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L_fZ ,We_dljheblbq_kdZy ^bkkhpbZpby .......... 5

JZ[hlZ We_dljheblbq_kdZy ^bkkhpbZpby \_s_kl\ bj_Zdpbb bhggh]h h[f_gZ .................. 5 JZ[hlZ J_Zdpbb bhggh]hh[f_gZ b ]b^jheba khe_c ................ 6 JZ[hlZ Obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z dbkehlkhe_c bhkgh\Zgbc \k\_l_ l_hjbb we_dljheblbq_kdhc ^bkkhpbZpbb ..................... 8 JZ[hlZ JZkq_lu ih mjZ\g_gbyf j_Zdpbc_keb h^ghba j_Z]bjmxsbo \_s_kl\ ^Zgh\ ba[uld_ ......... 10 JZ[hlZ Blh]h\Zy ihl_f_ , ... 15

L_fZ ,, Ih^]jmiiZ dbkehjh^Z Hkgh\gu_ aZdhghf_jghklb l_q_gbyobfbq_kdbo j_Zdpbc ..... 19

JZ[hlZ Dbkehjh^K_jZK_jgZy dbkehlZ ........................ 19 JZ[hlZ Kdhjhklv obfbq_kdbo j_ZdpbcObfbq_kdh_ jZ\gh\_kb_ 21 JZ[hlZ Blh]h\Zy ihl_f_ ,, .. 22

L_fZ ,,,Ih^]jmiiZ ZahlZ ..................... 25

JZ[hlZ :ahl:ffbZdKheb Zffhgby ........................ 25 JZ[hlZ :ahlgZy dbkehlZb __ kheb ........................... 27 JZ[hlZ Nhknhj b_]h kh_^bg_gby ............................... 28 2


JZ[hlZ JZkq_lu ihhij_^_e_gbx fZkkh\hc bebh[t_fghc ^heb\uoh^Z ijh^mdlZ j_Zdpbbhl l_hj_lbq_kdb \hafh`gh]h b h[jZlgu_aZ^Zqb . 30 JZ[hlZ Blh]h\Zy ihl_f_ ,,, . 33

L_fZ ,9Ih^]jmiiZ m]e_jh^Z .................. 37

JZ[hlZ M]e_jh^Hdkb^u m]e_jh^Z ....................... 37 JZ[hlZ M]hevgZy dbkehlZb __ kheb ........................... 39 JZ[hlZ Dj_fgbc b_]h kh_^bg_gby ..................... 40 JZ[hlZ <uqbke_gb_ fZkkubeb h[t_fZ ijh^mdlZj_Zdpbb ih ba\_klghc fZkk_beb ihh[t_fm bkoh^gh]h \_s_kl\Zkh^_j`Zs_]h ijbf_kb ........................ 42 JZ[hlZ Blh]h\Zy ihl_f_ ,9 .. 46

L_fZ 9H[sb_ k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\ ............... 50

JZ[hlZ Kihkh[u ihemq_gby f_lZeeh\ ....................... 50 JZ[hlZ Obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z f_lZeeh\ ....................... 51 JZ[hlZ We_dljhebaDhjjhaby f_lZeeh\ ....................... 52 JZ[hlZ S_ehqgu_ bs_ehqgh a_f_evgu_ f_lZeeu .............. 54 JZ[hlZ :exfbgbc b_]h kh_^bg_gby ..................... 56 JZ[hlZ Blh]h\Zy ihl_f_ 9 ... 58

L_fZ 9,@_e_ahF_lZeemj]by .................. 62

3


JZ[hlZ @_e_ah b_]h kh_^bg_gby ............................... 62 JZ[hlZ Kihkh[u ijhfure_ggh]h ihemq_gby f_lZeeh\ ............. 64

AZ^Zqb k ijhba\h^kl\_gguf b f_`ij_^f_lguf kh^_j`Zgb_f ................................... 67

G_f_lZeeu ...................... 67 F_lZeeu ........................ 69

4


c deZkk

L_fZ IWe_dljheblbq_kdZy^bkkhpbZpby JZ[hlZ We_dljheblbq_kdZy^bkkhpbZpby\_s_kl\ b j_Zdpbb bhggh]hh[f_gZ

<ZjbZgl  Z FeCl3 → Fe3++3Cl[ K2SO4 → 2K++SO  −

\ Ba(NO3)2 → Ba2++2NO −

] H3PO4 → 3H++PO − ^ NaOH → Na++OHZ H2SO4+BaCl2 → BaSO4 ↓ +2HCl

Ba2++SO  − → BaSO4 ↓ [ 3KOH+H3PO4 → K3PO4+3H2O OH-+H+ → H2O \ Na2CO3+Pb(NO3)2 → 2NaNO3+PbCO3 ↓ Pb2++CO  − → PbCO3 ↓

<ZjbZgl  Z Ca(OH)2 → Ca2++2OH[ CuCl2 → Cu2++2Cl\ H2SO4 → 2H++SO  −

] Fe2(SO4)3 → 2Fe3++3SO  − ^ KNO3 → K++NO −

Z HCl+AgNO3 → AgCl ↓ +HNO3 Cl-+Ag+ → AgCl ↓ [ BaCl2+CuSO4 → BaSO4 ↓ +CuCl2

Ba2++SO  − → BaSO4 ↓ \ Ca(OH)2+2HNO3 → Ca(NO3)2+2H2O OH-+H+ → H2O <ZjbZgl  1. Z AlCl3 → Al3++3Cl-

5


[ K3PO4 → 3K++PO − \ HNO3 → H++NO −

] Na2SO4 → 2Na++SO  − ^ MgCl2 → Mg++2ClZ Na2CO3+CaCl2 → 2NaCl+CaCO3 ↓

CO  − +Ca2+ → CaCO3 ↓ [ Ba(OH)2+2HCl → BaCl2+2H2O OH-+H+ → H2O \ H2SO4+Ba(NO3)2 → BaSO4 ↓ +2HNO3 SO  − +Ba2+ → BaSO4 ↓

<ZjbZgl4 1. Z Cu(NO3)2 → Cu2++2NO − [ HCl → H++Cl\ Al2(SO4)3 → 2Al3++3SO  − ] Ba(OH)2 → Ba2++2OH-

^ ZnSO4 → Zn2++SO  − Z LiOH+HNO3 → LiNO3+H2O OH-+H+ → H2O [ Cu(NO3)2+2NaOH → Cu(OH)2 ↓ +2NaNO3 Cu2++2OH- → Cu(OH)2 ↓ \ 3K2CO3+2H3PO4 → 2K3PO4+3CO2 ↑ +3H2O CO  − +2H+ → CO2+H2O

JZ[hlZ J_Zdpbb bhggh]hh[f_gZb ]b^jhebakhe_c

<ZjbZgl Z 3AgNO3+K3PO4 → Ag3PO4 ↓ +3KNO3 3Ag++PO − → Ag3PO4 ↓

[ CuSO4+2NaOH → Cu(OH)2 ↓ +Na2SO4 Cu2++2OH- → Cu(OH)2 ↓ ] BaCl2+K2SO4 → BaSO4 ↓ +2KCl Ba2++SO  − → BaSO4 ↓

2. Na2CO3+H2O → ← NaOH+NaHCO3 6


− CO  − +H2O → ← OH +HCO 

NaHCO3+H2O → ← NaOH+H2CO3 HCO − +H2O → ← OH +H2CO3

Cu(NO3)2+H2O → ← Cu(OH)NO3+HNO3 + + Cu2++H2O → ← CuOH +H

Cu(OH)NO3+H2O → ← Cu(OH)2+HNO3 + &XHG++H2O → ← Cu(OH)2+H

<ZjbZgl Z Na2CO3+2HNO3 → 2NaNO3+H2O+CO2 CO  − +2H+ → CO2+H2O \ 2HCl+Ba(OH)2 → BaCl2+2H2O H++OH- → H2O ] 3NaOH+H3PO4 → Na3PO4+3H2O OH-+H+ → H2O 2. Na2S+H2O → ← NaOH+NaHS S2-+H2O → ← OH +HS

NaHS+H2O → ← NaOH+H2S HS-+H2O → ← OH +H2S

FeCl3+H2O → ← Fe(OH)Cl2+HCl 2+ + Fe3++H2O → ← FeOH +H

Fe(OH)Cl2+H2O → ← Fe(OH)2Cl+HCl + + FeOH2++H2O → ← Fe(OH)  +H

Fe(OH)2Cl+H2O → ← Fe(OH)3+HCl + Fe(OH) + +H2O → ← Fe(OH)3+H

<ZjbZgl Z FeCl3+3NaOH → 3NaCl+Fe(OH)3 ↓ Fe3++3OH- → Fe(OH)3 ↓ \ Ba(NO3)2+Na2CO3 → BaCO3 ↓ +2NaNO3 Ba2++CO  − → BaCO3 ↓

] Al2(SO4)2+2K3PO4 → 2AlPO4 ↓ +3K2SO4 7


Al3++PO − → AlPO4 ↓ 2. Zn(NO3)2+H2O → ← Zn(OH)NO3+HNO3 + + Zn2++H2O → ← ZnOH +H

Zn(OH)NO3+H2O → ← Zn(OH)2+HNO3 + ZnOH++H2O → ← Zn(OH)2+H

K2CO3+H2O → ← KOH+KHCO3 − CO  − +H2O → ← OH +HCO 

KHCO3+H2O → ← KOH+H2CO3 HCO − +H2O → ← OH +H2CO3

<ZjbZgl  Z K2CO3+2HCl → 2KCl+CO2+H2O

CO  − +2H+ → H2O+CO2 [ Ca(OH)2+2HNO3 → Ca(NO3)2+2H2O OH-+H+ → H2O \ 2NaOH+H2SO4 → Na2SO4+2H2O OH-+H+ → H2O 2. AlCl3+H2O → ← Al(OH)Cl2+HCl 2+ + Al3++H2O → ← AlOH +H

