Page 1

1

Walls

4

:The Psychological Effects of the Prison Archetype


2

[ OUTLINE ]

Abstract Topic Statement Incarceration Definition Overview History?

5 7 9 11 13

Political Influence? Economics Behind Prisons?

17

The Public Opinion?

23

Who Gets Incarcerated?

25

How do you prevent crime?

29 31

The Mentally Ill Incarcerated?

21

The Stanford Experiment?

35 39

Solitary-Confinement

42

What Is it?

45 45

Guards Vs Inmates?

What Does it Mean? Variences? Who Goes There?

46 47

Morality Of Solitary-Confinement?

49

What are the Psychological Effects?

51

?


3

?

[ OUTLINE ]

53 53 55 59 63 67 69 71 74 77 81 85 88 89 90 91 94 97 98 104

What are the Psychological Effects? What Does The Opposing View Say? Hunger Strike In California? After-Math? Punishment Or Rehabilitation? Effects of Space To The Psyche? Solitary-Confinement As A Space ? Rellevance?

Case Studies Halden Prison? 499.Summit ? MCC ? Design Objective Research Summary Project Program Program Study Project Site Concept End Notes Annotated Bibliography


25% PRISON POPULATION 5% TOTAL POPULATION

[ [ OF THE WORLD Figure 1.0

THE USA HAS

4

[ ABSTRACT ]


5

[ ABSTRACT ]

Why is understanding the effects of incarceration important to understand in today’s society? With much of the media attention criticsing tax payers monies going towards the prison system, it is important to understand the flaws of this system and be able to conclude a more thorough opinion. The purpose of the research is to analyze incarceration with a focus in solitary confinement and its psychological affects through space, punishment and rehabilitation. I would like to understand the meaning of space in extreme mental conditions. I will investigate the incarceration system and solitary confinement through books, articles and come to a conclusive reasoning to my findings that would help me through the design process in the semester followed. This research will allow me to find how architecture could work as a tool to advance the development of the mind rather than harming it. In recent years, due to its extreme conditions prisons in California have gotten a vast amount of attention in the media. Therefore I used this as my area of focus. Throughout the research findings I will come to understand why and how solitary confinement and the current prison system in he US enhances recidivism.

67 % Figure 1.1

?


6

[ TOPIC STATEMENT ]

2.3 million people in custody [highest in the world] ~ 3200 inmates for life sentences for victimless crimes

1 in12 inmate experiences solitary confinement 4

High recidivism rates in the US of 67%

3

2

1


7

[ TOPIC STATEMENT ]

Can architecture work as means to influence the human mind through spatial rehabilitation? How does spatial implications affect the human mind? The concept of incarceration is a mystery to many people in the US. Since these institutions are closed spaces, there is limited access and limited exposure to the reality that goes on behind these walls. Through my thesis I will be learning about incarceration, concentrating on solitary confinement and its spatial effects on the human mind. Corrupt jail systems have been an ongoing issue in the UN and in the European Court of Human Rights, as many nonviolent offenders spend vast amount of time in jail. This becomes a concern as solitary confinement is sometimes issued based on arbitrary and inconsistent reasoning such as not keeping a clean cell. Solitary confinement has many torturous effects on the brain, including anxiety and the inability to function in daily social circumstances.5 Research has found that prisoners in solitary confinement have little to no chance in the real world once their term is over and are likely to return to jail. This poses an issue at a fundamental level: prison sentences are theoretically intended to rehabilitate offenders, but in this case, the system has been reversed and instead continues itself by generating a lifetime prison population. Rehabilitation in jails is relevant as it allows for the society to be safer and people to overcome their mistakes through positive means. It is important to find means that, prevent negative effects to the psyche in jails. The arbitrary treatment and abuse to inmates, such as, solitary confinement for around 23 hours for simply not keeping a tidy enough cell shows a glitch in the 6 system.


8

In路car路cer路a路tion

noun

[in-kahr-suh-rey-shuhn]


9

[ INCARCERATION ]

the act of incarcerating, or putting in prison or another enclosure: The incarceration rate has increased dra7 matically.


10 Figure 1.2

[ OVERVIEW ]

Crime Rate dropped from 2011 by 1.7% California has the second largest prison population 40 % more inmates than the institution was designed to hold 8

9

10


11

[ OVERVIEW ]

There is a lack of knowledge and information regarding several issues in regards to incarceration. This includes the process of going to jail, the daily life of an inmate, treatment and group pressure whilst in jail, the social judgment and the pressures of getting back into society. In the US it has been a soaring debate of what to do with the over populated prisons in the country. Flexibility for nonviolent offenders when sentencing needs to come into effect. Society has always had a bad taste towards prisoners; the most common thought is the correlation of most prisoners being in the prison system because “they deserve to be there,” or only “the worst of the worst make it to jail.” So naturally there is an insensitive notion from society where they do not realize how much this issue actually affects them. In the US there is a 3 strike and 4 strike system that no matter how far in the past or how minor your offense is, you will go to 11 jail for a vast amount of time.


12 Image 1.0

[ HISTORY ]


13

[ HISTORY ]

In Colonial America, as one might imagine, the idea of “evil” and “illness” of one’s strange behavior that cannot be controlled or is intentionally inflicting a nuisance was less distinguishable. In turn, the common belief was that behaviors caused by ingrained “illness” or “evil” needed to have violent retaliations inflicted. These included, whipping, pillories, stockades, and ultimately hanging. However, the most humane response at the time was locking someone up who was suffering from a mental instability and hiding them from the rest of society. 12 However, in the early 19th century there was a turnaround in the American history of incarceration. An optimistic view towards rehabilitation grew in regards to social reform. The view was oriented towards the possibility of rehabilitating someone mentally unstable. The result was the movement of development of large mental hospitals and the first large penitentiaries in the USA. Rehabilitation was a key part of US prison policy. “Prisoners were encouraged to develop occupational skills and to resolve psychological problems--such as substance abuse or aggression--that might interfere with their reintegration into society. Indeed, many inmates received court sentences that mandated treatment for such problems. Since then, however, rehabilitation has taken 13 a back seat to get tough on crime.” From the mid 1970’s onwards, ideas of solitary confinement to be a solution to inmates understanding their behavioral malfunctions on their own started as an experiment.14 The penitentiary system also known as the “Philadelphia system,” is the result of this social experiment. It introduced prolonged incarceration as well as a highly exclusive reliance towards solitary confinement. Once this system was created, the USA invited visitors from abroad to observe the “penitentiary system”. The European prison system adapted this system to deal with post 15 convictions and also pretrial detainees.


14 Image 1.1

[ HISTORY ]


15

[ HISTORY ]

Contrary to what was expected, the prison model quickly fell into disapproval because the prisoners were falling into mental disturbance, and thus was terminated overseas. The common psychiatric disturbance was an agitated confused state which, in more severe cases, had the characteristics of a florid delirium 16 -this is a syndrome caused by disturbance of the normal function of the brain- characterized by severe confused, paranoid, and hallucinatory features, and also by an intense psychological state and random, impulsive, often self-directed violence. These results were often observed in individuals who had no prior history of 17 any mental illness but also worsened previous mental conditions in inmates. Solitary confinement usually helps to intensify a previously existing mental condition, otherwise it has evidently shown that the psychological pain that is imposed on the inmates during solitary, affected their minds in such a way where they tend to have a difficult time adapting outside of the prison system. When the model was tried out, they discovered that solitary confinement 18 affects the psyche, they abolished it but in the late 20th century they reinforced it. Unfortunately, the prison system has not learned from the failures of the 19th century understanding of the effects of solitary confinement, rather these results are completely ignored. In the court case of the 1890’s RE Medley the Supreme Court had concluded that solitary confinement’s mental harm were extreme although a short amount of time was spent in solitary. These were semi fatuous conditions, from which it was close to impossible to recover, some committed suicide, while others became violently insane, those who were mentally stronger still were influenced enough that in most cases they were not well enough to be part of the general community. The expansion of the prison system that began in the early 1980’s has resulted in the highest rate of incarceration in the world. 19


16

[ POLITICAL INFLUENCE ]

Closing Prisons?

Cutting “non-essential” programs?

Cutting Staff?


17

[ POLITICAL INFLUENCE ]

For the past 20 years, incarceration rates have increased by 281%, and expenses for state and local corrections increased by 601%. Many states have to make cuts in the prison systems. They are either shutting down prisons or laying off workers and getting rid of “nonessential programs” such as medical care, dental care, mental health care, and educational programs. There 20 are many problems with the correlation of the overcrowded prisons and the current budget cuts. One of the major problems is the failure to provide inmates with livable conditions; severe overcrowding which means prisoners triple bunk in one cell or are designated to sleep in the day rooms. There are also plumbing and temperature problems, living in 21 unsanitary conditions, or unhygienic circumstances like not having clean bedding or being able to shower. In June, 2013, Sacramento, California federal judges ordered the governor to release around 9000 state inmates (8 % of the prison population) by the end of the year. The judges gave the option of finding another way to ease the crowding, or the governor must expand credits that inmates can earn from good behavior or participation in rehabilitation programs. “We are 22 willing to defer to their choice for how to comply with our order, not whether to comply with it,” the judges wrote. If Sacramento does not meet the inmate cap on time, the judges said, it will have to release prisoners from a list of “low risk” offenders the court has told the administration to prepare.23


18 Figure 1.3

[ POLITICAL INFLUENCE ]


19

[ POLITICAL INFLUENCE ]

The order requires, absent other solutions, that the state give minimum-custody inmates two days off for every one served without trouble and to apply those credits retroactively. Such a step could spur the release of as many as 5,385 prisoners by the end of December. The public stands with the judges where 63% of California voters agree that low level nonviolent inmates should be released from prisons early.24 Whilst identifying the overcrowded prison population as a serious problem, other than financial impact, the courts also need to realize the rehabilitative aspect of the prisoners that are being released early. Will this decision lower recidivism rates? It is true that many prisoners in the USA are held in incarceration for longer than the time “they deserve”. Would the prison system they are in have enough of a mental impact in the time they served that such a drastic release (over the time frame of 6 months) would not give them enough time to ease their minds to the real world? Prisoners need to be phased out well with educational, substance abuse and rehabilitative programs to be able to function again within communities and not fall back into the 25 incarcerated cycle. In general it is two to four times less expensive to educate an inmate than to incarcerate an inmate. Part of the state’s cuts from educational and substance abuse programs are a short term solution. Consequently, these program’s long term effects such as public safety and recidivism rate will become an ongoing cycle.


