechanisms and phylogeny. pp. 131â&#x20AC;&#x201C;171. In: Nitecki, M.H. (ed.). Biochemical Aspects of Evolutionary Biology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1973). Some anthecological aspects of the evolution of nectar producing flowers, particularly

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amino acid production in nectar. pp. 243–264, In: Heywood, V.H. (ed.). Taxonomy and Ecology. Academic Press, New York. Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1983). Floral nectar sugar constituents in relation to pollinator type. pp. 117–141. In: Jones, C.E. & R.J. Little (eds.). Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology. Scientific and Academic Editions, New York. Baker, H.G. & I. Baker (1986). The occurrence and significance of amino acids in floral nectar. Plant Systematics & Evolution 151: 171–186. Burkhardt, D. (1964). Colour discrimination in insects. Advances in Insect Physiology 3: 131–173. Courtney, S.P. (1986). The ecology of pierid butterflies: Dynamics and interactions. Advances in Ecological Research 15: 15–31. Cruden, R.W., S.M. Hermann & S. Peterson (1983). Plantpollinator coevolution, pp. 80–125, In: Bentley, B. & T. Elias (eds.). The Biology of Nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York. Dafni, A., P.G. Kevan & B.C. Husband (2005). Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest Ltd., Cambridge, 590pp. DeGroot, A.P. (1953). Protein and amino acid requirements of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Physiologia Comparata et Oecologia 3: 197–285. Dunlap-Pianka, H., C.L. Boggs & L.E. Gilbert (1977). Ovarian dynamics in heliconiine butterflies: programmed senescence versus eternal youth. Science 197: 487–490. Erhardt, A. & J.A. Thomas (1991). Lepidoptera as indicators of change in the semi-natural grasslands of lowland and upland Europe, pp. 213–226: In: Collins, M. & J.A. Thomas (eds.). The Conservation of Insects and their Habitats. Academic Press, London.

1600

Faegri, K. & L. van der Pijl (1979). The Principles of Pollination Ecology. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 244pp. Gardener, M.C. & M.P. Gillman (2001). The effects of soil fertilizer on amino acids in the floral nectar of corncockle, Agrostemma githago L. (Caryophyllaceae). Oikos 92: 101– 106. Gardener, M.C. & M.P. Gillman (2002). The taste of nectar: a neglected area of pollination ecology. Oikos 98: 552–557. Gilbert, L.E. (1972). Pollen feeding and reproductive biology of Heliconius butterflies. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (USA) 69: 1403–1407. Gunathilagaraj, K., T.N.A. Perumal, K. Jayaram & M.G. Kumar (1998). Field Guide: Some South Indian Butterflies. Niligiri Wildlife and Environmental Association, Niligiris, 274pp. Harborne, J.B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall, London. Jervis, M.A. & C.L. Boggs (2005). Linking nectar amino acids to fitness in female butterflies. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20: 585-587. Kingsolver, J.G. & T.L. Daniel (1979). On the mechanics and energetics of nectar feeding in butterflies. Journal of Theoretical Biology 76: 167–179. Kunte, K. (2000). India – A Lifescape: Butterflies of Peninsular India. Universities Press, Hyderabad, 254pp. Murphy, D.D., A. E. Launer & P.R. Ehrlich (1983). The role of adult feeding in egg production and population dynamics of the checker spot butterfly Euphydryas editha. Oecologia 56: 257–263. Opler, P.A. (1983). Nectar production in a tropical ecosystem, pp. 30–79. In: Bentley, B. & T. Elias (eds.). The Biology of Nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York.

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JoTT Short Communication

3(3): 1601-1609

3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium

Special Series

Butterfly diversity in relation to nectar food plants from Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, Maharashtra, India R.K. Nimbalkar 1, S.K. Chandekar 2 & S.P. Khunte 3 Department of Zoology, Vinayakrao Patil Mahavidyalaya, Vaijapur, Aurangabad District, Maharashtra 423701, India Department of Zoology, Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, Pune, Maharashtra 411028, India 3 Department of Botany, Mahatma Phule College, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra 411017, India Email: rknimbalkar@gmail.com 1, sonalkchandekar@rediffmail.com 2 (corresponding author) 1 2

Abstract: Floral attributes are well known to influence nectar feeding butterflies. However, there is paucity of information on food resources of adult butterflies as compared to that of larvae. The present study was carried out from Bhor Tahsil of Pune District, Maharashtra, India, during August 2007 to August 2009. A total of 64 butterfly species were recorded. Family Nymphalidae dominates in the study area, followed by Lycaenidae, Pieridae, Hesperiidae and Papilionidae. Nineteen nectar food plants were identified belonging to 10 plant families. Plants of the Asteraceae family are more used by butterflies as nectar food plants. Visits of butterflies were more frequent to flowers with tubular corollas than to non-tubular ones, to flowers coloured red, yellow, blue and purple than those coloured white and pink and to flower sources available for longer periods in the year. Species abundance reached the peak in the months during August to November. A decline in species abundance was observed from the months December to January and continued up to the end of May. Our findings are important with respect to monitoring butterfly and plant diversity and defining conservation strategies in the Bhor Tahsil. Keywords: Bhor Tahsil, butterfly diversity, nectar food plants, seasonal distribution.

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Krushnamegh Kunte Manuscript details: Ms # o2612 Received 23 October 2010 Finally accepted 05 December 2010 Citation: Nimbalkar, R.K., S.K. Chandekar & S.P. Khunte (2011). Butterfly diversity in relation to nectar food plants from Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1601-1609. Copyright: © R.K. Nimbalkar, S.K. Chandekar & S.P. Khunte 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: Mrs. S.K. Chandekar expresses a deep sense of gratitude to the Director, Board of College and University Development, Pune University, for Research Grant. We are thankful to Dr. K.A. Subramanian, Mr. A.D. Tiple and Dr. J.S. Wadatkar, for their help in confirming identification of butterfly species. We are also thankful to the Regional Meteorological Centre of Government of India, Mumbai 400099 for providing the rainfall data. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources have received increasing attention throughout the country. Pune District is one of the important industrial districts in the state of Maharashtra. The increased industrialization and urbanization has manifold effects on the ecology of this region. It has 14 tahsils, out of which Bhor Tahsil was selected for the study of butterfly diversity in relation to nectar food plants. Bhor Tahsil is famous for historical places, tourist places and dams. Butterflies are scaled wing insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera of class Insecta. There is an intimate association between butterflies and plants and their lives are exceptionally interlinked (Feltwell 1986), which leads to different patterns in their distribution depending on the availability of their food plants. Feeding is a significant activity and food may often be the most decisive factor affecting distribution, abundance and movements of animals. In butterflies, this has a special relevance because food and mode of feeding are different in the larval and adult stages (Kunte 2000). Butterflies and their caterpillars are dependent on specific host plants for foliage, nectar and pollen as their food. Thus butterfly diversity reflects overall plant diversity, especially, that of herbs and shrubs in the given area. Herbs and shrubs start their life cycle in the beginning of the monsoon and complete

This article is part of the peer-reviewed Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium (3ALCS-2010) jointly organized by the IUCN SSC South Asian Invertebrate Specialist Group (SAsISG); Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University; Zoo Outreach Organisation and Wildlife Information Liaison Development, held from 25 to 29 October 2010 at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. http://www.zooreach.org/3alcs2010.html

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it by the end of the postmonsoon season. While some shrubs like Lantana camara shows flowering throught out the year. Earlier, various workers like Kunte (1997) studied seasonal patterns in butterfly abundance and species diversity in four tropical habitats in the northernWestern Ghats. These four sites are close to Pune City within a radius of 20km. Kunte (2001) studied the butterfly diversity of Pune City along the human impact gradient; Rane & Ranade (2004) studied butterflies of Tamhini-Dongarwadi area, Mulshi, Maharashtra; Padhye et al. (2006) studied season and landscape wise distribution of butterflies in Tamhini, northern Western Ghats of India; Sharma (2009) studied the fauna of Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra; Tiple et al. (2006) studied factors influencing nectar plant resource visits by butterflies and implications for conservation on Amravati University campus. Further, Tiple et al. (2009) investigated butterflyflower morphological interrelationships for 108 butterfly species and 20 plants at Nagpur. Material and Methods Bhor is located 54km away from Pune City in a south-westerly direction. It is situated between 18045’N & 73015’E. It has an elevation of about

591.43m. Bhor Tahsil has an irregular shape, having an area of 892km2, bordered by Tahsil Khandala of Satara District on the east, Mahad of Raigad District on the west, Wai of Satara District on the south and Velhe, Haveli and Purandar tahsils on the north (Image 1). The flora of Bhor Tahsil has a great diversity which includes many exotic species. The climate is moist but healthy. The vegetation is mainly of dry deciduous type and scrub type. It is due to moderate and irregular rainfall. The actual rainfall in Bhor Tahsil during the period August 2007 to August 2009 was 2603mm, as provided by the Regional Meteorological Centre, Mumbai. The study area was fully explored during August 2007 to August 2009 and then probable areas were decided. To study the seasonal patterns/diversity in butterfly abundance in relation to nectar food plants, the entire year was divided into three seasons. The three seasons of the year are premonsoon from February to May, monsoon from June to September and postmonsoon from October to January. The study area was visited twice in each season during the two years i.e. 2007–2008 and 2008–2009. In the said investigation the selected sites were surveyed mainly between 0730 and 1230 hr. Butterfly species were

N

^

Image 1. Bhor Tahsil map, Pune District, India 1602

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identified directly in the field visually with the help of field guides followed by photography, in difficult cases, rarely by capture. Collection was restricted to those specimens that could not be identified directly. All scientific names follow Varshney (1983) and common English names follow Wynter-Blyth (1957). Classification of butterflies is after Gaonkar (1996). Benthum & Hooker (1862) system of classification is followed for plants. GPS readings and biotopes of a few sites in Bhor Tahsil area are given in Table 1. Results During the course of study, 64 species of butterflies belonging to five families were recorded in Bhor Tahsil. Out of 64 species, six belong to Papilionidae, eleven to Pieridae, 23 to Nymphalidae, seventeen to Lycaenidae and seven to Hesperiidae. Species belonging to the family Nymphalidae were the most dominant (36%) followed by Lycaenidae (27%), Pieridae (17%), Hesperiidae (11%) and Papilionidae (9%). The status recording was as follows: VC - very common (75–100 sightings), C - common (50–75 sightings), NR - not rare (25–50 sightings), R - rare (5–25 sightings) and VR - very rare (1–5 sightings). Among the 64 species 15 were found very common, 27 species common, 17 species not rare and five species were found rare. None of the species were observed in very rare category from the study area. Six species (Pachliopta hector, Neptis jumbah, Hypolimnas misippus, Lampides boeticus, Euchrysops cnejus and Acytolepis puspa) come under protection of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Out of the 64 species 27 species were recorded from botanical and nursery gardens, 55 from forest areas, 33 from grasslands, 58 on plantations and 51 from scrub biotope. Results are indicated in Table 2. Nectar food plants of butterfly

Table 1. GPS readings and biotopes of a few sites in Bhor Tahsil area Locations in Bhor Tahsil

GPS Readings

Type of Biotope

Location

Latitude

Longitude

Altitude

1

Baneshwar

18 15.406’

73 52.346’

655m

Garden

2

Bhor

18045.340’

73014.601’

592m

Scrub

0

0

3

Pisavare

18 07.902’

73 47.608’

601m

Plantation

4

Pombardi

18008.467’

73048.926’

630m

Forest

5

Wathar

18 07.781’

73 47.636’

605m

Grassland

0

0

0

0

species and floral characteristics of plants are indicated in Table 3. Mud puddling is usually observed in males. However, females of Hypolimnas bolina and Hypolimnas misippus were also observed while mud puddling (Table 4). Ten families of plants are used by butterflies as nectar food plants, as recorded from the study area: six plants of the family Asteraceae, two plants of each family Asclepiadaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae and Verbenaceae, while only one plant of each family Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Rubiaceae and Thymeleaceae. Visits of butterflies were more frequent to flowers of herbs and shrubs rather than to flowers of trees (Table 4). Discussion and Conclusions The species abundance rose from the beginning of the monsoon, from the months June to July and reached a peak in the months from August to November. A decline in species abundance was observed from the months December to January and continued up to the end of May. A previous study (Wynter-Blyth 1956) had identified two seasons as peaks, March-April and October for butterfly abundance in India. However, our finding observed peak period in the months from August to November, in line with the findings of Kunte (2000). Bhusal & Khanal (2008) reported that there is a significant correlation between species diversity and spring season, indicating the abundances of diverse species was positively affected by approaching warmer days, high relative humidity and more rainfall. These factors help to flourish diverse vegetations, which are vital food sources for many butterfly species. Gutierrez & Mendez (1995) suggested that the abundance of butterflies is not affected by altitudes but it is more related to the availability of food plants. A similar seasonal variation in species abundance was observed by Prajapati et al. (2000) in Daman of Makawanpur District of central Nepal. Plants have importance in increasing the butterfly diversity and their abundance in the area. In study area, maximum species of butterflies were recorded on plantation biotope, followed by forest and scrub biotope. However, grassland and botanical and nursery gardens are not observed as rich biotopes; heavy grazing pressure on grassland and use of pesticides in gardens have adversely affected diversity of butterflies in these biotopes. The nectar flowering plants visited by