Al(OH)Cl2+H2O → ← Al(OH)2Cl+HCl + + AlOH2++H2O → ← Al(OH)  +H

Al(OH)2Cl+H2O → ← Al(OH)3+HCl + Al(OH) + +H2O → ← Al(OH)3+H

JZ[hlZ Obfbq_kdb_k\hckl\Zdbkehlkhe_cb hkgh\Zgbc \ k\_l_l_hjbbwe_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbb

<ZjbZgl 1. Ba(OH)2+Na2SO4 → BaSO4 ↓ +2NaOH Ba2++SO  − → BaSO4 ↓

Ba(OH)2+CuCl2 → Cu(OH)2 ↓ +BaCl2 2OH-+Cu2+ → Cu(OH)2 ↓ Ba(OH)2+2HNO3 → Ba(NO3)2+2H2O 8


OH-+H+ → H2O Ba(OH)2+CO2 → BaCO3 ↓ +H2O 2. Z )H&O )H62 [

)H 12 

Z FeSO4+BaCl2 → FeCl2+BaSO4 ↓ SO  − +Ba2+ → BaSO4 ↓

[ FeSO4+Ba(NO3)2 → Fe(NO3)2+BaSO4 ↓ Ba2++SO  − → BaSO4 ↓

<ZjbZgl 1. H2SO4+2NaOH → Na2SO4+2H2O H++OH- → H2O H2SO4+Zn → ZnSO4+H2 ↑ 2H++Zn → Zn2++H2 H2SO4+BaCl2 → BaSO4 ↓ +HCl SO 24 − +Ba2+ → BaSO4 ↓ H2SO4+CuO → CuSO4+H2O 2H++CuO → Cu2++H2O Na2SO4+Ba(OH)2 → BaSO4 ↓ +2NaOH SO  − +Ba2+ → BaSO4 ↓ NaOH+HCl → NaCl+H2O OH-+H+ → H2O <ZjbZgl 1. CuCl2+2AgNO3 → 2AgCl ↓ +Cu(NO3)2 Cl-+Ag+ → AgCl ↓ CuCl2+Fe → FeCl2+Cu Cu2++Fe → Fe2++Cu CuCl2+2KOH → Cu(OH)2 ↓ +2KCl Cu2++2OH- → Cu(OH)2 ↓ Z H2SO4+Ba(NO3)2 → BaSO4 ↓ +2HNO3 [ KCl+AgNO3 → AgCl ↓ +KNO3 Cl-+Ag+ → AgCl ↓ <ZjbZgl 1. 2HCl+Ca(OH)2 → CaCl2+2H2O 9


H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O 6HCl+2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3+3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; 6H++2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al3++3H2 2HCl+Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl+H2O+CO2 2H++CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O+CO2 2HCl+MgO â&#x2020;&#x2019; MgCl2+H2O 2H++MgO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2++H2O 2. MgO+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; MgSO4+H2O MgO+2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2++H2O Mg(OH)2+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; MgSO4+2H2O Mg(OH)2+2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2++2H2O

JZ[hlZ JZkq_luihmjZ\g_gbyfj_Zdpbc_kebh^gh baj_Z]bjmxsbo\_s_kl\^Zgh\ ba[uld_

260 ]

]

1. Ba(NO3 ) 2 + K 2SO 4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2KNO3 n(Ba(NO3)2)= n(K2SO4)=

m(Ba(NO3 )2 ) 260 =0,996 fhev = M(Ba(NO3 )2 ) 261

m(K 2SO 4 ) 220 =1fhev = M(K 2SO4 ) 174

LdK2SO4 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihBa(NO3)2 260 ]

o]

Ba(NO3 ) 2 +K2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO 4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2KNO3 233 ]

261 ]

o  =  

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 232,11 ] o= 

Hl\_lm(BaSO4)=] 42,6 ]

16 ]

2. Al(NO3 )3 + 3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3NaNO3 n(Al(NO3)3)= n(NaOH)=

m(Al(NO3 )3 ) 42,6 =0fhev = M(Al(NO3 )3 ) 213

m(NaOH) 16 =0,4 fhev = M(NaOH) 40

LdNaOH gZoh^blky\ g_^hklZld_ k mq_lhfdhwnnbpb_glZ , ih g_fm\_^_fjZkq_l

10


16 ]

o]

Al(NO3)3+ 3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3NaNO3 3â&#x2039;&#x2026;40 ]

78 ]

16 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = =10,4 ]Hl\_lm(Al(OH)3)=10,4 ] o=  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 40 78 3. Na2CO3+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3+H2O+CO2 m(HNO3)= Ï&#x2030; (HNO3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 400=80 ] n(HNO3)=

m(HNO3 ) 80 = =1,27 fhev M(HNO3 ) 63

n(Na2CO3)=

m(Na 2CO3 ) 53 = =0,5 fhev M(Na 2CO3 ) 106

LdHNO3 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l \_^_fihNa2CO3 oe

53

Na 2 CO3 +2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3+H2O+ CO 2

53 16 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 78 o = o= e 106 22, 4 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 40 Hl\_lV(CO2)=11,2 e 106

22,4 e

94,5 ]

20 ]

4. MgO + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3)2+H2O n(MgO)=

m(MgO) 20 =0,5 fhev = M(MgO) 40

n(HNO3)=

m(HNO3 ) 94,5 =1,5 fhev = M(HNO3 ) 63

LdHNO3 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l \_^_fihMgO 20 ]

o]

40 ]

148 ]

MgO +2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3 )2 +H2O

53 20 â&#x2039;&#x2026;148 o =74 ] o= = 106 22, 4 40 Hl\_lm(Mg(NO3)2)=] 40 ]

]

5. CuSO 4 + Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4+Cu n(CuSO4)= n(Fe)=

m(CuSO 4 ) 40 =0,25 fhev = M(CuSO4 ) 160

m(Fe) 12 =0,21fhev = M(Fe) 56

LdCuSO4 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhihke_hdhgqZgbyj_Zdpbbhg hklZg_lky\ jZkl\hj_ 11


Hl\_lhklZg_lky 6. BaCl2+Na2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl+BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; m(BaCl2)= Ï&#x2030; (BaCl2) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,05 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 15=0,75 ] n(BaCl2)=

m(BaCl2 ) 0,75 =0,0036 fhev = M(BaCl2 ) 208

m(Na2SO4)= Ï&#x2030; (Na2SO4) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,08 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 10=0,8 ] n(Na2SO4)=

m(Na 2SO 4 ) 0,8 =0,0056 fhev = M(Na 2SO4 ) 142

LdNa2SO4 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fihBaCl2. 0,75 ]

o]

208 ]

233 ]

BaCl 2 +Na2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl+ BaSO 4 â&#x2020;&#x201C;

0, 75 0, 75 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 233 o =0,84 ] o= = 208 233 208 Hl\_lm(BaSO4)=0,84 ] 7. Fe2(SO4)3+6NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe(OH)3+3Na2SO4 m(Fe2(SO4)3)= Ï&#x2030; (Fe2(SO4)3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,05 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 400=20 ] n(Fe2(SO4)3)=

m(Fe 2 (SO 4 )3 ) 20 =0,05 fhev = M(Fe 2 (SO 4 )3 ) 400

m(NaOH)= Ï&#x2030; (NaOH) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,03 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 200=6 ] n(NaOH)=

m(NaOH) 6 =0,15 fhev = M(NaOH) 40

LdFe2(SO4)3 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihNaOH. 6]

o]

Fe2(SO4)3+ 6NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3Na2SO4 6â&#x2039;&#x2026;40 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;107 ]

6 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026; =5,35 ] o= =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  6 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 40 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026;107 Hl\_lm(Fe(OH)3)=5,35 ] 16 ]

]

8. CuSO 4 + Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4+Cu n(CuSO4)= n(Fe)=

m(CuSO 4 ) 16 =0,1 fhev = M(CuSO4 ) 160

m(Fe) 12 =0,21fhev = M(Fe) 56

LdFe gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihCuSO4

12


16 ]

o]

CuSO 4 +Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4+ Cu

64 ]

160 ]

16 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =6,4 ] o= =  160 64 Hl\_lm(Cu)=6,4 ] 9. 2NaOH+CuSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(OH)2+Na2SO4 m(NaOH)=0,2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 200=40 ] n(NaOH)=

m(NaOH) 40 =1 fhev = M(NaOH) 40

n(CuSO4)=fhev LdCuSO4 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihNaOH. 40 ]

o]

2NaOH +CuSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4+ Cu(OH) 2 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;40 ]

98 ]

16 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =49 ] o= =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  160 64 Hl\_lm(Cu(OH)2)=49 ] 10. 2HCl+Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl+H2O+CO2 m(HCl)= Ï&#x2030; (HCl) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 150=45 ] n(HCl)=

m(HCl) 45 =1,23 fhev = M(HCl) 36,5

n(Na2CO3)=fhev LdHCl gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fihNa2CO3 0,5 fhev

0,5 fhev

2HCl+ Na 2 CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl+H2O+ CO 2 n(Na2CO3)=n(CO2)=fhev V(CO2)=n(CO2) â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vm=0,5 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e Hl\_lV(CO2)=e 11. H2SO4+Ba(NO3) â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4+2HNO3 m(H2SO4)= Ï&#x2030; (H2SO4) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,1 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 40=4 ] n(H2SO4)=

m(HSO 4 ) 4 =0,041 fhev = M(HSO4 ) 98

n(Ba(NO3)2)=

m(Ba(NO3 )2 ) 2,61 =0,01 fhev = M(Ba(NO3 )2 ) 261

LdH2SO4 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihBa(NO3)2.