20

[ FEDERAL PREASSURE - ECONOMICS ] age 9 - Total confinement madness and reason in the maximum security prison

Around 299 state and local incarceration cost came to almost $40 billion

26

The average inmate in minimum-security federal prison costs $21,000/ yr

27

The average inmate in maximum-security federal prisons costs $33,000/yr Federal prison costs are expected to rise 30 % by 2020

29

<?> Total confinement madness and reason in the maximum security prison - Page 10

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[ FEDERAL PREASSURE - ECONOMICS ]

Prisons create new markets for law enforcement technology, provide cheap labor for corporations, add to the census of depopulated rural counties, and disenfranchise poor and minority people and lower official unemployment statistics. By eliminating large numbers of poor, mostly from minorities, as well as many who are seriously mentally ill, prisons exercise a kind of social magic that take care of multiple concealment availabilities. From this view one could understand that the prison 30 model has almost developed as an industry that creates jobs and hide societies’ residual. Since this has been going on for around 4 centuries, the accumulation of problems has come to a price. Attorney General Eric Holder said that “a vicious cycle of poverty, criminality and incarceration traps too many Americans and weakens too many communities” 31 and that many “aspects of our criminal justice system may actually exacerbate this problem than alleviate it.” 32 As mentioned, one of the major problems in the US is the current overcrowding of the prison system and its correlation to the budget cuts. Immediate cost effective solutions such as prisons closings, layoffs and program elimination fail to address the broader issue of how to better manage a state’s resources. As a result of a reconsideration of the prison crisis, a legislation was 33 introduced that allows judges to exercise a greater discretion in applying nonviolent drug offenders. The new legislation, the Smarter Sentencing Act, would allow “the most severe penalties for serious, high-level or violent drug traffickers”34 where “we can better promote public safety, deterrence and rehabilitation, while making our expenditures smarter and more productive.”35 Concurrently, a study published by the American Journal of Public Health in June 2013 found that $2300 per inmate was saved in California over a 30 month conviction period by sending inmates to treatment. Thus, to my further analysis of the negative effects of incarceration to a person’s psyche, it is beneficial to have low or self-inflicting criminals 36 to be rather rehabilitated rather than incarcerated. On the other hand, “each prisoner represents as much as $25,000 in income for the community in which the prison is located ,...,not to mention the value of constructing the prison facility in the first place. This can be a massive transfer of value; a young male worth a few thousand dollars of support to children and local purchases is transformed into a $25,000 financial asset to a rural prison community. The economy of the rural community is artificially heightened, while the local city economy is artificially 37 drained.”


22 Figure 1.4

[ PUBLIC OPINIONS ]


23

[ PUBLIC OPINIONS ]

Public attitudes shift from variances of their knowledge, again since incarceration institution have very limited access, as most people do not know the real impact or real treatment behind the walls. Most opinions are not very subjective of what they have learned or heard. As a result, the media and the education system is most people’s main influence on this topic. Personally through the education systems I have gone through, I have not learned much about incarceration, only that it is terrible to be in prison, it would ruin the rest of your life or career and only people committing terrible crimes spend extensive amounts of time in these systems. In addition, due to the negative media being the most prominent source of information on regards of incarceration arrests and prison breaks, our minds are filled with believing that people in these institutions deserve to be punished and are societies’ residual that needs to be put in storage never to be seen again. The media’s attention to mass killing and the opinions of an irrational public believing mental health is not an issue encourages rage within communities and leads to the inability to focus on rehabilitation as part of the incarceration system. These “luxurious” qualities should not be paid by the tax payers dollars. Yet, what is not pointed out is the vast amount of crimes that are victimless and inordinately sentenced shows the uninformed aspect of our current society. Understanding that most incarcerated individuals do come back to the streets and without these programs inmates incapable to return to society may lead to reoffended, retaliation or non-adjustment to the outside environment. Education, rehabilitative programs and substance abuse programs would benefit the tax payer more than paying for the exinmate to be back in the prison system. Positively, due to the educational system becoming less one-sided, bringing in more awareness, and enfcouraging questioning as a good thing, more people are encouraged to find root problems of an issue rather than arbitrarily judging. In 1994, 48% of Americans surveyed said that they favored addressing the underlying causes of crime, while 42% preferred deterrence through stricter sentencing. In 2001, the poll found a substantial change in public opinion, with 65% of respondents preferring to address root causes of crime and only 32% favoring for harsher sentencing.38


24

[ SUBJECTS OF INCARCERATION ]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;One of the most consistent findings in criminological literature is that a small percentage of offenders commit the greatest percentage of crime. When we hear the common repetition that 7% of offenders commit 70% of the crimes, it reflects patterns that are well established by research and generates what might be called a 7-70 theory of the prison.â&#x20AC;? 39

1. spirituality in dark places


25

[ SUBJECTS OF INCARCERATION ]

The general assumption is that by the time offenders reach prison, they have passed by several stages by the justice system, meaning that they are probably the worst of the bad-- high-rate, serious offenders. Thus, locking them up prevents disproportionately more crime. Since, as mentioned, policies of low offender crimes, victimless crimes and drug offences have increased as well as time in jail has increased, this has caused a nationwide increase in incarcerating new offenders. If the strategy of locking up more criminals up will prevent them from committing future crimes, this theory has clearly failed. â&#x20AC;&#x153;High recidivism rates make a mockery out of claims that punishment deters or rehabilitates offenders.â&#x20AC;? 40 When the increase of active offenders were removed from society, crime rates did not drop nearly as much as expected. This suggests that street criminals are being replaced, or the people who return to the streets are not learning from the incarceration system that increases in imprisonment lead to increases in crime, or 41 some combination of the two. The theory of co-offending being one of the reasons that crimes has not dropped as much as desired is also presented. Cooffending refers to the fact that offenders that are parts of groups commit a large percentage of crime. This is particularly characteristic of drug crimes and violent street crimes, such as robbery. Is there really less access to drugs because one person has been incarcerated? The real issue might be that once a member in a group was caught, the group members are encouraged to recruit a new group member. Also, the likelihood of the drug offenders to going back to their groups or back to their habits is higher with the cutting drug abuse programs suggested. 42 On the outside, the idea that the use of incarceration provokes crime seems farfetched. Americans are accustomed to thinking of prison as a last-ditch means of controlling crime; the thought that incarceration may in fact increase crime has many people feeling its nonsensical nature. This shows that prisons do in fact need to be more of a social impact than they have now. Improper treatment in prisons leads to the inmates not learning a moral lesson, but rather encourages a continuation of their behavior as they havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seen any different. The advantage of this framework is that it avoids the errors of simple thinking.


26 Image 1.3

[ SUBJECTS OF INCARCERATION]


27

[ SUBJECTS OF INCARCERATION]

“Prison use can affect crime directly, by influencing current prisoners and potential offenders, or indirectly, by altering the structures and functions that in turn affect such individuals. While some effects will be positive, most will be negative. Indeed, prisoners are complex in their impacts; some benefits are canceled out by other insufficiency. It is fair to say that for some 43 offenders, the prison experience almost certainly deters future criminal behavior.” This could be due to the realization of rationality, may it be regret, fear of being back in the system or the traumatization of the incarceration system. However, this may not mean that they are mentally well. Many ex inmates struggle with their mental health after being incarcerated. Further dwellings upon the mental effects of imprisonment are later discussed. Nevertheless, with a 67 % recidivism rate, it is evident that prisons tend to have a substantial negative effect to society rather than positive. It means something that ex inmates who were released and were exposed to the incarceration have come to the point of not being able to comply with the real world, or have not learned from their previous arrest. The idea that prisons set people up for failure, its psychological harms doesn’t allow the ex-inmate to function in the real world normally or coherently, which in turn makes them go back to prison because they are used to treatment there, releasing prisoners without any phasing to the real world, leaves ex inmates to not know how to handle their psychological ticks they have developed or have exacerbated 44 in prison.

The occurrence of believing being back in the prison system is easier than dealing with their psychological problems in society becomes a problem to the overpopulated prisons especially. The incarceration system weakens mental health of inmates where they are not able to cope on their own. They don’t necessarily need to think it’s better than the streets; it’s just that they can’t function on the streets anymore and which is why they return back to the prison.