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Table 2. Biotopes, status and seasonal sightings of butterfly species from Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, India Common name

Scientific name

Biotopes

Status

Seasonal sightings Monsoon

PostPremonsoon monsoon

Total

Papilionidae 1

Common Bluebottle

Graphium sarpedon Linnaeus

BFP

C

28

12

10

50

2

Tailed Jay

Graphium agamemnon Linnaeus

BGP

C

35

20

15

70

3

Common Mormon

Papilio polytes Linnaeus

BFGP

VC

42

25

18

85

4

Lime Butterfly

Papilio demoleus Linnaeus

BFGPS

C

30

25

5

60

5

Common Rose

Pachliopta aristolochiae Fabricius

BFGPS

C

28

16

7

51

6

Crimson Rose*

Pachliopta hector Linnaeus

BFPS

C

29

15

6

50

Pieridae 7

Three Spot Grass Yellow

Eurema blanda Boisduval

FS

NR

20

15

5

40

8

Small Grass Yellow

Eurema brigitta Cramer

BFGPS

VC

50

28

18

96

BFGPS

VC

48

22

27

97

FGPS

C

30

15

10

55

9

Common Grass Yellow

Eurema hecabe Linnaeus

10

Spotless Grass Yellow

Eurema laeta Boisduval

11

Common Emigrant

Catopsilia pomona Fabricius

BFGPS

VC

45

35

19

99

12

Mottled Emigrant

Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus

BFGPS

VC

42

24

12

78

13

White Orange Tip

Ixias marianne Cramer

BFPS

C

17

30

15

62

14

Common Gull

Cepora nerissa Fabricius

FGPS

C

35

25

15

75

15

Common Jezebel

Delias eucharis Drury

FPS

C

25

20

8

53

16

Psyche

Leptosia nina Fabricius

FGPS

R

15

12

0

27

17

Pioneer

Belenois aurota Fabricicus

BFGPS

VC

39

37

19

95

FPS

C

35

25

6

66

Nymphalidae 18

Blue Tiger

Tirumala limniace Cramer

19

Striped Tiger

Danaus genutia Cramer

20

Plain Tiger

Danaus chrysippusLinnaeus

21

Glassy Tiger

Parantica aglea Stoll

FGPS

C

26

20

5

51

22

Common Indian Crow

Euploea core Cramer

BFGPS

VC

37

24

20

81

23

Common Nawab

Polyura athamas Drury

FPS

R

10

6

2

18

24

Black Rajah

Charaxes Solon Fabricius

FPS

R

12

7

3

22

25

Common Evening Brown

Melanitis leda Linnaeus

FPS

VC

43

32

11

86

FGS

NR

17

9

4

30

FS

NR

21

9

5

35

FGPS

C

25

35

8

68

BFGPS

VC

40

35

25

100

26

Common Three Ring

Ypthima asterope Klug

27

Common Five Ring

Ypthima baldus Fabricius

28

Tawny Coster

Acraea violae Fabricius

BGPS

C

33

25

14

72

29

Common Leopard

Phalanta phalantha Drury

FGPS

VC

38

26

26

90

30

Chestnut Streaked Sailer*

Neptis jumbah Moore

FPS

NR

18

9

7

34

31

Angled Castor

Ariadne ariadne Linnaeus

BGPS

VC

40

31

13

84

32

Common Castor

Ariadne merione Cramer

BGPS

C

29

17

12

58

33

Painted Lady

Vanessa cardui Linnaeus

GPS

C

29

25

7

61

34

Blue Pansy

Junonia orithiya Linnaeus

FGPS

C

27

21

17

65

35

Yellow Pansy

Junonia hierta Fabricius

FGPS

C

24

19

10

53

36

Chocolate Pansy

Junonia iphita Cramer

BFGPS

C

32

16

8

56

37

Grey Pansy

Junonia atlites Linnaeus

BFPS

C

18

24

8

50

38

Lemon Pansy

Junonia lemonias Linnaeus

BFGPS

VC

48

30

22

100

39

Great Eggfly

Hypolimnas bolina Linnaeus

BFPS

VC

36

28

18

82

40

Danaid Eggfly*

Hypolimnas misippus Linnaeus

BFPS

VC

44

25

7

76

1604

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Butterfly diversity in Bhor Tahsil Common name

R.K. Nimbalkar et al. Scientific name

Biotopes

Status

Seasonal sightings Monsoon

PostPremonsoon monsoon

Total

Lycaenidae 41

Silver Streak Blue

Iraota timoleon Stoll

FP

NR

42

Large Guava Blue

Deudorix perse Hewitson

FP

NR

43

Angled Pierrot

Caleta caleta Hewitson

F

NR

44

Banded Blue Pierrot

Discolampa ethion Westwood

45

Zebra Blue

Leptotes plinius Fabricius

46

Common Cerulean

Jamides celenoCramer

47

Forget-me-not

Catochrysops strabo Fabricius

48

Pea Blue*

Lampides boeticus Linnaeus

49

Dark Grass Blue

50

Pale Grass Blue

51

Tiny Grass Blue

Zizula hylax Fabricius

52

Red Pierrot

Talicada nyseus Guerin -Meneville

16

7

5

28

11

8

6

25

20

10

0

30 28

FPS

NR

16

12

0

FGPS

C

31

19

4

54

FP

VC

34

25

20

79

FPS

NR

13

9

6

28

BFGS

C

20

30

18

68

Zizeeria Karsandra Moore

FGPS

NR

20

14

7

41

Pseudozizeeria maha Kollar

BGPS

NR

17

8

5

30

BFGPS

C

37

20

15

72

BPS

NR

21

14

10

45

53

Gram Blue*

Euchrysops cnejus Fabricius

FGPS

NR

18

12

7

37

54

Common Hedge Blue*

Acytolepis puspa Horsfield

FPS

C

32

19

5

56

55

Plains Cupid

Chilades pandava Horsfield

GPS

NR

19

9

3

31

56

Lime Blue

Chilades laius Stoll

BP

C

36

25

10

71

57

Plum Judy

Abisara echerius Stoll

FPS

C

19

29

10

58

Hesperiidae 58

Fulvous Pied Flat

Pseudocoladenia dan Fabricius

FP

C

29

17

7

53

59

Dark Palm Dart

Telicota ancilla Herrich-Schaffer

FS

NR

17

7

2

26

60

Rice Swift

Borbo cinnara Wallace

FPS

C

31

19

4

54

61

Conjoined Swift

Pelopidas conjuncta Herrich-Schaffer

FP

R

8

5

1

14

62

Vindhyan Bob

Arnetta vindhiana Moore

FP

R

17

8

0

25

63

Chestnut Bob

Iambrix salsala Moore

FP

NR

22

23

5

50

64

Grass Demon

Udaspes folus Cramer

FP

NR

20

10

5

35

Biotopes: B - Botanical and Nursery Garden; F - Forest; G - Grassland; P - Plantation; S - Scrub Status: C - Common; VC - Very Common; R - Rare; NR - Not Rare; VR - Very Rare; * - Scheduled species

butterflies, as observed in our findings, namely Carissa congesta, Asclepias curassavica, Calotropis gigantea, Senecio bombayensis, Vernonia divergens, Wedelia uticaefolia, Zinnia eleganas, Cassia auriculata, Urena lobata, Mussaenda glabrata and Gnidia glauca are not reported by Tiple et al. (2006, 2009) in their study area of Amravati University Campus and Nagpur, Central India, respectively. The herbs from the study area namely Celosia argentea, Tridax procumbens and Tephrosia purpurea are more used by butterflies, probably due to the fact that the flowering period of these herbs is throughout the year. The shrubs namely Calotropis gigantea and Lantana camara also have a flowering period throughout the year, so they are more used by butterflies as their food plants. A few species of butterflies were observed feeding on either animal

droppings or on ripe fruits or while mud puddling (Table 4). Mud puddling is usually observed in males, but in our findings females of Hypolimnas bolina and Hypolimnas misippus butterfly species were observed doing mud puddling. Mathew & Binoy (2002) reported that females of Appias albina darada were found to be very much active in mud puddling. The requirement of more water and salt could be the reason for this. Monitoring and mapping biodiversity is the first step in systematic conservation planning (Margules & Pressey 2000). In the study area, events like grazing pressure, influx of tourists, construction of highways, use of pesticides and change in land use pattern, are mainly responsible for diversity loss of both butterflies and plants. Members from family Lycaenidae largely feed on grasses and cattle grazing affected their diversity

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Butterfly diversity in Bhor Tahsil

R.K. Nimbalkar et al.

Table 3. Nectar food plants of buttrerfly species and floral characteristics of plants from Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, India Habit

Flowering period

Flower colour

Corolla shape

Flower abundance

Herb

Aug–Feb

Pink, White

NT

D

Shrub

Apr–Jun

White

T

M

Undershrub

Jan–Dec

Red, Yellow

NT

D

Shrub

Oct–July

Purple, White

NT

M

Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.

Herb

Aug–Nov

Orange, Yellow

T

D

Senecio bombayensis Balakr.

Herb

Aug–Dec

Yellow

T

D

Tridax procumbens L.

Herb

Jan–Dec

Yellowish White

T

D

Vernonia divergens (Roxb.) Edgew.

Shrub

Nov–Apr

Purple, White

T

D

Wedelia urticaefolia DC

Herb

Aug–Sep

Yellow

T

D

Zinnia eleganas Jacq.

Herb

Aug–Dec

Pink, Yellow

T

D

Bauhinia purpurea L.

Tree

Sep–Jan

Purple

NT

S

Cassia auriculata L.

Shrub

Jan–Jul

Yellow

NT

M

Undershrub

Jan–Dec

Rosy Purple

NT

M

Herb

Oct–Jan

Yellow

NT

M

Shrub

Jul–Dec

Pink

T

S

Shrub

Feb–Sep

Orange-Red

T

S

Shrub

Oct–Jun

Bright Yellow

T

D

Lantana camara L.

Shrub

Jan–Dec

Orange-Red

T

D

Vitex negundo L.

Shrub

Jan–Jul

Bluish-Purple

T

M

Family / Botanical name Amaranthaceae Celosia argentea L. Apocynaceae Carissa congesta Wight Asclepiadaceae Asclepias curassavica L. Calotropis gigantea (L.) Ait. Asteraceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Fabaceae Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Crotalaria juncea L. Malvaceae Urena lobata L. Rubiaceae Mussaenda glabrata (Hook. F.) Hutch. ex Gamble Thymeleaceae Gnidia glauca (Fresen.) Gilg. Verbenaceae

and abundance. In the United Kingdom grazing by cattle and sheep has been practiced as a management tool (Pollard 1991) and there is ample scope for such practices in India. A total of five species of butterflies from the study area are designated rare while describing their status and justifies its inclusion in scheduled list suggesting the need for strict conservation measures (Table 2). As reported by Kunte (2000), an objective revision of the scheduled list will be very useful in providing appropriate and adequate legal protection to Indian butterflies. Our findings are more important for monitoring butterfly diversity and nectar food plant diversity to 1606

improve the ecological utility of butterflies as indicator taxa and pollinating agents and defining conservation strategies in the study area. REFERENCES Benthum, G. & J.D. Hooker (1862–1883). Genera Plantarum Vol. I, II, III. London, 1040, 1279, 1258pp. Bhusal, D.R. & B. Khanal (2008). Seasonal and Altitudinal Diversity of Butterflies in Eastern Siwalik of Nepal. Journal of the Natural History Museum 23: 82–87. Feltwell, J. (1986). The Natural History of Butterflies. Groom Helem Ltd., Provident House, Bureel Row, Beckenham

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Butterfly diversity in Bhor Tahsil

R.K. Nimbalkar et al.