13


o]

2,61

H2SO4+ Ba(NO3 ) 2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO 4 +2HNO3 233 ]

2, 61 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =2,33 ] o= =  261 233 Hl\_lm(BaSO4)=2,33 ] 261

10 ]

]

12. MgO + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3)2+H2O n(MgO)=

m(MgO) 10 =0,25 fhev = M(MgO) 40

n(HNO3)=

m(HNO3 ) 40 =0,635 fhev = M(HNO3 ) 63

LdHNO3 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l \_^_fihMgO 10 ]

o]

40 ]

148 ]

MgO +2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3 )2 +H2O

53 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026; =37 ] o= =  106 22, 4 Hl\_lm(Mg(NO3)2)=3] 13. H2SO4+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4+2HCl m(H2SO4)= Ï&#x2030; (H2SO4) â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ=0,07 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 200=14 ] n(H2SO4)=

m(HSO 4 ) 14 =0,143 fhev = M(HSO4 ) 98

n(BaCl2)=2 fhev LdBaCl2 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihH2SO4. 14 ]

o]

98 ]

233 ]

BaCl2+ H 2SO 4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO 4 +2HCl

2, 61 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =33,29 ] o= =  261 233 Hl\_lm(BaSO4)=33,29 ] 16,2 ]

30 ]

14. ZnO + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn(NO3)2+H2O n(ZnO)=

m(ZnO) 16,2 =0,2 fhev = M(ZnO) 81

n(HNO3)=

m(HNO3 ) 30 =0,48 fhev = M(HNO3 ) 63

LdHNO3 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l \_^_fihZnO

14


16,2 ]

o]

ZnO +2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn(NO3 )2 +H2O 81 ]

189 ]

53 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =37,8 ] o= =  106 22, 4 Hl\_lm(Zn(NO3)2)=37,8 ]

JZ[hlZ Blh]h\Zyihl_f_I

<ZjbZgl Z KCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; K++Cl[ H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2H++SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; \ Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca2++2OH] Cu(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2++2NO â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

^ Al2(SO4)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al3++2SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

Z NaCl+AgNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgCl â&#x2020;&#x201C; +NaNO3 Cl-+Ag+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgCl â&#x2020;&#x201C; [ 2HNO3+Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2+2H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O \ +&O.2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2KCl+H2O+CO2 2H++CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O+CO2 3. 2HCl+Zn â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnCl2+H2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2H++Zn â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn2++H2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2HCl+CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2+H2O 2H++CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca2++H2O 2HCl+Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CuCl2+2H2O 2H++ Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2++2H2O 32 ]

]

4. CuSO 4 + Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4+Cu n(CuSO4)= n(Fe)=

m(CuSO 4 ) 32 =0,2 fhev = M(CuSO4 ) 160

m(Fe) 21 =0,375 fhev = M(Fe) 56

LdFe gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihCuSO4 32 ]

o]

CuSO 4 +Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4+ Cu 160 ]

64 ]

15


32 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =12,8 ] o= =  160 64 Hl\_lm(Cu)=12,8 ] <ZjbZgl Z NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na++OH[ HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H++NO â&#x2C6;&#x2019; \ MgCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2++2Cl] K2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2K++CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; ^ Fe(NO3)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe3++3NO â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

Z 2KOH+Cu(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2KNO3 2OH-+Cu2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(OH)2 [ 2HCl+Ba(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaCl2+2H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O \ Na2SO4+Ba(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4+2NaNO3 SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +Ba2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 3. Ca(OH)2+CuSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSO4+Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; 2OH-+Cu2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; 3Ca(OH)2+2K3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3(PO4)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +6KOH 3Ca2++2PO â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3(PO4)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; Ca(OH)2+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3+H2O 5]

]

4. MgO + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3)2+H2O n(MgO)=

m(MgO) 5 = =0,125 fhev M(MgO) 40

n(HNO3)=

m(HNO3 ) 40 = =0,635 fhev M(HNO3 ) 63

LdHNO3 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fihMgO 5]

o]

40 ]

148 ]

MgO +2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3 )2 +H2O

5 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026; =18,5 ] o= =  40 148 Hl\_lm(Mg(NO3)2)=18,5 ] <ZjbZgl Z H3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3H++PO â&#x2C6;&#x2019; [ Ba(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ba2++2OH-

16


\ FeSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe2++SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; ] AlCl3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al3++3Cl^ Cu(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2++2NO â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

Z FeCl3+3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3NaCl Fe3++3OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; [ H2SO4+2LiOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Li2SO4+2H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O \ 2HNO3+Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3+H2O+CO2 2H++CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O+CO2

3. 3H2SO4+2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3+3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; 6H++2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al3++3H2 H2SO4+2KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2SO4+2H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O H2SO4+Ba(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2HNO3 SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +Ba2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; 20 ]

]

4. NaOH + HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaCl+H2O n(NaOH)= n(HCl)=

m(NaOH) 20 =0,5 fhev = M(NaOH) 40

m(HCl) 33 =0,9 fhev = M(HCl) 36,5

LdHCl gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fihNaOH 20 ]

o]

NaOH +HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaCl +H2O 40 ]

58,5 ]

5 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =29,25 ] o= =  40 148 Hl\_lm(NaCl)=29,5 ] <ZjbZgl Z CaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca2++2Cl[ KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; K++OH\ HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; H++Cl] Fe2(SO4)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe3++3SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; ^ Na3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3Na++PO â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

Z CuSO4+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CuCl2+BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +Ba2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; 17


[ 2HBr+Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaBr2+2H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O \ 3ZnSO4+2K3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn3(PO4)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3K2SO4 3Zn2++2PO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn3(PO4)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; 3. CuSO4+2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +Na2SO4 Cu2++2OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; 3CuSO4+2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3+3Cu 3Cu2++2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al3++3Cu 3CuSO4+2Na3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu3(PO4)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3Na2SO4 3Cu2++2PO â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu3(PO4)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; ] ] 4. Zn+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnSO4+H2 n(Zn)=

m(Zn) 6,5 =0,1 fhev = M(Zn) 65

n(H2SO4)=

m(H 2SO 4 ) 20 =0,204 fhev = M(H 2SO4 ) 98

LdH2SO4 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fihZn. 6,5 ]

o]

Zn +H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnSO4+ H 2

65 ]

5 o = 40 148 Hl\_lm(H2)=0,2 ]

2]

o=

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  =0,2 ] 

18


L_fZ ,,Ih^]jmiiZdbkehjh^ZHkgh\gu_ aZdhghf_jghklbl_q_gbyobfbq_kdboj_Zdpbc JZ[hlZDbkehjh^K_jZK_jgZydbkehlZ

<ZjbZgl Z 622 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO2 [ 60+Li0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Li +  S-2 S0+2e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; S-2 1 Li0-1e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; Li+1 2 2Li+S â&#x2020;&#x2019; Li2+S \ +2SO4+Mg â&#x2020;&#x2019; MgSO4+H2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; ] +2SO4+CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSO4+H2O ^ +2SO4+Ba(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2H2O 2H++SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +Ba2++2OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2H2O :: O : 2. : O O=O O :O:O:O: O O IjbagZdbkjZ\g_gby :]j_]Zlgh_ khklhygb_ gm

2. AZiZo 3. JZkl\hjbfhklv 4. Iehlghklv gm

5. Hdbkebl_evgu_ kihkh[ghklb 6. Mklhcqb\hklv fhe_dmeu 1.

]Za

O2

[_aaZiZoZ fZehjZkl\hjbf ]e hdbkebl_ev kj_^g_ckbeu mklhcqb\Zy

]Za

O3

aZiZok\_`_klb ohjhrhjZkl\hjbf ]e kbevguchdbkebl_ev g_mklhcqb\Zy

:eehljhiby ±kihkh[ghklvh^gh]hwe_f_glZh[jZah\u\Zlvg_kdhevdh ijhkluo\_s_kl\ Ijbeb\\ h[_ijh[bjdbkbebdZlgZljbygZ[ex^Z_f\ h^ghcba gbo\uiZ^_gb_hkZ^dZ Na2SiO3+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4+H2SiO3; <ZjbZgl Z 6$O â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2S3 [ 60+C0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; C+4S â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  2S0+4e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2S-2 1 C0-4e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; C+4 1 2S+C â&#x2020;&#x2019; CS2 19


\ =Q+2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnSO4+H2 ] +2SO4+MgO â&#x2020;&#x2019; MgSO4+H2O ^ +2SO4+Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CuSO4+2H2O 2H++Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2++2H2O < ijbjh^_k_jZ\klj_qZ_lky\ kZfhjh^ghf\b^_\ khklZ\_ kmevnZlh\b kmevnb^h\Hkgh\gu_h[eZklbijbf_g_gby^ey ijhba\h^kl\Zk_jghcdbkehlu\medZgbaZpbbdZmqmdZ\ hj]Zgbq_kdhfkbgl_a_ Ijbeb\\ h[_ijh[bjdbjZkl\hjoehjb^Z[Zjby\ h^ghcijh[bjd_ gZ[ex^Z_l\uiZ^_gb_[_eh]hhkZ^dZ BaCl2+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2HCl <ZjbZgl Z 6+2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2S [ 60+Zn0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn+2S-2 S+2e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; S-2 1 Zn0-2e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn+2 1 S+Zn â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnS \ +2SO4+Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4+H2 ] +2SO4+CuO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CuSO4+H2O ^ +2SO4+2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4+2H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O 2. O2 ±dbkehjh^23 ±hahg S8 ±fhghdebggZyk_jZ S8 ±jhf[bq_kdZyk_jZ 6±ieZklbq_kdZyk_jZ Wlhy\e_gb_ h[jZah\Zgbyg_kdhevdboijhkluo\_s_kl\h^gbf we_f_glhf ghkblgZa\Zgb_Zeehljhiby Wlb\_s_kl\Zfh`ghjZkihagZlvijbihfhsbjZkl\hjZ %D&O2. K2SO4+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2KCl [_euc HCl+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / <ZjbZgl Z 61D â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2S [ 60+F  â&#x2020;&#x2019; S+6F â&#x2C6;&#x2019; S0-6e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; S+6 1 F2+2e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2F-1 3 S+3F2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SF6 \ +2SO4+2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3+3H29 ] +2SO4+Fe2O3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe2(SO4)3+3H2O 20