28

[ PREVENTION OF CRIME ]


29

[ PREVENTION OF CRIME ]

In theory, prison suppresses crime because prison is an authentically unpleasant and stigmatizing experience that people seek to avoid. These effects are dependent on images of prison--how people understand the prison experience personally and socially. People think of imprisonment and imagine what it would be like to be there, what it would mean to have a45 record. These images inform the personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s view of the pain. Stigma and loss of freedom that would result from being imprisoned. On the other hand, people may have a different outlook on lower income citizens that are mainly incarcerated. The belief that prison time is easier compared to life on the streets is widely shared. Believing that prison almost becomes a sort of luxury might even influence society not to mind the punishment or torturous effect of prisons. The consideration to have loss of freedom and to be in a controlled environment is usually not focused on as much. Those citizens also may believe that the prison system is better 46 than life â&#x20AC;&#x153;on the streets.â&#x20AC;?


30

[ MENTALLY ILL INCARCERATED ]

15-20% of prisoners are

mentally ill

40% of individuals with

serious mental illnesses have been incarcerated in their lifetime. 44


31

[ MENTALLY ILL INCARCERATED ]

“Many inmates have serious mental illnesses. Starting in the late 1950’s and 1960’s, new psychotropic drugs and the community health movement dramatically reduced the number of people in state mental hospitals. But in the 1980’s, many of the mentally ill who had left mental institutions in the previous two decades began entering the criminal justice system.” This shows 48 history repeated. The high rates of the mentally ill in the prison system, show that prisons have become non official mental hospitals. Clearly, prisons are not build to accommodate the mentally ill, and prisons were built for criminals serving their time. “In many prison systems, psychologists are the primary mental health care providers, with psychiatrists contracted on a part-time basis. Psychologists provide services ranging from a variety of issues: from screening new inmates for mental illness to providing 49 group therapy and crisis counseling.” However, because of the limitations, e.g. imbalanced ratio between psychologists assigned for inmates, they have trouble focusing on specialized groups or rehabilitative programs that may help inmates without serious mental health issues. For example, a psychologist might develop special programs for substance abusers or help prisoners prepare for the transition back to the community. “There’s not enough time or emphasis to devote to rehabilitative services,”50 believes Robert Morgan, a psychologist at Texas Tech University who studies treatment methods for inmates.


32

[ MENTALLY ILL INCARCERATED ]

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wrong with keeping the mentally ill incarcerated?


33

[ MENTALLY ILL INCARCERATED ]

Mentally ill offenders have high recidivism rates: Incarceration facilities are separate and usually do not coordinate with mental health systems, which means that mentally ill inmates leaving these institutions receive little to no continued psychiatric care. Therefore recidivism rates for the mentally ill are much higher than the average prisoner. In the Los Angeles County Jail, “90 percent of mentally ill inmates are repeat offenders, 51 with 31 percent having been incarcerated ten or more times.” Mentally ill offenders’ extended stay: One of the major reasons mentally ill inmates stay extended times in prison, is because they have difficulty understanding prison rules. Mentally ill “jail inmates were twice as likely (19 percent versus 9 percent) to be charged with facility rule violations.“ Also, 52 the under-availability of beds in psychiatric hospitals is a reason why mentally ill inmates are usually held for months. Mentally ill inmates have higher tendency to commit suicide: Studies show approximately “half of all inmate suicides are committed by inmates who are seriously mentally ill.” A 2002 study in Washington State reported that “the prevalence of mental illness among inmates who attempted suicide was 77 percent, 53 compared with 15 percent [among inmates] in the general jail population.” Mentally ill inmates have a high chance of being abused: Correctional officers in prisons apply for the job expecting to work with criminals, not individuals with serious mental illnesses. Many of the correctional officers do not understand, and have little or no training in, how to work with mentally ill inmates. Since some mentally ill have symptoms that make them socially nonfunctional and aggressive, correctional officers may mistreat them based on their lack of knowledge and lack of empathy to the mentally ill inmate. Their solution is to find ways to have no contact with the person, solitary confinement - or- to instill fear through violence or nuisance to the point that inmate is not able to retaliate.54


34 Image 1.4

[ GUARDS VS. INMATES ]


35

[ GUARDS VS. INMATES ]

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has several articles and sues several guards, sheriffs and institution for their unjust treatment to prisoners. “Inmates told stories of being punched, kicked, slapped, stripped, tased and pepper sprayed. Limbs were broken and diseases swirled in the filthy water of the clogged showers.” 55 Guards are meant to maintain order, be model citizens and rational towards inmates. Their duty is not to have personal relations with the inmates. However, we have come to see that deputies form gang like cliques between each other. If an inmate irritates a guard or doesn’t comply there is a large tendency toward a splurge of violence targeting inmates. Unfortunately, the mentally ill have been a strong subject of violence, be it provocation on prisoner-to-prisoner violence. This behavior has come to be so common that it even occurs in front of outside witnesses. To know that this is a constant occurrence, one can understand that there are many in the system that support this kind of behavior, trigger it or turn the cheek. 56 Either way, authorities who are supposed to be regulating the guards or teaching the guards the general ethics that should be enforced in the prison system are not doing their job right. The authority’s denial to this behavior seems to be farfetched from reality. Authorities behaving unjustly towards inmates help explain several factors that impact the current broken system. For example, mentally ill prisoners being abused by prison guards develop worse mental health problems: some inmates may become traumatized and problems like anxiety and phobias may develop. Also, inmates that are abused in the incarceration system are highly likely to go back into society and re-offend.


36

[ GUARDS VS. INMATES ]

“Prisoners become passive bodies dominated by power.“

57

-Dr. Stuart Gaussian


37

[ GUARDS VS. INMATES ]

If the inmate retaliates from the abuse of the guard, the guard could hold charges with witnesses other guards as witnesses. There are not many who stand with the abused prisoners as prisoners are looked down on by society for their criminal actions they have previously committed. Prisoners being abused is also not seen as tragic from several members of the community, who 58 very well believe what happens in prisons is “just” and prisoners must have “deserved” their cruel and unusual punishment. The ACLU filed a lawsuit in January 18th, 2012 against Sheriff Leroy Baca and his top officials for tolerating an unnecessary reoccurrence of violence against prisoners by gangs of deputies. “Sheriff Lee Baca, Undersheriff Paul Tanaka, and Chief Dennis Burns are responsible for ensuring that their subordinates do not engage in a pattern of unspeakable acts of violence against inmates,” said Peter Eliasberg, legal director of the ACLU of Southern California. 59 “But in the face of a longstanding pattern of deputy abuse they have deliberately and knowingly failed to put in place the basic pieces of an accountability system – sound policies on the use of force, adequate training, careful investigation of force incidents and a rigorous system of discipline. This suit is directed at them because they have allowed deputies to go unpunished, covered 60 up their behavior and for years made no effort to reform this broken system.“ The lawsuit is aimed to enforce policies where 61 prison officials are to be following a policy and training on how to use force to help prevent prison abuse to occur in the future.


38 Image 1.5

[ THE STANFORD EXPERIMENT ]


39

[ THE STANFORD EXPERIMENT ]

The experiment was an investigation of how readily people would conform to the roles of guards and prisoners. The experiment wanted to see if the brutality in prisons is the result of sadistic personalities or because of the environment they are set in. The experiment had 25 participants who were screened for psychological normality and participated. A basement at the University was converted to a mock prison, and the experiment was going to be carried out over 14 days. The participants were randomly assigned as prisoner or guard and then the role play began. The process of “incarceration” started with an arrest from their 62 homes going through procedures and then ending up in the mock jail. To confuse the participants, they were blindfolded. Guards and prisoners were given their acquired clothing. Guards had their superior clothing and non-translucent glasses. When the prisoners arrived at the prison, they were stripped naked, and were given a submissive robe attached with a number63 stripping them from an identity- and were required to wear a chain on their leg. The participants quickly adapted their role. Soon after, some guards began to harass prisoners. Other guards joined in whilst some of the “good guards” stood by and watched, and other prisoners were also tormented. The prisoners were taunted with insults and petty orders, and they were generally dehumanized. The prisoners in turn rebelled, expressing that they were not powerless figures. After the rebellion a power cycle emerged: guards were trying to prove their superiority and prisoners became submissive. Some began siding with the guards against prisoners who did not conform to the rules. 64


40

[ THE STANFORD EXPERIMENT]

Image 1.5

The “prison” environment was an important factor in creating the guards’ brutal behavior. Many of the students could not believe what they became in that environment, whether it was brutality or dependency. A guard said, “Acting authoritatively can be fun. Power can be a great pleasure.”

65


41

[ THE STANFORD EXPERIMENT]

One prisoner had to be released after 36 hours because of uncontrollable bursts of screaming, crying and anger, which appeared to be early stages of deep depression. As a result, a new prisoner was added. Coming from the outside and seeing the results of the experiment, the prisoner decided to go on a hunger strike. He then was put in confinement where other prisoners had a choice to let him out with a small comfort sacrifice; however, they decided to keep their blankets. The experiment originally intended for 14 days, but to be stopped at the 6th day because of the risk of students being permanently 66 psychologically damaged. The conclusion of the experiment showed people who would have never become sadistic in their everyday worlds were placed in an evil environment and did things they would not have expected themselves. It becomes a fight between their personal morality and the environment they are in. Even the best of people were undermined by the stronger personality of the guards. The guards who did not agree were given tasks that had them â&#x20AC;&#x153;look awayâ&#x20AC;? from the behavior going on; others did not interject even if they did not participate. The experiment showed that although all the guards had equal power, if one of them was inflicting harm to the prisoners, others would not step in. How far could someone go to be interfered or questioned? People will readily conform to 67 the social roles they are expected to play, especially if the roles are as strongly stereotyped as those of the prison guards. Overall, the Stanford Experiment has become one example of how psychologically healthy individuals have a high risk of becoming sadistic or depressed when placed in a prison-like environment.