Table 4. Nectar food plants and other food sources of butterfly species observed from study area Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, india Common name

Scientific name

Scientific name of nectar food plant / other source

Papilionidae 1

Common Bluebottle

Graphium sarpedon Linnaeus

Cosmos bipinnatus, Zinnia eleganas

2

Tailed Jay

Graphium agamemnon Linnaeus

Lantana camara

3

Common Mormon

Papilio polytes Linnaeus

Cosmos bipinnatus, Lantana camara

4

Lime Butterfly

Papilio demoleus Linnaeus

Lantana camara, Mussaenda galbrata, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens

5

Common Rose

Pachliopta aristolochiae Fabricius

Lantana camara

6

Crimson Rose

Pachliopta hector Linnaeus

Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

Pieridae 7

Three Spot Grass Yellow

Eurema blanda Boisduval

Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens

8

Small Grass Yellow

Eurema brigitta Cramer

Lantana camara, Urena lobata, Zinnia elegans

9

Common Grass Yellow

Eurema hecabe Linnaeus

Celosia argenta, Lantana camara, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens

10

Spotless Grass Yellow

Eurema laeta Boisduval

Celosia argenta, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

11

Common Emigrant

Catopsilia pomona Fabricius

Cassia auriculata, Lantana camara, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens, Wedelia uticaefolia

12

Mottled Emigrant

Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus

Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

13

White Orange Tip

Ixias marianne Cramer

Calotropis gigantea, Tridax procumbens

14

Common Gull

Cepora nerissa Fabricius

Asclepias curassavica, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

15

Common Jezebel

Delias eucharis Drury

Celosia argenta, Lantana camara

16

Psyche

Leptosia nina Fabricius

Tridax procumbens

17

Pioneer

Belenois aurota Fabricicus

Calotropis gigantea, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

Nymphalidae 18

Blue Tiger

Tirumala limniace Cramer

Crotalaria juncea, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

19

Striped Tiger

Danaus genutia Cramer

Celosia argentea, Crotalaria juncea, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens, Sencio bombayenesis

20

Plain Tiger

Danaus chrysippusLinnaeus

Crotalaria juncea, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens, Vitex negundo, Zinnia elegans

21

Glassy Tiger

Parantica aglea Stoll

Crotalaria juncea, Lantana camara, Zinnia elegans

22

Common Indian Crow

Euploea core Cramer

Celosia argentea, Cosmos sulphureus, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens, Zinnia elegans

23

Common Nawab

Polyura athamas Drury

On animal droppings

24

Black Rajah

Charaxes Solon Fabricius

On animal droppings, on over-ripe fruits

25

Common Evening Brown

Melanitis leda Linnaeus

Tridax procumbens

26

Common Three Ring

Ypthima asterope Klug

Celosia argentea, Tridax procumbens

27

Common Five Ring

Ypthima baldus Fabricius

Celosia argentea, Tridax procumbens

28

Tawny Coster

Acraea violae Fabricius

Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens, Vitex negundo

29

Common Leopard

Phalanta phalantha Drury

Celosia argentea, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

30

Chestnut Streaked Sailer

Neptis jumbah Moore

Tridax procumbens

31

Angled Castor

Ariadne ariadne Linnaeus

Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

32

Common Castor

Ariadne merione Cramer

Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

33

Painted Lady

Vanessa cardui Linnaeus

Carissa congesta, Gnidia glauca, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

34

Blue Pansy

Junonia orithiya Linnaeus

Celosia argentea, Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

35

Yellow Pansy

Junonia hierta Fabricius

Celosia argentea, Lantana camara, Tephrosia purpurea

36

Chocolate Pansy

Junonia iphita Cramer

Tephrosia purpurea

37

Grey Pansy

Junonia atlites Linnaeus

Celosia argentea, Cosmos sulphureus, Tridax procumbens

38

Lemon Pansy

Junonia lemonias Linnaeus

Celosia argentea, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens

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Butterfly diversity in Bhor Tahsil Common name

R.K. Nimbalkar et al. Scientific name

Scientific name of nectar food plant / other source

39

Great Eggfly

Hypolimnas bolina Linnaeus

Bauhinia purpurea, Celosia argentea, Lantana camara

40

Danaid Eggfly

Hypolimnas misippus Linnaeus

Asclepias curassavica, Celosia argentea, Lantana camara, Zinnia elegans

Iraota timoleon Stoll

Observed doing Mud Puddling

Lycaenidae 41

Silver Streak Blue

42

Large Guava Blue

Deudorix perse Hewitson

Observed doing Mud Puddling

43

Angled Pierrot

Caleta caleta Hewitson

Observed doing Mud Puddling

44

Banded Blue Pierrot

Discolampa ethion Westwood

Lantana camara

45

Zebra Blue

Leptotes plinius Fabricius

Celosia argentea, Lantana camara, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens

46

Common Cerulean

Jamides celenoCramer

Celosia argentea, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens

47

Forget-me-not

Catochrysops strabo Fabricius

Celosia argentea

48

Pea Blue

Lampides boeticus Linnaeus

Celosia argentea

49

Dark Grass Blue

Zizeeria Karsandra Moore

Lantana camara

50

Pale Grass Blue

Pseudozizeeria maha Kollar

Tephrosia purpurea

51

Tiny Grass Blue

Zizula hylax Fabricius

Lantana camara

52

Red Pierrot

Talicada nyseus Guerin-Meneville

Tridax procumbens

53

Gram Blue

Euchrysops cnejus Fabricius

Lantana camara

54

Common Hedge Blue

Acytolepis puspa Horsfield

Tephrosia purpurea

55

Plains Cupid

Chilades pandava Horsfield

Tridax procumbens

56

Lime Blue

Chilades laius Stoll

Urena lobata

57

Plum Judy

Abisara echerius Stoll

On animal droppings

Pseudocoladenia dan Fabricius

Lantana camara

Hesperiidae 58

Fulvous Pied Flat

59

Dark Palm Dart

Telicota ancilla Herrich-Schaffer

Lantana camara, Tridax procumbens

60

Rice Swift

Borbo cinnara Wallace

Celosia argentea, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbens

61

Conjoined Swift

Pelopidas conjuncta HerrichSchaffer

Celosia argentea, Tridax procumbens

62

Vindhyan Bob

Arnetta vindhiana Moore

Lantana camara

63

Chestnut Bob

Iambrix salsala Moore

Zinnia elegans

64

Grass Demon

Udaspes folus Cramer

Lantana camera

Kent BR3 1AT, 133pp. Gaonkar, H. (1996). Butterflies of the Western Ghats, India (including Sri Lanka). A biodiversity assessment of a threatened mountain system. Report to the Centre for Ecological Sciences, Bangalore. Gutierrez, D. & R. Mendez (1995). Phenology of butterflies in a mountain area in northen Iberian Peninsual. Ecography 18: 209–2196. Kunte, K. (1997). Seasonal patterns in butterfly abundance and species diversity in four tropical habitats in northern Western Ghats. Journal of Bioscience 22(5): 593–603. Kunte, K. (2000). Butterflies of Peninsular India.University Press, Hydrabad, India, 254pp. Kunte, K. (2001). Butterfly diversity of Pune City along the human impact gradient. Journal of Ecological Society 13– 14: 40–45. Margules, C.R. & R.L. Pressey (2000). Systematic 1608

conservation planning. Nature 405: 243–253. Mathew, G. & C.F. Binoy (2002). Migration of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Zoos’ Print Journal 17(8): 844–847. Padhye, A.D., N. Dahanukar, M. Paingankar, M. Deshpande & D. Deshpande (2006). Season and landscape wise distribution of butterflies in Tamhini, north-western Ghats, India. Zoos’ Print Journal 21(3): 2175–2181. Pollard, E. (1991). Monitoring Butterfly numbers, pp. 87–111. In: Goldsmith, B. (ed.) Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology. Chapman and Hall. Prajapati, B., U. Shrestha & A.S. Tamrakar (2000). Diversity of butterfly in Daman area of Makawanpur District, Central Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science & Technology 2: 71–76. Rane, N.S. & S.P. Ranade (2004). Butterflies of TamhiniDongarwadi area, Mulshi, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal

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Butterfly diversity in Bhor Tahsil

19(3): 1411–1413. Sharma, R.M. (2009). Insecta: Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera and Grypocera. Fauna of Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Conservation Area Series 42: 257–262. Tiple, A.D. & A.M. Khurad (2009). Butterflies recorded from Nagpur, central India. Bionotes 11(4): 130–131. Tiple, A.D., A.M. Khurad & R.L.H. Dennis (2009). Adult butterfly feeding - nectar flower associations: constraints

R.K. Nimbalkar et al.

of taxonomic affiliation, butterfly and nectar flower morphology. Journal of Natural History 13/14: 855–884. Varshney, R.K. (1983). Index Rhopalocera Indica Part II. Common names of butterflies from India and neighbouring countries. Records of Zoological Survey of India, Occassional Paper No. 47: 1–49. Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 523pp.

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JoTT Short Communication

3(3): 1610-1614

Catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) diversity in Karala River of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India Amal Kumar Patra Department of Zoology, Ananda Chandra College, Jalpaiguri, West Bengal 735101, India Email: amalpatra@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: The diversity of fresh water catfish fauna of the Karala River in Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal was studied from February 2009 to January 2010. A total of seven species belonging to six genera and six families were identified. Bagridae was the dominant family with two representatives, whereas Amblycepitidae, Chacidae, Olyridae, Sisoridae and Siluridae were each represented by single species. Maximum fish diversity was recorded higher in Hakim Para (H′ =1.266) as compared with DasPara (H′ =1.218) and Aquiduct (H′ =1.04). The evenness index at three sampling stations indicates uneven distribution of catfish in this tributary, possibly due to the irregular depth of river, occurrence of submerged vegetation and physicochemical water characteristics. Keywords: Bagridae, Catfish, Karala River, Siluriformes fishes.

The major riverine fishery resources of northern West Bengal are provided by the Teesta, Torsha, Jaldhaka, Mahananda, Raidak, Sankosh, Kaljani, Korotoa, Punarbhaba and Atrai river systems. The Teesta originates from Jemu glacier in Sikkim and

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: W. Vishwanath Manuscript details: Ms # o2474 Received 30 May 2010 Final received 20 January 2011 Finally accepted 04 February 2011 Citation: Patra, A.K. (2011). Catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) diversity in Karala River of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1610-1614. Copyright: © Amal Kumar Patra 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: I am grateful to University Grant Commission (UGC) for providing research grant; to the Principal, Ananda Chandra College for providing me research laboratory of zoology department and others administrative help; to the Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata for giving me an opportunity to take short course training on fresh water fish identification under the supervision of Dr. A.K. Karmakar, Dr. S. Kar and Dr. S.S. Mishra; to my colleagues (Dr. Tanmay Datta and Santanu Ghosh Dastidar) for giving me valuable suggestions different times during this study. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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is the largest river of northern West Bengal, passing through the districts of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Mekhliganj subdivision of Coochbehar and meeting the Brahmaputra (known as Yamuna in Bangladesh). The main stream is connected by several tributaries including the Karala (also known as Kalla), which originates from the Baikunthapur forest and flows down into the Teesta near Mandal Ghat in Jalpaiguri Town, bisecting Jalpaiguri District (located on the confluence of river Teesta and Karala). The total catchment area is 141km2, most of which is covered by arable land. The basin of this river sustains life and livelihoods of tea gardeners, fishermen and slum-dwellers. So far as ichthyofauna diversity in northern Bengal is concerned, the earliest report is by Shaw & Shebbeare (1937), who reported 131 species from the rivers, streams and ponds in the hills and plains of the Darjeeling District and the adjoining Duars. Of these 131 species they reported 34 species of catfish. Hora & Gupta (1941) reported on a small collection of fish from Kalimpong, Duars and Tarai, adding two species to this list. In 1977 Jayaram & Singh reported 26 species of catfish from the TenganMahananda confluence, the Atrai, Purnabhasa, Dharla (at Changrabandha), Kalindri, Mahananda (at Malda Town), Jamuna (at Hilli Village of Balurghat), Teesta, Karotayar, Panga, Balasan and Jaldhaka. None of these sites were connected with the Karala River, thus the present study represents the first attempt to study ichthyofauna diversity in this lotic system and determine fresh water catfish resources, distribution, diversity and status on the basis of catch frequency. Materials and Methods Fortnightly fishes were captured from three different study sites (Fig. 1) of the Karala River. Station-I (Aquiduct) is located near the origin of the river at 26047’13”N & 88032’17”E, 122m elevation. From Jalpaiguri town its distance by bus route is 32km, water

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(2): 1610-1614


Catfish diversity in Karala River

A.K. Patra

Figure 1. Origin and distribution of Karala River with three different study sites

depth is 0.4 to 0.6 m pre-and-post monsoon, rising during rain and flood 4 to 5.5 m. At station-I fish were captured by cast net (mesh size 6x6 mm) and naphi jal (local contrivance, mesh size 5x5 mm). Station-II is located in the heart of the district town and behind the hospital and market (Hakim Para) at 26031’51”N & 88043’23”E, 86m elevation. From Jalpaiguri District town its distance by bus route is 0.5km, regular water depth is 3.7 to 5.2 m during pre-and-post monsoon, during rain fall and flood the depth increase to 6.6 to 7.6 m. Station-III is located at the junction of Teesta and Karala near Daspara at 26028’42”N & 88044’27”E, 81m elevation. From Jalpaiguri district

town its distance by bus route is 7km, regular water depth is 3.7 to 4.6 m during pre- and post-monsoon and during rain fall and flood it increases to 6.1 to 7 m. In station II and III fishes were captured by vessel net or khara jal (local contrivance, mesh size 6x6 mm), gill net (variable mesh sizes), and cast net (5x5 mm mesh size). Colour, colour patterns, spots etc. were noted immediately after capture and photographs were taken by Nikon Coolpix S4, fishes were killed by formalin solution containing one part commercial formalin (37– 40 % HCHO) + nine part glass distilled water and 7g Borax/liter (Jayaram 1981). All samples were kept in this buffer formalin solution for 4–5 hours for proper

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Catfish diversity in Karala River

A.K. Patra

Table 1. Species diversity of cat fishes and their local name, status and fishery importance. Scientific Name

English Name

Local Name

Status (According to catch frequency)

Threat status (Barman 2007)

1

Bagridae Mystus bleekeri (Day)

Day's Mystus

Golsha Tengra or Palwa Tangra

Rare in S-II and S-III

Vulnerable

2

Bagridae Mystus tengara (Hamilton)

Tengara Mystus

Halud or Kalo Tengra

Common in both S-II and S-III.

Out of danger

3

Amblycipitidae Amblyceps mangois (Hamilton)

Indian Torrent Catfish

Ban Magoor

Common in S-I during entire study.

Near Threatened

4

Chacidae Chaca chaca (Hamilton)

Squarehead Catfish

Chaga or Chagbega.

Common in S-II and S-III.