^ +2SO4+Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSO4+2H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O K_jgZydbkehlZbkihevam_lky^eyijhba\h^kl\Zm^h[j_gbc k __ ihfhsvxihemqZxlnhknhjgmxdbkehlm b \ijhfure_gghklb hj]Zgbq_kdh]hkbgl_aZ Ijbeb\\ h[_ijh[bjdbjZkl\hj%D&O2 \ h^ghcbagbogZ[ex^Z_f \uiZ^_gb_[_eh]hhkZ^dZ BaCl2+Na2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2NaCl A^_kv[ue1D2SO4 JZ[hlZKdhjhklvobfbq_kdboj_Zdpbc Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_

<ZjbZgl 1. H2+Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HCl J_Zdpbyb^_lf]gh\_gghkh\aju\hf H2+Br2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HBr J_Zdpbyb^_lf_^e_ggh H2+I2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HI J_Zdpbyb^_llhevdhijbgZ]j_\Zgbb 2. CO ] +H2O ] â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;? CO ] +H ] +Q Z \e_\hldj_Zdpbywdahl_jfbqgZ [ \ijZ\hldm\_ebqb\Z_lkydhgp_gljZpbybkoh^guo\_s_kl\ <ZjbZgl 1. H2+Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HCl ?keb dhgp_gljZpby wlbo \_s_kl\ fZeZ lh j_Zdpby b^_l f_^e_ggh _keb dhgp_gljZpby ^hklZlhqgh \_ebdZ lh j_Zdpby ijhbkoh^bl f]gh\_gghkh\aju\hf 2. 2H ] +O ] â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;? 2H2O ] +Q Z \ijZ\hldj_Zdpbywdahl_jfbqgZ [ \ijZ\hldj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lk mf_gvr_gb_fh[t_fZkbkl_fu <ZjbZgl 1. Zn+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnCl2+H2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; Ijbh[uqguomkeh\byoj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lf_^e_gghZ ijb gZ]j_\ZgbbgZqbgZ_lky[mjgh_\u^_e_gb_\h^hjh^Z 2. N ] +3H ] â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;? 2NH ] +Q Z \ijZ\hldj_Zdpbywdahl_jfbqgZ [ \e_\hldj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lk mf_gvr_gb_fh[t_fZkbkl_fu

21


<ZjbZgl 1. 3H2+N2 → 2NH3 ;_a dZlZebaZlhjZ kdhjhklv wlhc j_Zdpbb qj_a\uqZcgh fZeZ gh ijb ^h[Z\e_gbbdZlZebaZlhjZ__ kdhjhklvagZqbl_evghm\_ebqb\Z_lky 2. 2HBr ] → ← H ] +Br ] -Q Z \ijZ\hldj_Zdpbywg^hl_jfbqgZ [ \ijZ\hldm\_ebqb\Z_lkydhgp_gljZpbybkoh^gh]h\_s_kl\Z JZ[hlZBlh]h\Zyihl_f_ ,,

<ZjbZgl 1. H2SO4+2KOH → K2SO4+2H2O 3H2SO4+2Al → Al2(SO4)3+3H2 H2SO4+FeO → FeSO4+H2O H2SO4+Ba(NO3)2 → BaSO4 ↓ +2HNO3 H2SO4+Zn(OH)2 → ZnSO4+2H2O

2. S  → SO2  → SO3  → H2SO4  → SO2 1) S+O2 → SO2 2) 2SO2+O2 → 2SO3 3) SO3+H2O → H2SO4 4) H2SO4+Na2SO3 → Na2SO4+H2O+SO2 ↑ 3. 2SO ] +O ] → ← 2SO ] +Q Z \e_\hldj_Zdpbywdahl_jfbqgZ [ \e_\hldj_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lk mf_gvr_gb_fh[t_fZkbkl_fu M\_ebq_gb_kdhjhklbj_Zdpbbh[`b]ZibjblZ^hklb]Z_lkyiml_f gZ]j_\Zgbyihklhyggh]hlhdZdbkehjh^Zm\_ebq_gbyiehsZ^b khijbdhkgh\_gbyj_Z]_glh\b dZlZebaZlhjZ <ZjbZgl 1. 3H2SO4+2Fe(OH)3 → Fe2(SO4)3+6H2O H2SO4+BaCl2 → BaSO4 ↓ +2HCl H2SO4+2LiOH → Li2SO4+2H2O H2SO4+MgO → MgSO4+H2O H2SO4+Zn → ZnSO4+H2 ↑ 1

2

1

3

3

4

4

2. H2S ←  S  → FeS  → SO2 2 ↓ Na2S 1) H2+S → H2S 1

3

4

22


2) S+2Na â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2S 3) S+Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeS 4) 4FeS+7O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe2O3+4SO2 Z ijbm\_ebq_gbbl_fi_jZlmjukdhjhklvj_Zdpbbm\_ebqb\Z_lky [ ijbm\_ebq_gbbdhgp_gljZpbbbkoh^guo\_s_kl\kdhjhklv j_Zdpbbm\_ebqb\Z_lkyIjbf_jukfl_fZ ,,jZ[hlZ\ZjbZgl \hijhk tR

4. 4FeS2+11O2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe2O3+8SO2 Wlhlijhp_kkhkgh\ZggZijbf_g_gbbijbgpbiZl_iehh[f_gZijb wlhf^hklb]Z_lkyfZdkbfZevguc\uoh^ijh^mdlZ <ZjbZgl 1. H2SO4+2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4+2H2O H2SO4+CuO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CuSO4+H2O H2SO4+Mg â&#x2020;&#x2019; MgSO4+H2 H2SO4+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4+2HCl 3H2SO4+2Al(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3+6H2O 2. S  â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnS  â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2SO4 1. S+Zn â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnS 2) 2ZnS+3O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2ZnO+2SO2 3) 2SO2+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2SO3 4) SO3+H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2SO4 Z IjbijZ\bevghfih^[hj_dZlZebaZlhjZkdhjhklvj_Zdpbb agZqbl_evgh\hajZklZ_l [ JZagu_\_s_kl\Zj_Z]bjmxlk h^gbfb l_f`_\_s_kl\hfk jZaghc kdhjhklvx Ijbf_jukfL_fZ,,jZ[hlZ\ZjbZgl\hijhk Ijbf_kbkh^_j`Zsb_ky\ k_jgbklhf]Za_fh]mly\eylvky bg]b[blhjZfbj_Zdpbb622+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;? 2SO3ijbwlhfagZqbl_evgh kgb`Z_lky__ kdhjhklv <ZjbZgl 1. H2SO4+Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSO4+2H2O H2SO4+ZnO â&#x2020;&#x2019; ZnSO4+H2O H2SO4+Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4+H2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; H2SO4+Ba(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2HNO3 H2SO4+Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CuSO4+2H2O 2. SO ] +H2O ` â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;? H2SO ` +Q Z \e_\hldj_Zdpbywdahl_jfbqgZ [ \ijZ\hldm\_ebqb\Z_lkydhgp_gljZpbybkoh^gh]h\_s_kl\Z 1

2

3

4

23


3. H2S â&#x2020;?  S  â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO3 â&#x2020;&#x201C;2 Al2S3 1) S+H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2S 2) 3S+2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2S3 3) S+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO2 4) 2SO2+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2SO3 Ld623 j_Z]bjm_lkgZqZeZk \h^ygufiZjhflhagZqbl_evgZy qZklv+2SO4 ihemqZ_lky\ \b^_lmfZgZdhg^_gkbjh\Zlvdhlhjuc g_m^h[gh 1

3

4

24


L_fZ,,,Ih^]jmiiZZahlZ

<ZjbZgl Z  N 02

hdbkebl_ev

JZ[hlZ:ahl:ffbZdKhebZffhgby

+

Li0

\hkklZgh\bl_ev

â&#x2020;&#x2019; Li + N-3

hdbkebl_ev\hkklZgh\bl_ev [ 1+4Cl+NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaCl+NH3 â&#x2020;&#x2018; +H2O \ 1+4Cl+AgNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgCl â&#x2020;&#x201C; +NH4NO3 Cl-+Ag+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgCl â&#x2020;&#x201C; 2. H2+Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HCl Pt 3H2+N2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH3 NH3+HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH4Cl 0N: N â&#x2030;Ą N N2 :N 0 :ahlÂą[_kp\_lguc]Za[_a\dmkZ[_aaZiZoZtie=-2100Ktdbi=-1960K <ZjbZgl Z  N 02 + 3H 02 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2N-3H + hdbkebl_ev

\hklZgh\bl_ev

[ 1+3+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; (NH4)2SO4 \  1+4)2SO4+Ba(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2NH4NO3 SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +Ba2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; >Zggu_jZkl\hjufh`ghjZkihagZlvijbihfhsbjZkl\hjh\%D&O2 b 1D2SiO3. 1) BaCl2+Na2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2NaCl BaCl2+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2HCl NH4Cl+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / 2) H2SO4+Na2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4+H2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; Na2SO4+Na2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / 3. NH3+H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH +4 â&#x2020;&#x2018;â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C;

2s22p3

N

Ď&#x201A; H+1s0

â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C;

Ď&#x201A;

H1s1 â&#x2020;&#x2018; H1s1 â&#x2020;&#x2018; H1s1 â&#x2020;&#x2018;

H â&#x2020;&#x201C;

Hâ&#x2020;&#x2019;Nâ&#x2020;?H

c\yabdh\Ze_glgu_iheyjgu_ 25


NH3+H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH3H+ k\yavih^hghjghZdp_ilhjghfmf_oZgbafm III I N-3H + NH3 IV I (N-3H +  )+ (NH4)+ <ZjbZgl Z 1  +3Mg0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg + N â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  hdbkebl_ev\hkklZgh\bl_ev [  1+4)2CO3+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH4NO3+CO2+H2O CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2+H2O 2. SO3+H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2SO4 N2+3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH3 2NH3+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; (NH4)2SO4 3. N 2s22p3 â&#x2020;&#x2018;â&#x2020;&#x201C; Pt