42

Solitary confinement


43

[ SOLITARY CONFINEMENT]

“I found solitary confinement the most forbidding aspect of prison life. There is no end and no beginning; there is only one’s own mind, which can begin to play tricks. Was that a dream or did it really happen? One begins to question everything. Did I make the right decision, was my sacrifice worth it? In solitary, there is no distraction to these haunting questions.”

– Nelson Mandela

68


44 Image 2.1

[ SOLITARY CONFINEMENT ]

“Real intense boredom. No outside air... you can’t see out the windows. They don’t treat you bad but it’s just that everything is so impersonal. It’s like dealing with automatons.” 66


45

[ SOLITARY CONFINEMENT ]

What is solitary confinement? “Solitary confinement n. the placement of a prisoner in a Federal or state prison in a cell away from other prisoners, usually as a form of internal penal discipline, but occasionally to protect the convict from other prisoners or to prevent the prisoner from 70 causing trouble. Long-term solitary confinement may be found to be unconstitutional as “cruel and unusual punishment.” What does living in solitary confinement mean? Solitary confinement is usually described as “cramped, concrete, windowless cells.” ” The cells have a toilet and a shower, and a slot in the door large enough for a guard to slip a food tray through. Prisoners in solitary confinement are frequently deprived of telephone calls and contact visits.“71 Recreation involves being taken, often in handcuffs and shackles, to another solitary cell where prisoners can pace alone for an hour before being returned to their cell, sometimes they are able to get a bouncy ball that they can throw around in the room but that tends to get boring after a couple of minutes.73 71

Are there different types of solitary confinement? Solitary confinement cells tend to be standardized; it tends to be a “cell of roughly fifty to eighty square feet; approximately 22 and one-half hours per day locked in the cell.”74 The variances may be in the doors, some doors are barred which help with ventilation, sound transmission and being able to see outside of their rooms. There is also mesh steel doors that are not as open; however, solid steel doors are the most restrictive of its kind. Solid steel walls become the most claustrophobic from the kinds of 75 solitary confinement, especially if they are slide shut, there is barely any air gap through the door.


46

[ SOLITARY CONFINEMENT ]

“Without no sunlight without going year without no sunlight ( there’s is no option other than going insane) I don’t know how I’ll be when I’ll be out there but I got anger issues after 5, 6 years being in solitary-confinement it would be nice to look outside, it would be nice to look out the window and see the outside.” 76

“Adjustment to the isolation routine usually continues from one to three weeks. As it continues, the prisoner becomes increasingly dejected and dependent. He gradually gives up all spontaneous activity within his cell and ceases to care about personal appearance and actions. Finally, he sits and stares with a vacant expression, perhaps endlessly twisting a button on his coat. He allows himself to become dirty and disheveled. . . . He goes through the motions of his prison routine automatically, as if he were in a daze. . . . Ultimately he seems to lose many of the restraints of ordinary behavior. He may soil himself. He weeps; he mutters . . . . It usually takes from four to six weeks to produce this phenomenon in a newly imprisoned man.” 77


47

[ SOLITARY CONFINEMENT ]

It is more likely to have variances in the program of the Security Housing Units. Some may allow the prisoner to be doing yard exercises one hour a day. Others are only confined into being able to go in another cell, as mentioned above. The institution also decided visitation rights, the availability of reading material and the allowance on phone calls. More lenient institutions may even allow you to have a television in your room, but it’s highly unlikely. Moreover, administrative conditions regarding the 78 amount and circumstances of visitation, the availability of reading material and television. Who Goes To Solitary Confinement? Some are in there because they’ve read “suspicious” literature. Others because they showed up in a picture with a known gang member. Some because they use gang “code words” or greet other suspicious inmates. Plenty remain inside solitary because the guards or officials may not like them or their attitude. There is no consistency and there is no question. “Inmates may even be admitted to the Security Housing Unit by word of mouth, that he may have done something, but there doesn’t need to be a 79 justification or evidence to that claim.” Flaws in monitoring? There is no policing over this system, arbitrary reasoning could be questionably provided. The lack of policing also means, people can go into solitary for as little as not cleaning their cell. Some prisoners are also in there for extensive amount of years, almost with no contact to other persons or interaction.The system of the Security Housing Units shows to be very corrupt and subjective. Evidentially, inmates may have been completely innocent and still become subject to psychological torture that has long term effects to psyche. The non-policing of this harmful aspect of incarceration in the US shows there are more than plenty of flaws in the system that need to be addressed and fixed before it does more harm than good to society.


48

[ MORALITY OF SOLITARY CONFINEMENT ]

“In 1842, the novelist Charles Dickens visited the Eastern Pennsylvania Penitentiary and said: “The system here is rigid, strict and hopeless solitary confinement. I believe it...to be cruel and wrong. I hold this slow and daily tampering with the mysteries of the brain, to be immeasurably worse than any torture of the body.” 80


49

[ MORALITY OF SOLITARY CONFINEMENT ]

Widespread western morality (that have religious influence) teaches us that every human being possesses inherent dignity, a quality that should not diminish behind prison gates. Extended isolation violates an individual’s dignity by destroying the mind. Many prisoners in solitary then return to society as less functional human beings who are more likely to recommit crimes. Surely, there are the most extreme cases where some prisoners need to be put into solitary confinement to prevent violence. Lengthy years in solitary means psychological deterioration affected from the facility and the length of stay as well as the treatment towards these prisoners. 81 Human Rights? Laying off the use of solitary in some states actually proves a more harmonized positive environment in prison systems. International human rights experts and bodies have also condemned indefinite or prolonged solitary confinement, 82 recommending that the practice be abolished entirely and arguing that solitary confinement is a human rights abuse. In 2011, the United Nations special rapporteur on torture, Juan E. Mendez, issued a report on solitary confinement: 15 days can amount to cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment or even torture and “15 days is the limit after which irreversible 83 harmful psychological effects can occur. However, many prisoners in the United States have been isolated for far longer.” The United Nations’ input about the concerns of solitary confinement have had not as strong of an impact as it would have liked but some states have tried to gradually dismiss more and more inmates in solitary confinement. For example, in Mississippi one institution has reduced their individual confinement population from 1000 to 0. Prison officials estimated diverting prisoners saves 8 million annually and also reduces violence levels by 70 percent. 84


50

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ]

hypersensitive to external stimuli

>50% inability to tolerate ordinary stimuli

obsessive ruminations

~50% uncontrolable fantasies of revenge of guards

hallucinations, illusions

~1/3 hearing voices

impulsive control problems

~50% random uncontrollable rage and violence

suicidal ideation -50%

overt paranoia ~ 50% panic attacks >50%


51

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ]

In solitary, even after a short amount of time, an individual is likely to gravitate into something called a mental “fog,” in which alertness, attention, and concentration all become impaired. After some time in solitary an individual is likely to be increasingly incapable of processing external surroundings, and often becomes “hyper responsive” to these environments. A good example would be, that a sudden noise or the brightness of the flashlight can become intensely unpleasant. Over time with the absence of background noise or different variations of sound, any kind of constant noise from the environment can become noxious and irritating. The sound or smell coming from a neighboring cell, bodily sensation, structural or mechanical noise, and even the fluorescent lights could become a trigger to the mind. Tortured by it, such individuals are unable to stop dwelling on it. In solitary confinement an ordinary environment becomes intensely unpleasant and small irritations become aggravating. 85 “Solitary confinement is an environment where you can’t talk to anybody else, you can’t have any contact, all you get to hear is the keys jingling... and that type of psych imbalance you place upon somebody is very detrimental...because when you’re subjected to these types of things and you are without the elements of life... if you’re without those things it’ll make you go crazy. 86 You end up talking to yourself...it’s part of their psychological war they inflict on us.” “You get sensitive to noise, the plumbing system. Someone in the tier above me pushes the button on the faucet . . . It’s too loud, 87 gets on your nerves. I can’t stand it. I start to holler.”


52

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ]

cronic anxiety + nervousness headache insomnia lethargy or chronic tiredness nightmares heart palpitations confused thought processes irrational anger social withdrawal violent fantasies emotional flatness mood swings difficulty of concentration and memory chronic depression feelings of overall deterioration 88


53

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ]

In solitary there is no sense of time, no windows allowing the person to know the difference between day and night; thus, the person becomes irregular. Even being moved to another cell for an hour still does not give the inmate the experience natural of daylight. Inmates are very unlikely to have any restful sleep due to the constant light, the slamming steel door sound, other noises 89 and flashlights shining their faces. The prisoners themselves do not realize the deterioration that occurs. Many are extremely defensive about the psychiatric problems; they tended to rationalize away their symptoms, avoided talking about them, or denied or distorted their existence at all. Responses were: “Some of the guys can’t take it—not me;” 90or even with the mention of a symptom and a simultaneous 91 denial of its significance: “As soon as I got in I started cutting my wrists. I figured it was the only way to get out of here.” Psychologists are able to analyze these interviews and their symptoms- even under the prisoner’s denial. “For example, one inmate was unable to describe the events of the several days surrounding his wrist-slashing, nor could he describe his thoughts or feelings at the time.” 92 Any Studies That Disagree? In the book Spirituality in Dark Places, a study was presented by Maureen L O’Keefe, who did a one year longitudinal study of solitary in the Colorado state penitentiary. Her reasoning was that people may benefit from solitary, and she also found that there was no psychological deterioration during her study of solitary confinement. Her belief was that the mentally ill inmates benefit from being separated from the general population. However, her study is seen to be flawed as she did not present adequate attention to medical charts, rather, used correctional officers to collect data. The inaccuracy of to her study makes her findings subjective and incorrect. 93


54 Purpose of hunger strikes: • • • • • • • •

end group punishment abolish the use of debriefing end long-term solitary confinement [5 year limit] and alleviate conditions in segregation include the provision of regular meaningful social contact provide adequate healthcare provide access to sunlight provide adequate food 94 expand programming and privileges

Different emphasis: Activist Groups: The inmates seek limits on how long prisoners can be held in isolation — five years, according to one of their demand letters. They also want elimination of the promise that prisoners can escape that environment by informing against others in confine95 ment. NY Times: “Their demands, made in a letter, include cleaner prison facilities, better food and more access to the prison library. Prisoners at 96 several other facilities also issued demand letters, which were displayed on a Web site supporting the strikers.”