Out of danger

5

Olyridae Olyra longicaudata McClelland

Longtail Catfish

Bot Singhi, Ranghang.

Abundant in S-I.

Out of danger

6

Siluridae Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider)

Wallago or Fresh Water Shark

Bowal

Occasional in S-II and S-III

Near Threatened

7

Sisoridae Erethistoides montana montana Hora

Nil

Kutakanti’ or Kurkati.

Common in S-I.

Out of danger

fixation. Catfish were segregated from the master stock and subsequently identified by the literature of Jayaram (1999, 2006) and Talwar & Jhingran (1991). Scientific names were confirmed from freshwater fish section of ZSI, Kolkata. The frequency of occurrence of each species was calculated based on the number of occasions the species was collected during the samplings. The status was determined with the help of a standard catch frequency chart presented by Tamang et al. 2007 (Catch frequency 91-100 % = Common, 81-90 = Abundant, 61-80 = Frequent, 31-59 = Occasional, 15-30= Sporadic, 05-14= Rare and <5% = Extremely rare). Threat status and endemism were assigned following Barman (2007). The diversity and evenness indices were calculated according to Shannon-Weaner (1949) and Pielou (1975). Capture of fish was done from 0800 to 1300 hr each sampling day. The study was carried out from February 2009 to January 2010. Results A total of seven species belonging to six families and six genera were collected. They have naked skin or bony scute or plates, scales are always absent. Their oral portion contains nearly always 1–4 pairs of barbells. The atlas, axis, 3rd and 4th vertebrae are ossified and form a complex vertebra. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of the catfish fauna suggests Bagridae to be the most dominant family with two representatives occurring at SII and SIII. Amblycepitidae, Chacidae, Olyridae, Sisoridae and Siluridae each had a single species representation. 1612

A check list of captured fish, local names, status (on the basis of catch frequency) and threat status is presented in Table 1. On the basis of catch frequency Amblyceps mangois (Image 1) and Erethistoides montana montana (Image 2) were common, and Olyra longicaudata (Image 3) was abundant at upstream (SI). They were extremely rare at SII and not captured at SIII. This observation indicates that the above three catfishes are hill stream fish representatives and prefer low current and least water depth. The Mystus tengara (Image 4) and Chaca chaca (Image 5) are common,

Image 1. Amblyceps mangois (Hamilton)

Image 2. Erethistoides montana montana Hora

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(2): 1610-1614


Catfish diversity in Karala River

Image 3. Olyra longicaudata McClelland

A.K. Patra

Image 4. Mystus tengara (Hamilton)

Image 5. Chaca chaca (Hamilton)

Image 6. Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider)

and indicates good correlation with over all species richness across the sites. The evenness index at three sapling stations (SI = 0.947, SII = 0.707 and SIII = 0.879) indicates uneven distribution of catfishes in this tributary.

Image 7. Mystus bleekeri (Day)

Wallago attu (Image 6) was occasional and Mystus bleekeri (Image 7) was rare in both SII and SIII. The species richness in three sampling sites of this river showed considerable variation and higher richness was recorded in the mid to down stream. Maximum species richness was recorded from SII (Hakimpara, total number = 06) and SIII (Daspara, total species = 04) while lower species richness was recorded from SI (Aquiduct, total number = 03) respectively. The species diversity index of different sampling sites was ranged from 1.04 to 1.218. In this study maximum fish diversity was recorded higher in SII (H′ = 1.266) as compared with SIII (H′ = 1.218) and SI (H′ = 1.04)

Discussion and Conclusions The knowledge of ichthyofaunal diversity, their present threat status, role in ecosystem and human economy are prerequisites for adopting the proper conservation strategies of fish fauna. The present study has recorded seven species of catfishes from Karala River, a tributary of the river Teesta. In this lotic system they were distributed unevenly, down streams were richest and more diversified than upstream. At down streams, the highest organic load occurs that cause the productivity. Sub-merged weeds of SII (Hakim Para) and SIII (Daspara) provide the shelter and food of fishes. For these reasons the diversity is high. It also may be due to the heterogeneous depth of water body due to silting, abundance of prey, substratum soil quality and physico-chemical features of water like temperature, pH, turbidity, total solid, dissolved oxygen, BOD etc. Three species are threatened catfishes of India found

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Catfish diversity in Karala River

A.K. Patra

in this river (Table 1). Among these three species, one has been designated as Vulnerable and two have been designated as Near Threatened by Barman (2007). The rest are data deficient or out of danger. The only species Erethistoides montana montana Hora is endemic to northern Bengal (Barman 2007). The cause of threatening may be due to the habitat loss, habitat degradation, over exploitation, pollution and unscientific capture technology. Till date it is unfortunate that the Karala River of Jalpaiguri District has not received any attention from the ichthyological aspects. This report gains importance as the Karala River has been described as one of the most important tributaries of Teesta.

References Barman, R.P. (2007). A review of the fresh water fish fauna of West Bengal, India with suggestions for conservation of the threatened and endemic species, Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 263: 1–48. Hora, S.L. & J.C.Gupta (1941). On a collection of fish from Kalimpong, Duars and Siliguri Terai, North Bengal. Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal 47: 183–202. Jayaram, K.C. & K.P. Singh (1977). On the collection of fish from North Bengal. Records of Zoological Survey of India 72(1–4): 243–275.

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Jayaram, K.C. (1981). Methods of preservation of fishes, p. 5. In: Director, ZSI (ed.). The Fresh Water Fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Srilanka - A Handbook. Calcutta Laser Graphics (P) Ltd., Calcutta, iii+475pp+13pls. Jayaram, K.C. (1999). Systematic account of Siluriformes fishes, pp. 220–318. In: The Fresh Water Fishes of the Indian Region. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi, v+ 551pp+18pls. Jayaram, K.C. (2006). Catfishes of India. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi, xxii+383+11pls. Pielou, E.C. (1975). Ecological Diversity. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 165p. Shannon, C.E. & W. Weaner (1949). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 163p. Shaw, G.E. & E.O. Shebbeare (1937). The fishes of North Bengal. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal (Science) 3(1): 1–137. Talwar, P.K. & A.G. Jhingran (1991). Systematic account of Siluriformes fishes, pp. 543–714. In: Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries—Vol. 2. Oxford and IBH Publishing Copany, New Delhi, 1158pp. Tamang, L., S. Chaudhry & D. Choudhury (2007). Ichthyofaunal contribution to the state and comparison of habitat contiguity on taxonomic diversity in Senkhi stream, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 104(2): 170–177.

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JoTT Note

3(3): 1615-1619

Three new fungi from Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, India V.B. Hosagoudar 1 & M.C. Riju 2 Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India Email: 1 vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com (corresponding author) 1,2

There are several sporadic reports on fungi of Silent Valley National Park, but a consolidated account of any group of fungi of this evergreen forest is lacking. We have been making continuous efforts in the study of these fungi (Hosagoudar et al. 1996; Florence 2004; Hosagoudar & Biju 2006; Hosagoudar et al. 2010; Rajeshkumar & Hosagoudar 2010; Shaji & Hosagoudar 2010) and in this note we provide an account of three new fungi. Asteridiella toddaliae sp. nov. (Fig. 1) Material examined: 02.viii.2008, on leaves of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae), Cheriavalakkad, Silent Valley National Park, Palakkad, Kerala, India, coll. M.C. Riju et al. TBGT 4513 (holotype). Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi, (MycoBank # 561021). Coloniae amphigenae, densae, velutinae, ad

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Richard Mibey Manuscript details: Ms # o2641 Received 07 December 2010 Final received 10 February 2011 Finally accepted 15 February 2011 Citation: Hosagoudar, V.B. & M.C. Riju (2011). Three new fungi from Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1615-1619. Copyright: © V.B. Hosagoudar & M.C. Riju 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

3mm diam., raro confluentes. Hyphae rectae, subrectae vel undulatae, plerumque opposite laxe ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 22–30 x 7–10 µm. Appressoria alternata, unilateralis, ad 10% opposita, antrorsa vel subantrorsa, raro retrorsa, 12–25 µm longa; cellulae basilares cylindraceae vel cuneatae, 2–8 µm longae; cellulae apicales ovatae, globosae, integrae, 10–18 x 7–13 µm. Phialides appressoriis intermixtae, alternatae, oppositae, ampulliformes, 15–23 x 5–8 µm. Perithecia laxe aggregata ad coloniis centre, ad 210µm diam.; cellulae peritheciales mammiformes vel conoideae, 17–28 µm longae; ascosporae oblongae vel ellipsoideae, 4-septatae, constrictus ad septatae, 45–48 x 22–25 µm. Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm diam., rarely confluent. Hyphae straight, substraight to undulating, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–30 x 7–10 µm. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, about 10% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, rarely retrorse, 12–25 µm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–8 µm long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 10–18 x 7–13 µm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite, ampulliform, 15–23 x 5–8 µm. Perithecia loosely grouped at the centre of the colony, up to 210µm in diam.; perithecial wallcells mammiform to conoid, 17–28 µm long; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 45–48 x 22–25 µm. Of the known species of the genus Asteridiella on Rutaceae, Asteridiella obesa (Speg.) Hansf. var. obesula (Speg.) Hansf. and A. fagaricola (Speg.) Hansf. var. zanthoxyli Hansf. having alternate and opposite appressoria (Hansford 1961). The present new species differs from the former taxon known on Esenbeckia latifolia from Paraguay in having perfectly rounded head cells of appressoria in contrast to rounded-angulose. It also differs from the latter taxon known on Zanthoxylum hymenale from Argentina in having only 10% opposite appressoria in contrast to 90% (Hansford 1961). The specific epithet is derived from the host genus.

Acknowledgements: We thank the director, TBGRI, Palode for providing facilities and to Mr. T. Shaju, TBGRI, Palode for identifying the host plants. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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New fungi of Silent Valley

V.B. Hosagoudar & M.C. Riju

a

b

10Âľm

d 8Âľm c

Figure 1. Asteridiella toddaliae sp. nov. a - Appressorium; b - Phialide; c - Ascospores; d - Perithecial wall cells

1616

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1615-1619


New fungi of Silent Valley

V.B. Hosagoudar & M.C. Riju

Meliola clausenigena sp. nov. (Fig. 2) Material examined: 01.viii.2008, on leaves of Clausena sp. (Rutaceae), Poochipara, Silent Valley National Park, Palakkad, Kerala, India, coll. M.C. Riju et al. TBGT 4514 (holotype). Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi, (MycoBank # 561022). Coloniae amphigenae, densae, velutinae, ad 3mm

diam., dispersae vel confluentes. Hyphae rectae, flexuosae, opposite laxe ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 15–30 x 5–8 µm. Appressoria plerumque opposita, raro unilateralis, antrorsa vel subantrorsa, 17–23 µm longa; cellulae basilares cylindraceae vel cuneatae, 5–8 µm longae; cellulae apicales ovatae, oblongae, raro globosae, rectae vel curvulae, integrae, saepe sinuatae, truncatae ad apicem, 12–15 x 7–10 µm. Phialides appressoriis inter mixtus, oppositae, alternatae vel unilateralis, 15–20 x 7–10

a

d

8µm

b

c

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1615-1619

Figure 2. Meliola clausenigena sp. nov. a - Appressorium; b - Phialide; c - Apical portion of the mycelial setae; d - Ascospores 1617


New fungi of Silent Valley

V.B. Hosagoudar & M.C. Riju

µm. Setae myceliales simplices, rectae vel uncinatae ad portionio apicalis, acutae, obtusae vel 2–3-dentatae ad apicem, ad 240µm longae. Perithecia dispersa vel aggregata, ad 190µm diam.; ascosporae oblongae vel cylindraceae, 4-septatae, constrictus ad septatae, 37– 40 x 15–20 µm. Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diam., scattered to confluent. Hyphae straight, flexuous, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–30 x 5–8 µm. Appressoria mostly opposite, rarely unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 17– 23 µm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 µm long; head cells ovate, oblong, rarely globose, straight to curved, entire, often sinuate, truncate at the apex, 12–15 x 7–10 µm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, 15–20 x 7–10 µm. Mycelial setae simple, straight to uncinate at the apical portion, acute, obtuse to 2–3-times dentate at the tip,

up to 240µm long. Perithecia scattered to grouped in the colonies, up to 190µm in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septum, 37–40 x 15–20 µm. This is the only species of the genus Meliola known on the members of the family Rutaceae having straight, curved to uncinate apical portion of the mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar et al. 1996; Hu et al. 1996, 1999; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008). The specific epithet is derived from the host genus. Meliola strombosiigena sp. nov. (Fig. 3) Material examined: 01.viii.2008, on leaves of Strombosia sp. (Olacaceae), Cheriavalakkad, Silent Valley National Park, Palakkad, Kerala, India, coll.

a

6µm b

c d

7µm

1618

Figure 3. Meliola strombosiigena sp. nov. a - Appressorium; b - Phialide; c - Apical portion of the mycelial setae; d - Ascospores Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1615-1619


New fungi of Silent Valley

M.C. Riju et al. TBGT 4515 (holotype). Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi, (MycoBank # 561023). Coloniae amphigenae, plerumque hypophyllae, densae, velutinae, ad 4mm diam., confluentes. Hyphae flexuosae vel undulatae, opposite vel alternatim acuteque vel laxe ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 15–25 x 5–10 µm. Appressoria alternata, opposita vel unilateralis, antrorsa vel subantrorsa, raro retrorsa, 17–28 µm longa; cellulae basilares cylindraceae vel cuneatae, 5–8 µm longae; cellulae apicales oblongae vel cylindraceae, rectae vel flexuosis curvulae, integrae, 10–20 x 5–8 µm. Phialides appressoriis intermixtus, alternatae, oppositae vel unilateralis, ampulliformes, 20–30 x 6–8 µm. Setae myceliales rectae vel curvulae, dispersae, acutae ad apicem, ad 720µm longae; Perithecia dispersa, ad 240µm diam.; ascosporae obovoideae, 4-septatae, constrictus ad septatae, 50–55 x 20–23 µm. Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm diam., confluent. Hyphae flexuous to undulate, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–25 x 5–10 µm. Appressoria alternate, opposite to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, rarely retrorse, 17–28 µm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 µm long; head cells oblong to cylindrical, straight to flexuously curved, entire, 10–20 x 5–8 µm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 20–30 x 6–8 µm. Mycelial setae straight to curved, scattered, acute at the tip, up to 720µm long; Perithecia scattered in the colonies, up to 240µm in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 50–55 x 20–23 µm. Meliola strobosiae Hosag. et al. is known on Strombosia ceylonica from Kukke Subramanya, Karnataka (Hosagoudar 2008). However, the present new species differs from it in having narrow head cells (5–8 µm against 8–12 µm) and larger spores (50–55 x 20–23 against 36–40 x 15–17 µm). The specific epithet is derived from the host genus.