â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C;

Ď&#x201A; Ď&#x201A; Ď&#x201A;

N 2s22p3 â&#x2020;&#x2018;â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x201C; K\yabdh\Ze_glgZyg_iheyjgZy N  <ZjbZgl Z 

N 02

\hkklZgh\bl_ev

+

O 02

hdbkebl_ev

tR

 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2N+2O-2

[ 1+3+HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH4Cl \  1+4)2SO4+Ba(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2NH3+2H2O 2NH + +SO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +Ba2++2OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4+2NH3+2H2O >Zggu_\_s_kl\Zfh`ghjZkihagZlvijbihfhsbjZkl\hjh\%D&O2 b NaOH 1) BaCl2+(NH4)2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH4Cl+BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; NH4Cl+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / NaCl+BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / 2) NH4Cl+NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaCl+NH3 â&#x2020;&#x2018; +H2O NaCl+NaHG â&#x2020;&#x2019; / :H 3. NH3 H: N Hâ&#x2020;&#x2019;Nâ&#x2020;?H H â&#x2020;&#x2018; H :ffbZd²]Zak j_adbfaZiZohftie=-780Ktdbi=-330K 26


JZ[hlZ:ahlgZydbkehlZb __kheb

<ZjbZgl Z &D2+123 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2+H2O CaO+2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca2++H2O [ 1D2++123 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaNO3+H2O OH-+H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O \ .2CO3+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2KNO3+H2O+CO2 CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O+CO2

2. Cu0+H+1N+5O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; dhgp â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu+2(N+5O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; )2+N+4O â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  +H +  O-2 Cu0-2e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2+ 1 N+5+1e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; N+4 2 Cu+4HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2+2NO2+2H2O Z

[

\

3. N2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; HNO3 Z 12+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NO [ 1222 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NO2 \ 122+2H2O+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4HNO3 <ZjbZgl Z Ca(OH)2+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2+2H2O OH-+H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O [ &X2+123 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2+H2O CuO+2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2++H2O \ 3E+2(N+5O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; )2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Pb+2O-2+N+4O â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  +O  N+5+1e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; N+4 4 2O-2-4e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; O  1 2Pb(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2PbO+4NO2+O2 >Zggu_\_s_kl\Zfh`ghjZkihagZlvijbihfhsbjZkl\hjh\ gbljZlZ[ZjbyBa(NO3)2 b NaOH Ba(NO3)2+Na2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3+BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; NH4NO3+Ba(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / Ba(NO3)2+NaNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / NH4NO3+NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaNO3+NH3 â&#x2020;&#x2018; +H2O NaNO3+NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; / <ZjbZgl Z +123+Na2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3+H2O 2H++Na2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Na++H2O [ .2++123 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KNO3+H2O 27


OH-+H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O \ 1D2CO3+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3+H2O+CO2 CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O+CO2

2. Hg0+H+N+5O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; dhgp â&#x2020;&#x2019; Hg+2(N+5O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; )2+N+4O â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  +H +  O-2 Hg0-2e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; Hg+2 1 N+5+1e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; N+4 2 Hg+4HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Hg(NO3)2+2NO2+2H2O Z

[

\

3. KNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO2 Z .123+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2SO4+2HNO3 [ +123+CuO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2+H2O t0 \ &X 123)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CuO+4NO2+O2 <ZjbZgl Z Ba(OH)2+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ba(NO3)2+2H2O OH-+H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O [ &D&23+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2+H2O+CO2 CaCO3+2H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca2++H2O+CO2 \ +123+MgO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3)2+H2O 2H++MgO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2++H2O t0 +1 +5 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2. Ag N O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ag0+N+4O â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  +O  Ag+1+1e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ag0 N+5+1e- â&#x2020;&#x2019; N+4 4 2 -2  2O -4e â&#x2020;&#x2019; O  2 1 t0 2AgNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Ag+2NO2+O2 >Zggu_\_s_kl\Zfh`ghjZkihagZlvijbihfhsbjZkl\hjh\ Ba(NO3)2 b $J123 1) Ba(NO3)2+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2HNO3 Ba(NO3)2+HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; / Ba(NO3)2+HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / 2) AgNO3+HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgCl â&#x2020;&#x201C; +HNO3 AgNO3+HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / JZ[hlZNhknhjb _]hkh_^bg_gby

<ZjbZgl Z 322 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2P2O5

28


[ 3+3+HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; PH4Cl \ +3PO4+3KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; K3PO4+3H2O H++OH- â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O KbevghgZ]j_\ZydjZkgucnhknhj\ hlkmlkl\b_\ha^moZihemqZ_f [_eucnhknhjWlhagZqblqlhwlhZeehljhigu_fh^bnbdZpbb h^gh]hwe_f_glZ NhknZlgZljbyhij_^_ebfijbihfhsbeZdfmkZkj_^Z_]h jZkl\hjZs_ehqgZyeZdfmkkbg__l: dbkehluhij_^_ebfijb ihfhsbjZkl\hjZ$J123. AgNO3+HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgCl â&#x2020;&#x201C; +HNO3 [_euc 2AgNO3+H3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / <ZjbZgl Z 3&O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2PCl5 [ 30J â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg3P2 \ 1D3PO4+3AgNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3NaNO3+Ag3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; PO â&#x2C6;&#x2019; +3Ag+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ag3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; Nhknhjhq_gvj_Zdpbhgghkihkh[gh_\_s_kl\hZ fhe_dmeZZahlZ mklhcqb\Zb obfbq_kdbfZehZdlb\gZ G H

2 3. P  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3P2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; PH3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; P2O5 Z

[

\

Z 3&D â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3P2 [ &D3P2+6H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3Ca(OH)2+2PH3 \ 3+3+4O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; P2O5+3H2O <ZjbZgl Z 3&D â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3P2 t0 [ &D3(PO4)2+3H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3CaSO4+2H3PO4 \ 1D2++3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na3PO4+3H2O OH-+H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O Ijbk]hjZgbb[_eh]hb djZkgh]hnhknhjZ\ h^bgZdh\uomkeh\byo h[jZamxlkyh^bgZdh\u_\_s_kl\Z <h^mfh`ghhij_^_eblvijbihfhsbeZdfmkZ\h^Zbf__l g_cljZevgmxkj_^mb eZdfmk\ g_chklZg_lkynbhe_lh\uf\ dbkehlZohgihdjZkg__l+NO3\ hlebqb_hl+3PO4, jZkl\hjy_l f_^v Cu+HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2NO2+2H2O `_eluc Cu+H3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / 29


<ZjbZgl Z 36 â&#x2020;&#x2019; P2S3 [ 32O5+3H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2H3PO4 \ +3PO4+3Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Na3PO4+3CO2+3H2O 2H++CO  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2+H2O Fhe_dmeZnhknhjZ\ iZjZokhklhblbao Zlhfh\ 34 Z fhe_dmeZ ZahlZbao 12) Z

[

\

3. P â&#x2020;&#x2019; P2O5 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K3PO4 Z 322 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2P2O5 [ 32O5+3H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2H3PO4 \ .2++3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K3PO4+3H2O

JZ[hlZJZkq_luihhij_^_e_gbxfZkkh\hcbebh[t_fghc^heb \uoh^Zijh^mdlZj_Zdpbbhll_hj_lbq_kdb\hafh`gh]h b h[jZlgu_aZ^Zqb

252 ]

o]

63 ]

85 ]

1. NaOH+ HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaNO3 +H2O

252 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o ] =  63 85 mij(NaNO3)= § (NaNO3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; ml_hj(NaNO3)=0,9 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] Hl\_lmij(NaNO3 ] 20 ]

oe

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;53,5 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;22,4 e

2. 2NH 4 Cl +Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2+ 2NH 3 +2H2O

20 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o e =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 53,5 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22, 4 Vij(NH3)= § (NH3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vl_hj(NH3)=8,37 â&#x2039;&#x2026;   e

Hl\_l9 1+3 e 280 ]

o]

3. CaO +H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(OH)2 56 ]

280 o = 56 74

o

§ (Ca(OH)2))=

74 ]

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] 

m ij (Ca(OH)  )

m l_hj (Ca(OH)  )

Hl\_l § (Ca(OH)2))=96,76% 20 ]

=

358 beb  370

20 ]

4. 2NH 4 Cl + CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH3+CaCl2+H2O 30


n(NH4Cl)= n(CaO)=

m(CaO) 20 = fhev M(NH 4Cl) 53,5

m(CaO) 20 = fhev M(CaO) 56

Ld&D2gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fih1+4Cl. 20 ]

o]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;53,5 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;17 ]

2NH 4 Cl +CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH 3 +CaCl+H2O

20 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026; = o ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 53,5 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026;17 mij(NH3)= § (NH3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; ml_hj(NH3)=0,98 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] Hl\_lmij(NH3 ] 6,4 ]

oe

tR

5. NH 4 NO 2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; N 2 +2H2O 64 ]

22,4 e

6, 4 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = o e  64 22, 4 Vij(N2)= § (N2) â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vl_hj=0,89 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e Hl\_lVij(N2 e 56 ]

oe

22,4 e

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;22,4 e

6. N 2 +3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH 3

56 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = o e  22, 4 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22, 4 Vij(NH3)= § (NH3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vl_hj(NH3)=0,5 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e 9  m(NH3)= â&#x2039;&#x2026; m(NH3)= â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] 9P  Hl\_lVij(NH3 e m(NH3 ] 107 ]

oe

o

t 7. NH 4 Cl  â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH 3 +HCl

53,5 ]

22,4 e

o  =  

§ (NH3)=

Vij

Vl_hj

o

=

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e 

 beb 

Hl\_l § (NH3)=84,8%

31


o d]

200 d]

8. P â&#x2020;&#x2019; H 3 PO 4 31 d]

107 o = 53,5 22, 4

mij(P)=

98 d]

m l_hj η(P)

=

o

â&#x2039;&#x2026;  d] 

 ] 