55

[ HUNGER STRIKE- CALIFORNIA ]

In California, earlier this year, 30,000 inmates started to refuse meals and ended with around 100 inmates, which drew international attention to California’s use of prolonged prisoner isolation. By this week, nearly 10 protesters a day were either collapsing or required other medical care. One the opposite page one clearly, see the difference in perception and emphasis on what was wanted from the prisoners. The new york times article made the prisoners seem they were asking for non essential, luxurious requests. In the activist article they highlighted the most important aspect of the letter. 97 What was the result? Jules Lobel, the president of the Center for Constitutional Rights and the lead lawyer in a federal lawsuit over solitary confinement, said, “Inmates would refuse to accept anything less than a legally binding agreement for immediate changes.” 98 “Last time, they took promises of reforms, but they are not going to do that again, because two years later the reforms have not materialized in any real way,”99 Mr. Lobel said. Instead of the CDCR convincing the prisoners to suspend the strike by promising 100 change, the CDCR has responded by “punishing the hunger strike leaders with prison discipline and other retaliation.” Prison officials have insisted that their solitary confinement policies, revised after a series of smaller hunger strikes in 2011, are non101 negotiable.


56

[ HUNGER STRIKE- CALIFORNIA]

2,000+ prisoners serving indefinite SHU terms

500+ had spent 10+ years in the SHU

103

200+ had spent over 15 years in the SHU

104

78 more than 20 years in the SHU

105 Figure 2.0

102


57

[ HUNGER STRIKE- CALIFORNIA]

Consequences? Every person who participated in this summerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s peaceful protest of refusing meals has received a 115 write-up, accusing the inmate of committing a serious rule violation for his participation in the hunger strike. This can result in extending a prisonerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s period of solitary confinement by years, in the imposition of penalties, or in becoming the basis for denying parole.Officials at California State Prison Corcoran, encouraged prisoners to impose that they had participated in the hunger strike, in exchange for a lesser 115 penalty. This included phrases stating that the hunger strike was organized or directed by prison gangs, leading to backlash for participants throughout the system.105 Conclusion: Since California is the state with the most use of solitary confinement, there are many prisoners that have accumulated hunger strikes unless the horrid conditions would be changed. The hunger strike was a non-violent and peaceful protest of resistance against the violence and torture perpetrated against prisoners by prison staff. Rather than complying with their message, authorities are hearing out the prisoners, they are completely going against what they were trying to achieve. The intention of a hunger strike is to understand the seriousness of the demands rather than taking this action personally. Because of the international attention and criticism inflicted on the issue, the prison officials and guards took this message personally. Prisoners are willing to sacrifice their lives for the general right for being treated justly. Instead these individuals are punished - or set up to go against each other by complying with the guards demands- which sets the prisoner up for failure.


58 Figure 2.1

[ AFTERMATH ]


59

[ AFTERMATH ]

What really happens to prisoners after they are released? In general, negative reinforcement that is used frequently loses its effect or worse, normalizes the environment. The more force or power put on someone, the more likely they will project the oppression in the same manner either during their prison time or when they are released. One cannot teach morals by being immoral to another human; it defeats the purpose of incarceration. What is the result? The result depends on the prisoners’ background which varied often. Generally, prisoners with a good support system (either friends or family) have a much easier time adjusting back to life in society. However, the majority is often poorly prepared for adjusting to life in society. Partially because of their resources- prisoners leave prisons with little to no money or contacts. Prisoners have a hard time finding housing and jobs as still some states legally allow it and other times are least in its preference in the job market. Some prisoners with the expectation of this make contacts during their jail time, which in turn allows re-offense to be a lot more tempting. Post release programs have about a 1/3 or more of those they assist return to jail- although this may be discouraging to the program, the number of recidivism rate is far higher without them. Understanding that many of the prisoners have developed some side effects from the incarceration system- whether it is mental or psychological easing back into 107 society is necessary. Since prisons are far from a rehabilitation process and the routine of violence reoccurs-whether it is guard on prisoner, or prisoners against each other- prisoners struggle to reintegrate into society. Understanding that most prisoners will be released is in the best interest of society as well as the prisoners’ “to help develop opportunities for released prisoners to lead productive 108 lives after prison.”


60

[ AFTERMATH ]

“It’s really sort of ironic that we take people who can’t live in our society, put them in prison where we’re putting them in another society and the values of that society are almost the opposite of the values of our society” 109


61

[ AFTERMATH ]

What about inmates with families? Little attention is given to the impact jails have on the inmateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s families. Most US prisons have few facilities for family visits, especially for young children. Jailing parents creates trauma and depression among children. Moreover, the psychological effects on the jailed parents, may cause the child into foster care, and increases the likelihood of future jail time for the children. Mostly, â&#x20AC;&#x153;poor school performance, unsupervised free time, financial strain, decreased contact with adults, and suppressed 110 angerâ&#x20AC;&#x153; are common for children affected by incarcerated parents. All these factors fall the burden the already cash-strapped 111 state agencies that often fail to provide any meaningful childcare, nurturing, or possibility for a hopeful future for these children. Employment? The neighborhoods from which people, especially young men, are removed to prisons are the places they return upon their release from prison. These ex-offenders are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed, adding to the local unemployment rate and the chronic difficulties ex-convicts face in finding and retaining work. In short, the more the prison system grows, the more it contributes to the decay of neighborhoods outside its walls. This means inner-city locations are already struggling with the strains of economic and social disorder.112


62

[ PUNISHMENT OR REHABILITATION ]

â&#x20AC;&#x153;As architects, we can be far better employed providing the spaces needed for social nurturing, healing, and reintegration instead, the money spent on prison construction steals the resources needed for these central social goals.â&#x20AC;?

Image 2.0

113


63

[ PUNISHMENT OR REHABILITATION ]

Punishment? There are several things that need to be considered whilst talking about the punishing or rehabilitative system. First and foremost, it is vital a system acknowledges human freedom, it also recognizes significant limitations on punishment scope and intensity. Moreover, it recognizes the limited power of hard treatment. Otherwise, it abandons communication, and expects no 114 response from offenders. Excessive cruelty may “turn men into puppets who are creatures of their manipulator.”115 Similarly, punishment cannot automatically reform prisoners because each person responds differently to suffering. Some find meaning in it, while others see it as pointless. State agencies have little knowledge of offenders inner lives and possess scare resources with which to influence the, they are in a limited position to understand how individuals will react to moral change. It may stop some from offending, but cannot by itself compel them to change their moral understanding. It may produce personality changes that disappear when 116 hard treatment ceases. Punishment is only “one among a number of influences which in combination can work moral change.” 117 It will hopefully bring about change as it addresses the person as a moral being. Change requires that both authorities and offenders act. Offenders must freely engage the moral message they receive. They must also recognize the authority of those punishing them. Authorities must refrain from the powerful urge to brutalize others. They must institutionalize policies that recognize the person’s humanity. However, we cannot say how offenders will exercise freedom; they can be dishonest and pretend moral reform. They can make moral progress, only to fall back on previous bad habits. They may recognize the limited authority of the states right to punish them. Engaging in acts of resistance like the hunger strike at pelican bay, they reject the states moral message. Finally it rejects cynicism pervading many contemporary approaches to crime. In its place it retains hope that punishment can change people.


64 Image 2.1

[ PUNISHMENT OR REHABILITATION ]

“Comprehensive rehabilitative programs focus on such areas and allow inmates to see the consequences of their actions more clearly, thereby lessening the likelihood of reconviction for another offense.“ 118


65

[ PUNISHMENT OR REHABILITATION ]

What about rehabilitation? To help shift the focus from punishment to rehabilitation, â&#x20AC;?in the past 25 years, says Haney, they have generated a massive literature documenting the importance of child abuse, poverty, early exposure to substance abuse and other risk factors for criminal behavior. The findings suggest that individual-centered approaches to crime prevention need to be complemented by community-based approaches.When properly implemented, work programs, education and psychotherapy can ease prisonersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; transitions to the free world, says Haney. Finally, researchers have demonstrated the power of the prison environment to shape 119 behavior, often to the detriment of both prisoners and prison workers.â&#x20AC;? Rehabilitation can be inspirational and motivating, co- opting with rehabilitation, educational and substance abuse programs helps positive reinforcement instead of punishing bad behavior only: e.g. extending prison time or SHU time. Installing fear into inmates might work as prisoners would not desire to come back to prison, but a negative psychological impact gives them no choice, because they are unable to live in the outside world and cope. Conclusion: The skeptical public has a tendency to not agree with rehabilitative means for incarceration. The common belief is that rehabilitation costs more than incarceration which is why the public is skeptical toward the idea of installing these programs. However, rehabilitative programs tend to be more cost efficient as it reduces the recidivism rates saving tax payers money and giving them a safer environment to live in. both financially and morally, providing treatment and education w successful and contributive citizens. However, punishment may also have an effect on inmates as it makes prisons an undesirable place; this is already inflicted through the loss of freedom and loss of real identity as well as the spatial limitations. Nevertheless, without treatment, prisons serve as breeding grounds for more criminals and future acts of crime.