V.B. Hosagoudar & M.C. Riju

References Florence, E.J.M. (2004). Biodiversity Documentation for Kerala. Part 2: Microorganisms (Fungi). Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, 293pp. Hansford, C.G. (1961). The Meliolineae. A Monograph. Sydowia Beihefte 2: 1–806. Hosagoudar, V.B. (1996). Meliolales of India. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 363pp. Hosagoudar, V.B. (2008). Meliolales of India. Vol. II. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 390pp. Hosagoudar, V.B., T.K. Abraham & P. Pushpangadan (1996). Fungi of Kerala. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, 151pp. Hosagoudar, V.B. & D.K. Agarwal (2008). Taxonomic studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual. International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, 263pp. Hosagoudar, V.B. & H. Biju (2006). Studies on foliicolous fungi – XXII. Microfungi of Silent Valley National Park, Palghat district in Kerala State. Journal of Mycopathological Research 44: 39–48 Hosagoudar, V.B., M.C. Riju & D.K. Agarwal (2010). Three new Meliolaceae members from Silent Valley National Park. Indian Phytopathology 63: 76–78. Hu, Y., Y. Ouyang, S. Bin & G. Jiang (1996). Flora Fungorum Sinicorum. Vol. 4. Meliolales (1). Science Press Beijing, 270pp+plate IV. Hu, Y., S. Bin, Y. Ouyang & G. Jiang (1999). Flora Fungorum Sinicorum. Vol. 11. Meliolales (2). Science Press Beijing, 252pp. Rajeshkumar, P.P. & V.B. Hosagoudar (2010). Occurrence of Endomycorrhizal fungi in Poochipara forests in Silent Valley National Park in Kerala state. National Seminar on Biodiversity: for Human Welfare, held in the Department of Studies and Research in Microbiology, Cauvery Campus, Madikeri, Kodagu, on 7th–8th April, 2010, 87pp. Shaji, S.S. & V.B. Hosagoudar (2010). Endomycorrhizal fungi in Sairandri and Neelikkallu sections of Silent Valley National Park, Kerala. National Conference on Plant Biodiversity on 23rd and 24th April. Dept. of Botany, Yashvantarao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara, Maharashtra, 39pp.

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JoTT Note

3(3): 1620-1621

A black mildew fungus, Schiffnerula azadirachtae sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Englerulaceae) from Kerala, India V.B. Hosagoudar 1 & A. Sabeena 2 Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India Email: 1 vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com (corresponding author) 1,2

The backyard medicinal plant of Deccan region, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., extensively planted in Kerala State harbours several fungal parasites. During our study on foliicolous fungi of the region, we collected black mildew fungus on this plant. Critical microscopic examination of the fungus revealed that it is hitherto unrecorded species of the genus Schiffnerula. Schiffnerula azadirachtae sp. nov. (Fig. 1) Material examined: 10.viii.2010, on leaves of Azadiracta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Kallara, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, coll. A. Sabeena, TBGT 4323 (holotype), part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO (MycoBank # 561024). Anamorph: Sarcinella azadirachtae Meenu, Sanjay K. Singh & R.K. Chaudhary, J. Living World 1:107,

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: R.K. Verma Manuscript details: Ms # o2584 Received 23 September 2010 Final received 06 March 2011 Finally accepted 09 March 2011 Citation: Hosagoudar, V.B. & A. Sabeena (2011). A black mildew fungus, Schiffnerula azadirachtae sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Englerulaceae) from Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1620-1621. Copyright: © V.B. Hosagoudar & A. Sabeena 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: We thank Dr. A. Subramoniam, Director, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala for the facilities. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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1994. Coloniae amphigenae, tenues, ad 2mm diam., confluentes. Hyphae brunneae, flexuosae, opposite, alternate vel unilateralis acuteque vel laxe ramosae, laxe reticulatae, cellulae 12–35 x 4–6 µm. Appressoria alternata vel unilateralis, globosa, integra, 7–10 x 7–10 µm. Conidia Questieriella dispersa in coloniis, curvula, 3-septata, leniter constrictus ad septata, attenuatus ad ambi apicem, 27–40 x 7–10 µm. Sarcinella conidiophora producentes hyphis lateralis, solitaris, recta, flexuosa, mononemata; cellulae conidiogenae terminalis, monoblasticae, integratae, cylindraceae. Conidia Sarcinella blastica, terminalis, plerumque sessilis, solitaria, ovata vel globosa, sarciniformes, 2–7 cellula, constrictus ad septatus, 27–42 µm diam., parietus glabrus. Thyriothecia dispersa, ovata, orbicularis, cellulae peridiales radiatus ad initio, dissolutus ad centre ad maturitatatus et asci visa, ad 70µm diam., cellulae marginales radiatae; asci 2–4 per thyriotheciis, globosi, octospori, 12–20 µm diam.; ascosporae oblongae, conglobatae, uniseptatae, constrictus ad septatae, 15–20 x 7–10 µm, parietus glabrus. Colonies amphigenous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent. Hyphae brown, flexuous, branching opposite, alternate to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12–35 x 4–6 µm. Appressoria alternate to unilateral, globose, entire, 7–10 x 7–10 µm. Conidia of Questieriella scattered in the colonies, curved, 3-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, taper towards both ends, 27–40 x 7–10 µm. Sarcinella conidiophores produced lateral to the hyphae, single, straight, flexuous, mononematous; conidiogenous cells terminal, monoblastic, integrated, cylindrical. Sarcinella conidia blastic, terminal, mostly sessile, solitary, ovate to globose, sarciniform, 2–7 celled, constricted at the septa, 27–42 µm in diameter, wall smooth. Thyriothecia scattered, globose, ovate, orbicular, peridial cells initially radiating, later the central portion dissolved by exposing asci, up to 70µm in diameter, marginal cells radiating; asci 2–4 per thyriothecia, octosporous, 12–20 µm in diameter; ascospores oblong, conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 15–20 x 7–10 µm, wall smooth. Meenu et al. (1994) have described Sarcinella azadirachtae on Azadiracta indica from Nepal.

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A new black mildew

V.B. Hosagoudar & A. Sabeena

7µm

a

b

10µm

8µm d

c 9µm c e 8µm g

6µm

f

9µm

Figure 1. Schiffnerula azadirachtae sp. nov. a - Appressoriate mycelium with developing and developed Sarcinella conidia; b - Opposite appressoria; c - Conidia of the form genus Sarcinella; d - Conidia of the form genus Questieriella; e - Thyriothecium with exposed asci; f - Ascus; g - Ascospores

However, the teleomorph supersedes anamorph. Hence, it has been accommodated in a new species.

Reference Meenu, S.K. Singh & R.K. Chaudhary (1994). New species and new records of Sarcinella from Nepal Himalayas. Journal of Living World 1(2): 106–111.

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JoTT Note

3(3): 1622-1623

Rediscovery of an endemic plant Caralluma diffusa (Wight) N.E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) from Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India, after 160 years V.S. Ramachandran 1, Binu Thomas 2, C. Sofiya 3 & R. Sasi 4 Taxonomy and Floristic Laboratory, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641046, India Email: 1 vsrbotany@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 binuthomasct@gmail.com, 3 sofiya.chinnathambi@gmail.com, 4 sasibotany@gmail.com 1,2,3,4

The genus Caralluma R.Br. of the Asclepiadaceae family is of interest to botanists and succulent lovers alike. Gandhi (1999) brought to light the inadequacy of information and the need for a critical look at the Indian Caralluma. There are 110 species of Caralluma occurring in southern and eastern Africa, extending to the north into the Mediterranean and to the east through Arabia and India (Willis 1973). In India, the genus is represented by 13 species and five varieties (Jagtap & Singh 1999). Caralluma diffusa (Wight) N.E.Br. was first collected by Robert Wight, and named by him as Boucerosia diffusa, from Coimbatore in 1850. Henry et al. (1978) listed 224 species of rare and threatened Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: N.P. Balakrishnan Manuscript details: Ms # o2459 Received 13 May 2010 Final received 02 February 2011 Finally accepted 07 February 2011 Citation: Ramachandran, V.S., B. Thomas, C. Sofiya & R. Sasi (2011). Rediscovery of an endemic species, Caralluma diffusa (Wight) N.E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) from Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India, after 160 years. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1622-1623. Copyright: © V.S. Ramachandran, Binu Thomas, C.Sofiya & R. Sasi 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: Thanks are due to Prof. Dr. S. Manian, Head, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, for facilities and encouragement. We extend our sincere thanks to Dr. G.V.S. Murthy, Joint-Director, Botanical Survey of India, Southern Circle, Coimbatore, for providing facilities to the literature collections. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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flowering plants from southern India. They stated that “No specimens of Caralluma diffusa had been deposited in MH”. It is one of the endemic species occurring in Coimbatore District. Gamble (1923) gave the distribution of this species as Deccan, arid rocky hills near Coimbatore at an elevation of about 600m. Srinivasan (1987) also indicated in Flora of Tamil Nadu that its distribution is only from Coimbatore District in Tamil Nadu and the threat status mentioned as rare and threatened. Chithra & Nair (1999) include 11 species of various genera in the family Asclepiadaceae and among which Caralluma diffusa (Wight) N.E.Br. and Caralluma nilagiriana Kumari & Subba Rao are considered as endemic to Tamil Nadu. Rao et al. (2003) have also included this species under ‘indeterminate status’. However, while working on the chasmophytic flora of Coimbatore District, we collected this species from Madukkarai Hills of Western Ghats. This plant is usually seen in rock crevices. The local people use the sap of young stems to treat obesity. This note will facilitate the identification of the plants in the wild (Image 1). This species is now under heavy biotic pressure and it is doubtful whether the existing population will continue to survive in those localities. This wild plant is well suited for rock gardens and it can be conserved through ex situ cultivation. The endemism is prone to changes when more and more botanical explorations are undertaken and additional knowledge on the distribution of species are gathered at regional level. This species is unique for its diffuse branches, very stout and attractive flowers in dense umbels (Hooker 1883). The species of this genus are generally pollinated by small scadophagous, dipterons and perhaps also by beetles (Stevens 1976). Caralluma diffusa (Wight) N.E. Br. in Gard. Chron. 2: 369. 1892; Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 2: 862. 1923; Srinivasan in Henry et al., Fl. Tamil Nadu 2: 81. 1987; Jagtap & Singh, Fasc. Fl. India 24: 201. 1999. Boucerosia diffusa Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. t. 1599. 1850; Hook.f. Fl. Brit. India 4: 78. 1883. Specimen examined: 20.vi.2008, Madukkarai Hills, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, coll. Binu Thomas, 3081 Bharathiar University, Department of Botany Herbarium (BUH) (Fig. 1).

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Rediscovery of Caralluma diffusa

V.S. Ramachandran et al.

Image 1. Caralluma diffusa (Wight) N.E. Br.