Hl\_lP 3 ] 33 ]

oe

132 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;22,4 e

9. (NH 4 )2SO4 +Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSO4+ 2NH 3 +2H2O 33 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o e =  132 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22, 4 Vij= § (NH3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vl_hj(NH3)=11,2 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e Hl\_l9 1+3 e o]

4e

10. Cu+ 4HNO3dhgp â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2+ 2NO 2 +2H2O 64 ]

o  = 64 44,8

mij(Cu)=

m l_hj η(P)

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o ] 

=

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;22,4 e

 ] 

Hl\_lm(&X ] 30 ]

oe

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;53,5 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;22,4 e

11. 2NH 4 Cl +Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2+ 2NH 3 â&#x2020;&#x2018; +2H2O 33 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o e =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  132 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22, 4 Vij(NH3)=Vl_hj â&#x2039;&#x2026; § (NH3)=12,561 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e Hl\_l9 1+3 e 20,2 ]

o]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;101 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;63 ]

12. 2KNO3 +H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2SO4+ 2HNO3

20, 2 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o ] =  â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026;101 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 63 mij(HNO3)=ml_hj â&#x2039;&#x2026; § (HNO3)=0,98 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] Hl\_lm(HNO3 ]

32


40 ]

oe

o

t 13. NH 4 NO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; N 2 O +2H2O

22,4 e

80 ]

40 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = o e  80 22, 4 Vij(N2O)=Vl_hj â&#x2039;&#x2026; § (N2O)=11,2 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e Hl\_l9 122 e 80 ]

o]

310 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;98 ]

14. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 +3H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3CaSO4+ 2H 3 PO 4

80 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o ] =  310 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 98 mij(H3PO4)= § (H3PO4) â&#x2039;&#x2026; ml_hj=0,96 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] Hl\_lm(H3PO4 ] <ZjbZgl 1.

JZ[hlZBlh]h\Zyihl_f_,,,

IjbagZdbkjZ\g_gby Z :]j_]Zlgh_ khklhygb_ gm

[ Obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z

]Za

:ahl

1) N2+3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH3 2) N2+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NO 3) N2+3Ca â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3N2 4) 2N2+3Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si3N4

\ J_ZdpbhggZy kihkh[ghklbb ^_ckl\b_gZ hj]Zgbafq_eh\_dZ

Obfbq_kdbfZehZdlb\_g mqZkl\m_l\ ijhp_kk_ ^uoZgby

Nhknhj [_euc

L\_j^h_\_s_kl\h 1)2P+8H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2H3PO4+5H2 2) 2P+5O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2P2O5 3) 2P+3Ca â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3P2 4) 2P+5Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2PCl5 Obfbq_kdb\ukhdhZdlb\_g y^h\bl

5) 2. P  â&#x2020;&#x2019; P2O5 â&#x2020;&#x2019; HPO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na3PO4  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ag3PO4 1) 4P+5O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2P2O5 2) P2O5+H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2HPO3 3) HPO3+H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; H3PO4 4) H3PO4+3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na3PO4+3H2O 5) Na3PO4+3AgNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ag3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3NaNO3

1)

2)

3)

4)

33


37 ]

o]

3. Ca(OH)2 +(NH4)2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH 3 +CaSO4+2H2O 74 ]

37 o = 74 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 17

§ (NH3)=

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;17 ]

m ij

m l_hj

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026; o ]   = beb 

Hl\_l § (NH3)=88,24% <ZjbZgl 1. IjbagZdbkjZ\g_gby Z Kljh_gb_Zlhfh\

:ahl 1S22S22P3

+7N

+15P

+7 [ <Z`g_crb_kl_i_gb hdbke_gby \ KhklZ\b k\hckl\Z hdkb^h\

Nhknhj [_euc

1s22s22p63s23p3 +15

25 GZb[he__ jZkijhkljZg_gu kh_^bg_gbykh kl_i_gyfbhdbke_gby± 3, 0, +4, +5 H[jZam_lhdkb^u12O, NO, N2O3, NO2, N2O5. GZb[he__mklhcqb\u N22±[_kp\_lguc]Zak ijbylgufaZiZohfb keZ^dh\Zluf\dmkhf 12±[_kp\_lguc]Za [_a\dmkZb aZiZoZ122 ±[mjuc]Za

285 GZb[he__jZkijhkljZg_gu kh_^bg_gbykhkl_i_gyfb hdbke_gby± H[jZam_lhdkb^u32O3 b P2O5. P2O3 ±[_eh_ djbklZeebq_kdh_\_s_kl\h P2O5 ±[_eucihjhrhd

2. N2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ba(NO3)2 1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

1) N2+3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH3 Pt

2) 4NH3+5O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4NO+6H2O 3) 2NO+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NO2 4) 4NO2+2H2O+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4HNO3 5) 2HNO3+Ba(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ba(NO3)2+2H2O ] o] 3. 2NaNO3+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4+2HNO3 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] o   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = o ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  mij(HNO3)= § (HNO3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; ml_hj=12,6 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] Hl\_lm(HNO3 ] Pt

34


<ZjbZgl 1.

IjbagZdb kjZ\g_gby Z Kljh_gb_ fhe_dmeu [ Nbabq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z \ Obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z

NH3

PH3

H→N←H

H-P-H | H

H =Za[_ap\_lZk j_adbfaZiZohf ;_kp\_lguc]Zak q_kghqguf e_]q_\ha^moZohjhrh aZiZohfly`_e__\ha^moZ jZkl\hjbf\ \h^_ fZehjZkl\hjbf\ \h^_hq_gv y^h\bl 1) NH3+H2O → NH4OH 1) 2PH3+4O2 → P2O5+3H2O 2) 4NH3+3O2 → N2+6H2O 2) PH3+HCl → PH4Cl 3) NH3+HCl → NH4Cl

2. P  → CaP2 → PH3 → P2O5 → HPO3 → H3PO4 1) 2P+3Ca → Ca3P2 2) Ca3P2+6H2O → 3Ca(OH)2+2PH3 3) 2PH3+4O2 → P2O5+3H2O 4) P2O5+H2O → 2HPO3 5) HPO3+H2O → H3PO4 1)

2)

3)

4)

30 ]

oe

2⋅53,5 ]

2⋅22,4 e

5)

3. 2NH 4 Cl +Ca(OH)2 → CaCl2+ 2NH 3 +2H2O

30 o  ⋅  ⋅  o ] =  ⋅  2 ⋅ 53,5 2 ⋅ 22, 4 Vij(NH3)= § (NH3) ⋅ Vl_hj=0,92 ⋅  e Hl\_l9 1+3 e <ZjbZgl 1. HNO3 IjbagZdb kjZ\g_gby Z Nbabq_kdb_ ;_kp\_lgZy^ufysZykygZ k\hckl\Z \ha^mo_`b^dhklvtie=-420K tdbi=830K [ Obfbq_kdb_ 1) 8HNO3+3Cu → 3Cu(NO3)2+ k\hckl\Z +2NO+4H2O H3PO4+Cu → / 2) 10HNO3+4Zn → 4Zn(NO3)2+ +NH4NO3+3H2O 3) HNO3+NaOH → NaNO3+H2O

H3PO4

;_eh_djbklZeebq_kdh_\_s_kl\h tie=420K 1) 2H3PO4+3Zn → Zn3(PO4)2+3H2 ↑ 2) H2PO4+3NaOH → Na3PO4+3H2O

2) 1) 4) 2. Pb(NO3)2  →NO2  →NH4NO3  →(NH4)2SO4 →NH3  →HNO3 3)

5)

tR

1) 2Pb(NO3)2  → 2PbO+4NO2+O2 35


2) 4NO2+2H2O+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4HNO3 3) HNO3+NH3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH4NO3 4) NH4NO3+NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH3+H2O+NaNO3 5) 2NH3+H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; (NH4)2SO4 62 ]

o]

3. 4P +5O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2P2 O5 4â&#x2039;&#x2026;31 ]

62 o = 4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 31 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026;142

§ (P2O5)=

m ij

m l_hj

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;142 ]

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026;   = beb 

o

Hl\_l § (P2O5)=91,55%

36


L_fZ ,9Ih^]jmiiZm]e_jh^Z JZ[hlZM]e_jh^Hdkb^um]e_jh^Z

<ZjbZgl 1.   K

1s22s22p2

 *  K

â&#x2020;&#x2018;â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2018;â&#x2020;&#x201C;

â&#x2020;&#x2018; â&#x2020;&#x2018;

1s 2s 2p â&#x2020;&#x2018;â&#x2020;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2018; â&#x2020;&#x2018; â&#x2020;&#x2018; â&#x2020;&#x2018; I_j_oh^ \hafh`_g ld bf__lky k\h[h^gZy hj[blZev ijb wlhf jZagbpZ\ wg_j]bbf_`^m2s- b p-hj[blZeyfbg_\bebdZ Z CuO+C â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu+CO [ &&22 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO t0 \ &D&23 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; 3. 2CO+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO2 ¹ (CO)=100%-5%=95% V(CO)=V]ZaZ â&#x2039;&#x2026; ¹ (CO)=20 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e e oe 2CO + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO2 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; e e  o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = o e  â&#x2039;&#x2026;    Hl\_l9 22 e <ZjbZgl M]e_jh^\ ijbjh^_\klj_qZ_lky\ \b^_ Z ZefZaZ±hq_gvl\_j^h_ijhqgh_\_s_kl\hk \ukhdhctie djbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZ±ZlhfgZy [ ]jZnblZ±l\_j^h_\_s_kl\h`bjgh_gZhsmivk \ukhdhctie we_dljhb l_iehijh\h^_gdjbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZZlhfgZy \ dZj[bgZ±l\_j^h_\_s_kl\h l\_j`_]jZnblZghfy]q_ZefZaZ  q_jgucf_edhdjbklZeebq_kdbcihjhrhdh[eZ^Z_l ihemijh\h^gbdh\ufbk\hckl\ZfbDjbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZ ZlhfgZy Z &22+Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3+H2O 2