66

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF SPACE ]

Image 2.2

The loss of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s freedom, loss of location, loss of power is enough punishment to the mind and rehabilitation can be soothing to the mind for long term solutions.


67

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF SPACE ]

After a while architectural works may lose much of their freshness vitality and impact. To realize different properties, otherwise we may get caught up in the limitations of the space and its properties- so I must locate myself in different places. Those unable to change locations, like prisoners, see only one side of a work. Motion and change is essential to our experience of time seem absent in these scenarios.120 How is Time and Architecture combined? Time has a great impact to our psyche. With time we experience a linked cycle of thoughts feelings or objects that is linked to change. Without change we would grasp only motionless presence. Temporal experience requires change. From one object to another our experience of time also includes linked elements. Past present and future and before and after seems connected. Being in a limbo of non-self-control between past and future we are in a temporary dislocation which distraught one naturally has a feeling of loss of identity. 121 Unable to determine change, those encountering architectural works sometimes experience frightening boredom: each experience seems dame, and slowly sinks into your mind. Thus, architecture can produce an oppressive sense of time. The monotonous sound becomes endless and taunting. It is the only thing we hear, we lose ourselves in it. As a result the person in this space feels a sense of meaninglessness. Meaningful and effective architecture helps one strive to a positive environment, however these are expensive and is time consuming: which is reason architecture is likely to only be used for its functional 122 matter.


68 Image 2.3

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF SPACE ]


69

[ PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF SPACE ]

Architecture shapes our thoughts and actions positively or negatively. We feel elevated or moved to action by its presence. Observing our responses we notice patterns reflecting our self-confidence. A building may also aid in self-reminiscence, however as much as it may ease the mind, there is a fine line on where it would harm the mind. For example, monasteries have a similar set up as prisons. They are communities that live in a secluded institution. The difference is the quality of spirituality given through the rehabilitation through the soul, and the infringement with the force of psychological decay in the two institutions.123 By observing the features of the architecture, we understand our vague sense that prisons express ideas or values. They are not just structures, but one needs to consider the people operating, and occupying these structures. Prison architects design their works to express their or their clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sense of purpose of imprisonment, this only satisfies part of the architecture.124 What about solitary confinement as a space? The only thing about living in solitary is being kept away to retract violence: hence prisoners are placed in singular cells. However, there is a tendency that the SHU units are located away from the main prison complex, or in the basement of the system cutting them off from the rest of the complex. In some cases, the ventilation of the space is low as the door is completely solid. This then makes the prisoner feel claustrophobic and be consumed in spaces. This were many of the above stated mental affects develop. Although solitary confinement should not be used more than 15 days, it is important to notice that the law allowing solitary confinement will not change in the near future. To come up with solutions of how solitary confinement could be more spiritually enhanced as well as become a inspirational place it is important to allow inmates access to daylight, and views. Ventilation and visual connection as well as sound are also very important to address. 125


70 Figure 2.2

[ RELEVANCE ]


71

[ RELEVANCE ]

Even if it is not you or a loved one who is experiencing the prison system, you still should care about what’s happening. Not everyone who is incarcerated is guilty. “Some unfortunate victims of the system have been wrongfully convicted. Others are 126 convicted for minor or non-violent crimes or have not even been convicted yet at all.” Some inmates are also simply too poor to make bail while they await trial. As a democratic, civilized society, our decisions are a reflection of how we treat the most despised and vulnerable. Many jail inmates eventually will rejoin the community. Wouldn’t it make you feel safer if ex inmates make better life choices as well as have a lower tendency to recommit crimes? 127 “What happens inside jails and prisons does not stay inside jails and prisons. It comes home with prisoners after they are released and with corrections officers at the end of each day’s shift. When people live and work in facilities that are unsafe, unhealthy, unproductive, or inhumane, they carry the effects home with them.” 128 The Stanford experiment showed that even the most psychological normal people can turn into a power struggle of their position and have sadistic tendency . The evil environment induces that guards tend to impose their power unjustly to inmates- however, also has many guards feel discomfort, distress, helplessness and guilt. The torture that is implemented on inmates can be categorized to”physical, emotional and spatial.”


72

[ RELEVANCE ]

Physical torture could be manifested from the self harm as well as prisoner to prisoner violence, unofficial violence, sexual assault and/ or guard to prisoner violence. Emotional torture can be seen from degrading inmates as well as discomfort inmates experience of time passing, which result in the feeling of meaninglessness. To add to, the feeling of dislocation, with barely any chance for outside contact- due to the location of the prisons can also accumulate to this emotion. Spatial torture is evaluated to be a number of composites. Partially the loss of change of locations makes architecture have a strong negative affect to the brain. Each detail and the environment becomes you. A negative, powerless space makes you feel psychologically inferior.


73

[ RELEVANCE ]

Overall, we all take the prison systems differently as we may come from different backgrounds and tend to relate to one party more than another. To the offender punishment symbolizes internal disorder by denouncing his act and administering hard treatment. To the victim, it reaffirms his value as a spiritual being, disavowing the victimizers perverse moral message through the incarceration of the offender. To the community, punishment signals that others should refrain from committing evil acts and the ones experience such deserve what they get. To come to a conclusion that helps both the inmate, the quality of life that surrounds us and the community, it is essential to try as much as one can to help prisoners find a moral message through incarceration: understanding their mistake and becoming an asset to the community rather than a drawback. In my project I will prove on how this can be achieved through spatial, physical and emotional rehabilitation.


74

Case Studies


Figure 3.3

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.1

[ CASE STUDIES ] 75


Figure 3.6

Figure 3.5

76

[ HALDEN PRISON ]


77

[ HALDEN PRISON ]

The Halden Prison in Halden, Norway is a well-discussed prison as it shows how much of a role architects can or should have. This Prison is mentioned many times in articles as one of the ‘most luxurious’ or ‘most humane’ prisons in the world. The Halden prison houses around 252 male inmates and was opened in 2010.129 One of the major reasons this prison is getting a lot of critical responses is because of the extremity of the facility. Prison cells include amenities such as a television, fridge, art, and nicer furniture than most prison cells. The prison also contains living rooms for every 10-12 cells and provides plenty of activities such as running, rock climbing, or other means to give the inmates a more communicative environment to spend their time. To avoid creating unnecessary intimidation between inmates, half of 130 Halden prison guards are female and do not carry guns. As this project is in Norway and its recidivism rates are much lower compared to the US (20% compared to 67%), this shows rehabilitation has a strong impact on lowering recidivism rates. Although the public has many conflicts with the idea of focusing on rehabilitating inmates and using positive reinforcement as a means to help them get back into society and function properly, this method shows that crime rates have lowered and the prison population as well as return rates. Even if this kind of architecture is more expensive than the prison systems in the US, understanding that the return rate is less than a third compared to the US proves that money well spent on rehabilitation will save taxpayers money.131 One of the most successful aspects of the institution is that it feels more like a holiday camp or a behavioral facility than a correctional institution. The prison is located in a forested area with a great amount of effort is put in the landscaping around the facility. One of the ways rehabilitation through nature would also be put in place is by using thick secure glass for windows rather than bars. “The key principle is one of humanity - treat people like animals and they will continue to behave as such, but give them the opportunity and surroundings to realize their inner humanity and build on it, and the people who are released may be more human than those who went in.” 132


Figure 3.9

Figure 3.8

Figure 3.7

78

[ HALDEN PRISON ]


79

[ HALDEN PRISON ]

Many people might look at the prison as luxurious, but one cannot ignore that inmates are still in lockdown here. They are not with their families or friends, and Halden prison as much as other facilities do not come without brutality. The perimeter walls are finely finished but nevertheless intimidating masses of concrete. Furthermore, the facility allows for a much better working environment than the average US prison. Guards and inmates are encouraged to interact kindly with each other, thus making the prison a more family-like environment where each element of the prison allows the inmates to improve their behavior and encourage them to be civil in the outside world. Lessons learned:

Rehabilitation has a great impact on inmates

This can be done through architectural means: taunting noise, comfortable humane and inviting spaces

Daylight and natural views are encouraged to help ease the mind

Landscaping allows for a therapeutic time during imprisonment

Guard and inmate relationships show there is no power struggle

The more you try to control or fear something, the more it is likely to retaliate

Trees visually block the view of the protective walls

Community spaces allow prisoners to easily adjust to the real world

However, excessive spending on certain items are not necessary


80 Figure 4.1

Figure 4.0

[ 499.SUMMIT-STUDENT PROJECT ]


81

[ 499.SUMMIT-STUDENT PROJECT ]