Type: India: Madras Presidency; Coimbatore District, arid rocky mountains near Coimbatore at 600m elevation. Stem fleshy; branches ascending, 4-angled, nearly of equal thickness throughout the branches; internodes 6–12 mm long, 5–15 mm thick, glabrous. Leaves absent, leaf scars present, with appendage-like growth at nodes on angled portion. Flowers in terminal umbellate cymes, many-flowered; bracts ca. 1.5x0.5 mm, triangular, acute at apex, glabrous; pedicels terete, 5–6 mm long, 1–1.5 mm thick, glabrous. Calyx 5-lobed, divided up to base; lobes ca 3x1 mm, lanceolate, acute at apex, glabrous. Corolla campanulate, ca. 8mm long; tube ca. 5mm long; lobes 5, ca. 3x2 mm, ovate, acute at apex, ciliate at margin only, otherwise glabrous. Corona biseriate; the outer annular, arising from base of stamens, closely intact; lobes 5, ca. 2.5x1.5 mm, with two horn like appendages widely separated from each other; the inner variable, ca. 1mm long, linear, arising from inner side of outer corona, overlapping anther-lobes. Stamens 5, ca. 2.5mm long; pollinia 5, pollen masses solitary in each anther cell, yellow, waxy with pellucid layer attached by light brown caudicles. Gynostegium ca. 1.5mm long. Flowering & Fruiting: April–September. Distribution: Endemic to Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

References Chithra, V. & V.J. Nair (1999). Floristic Diversity and Conservation Strategies in India. In the Context of States and Union territories. Botanical Survey of India, Ministry of

Figure 1. Herbarium of Caralluma diffusa

Environment and Forests, Kolkata, pp. 1451–1510. Gamble, J.S. & C.E.C. Fischer (1923). Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Newman and Adlard, London. (Reprint ed. Vol II, 1957. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta), 862pp. Gandhi, R (1999). Carallumas of the Indian Subcontinent. The Society of Succulents, New Delhi, 42pp. Henry, A.N., K. Vivekananthan & N.C. Nair (1979). Rare and threatened flowering plants of South India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 75(3): 684–697. Hooker, J.D. (1885). The Flora of British India. Vol. IV: 78. L. Reeve, London, 780pp. Jagtap, A. & N.P. Singh (1999). Fascicles of flora of India. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. Fascicle 24: 201–202. Rao, C.K., B.L. Geetha & G. Suresh (2003). Red Lst of Threatened Vascular Plant Species in India. Compiled from the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants, ENVIS, BSI, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Kolkata, 129pp. Srinivasan, S.R. (1987). Asclepiadaceae, pp. 80–90. In: Henry, A.N., G.R. Kumari & V. Chithra (eds.). Flora of Tamil Nadu, Series I: Analysis, Vol. 2: 81. Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore, 258pp. Stevens, W.D. (1976). Asclepiadaceae, pp. 437–458. In: Saldanha, C.J. & D.H. Nicolson (eds). Flora of Hassan District, Karnataka, India. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 923pp. Wight, R. (1850). Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis. Vol. IV: t. 1599. J. B. Pharoah, Madras. Willis, J.C. (1973). A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns (Revised by H.K. Airy Shaw). Cambridge University Press, London, 201pp.

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JoTT Note

3(3): 1624-1628

Three new butterfly records for peninsular India: Dusky Yellowbreasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore) (Hesperiidae), Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae) and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday) (Nymphalidae) from Similipal Hills, Odisha, India Manoj V. Nair Divisional Forest Officer, Hirakud (WL) Division, Brook’s Hill, Sambalpur, Odisha 768001, India Email : manojnair74@gmail.com

Similipal Hills (21055’N & 85059’E) in Mayurbhanj District of Odisha borders the states of Jharkhand and West Bengal, and harbours within its limits both a tiger reserve (with an area of 2750km2) and a biosphere reserve (with an area of 5569km2). The terrain is undulating and hilly, the altitude ranges from 300 to 1,200 m, and forest types range from dry deciduous and moist deciduous to semi-evergreen. Some consider Similipal as part of the Eastern Ghats (Sinha 1971), while others treat it as the south-eastern extension of the Chota Nagpur Plateau (Ray 2005). The area falls under the province of Chhotanagpur in Deccan Peninsula bio-geographic zone (Rodgers &

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Krushnamegh Kunte Manuscript details: Ms # o2635 Received 25 November 2010 Final received 01 February 2011 Finally accepted 09 February 2011 Citation: Nair, M.V. (2011). Three new butterfly records for peninsular India: Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore) (Hesperiidae), Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae) and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday) (Nymphalidae) from Similipal Hills, Odisha, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1624–1628. Copyright: © Manoj V. Nair 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: I am most thankful to Dr. K.A Subramanian for improving the draft, and the staff of Similipal Tiger Reserve for their wonderful support in the field. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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Panwar 1988). During the course of an ongoing study on butterflies initiated in March 2006, intensively covering seven forest ranges within the core area of Similipal Tiger Reserve, out of a total of 188 species recorded, three species hitherto known only from the Himalayan region and northeastern India, viz. Dusky YellowBreasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore) Hesperiidae, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore Lycaenidae and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday) Nymphalidae were also encountered, which constitute significant new locality records and range extensions for peninsular India (Evans 1932; Wynter-Blyth 1957; Haribal 1992; Smith 1994; Kunte 2000; Kehimkar 2008). All three species were photographed in the field, while dead individuals of the last two were collected and deposited in the Regional Museum of Natural History, Bhubaneswar. Here, I describe the known distributional range of these species in India, the specific locality records during the present study, broad habitat types and microhabitats where observed, interesting ecological/behavioural observations, their flight periods and status in the study area (Fig. 1). Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore) (Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) (Images 1 & 2) This uncommon hesperiid is known within Indian limits only from the foothills of the Himalaya and northeastern India, ranging from Himachal Pradesh in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east (Evans 1949). There were three records during the course of this study. A freshly emerged individual was photographed on 26 August 2007 near Joranda FRH, Nawana North range on a flowering Stachytarpheta thicket. A second record on 20 July 2008 was from Satnalia, Pithabata range, where a rather worn individual was seen mud-puddling near a hill-stream. When disturbed, it flew swiftly and settled underneath a leaf, where it was photographed. The third record was that of a pale individual fluttering around, and which subsequently perched on a small Dalbergia pinnata near Chingudia, Upper Barakamura range. Interestingly, the food-plant of G. bhagava, its congener, is Dalbergia lanceolaria (Kehimkar 2008). However, despite a prolonged wait, no egg-laying was seen. It is probably a very rare resident in Similipal, with a brief post-monsoon flight period.

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Range extension of three butterflies

M.V. Nair

8600’0”E

National Park Jashipur

Bisoi

BANGRIPOSI Bangriposi

2200’0”N

2200’0”N

BISOI

Chahala Pithabata (WL) BARIPADA

NOU

Nawana (N) Dudhiani Nawana (S) Dukura Jenabil

Kendumund UBK

UDALA Udala THAKURMUNDA Thakurmunda

Kaptipada

8600’0”E

Figure 1. Similipal Biosphere and Tiger Reserve Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | March 2011 | 3(3): 1624-1628

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Range extension of three butterflies

M.V. Nair © Manoj V. Nair

© Manoj V. Nair

Image 1. Fresh individual of Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara

Image 2. Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara on damp sand

Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae: Poritiinae) (Images 3 & 4) This uncommon lycaenid is distributed from the Himalaya and northeastern India to Myanmar and Indo-China (Pinratana 1981). A handful of records from early October to November, were obtained during this study. On 02 October 2007, four individuals were seen during a two-hour walk along dense moist-deciduous and semi-evergreen forests in the Jenabil range of southern Similipal, suggesting synchronous emergence. All were fresh males - one basking on a leaf at c. 1m height and which flew straight up to the canopy on being disturbed; one sitting with closed wings on a slushy road; and two lying dead, c. 2km away on the same forest road. Quite possibly, as Haribal (1992) has observed in

Sikkim, ‘they are not seen easily as they presumably fly high among the trees and go unnoticed’. Possibly it is a rare resident with a brief flight period in Similipal. Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday) (Nymphalidae: Charaxinae) (Images 5 & 6) Within Indian limits, this spectacular nymphalid is known from Kumaon to Assam (Wynter-Blyth 1957; Kehimkar 2008). This study recorded 19 sightings from Jenabil, Upper Barakamura (UBK), Chahala and National Park ranges, mostly in and around hillstreams, all in semi-evergreen patches and once in an evergreen riverine patch inside moist deciduous forest. They flew very fast along roads and hill-streams, occasionally chasing one another. Mud-puddling individuals at UBK in March were seen mostly alone or in small groups. The largest group size recorded was

© Manoj V. Nair © Manoj V. Nair

Image 3. Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni UN 1626

Image 4. Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni UP

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Range extension of three butterflies

M.V. Nair © Manoj V. Nair

© Manoj V. Nair

Image 6. Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus UP

Image 5. Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus UN

a scattered cluster of nine individuals at Dhuduram, UBK in July 2009. Also seen once on dead crab remains and fresh elephant dung. They were wary but allowed close approach if one was persistent and returned to the same patch on being disturbed. Twice seen dead, run over by passing vehicles while mudpuddling on jeep-tracks. Possibly uses evergreen riparian corridors to spill out into the lower deciduous forests during rains, retreating again during summer to their evergreen habitats in the higher reaches. Thus, this species is most likely to be a localised resident in Similipal, not uncommon wherever they occur and has probably two broods—the first in which they emerge in early March, remaining on the wing till mid-May and the second lasting from July till mid-October. Significance of these records Apart from the fact that these records constitute the first instances of these species occurring outside the Himalayan foothills and northeastern India (thus forming important range extensions), there also exists a bio-geographical significance. Similipal Hills have long been known to be phytogeographically interesting with the presence of both Himalayan and southern Indian floral elements (Saxena & Brahmam 1989). Recent studies have highlighted this trend in other taxa like birds (Nair 2007, 2010) and herpetofauna (Dutta et al. 2009) as well, where northeastern Indian species have been recorded from this hill range. This study

extends the same pattern to butterflies and clearly emphasizes the importance of Similipal Hills as a repository of exceptional biodiversity, with a mixture of northeastern, discontinuously distributed, as well as autochthonous Indian elements. It also offers support to its putative role as a link habitat between northeastern India and the Western Ghats.

References Dutta, S.K., M.V. Nair, P.P. Mohapatra & A.K. Mahapatra (2009). Amphibians and Reptiles of Similipal Biosphere Reserve. Regional Plant Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, 174pp. Evans, W.H. (1932). The Identification of Indian Butterflies (Revised II Edition). Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 454pp. Evans, W.H. (1949). A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum (Natural History), London, 502pp. Haribal, M. (1992). The Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and their Natural History, Sikkim. Nature Conservation Foundation, Gangtok, Sikkim, 217pp. Kehimkar, I. (2008). The Book of Indian Butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press, 497pp. Kunte, K. (2000). Butterflies of Peninsular India. Indian Academy of Sciences (Bangalore) and Universities Press (Hyderabad), 254pp. Nair, M.V. (2007). On the occurrence of Jerdon’s Baza Aviceda jerdoni in Simlipal Tiger Reserve, with some observations on behaviour and vocalization. Indian Birds 3(2): 61–62. Nair, M.V. (2010). Thick-billed Green-Pigeon Treron

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Range extension of three butterflies

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curvirostra in Similipal Hills, Orissa: an addition to the avifauna of peninsular India. Indian Birds 6(1): 19–20. Pinratana, A. (1981). Butterflies in Thailand. Vol. 4: Lycaenidae. Brothers of St. Gabriel in Thailand, Bangkok. Saxena, H.O. & M. Brahmam (1989). The Flora of Similipal Hills,Orissa. Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar, 231pp. Smith, C. (1994). Butterflies of Nepal. Revised Edition, Tecpress Service L.P., Bangkok, Thailand, 368pp. Ray, G.C. (2005). Geography of Orissa. Kitab Mahal, Cuttack, 324pp.

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Rodgers, W.A. & H.S. Panwar (1988). Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India—2 Vols. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Sinha, B.N. (1971). Geography of Orissa. India—Land and the People Series. National Book Trust, India, New Delhi, 351pp. Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, 523pp.

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JoTT Note

Validation of the reported occurrence of Tajuria maculata, the Spotted Royal butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), in the Western Ghats, southwestern India, on the basis of two new records Vivek Kumar Sarkar 1, Daniel Sukumar Das 2, V.C. Balakrishnan 3 & Krushnamegh Kunte 4 Bidhu Bhawan, Rajmata Road, OPO Block, Coochbehar, West Bengal 736101, India 2 No. 42, 3rd Main Road, K.S. Town, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560060, India 3 Society for Environmental Education in Kerala (SEEK), Edat P.O., Kannur, Kerala 670327, India 4 FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, 52 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Email: 4 krushnamegh@ifoundbutterflies.org (corresponding author) 1

Tajuria maculata (Hewitson, 1865) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Iolaini), popularly known as the Spotted Royal, is a widespread oriental butterfly (Image 1). It ranges from the central Himalaya and northeastern India to South China, Indo-China, peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. No valid subspecies are currently recognized in this vast region (Evans

3(3): 1629-1632

1932; Pinratana 1981; Smith 1989; Corbet et al. 1992; Io 2000; Inayoshi 2010). It is uncommon to rare throughout its range, although reportedly common in the Khasi Hills (Swinhoe 19111912), and usually associated with montane habitats between 1,000–1,500 m (Wynter-Blyth 1957; Smith 1989; Corbet et al. 1992). Within the Indian subregion, it has been reported from central to eastern Nepal (Smith 1989), Sikkim and the eastern Himalaya, Sibsagar in eastern upper Assam, the Khasi and Naga Hills in northeastern India, and from Myanmar (de Nicéville 1890; Swinhoe 1911-1912; Wynter-Blyth 1957), but not from Bangladesh (Larsen 2004). It is at least bivoltine, being reportedly on the wing in March, May, September and October in Nepal, June, July and November in the Khasi Hills, and May in the Naga Hills (Wynter-Blyth 1957; Smith 1989). Its early stages have recently been studied in Hong Kong (http://www.hkls.org/info-t_maculata.html). The only Western Ghats record of T. maculata is in the de Nicéville collection, a single specimen that Stokes

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Peter Smetacek Manuscript details: Ms # o2645 Received 07 December 2010 Final received 07 March 2011 Finally accepted 10 March 2011 Citation: Sarkar, V.K., D.S. Das, V.C. Balakrishnan & K. Kunte (2011). Validation of the reported occurrence of Tajuria maculata, the Spotted Royal butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), in the Western Ghats, southwestern India, on the basis of two new records. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1629–1632. Copyright: © Vivek Kumar Sarkar, Daniel Sukumar Das, V.C. Balakrishnan & Krushnamegh Kunte 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: VKS and DSD are grateful to the Karnataka Forest Department for the permission to conduct field work at the Brahmagiris, and to Kumar Ghorpade for logistical support. The specimen depicted in Image 1 is from the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ), Harvard University; thanks to Naomi Pierce (Curator of Lepidoptera, MCZ) and Philip Perkins (Collections Manager, MCZ) for permission and Rod Eastwood (Post-doctoral Research Fellow, MCZ) for his assistance in locating and photographing the specimen. This is Publication No. 2 of the Indian Foundation for Butterflies (http://ifoundbutterflies.org/). OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

Image 1. Tajuria maculata: male specimen taken at Cherrapunji, eastern Meghalaya, northeastern India. Left shows the upper side, right shows the underside of the same specimen (Photographs: Krushnamegh Kunte; © President and Fellows of Harvard College).