1

3

[ &+2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH4 \ &22 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 3. CaCO3+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ka(NO3)2+H2O+CO2 ¹ (CaCO3)=100%-8%=92% m(CaCO3)=0,92 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] tR

37


55,2 ]

oe

100 ]

22,4 e

CaCO3 +2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2+H2O+ CO 2

55, 2 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o e =  100 22, 4 Hl\_l9 &22 e <ZjbZgl M]e_jh^\ kh_^bg_gbyoijhy\ey_lkl_i_gbhdbke_gby± +2, +4 C-4H +  , C â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  H + , C+2O-2, C+4O â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  Z CO+FeO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe+CO2 [ &$O â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al4C3 \ &22+CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 3. C+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 ¹ (C)=100%-6%=94% m(C)=0,94 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] ] oe C+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 ] e  â&#x2039;&#x2026;   o = o e    Hl\_l9 &22 e <ZjbZgl :^khj[pby²ijhp_kkih]ehs_gbyih\_joghklvx\_s_kl\Z ^jm]h]h\_s_kl\Z >_khj[pby²ijhp_kk\u^_e_gby\_s_kl\Zk _]hih\_joghklb :^khj[pbhggZykihkh[ghklv^j_\_kgh]hm]eyijbf_gy_lky\ f_^bpbg_ijbhljZ\e_gbyo^eyih]ehs_gbyy^h\ Z &222 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO2 [ &6 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CS2 \ &D&23+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2+H2O+CO2 tR

3. CaCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO+CO2 ¹ (CaCO3)=100%-10%=90% m(CaCO3)=0,9 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] ] oe 450 ]

oe

100 ]

22,4 e

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO+ CO 2 450 o = 100 22, 4

o

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e 

38


Hl\_l9 &22 e

JZ[hlZM]hevgZydbkehlZb __kheb

<ZjbZgl

1. CaCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(HCO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2 1)

2)

3)

4)

tR

1) CaCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO+CO2 2) CO2+Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3+H2O 3) CaCO3+H2O+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(HCO3)2 4) Ca(HCO3)2+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2+2H2O+2CO2 Kh^_j`bfh_ijh[bjhdfh`ghjZkihagZlvijbihfhsbjZkl\hjZ AgNO3. AgNO3+KCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgCl â&#x2020;&#x201C; +KNO3 [_euc

2AgNO3+K2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ag 2 CO3

k\_leh`_eluc

â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2KNO3

3AgNO3+K3PO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ag3 PO 4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +3KNO3 `_eluc

3. CO2+H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2CO3 H[jZamxsZykydbkehlZhdjZrb\Z_leZdfmk\ djZkgucp\_lijb gZ]j_\ZgbbdbkehlZjZaeZ]Z_lkyihwlhfmeZdfmk\gh\vklZgh\blky nbhe_lh\uf H2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; <ZjbZgl 1. CO  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KHCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 1) 2CO+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO2 2) CO2+KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; KHCO3 3) KHCO3+KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2CO3+H2O 4) K2CO3+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2KCl+H2O+CO2 IjbijhimkdZgbbm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZq_j_aba\_kldh\mx\h^m kgZqZeZgZ[ex^Z_lky__ ihfmlg_gb_Z ihlhfjZkl\hj_gb_hkZ^dZ Ca(OH)2+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +H2O CaCO3+CO2+H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(HCO3)2 <h^gu_jZkl\hjudZj[hgZlh\dZebyb gZljbybf_xls_ehqgmx kj_^mldwlbkhebh[jZah\Zgukbevgufhkgh\Zgb_fb keZ[hc dbkehlhcb \\h^_]b^jhebamxlky <ZjbZgl 1)

2)

3)

4)

1. Ca(HCO3)2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2CO3 1)

2)

3)

4)

R

1) Ca(HCO3)2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3+H2O+CO2 t

39


2) CaCO3+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2+H2O+CO2 3) CO2+2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3+H2O 4) Na2CO3+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl+H2CO3 tR

2. CaCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO+CO2 CO2+KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; KHCO3 tR

2KHCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2CO3+H2O+CO2 Khebm]hevghcdbkehlufh`ghhlebqblvijbihfhsbj_Zdpbbk kbevghcdbkehlhcijbwlhf[m^_l\u^_eylvkym]e_dbkeuc]Za <ZjbZgl 1. C  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaNO3 1) C+O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 2) CO2+H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2CO3 3) H2CO3+2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3+2H2O 4) Na2CO3+2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3+H2O+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; Z Ba(OH)2+Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2NaOH [ +2SO4+Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4+H2O+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; Ihemqblvkh^mlZdbfh[jZahfg_evayld&D&23 ±g_jZkl\hjbfZy \ \h^_khev 1)

2)

3)

4)

JZ[hlZDj_fgbcb _]hkh_^bg_gby

<ZjbZgl JZ^bmkZlhfZdj_fgby[hevr_jZ^bmkZZlhfZm]e_jh^Z_]h we_dljhgukeZ[__ijbly]b\Zxlkyd y^jml_hge_]q_bohl^Z_l ihlhfm_]hg_f_lZeebq_kdb_k\hckl\Z\ujZ`_gukeZ[__ Z

[

\

2. SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SiO3

â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si+CO2 Z 6L22+C  [ 6L22 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 \ 6L22+2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SiO3+H2O 3. Mg2Si+4HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2MgCl2+SiH4 ¹ (Mg2Si)=100%-5%=95% m(Mg2Si)=0,95 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] tR

152 ]

o]

76 ]

32 ]

Mg 2Si +4HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2MgCl2+ SiH 4

152 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o ] =  76 32 Hl\_lm(SiH4 ] 40


<ZjbZgl <h^gu_jZkl\hjukbebdZlh\gZljbyb dZebybf_xls_ehqgmx kj_^mldwlbkhebh[jZah\Zgukbevgufhkgh\Zgb_fb keZ[hc dbkehlhcb \\h^_]b^jhebamxlky Z

[

\

2. NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 Z 1D2+6L22 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SiO3+H2O [ 1D2SiO3+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl+H2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; \ +2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O+SiO2 3. SiO2+C â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2+Si ¹ (SiO2)=100%-10%=90% m(SiO2)=0,9 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] 36 ]

o]

SiO 2 +C â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2+ Si

28 ]

60 ]

36 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o ] =  60 28 Hl\_lm(6L ] <ZjbZgl Dj_fgbc\ kh_^bg_gbyoijhy\ey_lkl_i_gvhdbke_gby± Si-4H +  , Si+4O â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  , Si+2O-2 [

Z

\

2. Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2Si  â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiH4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 +HCl

â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2Si Z 6L0J  [ 0J2Si+4HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2MgCl2+SiH4 \ 6L+4+2O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2+2H2O tR

t0

3. 2NaOH+SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SiO3+H2O ¹ (SiO2)=100%-10%=90% m(SiO2)=50 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] 45 ]

tR

o]

2NaOH+ SiO 2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na 2SiO3 +H2O 60 ]

122 ]

45 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026; = o ]  60 122 Hl\_lm(Na2SiO3 ] <ZjbZgl Hdkb^dj_fgby6L22 hlghkyld dbkehlgufhdkb^Zfih_]h k\hckl\Zf SiO2+2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SiO3+H2O SiO2+CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSiO3 41


Z

[

\

2. Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2SiO3 Z 6L22 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 [ 6L22+2KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2SiO3+H2O \ .2SiO3+2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2KCl+H2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; 3. 2Mg+Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2Si ¹ (Si)=100%-5%=95% m(Si)=0,95 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] o]

57 ]

2Mg+ Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg 2Si 28 ]

76 ]

57 o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o ] =  28 76 Hl\_lm(Mg26L ]

JZ[hlZ<uqbke_gb_fZkkubebh[t_fZijh^mdlZj_Zdpbb ihba\_klghcfZkk_bebihh[t_fmbkoh^gh]h\_s_kl\Z kh^_j`Zs_]hijbf_kb

1. CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10% = 90% m(CaCO3) = 600 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,9 = 540 ] 540 ]

o]

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 100 ]

56 ]

540 x = 100 56 540 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 56 x= = 302,4 ] 100

Hl\_lm(CaO) = 302,4 ] 2. CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 20% = 80% m(CaCO3) = 200 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,8 = 160 ] 160 ]

oe

100 ]

22,4 e

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO 2 160 x = 100 22,4 160 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 x= = 35,84 e 100

Hl\_l9 &22) = 35,84 e 3. N2 + 3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH3 42


Ï&#x2030;(N2) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5% = 95% m(N2) = 50 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,95 = 47,5 ] 47,5 ]

o]

28 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;17 ]

N 2 + 3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NH 3

47,5 x = 28 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 17 47,5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 17 o ] 28

η(NH3) =

m ij

m l_hj

=

8 = 0,139 beb 57, 7

Hl\_lη(NH3) = 13,9%. t0

4. CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6% = 94% m(CaCO3) = 0,94 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 400 = 376 d] 376 d]

o d]

t0

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 100 d]

56 d]

376 x = 100 56 56 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 376 o d] 100

Hl\_lm(CaO) = 210,56 d] 5. CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 8% = 92% m(CaCO3) = 0,92 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 500 = 460 d] 460 d]

o d]

of 3

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO 2 100 d]

56 d]

22,4 f3

460 x = 100 56 460 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 56 o d] 100 460 x = 100 22,4 460 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 o f3 100

Hl\_lm(CaO) = 257,6 d]V(CO2) = 103 f3. 6. 43


o]

2,24 e

106 ]

22,4 e

Na 2 CO3 + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaNO3 + H2O + CO 2 x 2,24 = 106 22,4 106 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2,24 o ] 22,4 10,6 Ï&#x2030;(Na2CO3) = = 0,9815 beb 10,8

Ï&#x2030;ijbf = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 98,15% = 1,85% Hl\_lÏ&#x2030;ijbf = 1,85%. 7. C + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 Ï&#x2030;(C) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 8% = 92% m(C) = 500 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,92 = 460 ] 460 ]

oe

C + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO 2

12 ]