499. Summit looks at an alternative to traditional prisons in the USA. Students Andreas Tjeldflaat and Greg Knobloch from the University of Pennsylvania worked on the project in 2012. The project examines the issue of recidivism; two thirds of the 14,000 inmates released every year from New Jersey correctional facilities will return to prison within 5 years of their release. 499 Summit searches for a solution to help inmates transition back into society during their time of incarceration. The building design 133 is described as followed: “The massing consists of three towers in the shape of an arch. The inherent linear and formal qualities of the ‘arch’ allowed for the overall circulatory concept: Up, over, down. Each arch has three primary phases, Incarceration (up), Transformation (over), and Integration (down). The arches begin isolated during the incarceration phase and merge together both physically and programmatically during the integration phase. As the inmates graduate through the facility, they are being exposed to an increasing degree of social interaction, to make the transition back into society as soft as possible. To catalyst this process, public program and residential housing are introduced in the integration phase downwards.” 134 While analyzing the 499.Summit project, many aspects come into consideration. First, as much effort as there was put into the design, getting inmates readjusted to society does not only mean facilitating a space programmatically to allow the inmates to go through rehabilitation. The facility still leans toward the prison typology and punishment even though the word “prison” is avoided. Another goal of 499.Summit is phasing, with the building being structured vertically and divided into thirds. The three separate sectors are different rates of crime: high, medium, and low. Each tower has phases that lead to rehabilitative/readjusting sector. Each inmate needs to graduate the phases to work themselves upward. 499.Summit maintains a central social plan that encourages inmates and staff to interact. However in the plan it can be seen that there is a centralized surveillance security unit. Although it was mentioned that guards and inmates find a way to interact this way, this might not necessarily work. Closing off the guards in their own safe haven may make prisoners feel isolated from the guards, achieving another power struggle as mentioned previously. 135


Figure 4.5

Figure 4.4

Figure 4.3

Figure 4.2

82

[ 499.SUMMIT-STUDENT PROJECT ]


83

[ 499.SUMMIT-STUDENT PROJECT ]

499. Summit, when compared to the Halden Prison, shows some significant differences.The Halden prison acts as more as a social project aimed at reducing recidivism rates by never allowing prisoners to be treated extremely inhumanely. However, having the 499.Summit as an urban project caused a lot dispute about whether outdoor activities within the city should be allowed for inmates. It would be slightly difficult to change a skeptical public on prison locations. In today’s society people are more concerned about our own safety than having an institution like this be part of a city. The prisons in the US tend to be in secluded rural places, far away from the public’s eye. Challenging this view means exposing to the public something that was rather swept under the rug. Lessons learned:

Urban prisons have accessibilities to other amenities needed to rehabilitate inmates

The prison buildings built in urban environments need to be with the surrounding standards,

complying aesthetically with its surroundings

Transitioning inmates is the main goal, allowing recidivism rates to lower

Urban structure is large in scale and intimidating to the surrounding buildings

Seems to be very uninviting, dungeon-like to the viewer

To rehabilitate inmates it will take a more positively enforced approach


84 Figure 5.3

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.1

[ METROPOLITAN CORRECTIONAL CENTER ]


85

[ METROPOLITAN CORRECTIONAL CENTER ]

The Metropolitan Correctional Center, located in downtown Chicago, is part of a federal program of metropolitan correctional centers, also known as MCC, which would be a new type of detention facility for accused persons awaiting trial or inmates serving short sentences. The Metropolitan Correctional Center in Chicago was one of five selected institutions to be built as a means of offering humane prison conditions in 1972. Many troubles were faced once the building’s location was set in downtown’s corner of Clark and Van Buren St. One of the major requirements for prison design was to“enhance and protect the character of their urban surroundings.”136One of the architect Harry Weese’s objectives was the idea of the architect having a moral imperative to ease the social stereotypes towards the prison system and inmates. The 27-story prism shaped tower completed construction in 1975. Located at the corner of the two streets the prism shaped building erected from a triangular plan is viewed from the corner as an illusion of a two-dimensional plane without sides. The character and interest of the building 137 come from the contrast of its simple prism shape and the slit windows piercing its façade. The structure is built in such a way to ensure prison cells are on the perimeter of the skyscraper. The jail can hold up to 440 inmates, separated into self-contained sections of 44 people. Each section comprises of two floors with single-room cells. At the center of the plan is a common area, as well as a station from which a single guard can keep watch on the perimeter cells. This area is double the height of the regular cells. 138 The windows of the cells were initially designed without any bars; however, they are comparatively small windows to the Halden Prison in Norway. The reason for the smaller five-inch wide windows in the MCC is due to the restriction of the maximum width by the Bureau of Prisons. In 1985, interior bars were added to these windows after inmates on the top floor of the facility escaped by enlarging one of the openings and rappelling down the exterior on an extension cord. Staff offices on the lower floors, are distinguishable through the wider windows. All of the openings are separated, enlightening the view angle from 139 the interior as well as suggesting at the narrow loops found in medieval fortifications.” The brutalist approach of the design is shown by leaving the building holes from the form tie bolts unfilled and the refined imprints in the concrete surface created by the formwork untouched. The raw qualities of the brutalist approach, however, appears to be unfriendly to the person 140 transitioning in these spaces. The rough quality of the interior has prisoners feeling claustrophobic.


86 Figure 5.6

Figure 5.5

Figure 5.4

[ METROPOLITAN CORRECTIONAL CENTER ]


87

[ METROPOLITAN CORRECTIONAL CENTER ]

With the intent to integrate the MCC into downtown Chicago’s urban fabric while accommodating public acceptance, the MCC put little to no effort into rehabilitating prisoners transitioning in this space. The MCC houses both female and male inmates of all kinds. These include inmates with medical problems and those accused waiting for sentencing. Mainly the MCC is a transitional institution; when it does house several inmates for their entire sentence it 141 is due to their short sentence and they do not need to be relocated. Rather than being a rehabilitative institution the MCC is more of a storage unit for inmates during their transitional period. Guards tend to not be particularly friendly at these institutions with aggravation and bullying being ways the guards force their sense of power on inmates. MCC like 499.Summit is a vertical structure that has a centralized plan for guards to observe the inmates. Although the intent of 499.Summit is a socialized environment positively enforced from guards and inmates, it still brings up the hierarchy that has a negative impact in the MCC. Moreover, the skyscraper does not have many attempted escapes from inmates because of its contained environment and its close proximity to the general public, which means there are many security measures held to ensure safety. Lessons learned: •

MCC being a urban prison shows how the idea of 499.Summit could easily be corrupted

Brutalist structures tend to not have great impact on prisoners; the cold washed walls aided little to prisoners

transitioning in this place

MCC makes an attempt to integrate into the urban environment from the outside

But it does not take advantage of the amenities that could lead to rehabilitation or transition of short-term prisoners


88

[ SUMMARY ]

Design Objectives: •

Aesthetical pleasing incarceration system that can be integrated in an urban setting

Not neglecting the nature as a rehabilitative means

Entrance and exit are important for prisoners and visitors as well as workers, ensuring these

do not have a negative impact to either party

Finding a way to create an environment where power is not easily abused

Finding a way to be able to rehabilitate prisoners and reward them for their effort

One of the biggest psychological impact is the claustrophobic environment prisons create-

time consumes you

It is necessary to integrate natural ventilation as well as natural daylight to allow prisoners

have a sense of meaning and time

Solitary confinement needs to become a spiritual reflective space rather than a storage unit

Vistas, acoustics, materials as well as design decisions of spatial quality are vital

Group rehabilitation to reduce prisoner to prisoner violence


89

[ SUMMARY ]

Analyzing the social aspects as well as the psychological aspects of prison systems sheds light on how structures that try to force positive change, even in an urban setting, have a tendency to fail. Making sure there is a way to break the hierarchy of prisoners feeling degraded by the guardsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; presence remains as top priority. Ensuring a positive environment close to amenities necessary to allow prisoners to understand their reasons for imprisonment eventual societal reintegration is another goal. Punishment is already foisted on prisoners by stripping them of their freedoms and accessibility to their everyday environment. The part that needs a lot of focus is the rehabilitative aspect to prison as well as phasing them to become better citizens. All three of these projects reveal an understanding of how to take bits and pieces of their successes or pitfalls in the design process. Prison systems are a tricky project program; there are many things one needs to consider. The wellbeing of the public, the prisoners, and the guards, as well as security measures and ways to find rehabilitative means, are necessary for a successful proposal.


90

[ PROGRAM STUDY ]

As part of my program study I am looking at further analysing the Halden Prison in Norway. I chose to focus on this prison, because of the way it uses spaces to achieve rehabilitation. The Halden Prison does a great job to bring in a sense of community and getting rid of the hierarchy of guard vs inmate tension. With support from both parties inmates will have a higher chance to get back on their feet when they leave prison. Also the Halden Prison knowing the impact of time and architecture and how it is one of the main causes inmates tend to become claustrophobic or uncomfortable in their environment, does a great deal of locating different programmatic buildings separated so that the inmates have to go through the yard area daily.


91

[ PROGRAM STUDY ]


92

[ PROGRAM STUDY ]

1st Floor

2st Floor


93

[ PROGRAM STUDY ]


94

[ SITE ]

CALIFORNIA, USA

PRISONS IN CA

ALAMEDA, CA

California, USA is the location of the medium security prison focused on rehabilitation and success rates. California has had much media attention in the recent years about the overflooded prison and all of the hunger strikes that occured. I felt it was apropriate to start in California, because of the extremity of the situation. Most of the incarcerated population come from low income housing. This means long trips with overnight stay is not as common, as the families will not be able to afford it.