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Tajuria maculata in the Western Ghats

V.K. Sarkar et al.

140N

130N

120N

110N

Figure 1. Localities in the Western Ghats where Tajuria maculata has so far been recorded (prepared by Krushnamegh Kunte).

100N 730E

740E

750E

760E

Roberts took from the Nilgiris District, northwestern Tamil Nadu, southern Western Ghats (Yates 1935) (Fig. 1). The collection date and exact locality of this specimen do not seem to have been reported in literature. Considering that a single specimen of T. maculata, presumably from the Nilgiris and without any associated information, had ever been collected, Larsen wondered, “If it is indeed a genuinely South Indian species”, but noted that, “All the new records to the Nilgiris based on his [Stokes Roberts] material have since been validated by others and the species is so distinctive that it is difficult to see how a labeling error would have survived.” (Larsen 1987). Assuming that the Roberts specimen was indeed collected in the Nilgiris, it was likely collected in the vicinity of either Kotagiri, Coonoor or Udagamandalam (“Ooty”) (approximate locations: 11.35–11.430N & 76.70–76.880E), three popular towns in the Nilgiris, from where British entomologists collected most of the Nilgiris butterfly material. There are no other records from the Nilgiris (Wynter-Blyth 1944a,b; Larsen 1987) or from the rest of the Western Ghats (Bell 1910-27). Gaonkar (1996) suspected this species to be present in Kerala, and mentioned the Western Ghats distribution in Tamil Nadu (from the Nilgiris) and Karnataka (possibly from Kodagu, popularly known as Coorg, where some work on butterflies was done by early British lepidopterists). We do not know whether 1630

770E

780E

Gaonkar’s (1996) report of this species from Karnataka was extrapolated from the Roberts specimen, or was based on any specimens that have not been reported in print yet. Evans (1932) and Wynter-Blyth (1957) probably either overlooked the Roberts specimen or considered its presence in the Nilgiris improbable, so they did not include the Western Ghats in this species’ distribution (Evans 1932; Wynter-Blyth 1957). The Madras Government Museum in Chennai has no specimens from the Western Ghats or from elsewhere in India (Satyamurti 1966). New observations Tajuria maculata was recently seen on two occasions approximately 200km northwest of the Nilgiris (Fig. 1). The details are as follows: (i) Sightings from Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary (Images 2 A & B): The Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Kodagu District in the southwestern corner of Karnataka, covering an area of approximately 181km2. The elevation ranges from 65–1,607 m, the lower slopes and valleys being mostly covered in evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, the upper reaches with a shola forest and grassland mosaic. VKS and DSD saw four T. maculata individuals in this area on 19 November 2009, a partly cloudy and windy day. The first individual was seen mudpuddling

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Tajuria maculata in the Western Ghats © Vivek Kumar Sarkar

© Krushnamegh Kunte

(Image 2A) from 1100 to 1130 hr near the Iruppu Falls, a popular tourist destination (approximately 300–500 m, 11057.8’N & 75058.5E). The other three were seen feeding on white flowers of an unidentified straggling vine in a shola forest patch near the Narimalai Guest House, at 1,300m. These individuals were feeding well above the ground, constantly chasing each other, and could not be photographed. (ii) Sighting from Kottathalachimala (Image 2 C & D): Kottathalachimala is an isolated mountain in Kannur District, northern Kerala. Its summit and the western slopes are covered with grasslands, whereas the eastern slopes are mosaics of semi-evergreen forests and grasslands dominated by Cymbopogon. It is very close to Mundrot Reserve Forest in Karnataka, merely 2 air-kilometers away. VCB saw a single specimen of T. maculata (Image 2C) at 1313 hr on 2 October 2010, a rainy and misty day with occasionally clear skies. It was seen on

V.K. Sarkar et al. © V.C. Balakrishnan

© V.C. Balakrishnan

Image 2. Tajuria maculata in the Western Ghats. A - 19.xi.2009, mudpuddling, in the Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary; B - Habitat at the Brahmagiri, on way to Narimalai Guest House; C - 02.x.2010, feeding from flowers of Knoxia sumatrensis at Kottathalachimala; D - Habitat at Kottathalachimala

the eastern slopes of Kottathalachimala (11028.23’N & 75078.97’E, 800m), feeding from the flowers of Knoxia sumatrensis (Rubiaceae), which was common there among boulders and grass. It then flew towards the valley and was not seen again. The known larval host plants of T. maculata belong to Loranthaceae (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/ projects/hostplants/), and Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) was common in semi-evergreen forest patches at Kottathalachimala. However, VCB did not see any evidence of larval activity on Dendrophthoe plants that he investigated. Discussion Our sightings confirm the occurrence of T. maculata in the Western Ghats. These sightings give credence to the specimen recorded from the Nilgiris by Roberts. They also confirm the presence of this species from the states of Karnataka and Kerala.

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Tajuria maculata in the Western Ghats

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The evergreen forest and montane grassland habitat patches at the Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary are well-protected, so the population of T. maculata there is secure. However, large stone quarries have recently been established at Kottathalachimala, which has destroyed some forest and grassland patches. A small cross on the mountaintop is also a popular Easter pilgrimage for local Christians. Together, these two activities cause significant disturbance to wildlife habitats and make the long-term future of the T. maculata population at Kottathalachimala uncertain.

REFERENCES Bell, T.R. (1910-27). The common butterflies of the plains of India (including those met with in the hill stations of the Bombay Presidency). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 19(1)–31(4). Corbet, A.S., H.M. Pendlebury & J.N. Eliot (1992). The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. 4th Revised Edition. Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, 595pp. de Nicéville, L. (1890). The Butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon. Volume III. Lycaenidae. The Calcutta Central Press Co., Calcutta (Kolkata), 503pp. Evans, W.H. (1932). The Identification of Indian butterflies. 2nd Edition. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 454pp. Gaonkar, H. (1996). Butterflies of the Western Ghats with notes on those of Sri Lanka. Report to Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, 89pp. Hewitson, W.C. (1865). Illustrations of Diurnal Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae. van Vorst, London, 228pp.

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Inayoshi, Y. (2010). A Check List of Butterflies in Indo-China (chiefly from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam). <http://yutaka. it-n.jp/>. Accessed 01 Nov. 2010. Io, C. (ed.) (2000). Monograph of Chinese Butterflies (Revised Edition). Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House, 845pp. Larsen, T.B. (1987). The butterflies of the Nilgiri Mountains of southern India (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 84: 291–316. Larsen, T.B. (2004). Butterflies of Bangladesh - An Annotated Checklist. IUCN Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, 147pp. Pinratana, A. (1981). Butterflies in Thailand. Vol. 4: Lycaenidae. Brothers of St. Gabriel in Thailand, Bangkok, 215pp. Satyamurti, S.T. (1966). Descriptive Catalog of the Butterflies in the Collection of the Madras Government Museum. The Commissioner of Museum, Chennai, 272pp. Smith, C. (1989). Butterflies of Nepal (Central Himalaya). Tecpress Service L.P., Bangkok, 352pp. Swinhoe, C. (1911-1912). Lepidoptera Indica. Vol. IX. Rhopalocera. Family Lycaenidae (continued). Sub-families Horaginae, Deudorixinae, Hypolycaeninae, Zesiusinae, Aphnaeinae, Biduandinae, Cheritrinae, Loxurinae. Family Hesperiidae. Sub-families Ismeneinae, Achalarinae. Reeve & Co, London, 278pp. Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1944a). The butterflies of the Nilgiris (part I). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 44: 536–549. Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1944b). The butterflies of the Nilgiris (part II). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 45: 47–61. Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 523pp. Yates, J.A. (1935). The butterflies of the Nilgiri District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 38: 330–340.

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JoTT Note

A new population record and conservation assessment of the Santa Marta Poison Arrow Frog Colostethus ruthveni Kaplan, 1997 (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia José F. González-Maya1, Mauricio González2, Diego Zárrate-Charry3, Fidela Charry4, Amancay A. Cepeda5 & Sergio A. Balaguera-Reina6 Centro de Desarrollo Sostenible Námaku, Minca, Magdalena, Colombia. 1,2,3,4 5,6 Proyecto de Conservación de Aguas y Tierras, ProCAT Colombia/Internacional, Calle 15 # 5 - 62, El Rodadero, Santa Marta, Colombia. Email: 1 jfgonzalez-maya@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 emgonzalez@procat-conservation.org,3 dzarrate@ procat-conservation.org, 4 fcharry@procat-conservation.org, 5 acepeda@procat-conservation.org, 6 sbalaguera@procatconservation.org 1,2,3,4

Colombia is considered among the countries with the highest levels of amphibian species richness (Rueda-Almonacid et al. 2004), but it is also one of the countries with the greatest risks to its biodiversity in general (Sisk et al. 1994; Brooks et al. 2002). Poison arrow or poison dart frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), are tropical species restricted to the New World and Date of publication (online): 26 March 2011 Date of publication (print): 26 March 2011 ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print) Editor: Mirco Solé Manuscript details: Ms # o2513 Received 21 July 2010 Final received 09 January 2011 Finally accepted 25 February 2011 Citation: González-Maya, J.F., M. González, D. Zárrate-Charry, F. Charry, A.A. Cepeda & S.A. Balaguera-Reina (2011). A new population record and conservation assessment of the Santa Marta Poison Arrow Frog Colostethus ruthveni Kaplan, 1997 (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1633-1636. Copyright: © José F. González-Maya, Mauricio González, Diego ZárrateCharry, Fidela Charry, Amancay A. Cepeda & Sergio A. Balaguera-Reina 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication. Acknowledgements: We would like to thank David Zárrate and Neftali Zapata for their support; Cristian Cruz, Luisa Larrotta, Alexandra Pineda, Adriana Acero and Ronald Castellanos for their participation in the I Námaku expedition; and Professor Renjifo for his assistance. OPEN ACCESS | FREE DOWNLOAD

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are represented globally by 12 genera with 174 species (Frost 2010), 66 of which (9 genera) are recorded in Colombia (IUCN 2010). The genus Colostethus (dart frogs) is one of the largest genera in the family, represented by 21 species globally, 17 of them occurring in the country (IUCN 2010). Thirty percent of all amphibian species of the country (213 species) are considered to be in a threat category as defined by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2010), 17 of them within the Dendrobatidae family and two in the genus Colostethus, with a major concentration of threatened species in the Andean region (IUCN 2010). Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) is an isolated mountain range located north of the Andes in the Caribbean region of Colombia. It has a high concentration of endemic species, consistent with the Pleistocene refuges theory which invokes fragmentation of ranges and temporal isolation allowing speciation to occur (Hernández-Camacho et al. 1992). SNSM, with its unique geographic location as the highest coastal mountain range in the world, represents a critical ecoregion in terms of high endemic values (Carbonó 2001). The SNSM was established as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1979 (López-Londoño et al. 2008), and classified as an Endemic Bird Area (EBA 36; BirdLife International 2003). It also includes several Important Bird Areas (Franco et al. 2009), and possesses one Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) site, since there are nine threatened species (six amphibians and three birds) with ranges restricted to the area (Atelopus arsyecue, Atelopus laetissimus, Atelopus nahumae, Colostethus ruthveni, Eleutherodactylus insignitus, Eleutherodactylus ruthveni, Campylopterus phainopeplus, Myiotheretes pernix and Pyrrhura viridicata; Ricketts et al. 2005). Here we report a new population of the Santa Marta Poison Arrow Frog Colostethus ruthveni, from Námaku private reserve in SNSM, 14km away from the actual extent of occurrence of the species, increasing the number of known records and its current known distribution (Lynch et al. 2004). The species is considered to be Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii) because it is known from less than five locations and

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Figure 1. Current known extent of occurrence and recent records of C. ruthveni in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.

its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000km2 (Lynch et al. 2004; Rueda-Solano & Castellanos-Barliza 2010); however, even when it is not included in the national threatened species list (Rueda-Almonacid et al. 2004), it has been prioritized at national level during the Amphibian Ark Conservation Needs Assessment workshop for Colombia held during November 2007 (Amphibian Ark 2007). C. ruthveni is known to occur in cloud and dry forests from 680 to 1,540m above sea level between San Miguel and Don Diego rivers (Lynch et al. 2004; Stuart et al. 2008), and more recently it has been also found in dense forests near sea level in Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP; Rueda-Solano & Castellanos-Barliza 2010). Námaku Reserve (1106’44.47”N & 7408’43.27”W, Fig. 1) is located on the southern slopes of the SNSM within Santa Marta municipality, approximately 15km southeast from Santa Marta City, 4km southwest from downtown Minca and 9km east from Simon Bolivar International Airport. The area is a private reserve 1634

located between 737 and 923m above sea level with a mean annual precipitation of 2,000mm and a mean temperature ranging from 22.7 to 28.70C (PérezPreciado 1984; Tribin et al. 1999). During intensive wildlife surveys across the reserve between January and March 2010, 22 sightings of Colostethus ruthveni were obtained, always around creeks and river beds and during daytime hours (0900 to 1600 hr; Image 1). The individuals were identified based on the species description (Kaplan 1997) and expert consultation. The transect covered approximately 5.73km, with a total estimated abundance of 3.83ind/ km and mean survey abundance of 0.28 ± 0.09 ind/km. The substrate where all individuals were found was rocky-sandy shores within the river beds, usually near the margins of the river. Currently the species is known to occur inside two national protected areas (Tayrona NNP and SNSM NNP; Rueda-Solano & Castellanos-Barliza 2010), and a private reserve (El Dorado; ProAves 2006),

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New record of Colostethus ruthveni © ProCAT Colombia 2010.

Image 1. Individual of C. ruthveni observed at Námaku reserve in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Credit: ProCAT Colombia 2010.

so this new record represents another area with full protection for the species and a refuge from the main threats affecting its populations, such as habitat loss and degradation from agricultural activities, logging, pollution and infrastructure development (Cavelier et al. 1998; Lynch et al. 2004). However, the conservation of public protected areas requires additional reinforcement, mainly the SNSM NNP, where several factors still affect the area, including sociopolitical conflicts and jurisdictional problems, representing a potential threat to habitats and to animal populations in general (Zárrate-Charry et al. 2009). This report is a significant contribution to the current knowledge of this important but threatened species in Colombia, mainly about its distribution and habitat. The new findings and the recent sightings by RuedaSolano & Castellanos-Barliza (2010) in Tayrona National Natural Park, provide new information about the ecology, habitat and ecosystems where the species occurs, and extends the current extent of occurrence by nearly 550km2 and increasing the presence of the species to a new slope of the Sierra Nevada, suggesting the potential presence of other populations across the region, and the possible resilience to human impacts and in general a more widespread distribution. It also provides new insights for the assessment of the species and helps set new goals for research in terms of intensive and extensive surveys across the area to discover new populations and provide new information regarding biology and natural history, and mainly distribution. Based on the new records described herein, we propose that the assessment should include a new

J.F. González-Maya et al.

number of locations, increasing from four to six known. According to this recent information, we suggest the species to be downlisted into Vulnerable VU category criteria, with a known extent of occurrence of approximately 920km2 (estimated from a new extent of occurrence polygon including Lynch et al. 2004 and current records). Based on the available information, the species should be listed as VU B1ab(iii), due to (B1) geographic range in the form of extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 20,000km2, with (a) severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than 10 locations and (b) continuing inferred decline in (iii) area, extent and/or quality of habitat (IUCN 2001). If future information becomes available and the extent of occurrence is significantly increased, the species can be downlisted as previously stated. Colostethus ruthveni may potentially become a conservation tool for the reserve and surroundings, since currently the entire planning of the area is conducted by a local organization where threatened and surrogate species are given significant importance. Research will be needed to better understand this species’ biology and ecology in the area, in order to plan strategic conservation actions to protect the species and its habitat in this private protected area and several other parts of the region.

References Amphibian Ark (2007). Conservation Needs Assessment Workshops. <https://aark.portal.isis.org/Lists/Prioritization %20workshop%20results/AllItems.aspx>. On-line version dated 08 January 2011. BirdLife International (2003). BirdLife’s online World Bird Database: The Site for Bird Conservation. Version 2.0. <http://www.birdlife.org>. Downloaded on 12 July 2010. Brooks, T., R. Mittermeier, C. Mittermeier, G.A.B. da Fonseca, A. Rylands, W. Konstant, P. Flick, J. Pilgrim, S. Oldfield, G. Magin & C. Hilton-Taylor (2002). Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16(4): 909–923. Carbonó, E. (2001). Santa Marta montane forests (NT0159). <http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/ terrestrial/nt/nt0159_full.html>. Downloaded on 12 October 2010. Cavelier, J., T.M. Aide, C. Santos, A.M. Eusse & J.M. Dupuy (1998). The savannization of the moist forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Journal of Biogeography 25: 901–912. Franco, A.M., C. Devenish, M.C. Barrero & M.H. Romero

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(2009). Colombia, pp 135–148. In: C. Devenish, D.F. Díaz Fernández, R.P. Clay, I. Davidson & I. Yépez Zabala (eds.) Important Bird Areas Americas—Priority sites for biodiversity conservation. Quito, Ecuador: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 16). Frost, D.R. (2010). Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4. <http://research.amnh.org/ vz/herpetology/amphibia>. Online version dated 8 April 2010. IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, ii+30pp. IUCN (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2010. Kaplan, M. (1997). A new species of Colostethus from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) with comments on intergeneric relationships within the Dendrobatidae. Journal of Herpetology 31(3): 369–375. López-Londoño, T., J.F. González-Maya, D. Zárrate-Charry & S. Balaguera-Reina (2008). Biodiversity and cultural conservation in Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Colombia. Mountain Forum Bulletin 8(2): 43–44. Lynch, J., M.P. Ramírez Pinilla, M. Osorno-Muñoz, J.V. Rueda, A. Amézquita & M.C. Ardila-Robayo (2004). Colostethus ruthveni. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. <www.iucnredlist. org>. Downloaded on 12 October 2010. Pérez-Preciado, A. (1984). Aspectos climáticos de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, pp. 33–44. In: Van Der Hammen, T. & P. Ruiz-C (eds.). La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Transecto Buritaca–La Cumbre. Estudios de Ecosistemas Tropoandinos Vol. II. J. Cramer, Vaduz - Berlín - Stuttgart, 603pp. ProAves (2006). Informe Anual 2006. Fundación ProAves. Bogotá, Colombia, 24pp. Ricketts, T.H., E. Dinerstein, T. Boucher, T.M. Brooks, S.H.M. Butchart, M. Hoffmann, J.F. Lamoreux, J.

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Morrison, M. Parr, J.D. Pilgrim, A.S.L. Rodrigues, W. Sechrest, G.E. Wallace, K. Gerlin, J. Bielby, N.D. Burgess, D.R. Church, N. Cox, D. Knox, C. Loucks, G.W. Luck, L.L. Master, R. Moore, R. Naidoo, R. Ridgely, G.E. Schatz, G. Shire, H. Strand, W. Wettengel & E. Wikramanayake (2005). Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - US 51: 18497–18501. Rueda-Solano, L.A. & J. Castellanos-Barliza (2010). Herpetofauna de Neguanje, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Caribe Colombiano. Acta Biológica Colombiana 15(1): 195–206. Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., J.D. Lynch & A. Amézquita (Eds.) (2004). Libro Rojo de los Anfibios de Colombia. Serie Libros Rojos de Especies Amenazadas de Colombia. Conservación Internacional Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales – Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ministerio del Medio Ambiente. Bogotá (Colombia). Stuart, S.N., M. Hoffmann, J.S. Chanson, N.A. Cox, R.J. Berridge, P. Ramani & B.E. Young (eds.) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain; IUCN, Gland, Switzerland; and Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA, xv+758pp. Sisk, T.D., A.E. Launer, K.R. Switky & P.R. Ehrlich (1994). Identifying extinction threats. Bioscience 44: 592–604. Tribin, M.C.D.G., G.E. Rodríguez-N & N. Valderrama (1999). The biosphere reserve of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta: A pioneer experience of a shared and coordinated management of a bioregion. UNESCO. South Cooperation Programme Working paper No 130. Paris, 40pp. Zárrate-Charry, D., J.F. González-Maya, C. Jaramillo, C. Castaño-Uribe, A.M. Botero, S.A. Balaguera-Reina & A.A. Cepeda (2009). Monitoreo comunitario para la planificación de la conservación: un enfoque de especies bandera como herramientas culturales de conservación. Fundación Herencia Ambiental Caribe-ProCAT Colombia. Santa Marta, 45pp.

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Dr. Sekar Raju, Suzhou, China Dr. Vatsavaya S. Raju, Warangal, India Dr. V.V. Ramamurthy, New Delhi, India Dr (Mrs). R. Ramanibai, Chennai, India Dr. Robert Raven, Queensland, Australia Dr. K. Ravikumar, Bengaluru, India Dr. Luke Rendell, St. Andrews, UK Dr. Anjum N. Rizvi, Dehra Dun, India Dr. Yves Samyn, Brussels, Belgium Dr. K.R. Sasidharan, Coimbatore, India Dr. Kumaran Sathasivam, India Dr. S. Sathyakumar, Dehradun, India Dr. M.M. Saxena, Bikaner, India Dr. Hendrik Segers, Vautierstraat, Belgium Dr. Subodh Sharma, Towson, USA Prof. B.K. Sharma, Shillong, India Prof. K.K. Sharma, Jammu, India Dr. R.M. Sharma, Jabalpur, India Dr. Arun P. Singh, Jorhat, India Dr. Lala A.K. Singh, Bhubaneswar, India Prof. Willem H. De Smet, Wilrijk, Belgium

Mr. Peter Smetacek, Nainital, India Dr. C. Srinivasulu, Hyderabad, India Dr. Ulrike Streicher, Danang, Vietnam Dr. K.A. Subramanian, Pune, India Mr. K.S. Gopi Sundar, New Delhi, India Dr. P.M. Sureshan, Patna, India Dr. Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Dehradun, India Dr. R.K. Verma, Jabalpur, India Dr. W. Vishwanath, Manipur, India Dr. Gernot Vogel, Heidelberg, Germany Dr. Ted J. Wassenberg, Cleveland, Australia Dr. Stephen C. Weeks, Akron, USA Prof. Yehudah L. Werner, Jerusalem, Israel Dr. Hui Xiao, Chaoyang, China English Editors Mrs. Mira Bhojwani, Pune, India Ms. Mary Regen Jamieson, Massachusetts, USA Dr. Fred Pluthero, Toronto, Canada Dr. Krishnan Srinivasan, Chennai, India

Journal of Threatened Taxa is indexed/abstracted in Zoological Records, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Index Fungorum, Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, EBSCO and Google Scholar.


Journal of Threatened Taxa ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

March 2011 | Vol. 3 | No. 3 | Pages 1577–1636 Date of Publication 26 March 2011 (online & print) Communications Clarias microspilus, a new walking catfish (Teleostei: Clariidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia -- Heok Hee Ng & Renny K. Hadiaty, Pp. 1577–1584 Freshwater fish fauna of the Ashambu Hills landscape, southern Western Ghats, India, with notes on some range extensions -- Robin Kurian Abraham, Nachiket Kelkar & A. Biju Kumar, Pp. 1585–1593 Short Communications 3rd ALCS Special Series Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India -- A.J. Solomon Raju, K. Venkata Ramana & P. Vara Lakshmi, Pp. 1594–1600 3rd ALCS Special Series Butterfly diversity in relation to nectar food plants from Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, Maharashtra, India -- R.K. Nimbalkar, S.K. Chandekar & S.P. Khunte, Pp. 1601–1609 Catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) diversity in Karala River of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India -- Amal Kumar Patra, Pp. 1610–1614

A black mildew fungus, Schiffnerula azadirachtae sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Englerulaceae) from Kerala, India -- V.B. Hosagoudar & A. Sabeena, Pp. 1620–1621 Rediscovery of an endemic plant Caralluma diffusa (Wight) N.E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) from Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India, after 160 years -- V.S. Ramachandran, Binu Thomas, C. Sofiya & R. Sasi, Pp. 1622–1623 Three new butterfly records for peninsular India: Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore) (Hesperiidae), Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae) and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday) (Nymphalidae) from Similipal Hills, Odisha, India -- Manoj V. Nair, Pp. 1624–1628 Validation of the reported occurrence of Tajuria maculata, the Spotted Royal butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), in the Western Ghats, southwestern India, on the basis of two new records -- Vivek Kumar Sarkar, Daniel Sukumar Das, V.C. Balakrishnan & Krushnamegh Kunte, Pp. 1629–1632 A new population record and conservation assessment of the Santa Marta Poison Arrow Frog Colostethus ruthveni Kaplan, 1997 (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia -- José F. González-Maya, Mauricio González, Diego Zárrate-Charry, Fidela Charry, Amancay A. Cepeda & Sergio A. Balaguera-Reina, Pp. 1633–1636

Notes Three new fungi from Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, India -- V.B. Hosagoudar & M.C. Riju, Pp. 1615–1619

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JoTT 3(3): 1577-1636 26 Mar 2011  

This 60-pages issue contains 11 articles. It includes description of new species of a walking catfish from Sumatra and four fungi from India...