The above map presents the prison locations and its connections between the three main cosmopolitan centers- Los Angeles; San Diego and San Francisco. Most prisons are located in rural areas of the state. As mentioned, many of the inmatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; families may have difficulity visiting the rural areas. It is severly important the site be accessible.

The final site was chosen to be in Alameda, CA. Close to San Francisco and opposite of Oakland ( one of the most dangerous CA neighborhoods) Alameda provides a 100 acre abandoned Navy Runway.The location allows rehabilitative services and substance abuse support groups be attainable.


95

[ SITE ]

ALCATRAZ

DENSITY/ PUBLIC TRANSIT/ VIEWS DIAGRAM


96

[ SITE ]

SUN/ WIND/ SHADE DIAGRAM

SITE VIEWS/ EXISTING SITE`


97

[ CONCEPT]

TRANSITION

BREAKING THE WEB

INTERACTION

SUPPORT

PHASING

SECURITY


98

[ PROPOSAL ]

REALISTIC

CONVENTIONAL ENTERPRISING

INVESTIGATIVE ARTISTIC

SOCIAL

HOLLAND CODE


99

[ PROPOSAL]

Focusing on successful integration, it is important to understand the problem the US has within its social structure that enables high recidivism rates. The lack of availablity of higher education, leading to the lack of career opportunties for the low-income community hinders success rates for ex-inmates. Therefore, the Holland Code- a psychological theory of careers and vocational choice based upon personality types, will help create a system allowing inmates become successful contributers to society. “Research shows that personalities seek out and flourish in career environments they fit and that jobs and career environments are classifiable by the personalities that flourish in them.” 142

Allowing inmates to seek out opportunities, or learn within a field they may excell in that have been unattainable could change the social structure. These new opportunities may intact hope for a brighter future and is a proposal for a positive educated future. Using the Holland Code to make a network of communities will help prisoners be most successful in their career paths on the outside and help them successfully reintegrate to society.


100

[ END NOTES ]

1. “Over 3,000 US prisoners serving life without parole for non-violent crimes” last modified 11/13/13 http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/13/ us-prisoners-sentences-life-non-violent-crimes 2. “Over 3,000 US prisoners serving life without parole for non-violent crimes” last modified 11/13/13 http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/13/ us-prisoners-sentences-life-non-violent-crimes 3. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. 4. “Recidivism of Adult Felons.” Sentencing Guidelines Commission 1 (2008): 4. 5. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. 6. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. 7. “delirium” http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/delirium?&o=100074&s=t 8. Goode, Erica. “U.S. Prison Populations Decline, Reflecting New Approach to Crime.”last modified 7/25/2013http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/26/us/us-pris on-populations-decline-reflecting-new-approach-to-crime.html 9. Evans, Terry , and Anna Tinsley. “McClatchy DC.” Texas has nation’s largest prison population. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2012/08/14/162208/tex as-has-nations-largest-prison.html (accessed December 13, 2013). 10. “P.a.p.-Blog // Human Rights Etc..” PapBlog Human Rights Etc. http://filipspagnoli.wordpress.com/stats-on-human-rights/statistics-on-freedom/statistics-on-pris oner-population-rates/ (accessed November 10, 2013). 11. “Throwing away the key.” The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21589868-shocking-number-non-violent-americans-will-die-prison- throwing-away-key (accessed November 25, 2013). 12. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. 13. Benson, Etienne . “Rehabilitate or Punish?.” American Psychology Association 34, no. 7 (2003): 46. 14. Sullivan, Laura. “Timeline: Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5579901 (accessed November 11, 2013). 15. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. 16. dictionary.com 17. Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. 18. Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. 19. Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. 20. Wilhelm, Daniel F., and Nicholas R. Turner. “Is The Budget Crisis Changing The Way We Look At Sentencing And Incarceration?.” Federal Sentencing Reporter 15,no. 1 (2002): 41-49. 21. “Prison and Jail Abuse in California California Civil Rights Lawyers.” Shouse California Law Group . http://www.shouselaw.com/jail-abuse.html (accessed No vember 12, 2013). 22. John, Paige. “Federal judges order California to free 9,600 inmates.” Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jun/20/local/la-me-ff-brown-pris ons-20130621 (accessed December 13, 2013). 23. Marsh, David. “Court Orders Release of 9,600 Inmates from California Prisons.” Valley Voice. http://www.ourvalleyvoice.com/2013/08/01/court-orders-re lease-of-9600-inmates-from-california-prisons/ (accessed November 13, 2013).


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[ END NOTES ]

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33.

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[ END NOTES ]

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[ END NOTES ]

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striking-prisoners-in-california-share-their-stories (accessed November 11, 2013). “Torture: The use of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” CCR 1 (2013): 2. “Torture: The use of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” CCR 1 (2013): 2. Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. Frintner, Carly. “Lonely Madness: The Effects of Solitary Confinement and Social Isolation on Mental and Emotional Health.” Serendip Studio. http://ser endip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1898 (accessed December 12, 2013). Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Rice, Heather. “Solitary Confinement Is Torture -- And Morally Wrong.” International Business Times. http://www.ibtimes.com/solitary-confinement-tor ture-morally-wrong-705765 (accessed November 13, 2013). Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. “Torture: The use of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” CCR 1 (2013): 2. “Torture: The use of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” CCR 1 (2013): 2. “State Reforms To Limit The use of Solitary Confinement.” American Civil Liberty Union. https://www.aclu.org/files/assets/stop_solitary_-_recent_state_ reforms_to_limit_the_use_of_solitary_confinement.pdf (accessed November 1, 2013). Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Gaussian, Stuart . “psychiatric effects of solitary confinement.” Journal of Law and Policy 22, no. 335 (2006): 325-383. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. “Torture: The use of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” CCR 1 (2013): 2. John, Paige. “Inmates end California prison hunger strike.” Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2013/sep/05/local/la-me-ff-prison- strike-20130906 (accessed December 13, 2013). Medina, Jennifer. “Hunger Strike by California Inmates, Already Large, Is Expected to Be Long.” The New York Times. http://www.nytime. com/2013/07/11/us/hunger-strike-by-california-inmates-already-large-is-expected-to-be-a-long-one.html (accessed November 6, 2013). http://article.wn.com/view/2013/09/06/Inmates_end_California_prison_hunger_strike/#/related_news Medina, Jennifer. “Hunger Strike by California Inmates, Already Large, Is Expected to Be Long.” The New York Times. http://www.nytimes. com/2013/07/11/us/hunger-strike-by-california-inmates-already-large-is-expected-to-be-a-long-one.html (accessed November 6, 2013). Medina, Jennifer. “Hunger Strike by California Inmates, Already Large, Is Expected to Be Long.” The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.


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com/2013/07/11/us/hunger-strike-by-california-inmates-already-large-is-expected-to-be-a-long-one.html (accessed November 6, 2013). “Torture: The use of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” CCR 1 (2013): 2. “Torture: The use of Solitary Confinement in U.S. Prisons.” CCR 1 (2013): 2. “The Edge of Endurance: Prison Conditions in California’s Security Housing Units.” Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/ the-edge-of-endurance-prison-conditions-in-california-s-security-housing-units?page=2 (accessed November 13, 2013). “The Edge of Endurance: Prison Conditions in California’s Security Housing Units.” Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/ the-edge-of-endurance-prison-conditions-in-california-s-security-housing-units?page=2 (accessed November 13, 2013). “The Edge of Endurance: Prison Conditions in California’s Security Housing Units.” Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/ the-edge-of-endurance-prison-conditions-in-california-s-security-housing-units?page=2 (accessed November 13, 2013). “The Edge of Endurance: Prison Conditions in California’s Security Housing Units.” Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/ the-edge-of-endurance-prison-conditions-in-california-s-security-housing-units?page=2 (accessed November 13, 2013). Stainer, Michael. “Action Alert: Protest disciplinary actions against prison hunger strikers.” Prisoner Hunger Strike Solidarity. http://prisonerhungerstrikesolidarity. wordpress.com/category/action-alert/ (accessed November 4, 2013). Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. “Lack of Rehabilitation.” Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility. http://www.adpsr.org/home/lack_of_rehabilitation (accessed November 13, 2013). “The Advantages of Prison Rehabilitation [Archive] - Prison Talk.” The Advantages of Prison Rehabilitation [Archive] - Prison Talk. http://www.prisontalk.com/fo rums/archive/index.php/t-239128.html (accessed December 13, 2013). Clear, Todd. “Backfire: When Incarceration Increases Crime.” Florida State University 1 (2005): 14. Clear, Todd. “Backfire: When Incarceration Increases Crime.” Florida State University 1 (2005): 14. Clear, Todd. “Backfire: When Incarceration Increases Crime.” Florida State University 1 (2005): 14. “Lack of Rehabilitation.” Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility. http://www.adpsr.org/home/lack_of_rehabilitation (accessed November 13, 2013). Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. “The Advantages of Prison Rehabilitation [Archive] - Prison Talk.” The Advantages of Prison Rehabilitation [Archive] - Prison Talk. http://www.prisontalk.com/fo rums/archive/index.php/t-239128.html (accessed December 13, 2013). Benson, Etienne . “Rehabilitate or Punish?.” American Psychology Association 34, no. 7 (2003): 46. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27. Derek S Jefferys, Spirituality in Dark Places ( New York: Palgrave Macmilan, 2013), 27.


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4 Walls: The Psychology Effects of the Prison Archetype

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