22,4 e

460 x = 12 22,4 460 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 o e 12

Hl\_lV(CO2) = 859 e 8. o]

336 e

C + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO 2

12 ]

22,4 e

x 336 = 12 22,4 12 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 336 o ] 22,4 180 Ï&#x2030; K  beb 187,5

Hl\_lÏ&#x2030; K   9. CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5% = 95% m(CaCO3) = 0,95 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 600 = 570 ] 570 n(CaCO3) = n(CO2) = = 5,7 fhev 100 V(CO2) = n â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vm = 5,7 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 = 127,7 e Hl\_ln(CO2) = 5,7 fhevV(CO2) = 127,7 e 44


10.

oe

3 d]

22,4 e

100 d]

Ca(OH)2 + CO 2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 + H2O x 3 = 22,4 100 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 o e 100 0,672 Ï&#x2030; KH2) = beb 2000

Hl\_lÏ&#x2030; KH2) = 0,0336%. t0

11. BaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaO + CO2 Ï&#x2030;(BaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3% = 97% m(BaCO3) = 0,97 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 80 = 77,6 ] t0

BaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaO + CO2 77,6 n(BaCO3) = n(BaO) = = 0,394 fhev 197 m(BaO) = n â&#x2039;&#x2026; M(BaO) = 0,394 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 153 = 60,3 ] Hl\_l n(BaO) = 0,394 fhevm(BaO) = 60,3 ] 12. CaCO3 + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 m(CaCO3) = 0,95 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 60 = 57 ] 57 n(CaCO3) = n(CO2) = = 0,57 fhev 100 V(CO2) = n â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vm = 0,57 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 = 12,8 e Hl\_ln(CO2) = 0,57 fhevV(CO2) = 12,8 e 13. o d]

22 e

100 d]

44 e

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO 2 x 22 = 100 44 22 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 100 o ] 44 50 Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = = 0,926 beb 54

Hl\_lÏ&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 92,6%. 14. SiO2 + C â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 + Si Ï&#x2030;(SiO2) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5% = 95% m(SiO2) = 60 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,95 = 57 ]

45


57 ]

o]

SiO 2 + C → CO2 + Si

28 ]

60 ]

57 x = 60 28 57 ⋅ 28 o  ]

60

Hl\_lm(Si) = 26,6 ]

JZ[hlZBlh]h\Zyihl_f_IV

<ZjbZgl 1.

CO2 ijbagZdbkjZ\g_gby Z KhklZ\kljh_gb_ H K H DjbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZ fhe_dmeyjgZy [ Nbabq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z gm

=Za[_ap\_lZ[_aaZiZoZ

\ Obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z

KO2 +2NaOH→Na2CO3 + H2O CO2 + CaO → CaCO3 CO2 + H2O → H2CO3

SiO2 O=Si=O DjbklZeebq_kdZy j_r_ldZZlhfgZy kms_kl\m_l\ \b^_ djbklZeeh\ L\_j^h_\_s_kl\h l_fgh]hp\_lZ tie = 1713 ƒK SiO2 + 2NaOH → → Na2SiO3 + H2O SiO2 + CaO →CaSiO3 SiO2 + 4HF → SiF4 + + 2H2O

>eyhqbkldbKHhlijbf_k_cKH2 fh`ghbkihevah\ZlvCa(OH)2 — ba\_kldh\mx\h^mb NaOH — ]b^jhdkb^gZljby Ca(OH)2 + 2CO2 → Ca(HCO3)2 Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O NaOH + CO2 → NaHCO3 2NaOH + CO2 → Na2CO3 + H2O → CaCO3 → CO2 → Ca(HCO3)2 → CO2 3. Na2CO3  1) Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + 2NaOH 1)

2)

3)

4)

t0

2) CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 3) 2CO2 + Ca(OH)2 → Ca(HCO3)2 4) Ca(HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O t0

4. CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 ω(CaCO3) = 100% – 6% = 94% m(CaCO3) = 400 ⋅ 0,94 = 376 ] 46


376 d]

oe

0

t CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO 2

22,4 e

100 d]

376 x = 100 22,4 376 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 o e 100

Hl\_lV(CO2) = 84,2 e <ZjbZgl 1. ijbagZdbkjZ\g_gby Z KhklZ\kljh_gb_ +²2 +²2

H2CO3

+²2

& 2

+²2

H2SiO3 6L

2

+² 2 +² 2 +² 2

²2²6L²2²6L²2²6L²2² +² 2 +² 2 +² 2

y\ey_lkyihebf_jhf Kms_kl\m_l\ \b^_ihebf_jguo p_i_cdheehb^gucjZkl\hj

[ Nbabq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z

Kms_kl\m_llhevdh\ jZkl\hj_[_kp\_lguc jZkl\hj[_aaZiZoZ H2SiO3 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SiO3 + 2H2O H2CO3 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3 + 2H2O

\ Obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z

0

t H2SiO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O + SiO2 t0

H2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O + CO2

2. Ca(NO3)2 + K2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2KNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + MgSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Mg(NO3)2 HkZ^hdij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hckf_kvCaCO3 b CaSO4. 3. CO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaHCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 1) CO2 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3 + H2O 2) Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaHCO3 1)

2)

3)

4)

t0

3) 2NaHCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 4) CO2 + CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 4. SiO2 + 2Mg â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si + 2MgO Ï&#x2030;(SiO2) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3% = 97% m(SiO2) = 30 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,97 = 29,1 ] 29,1 ]

o]

SiO 2 + 2Mg â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si + 2MgO 60 ]

28 ]

47


29,1 x = 60 28 29,1 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 28 o ] 60

Hl\_lm(Si) = 13,6 ] <ZjbZgl 1.

ijbagZdbkjZ\g_gby =jZnbl Z KhklZ\b :lhfum]e_jh^Z kljh_gb_ gZoh^ylky\ khklhygbb sp2-]b[jb^baZpbb ZlhfZkh_^bgyxlky^jm]k ^jm]hfZ c hklZ_lky k\h[h^gufZlhfu jZkiheh`_gukehyfb [ Nbabq_kdb_ L\_j^h_lm]hieZ\dh_ k\hckl\Z \_s_kl\hk_jh]hp\_lZ `bjgh_gZhsmiv we_dljhijh\h^_g \ Obfbq_kdb_ C + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 k\hckl\Z C + 2H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH4 C + 2F2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CF4 2C + Ca â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaC2 C + CuO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu + CO

DjbklZeebq_kdbcdj_fgbc KlmdlmjZZgZeh]bqgZkljmdlmj_ ZefZaZZlhfgZydjbklZeebq_kdZy j_r_ldZZlhfudj_fgby\ khklhygbbsp3-]b[jb^baZpbb y\ey_lkyihemijh\h^gbdhf L\_j^h_l_fghk_jh_\_s_kl\hk f_lZeebq_kdbf[e_kdhf tie = 1420 Â&#x192;K Si + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 Si + 2F2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiF4 Si + 2Mg â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg2Si Si+2NaOH+H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2019;Na2SiO3 + 2H2

2. Na2CO3 + BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl + BaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; Na2SO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaCl BaCO3 + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ba(NO3)2 + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O BaSO4 + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; / 3. CO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(HCO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2 1) CO2 + CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 2) CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(HCO3)2 1)

2)

3)

4)

t0

3) Ca(HCO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 4) CaCO3 + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 4. CaCO3 + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2 Ď&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3% = 97% m(CaCO3) = 20 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,97 = 19,4 ] 19,4 ]

oe

100 d]

22,4 e

CaCO3 + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO 2 19,4 x = 100 22,4

48


o

19,4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 e 100

Hl\_lV(CO2) = 4,35 e <ZjbZgl 1.

ijbagZdbkjZ\g_gby KH KH2 Nbabq_kdb_ =Za[_ap\_lZ[_aaZiZoZ =Za[_ap\_lZ[_aaZiZoZ k\hckl\Z k ijbf_kyfbbf__l fZehjZkl\hjbf\ \h^_ly`_e__ oZjZdl_jgucaZiZo \ha^moZ y^h\ble_]q_\ha^moZ Obfbq_kdb_ CO2 + H2O - H2CO3 CuO+COâ&#x2020;&#x2019;Cu+ CO2 k\hckl\Z 2CO + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO2 CO2 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2CO3 + H2O CO2 + CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3

2. Kh^_j`bfh_dZ`^hcijh[bjdbfh`ghhij_^_eblvijbihfhsb jZkl\hjZHCl. Na2SiO3 + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl + H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; Na2CO3 + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaCl + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; Na2SO4 + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; / â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2SiO â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si 3. SiO2  1) SiO2 + 2KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2SiO3 + H2O 2) K2SiO3 + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2KCl + H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; 1)

2)

3)

4)

t0

3) H2SiO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2O + SiO2 4) SiO2 + C â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si + CO2 4. Si + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 Ï&#x2030;(Si) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5% = 95% m(Si) = 0,95 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 60 = 57 ] 57 ]

o]

Si + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO 2

28 ]

60 ]

57 x = 28 60 57 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 60 o ] 28

Hl\_lm(SiO2) = 122,14 ]

49


L_fZVH[sb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\ JZ[hlZKihkh[uihemq_gbyf_lZeeh\

<ZjbZgl -2 1. Cu +1 2 O +

C0

hdbkebl_ev \hkklZgh\bl_ev -2 Cu +1 C0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2 O + hdbkebl_ev \hkklZgh\bl_ev

â&#x2020;&#x2019;2Cu0 + C+2Oâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 Cu0 + C+2Oâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2

2. 3MnO2 + 4Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al2O3 + 3Mn Ï&#x2030;(MnO2) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5% = 95% m(MnO2) = 90 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,95 = 85,5 ] 85,5 ]

o]

3MnO 2 + 4Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al2O3 + 3Mn 3â&#x2039;&#x2026;55 ]

3â&#x2039;&#x2026;87 ]

85,5 x = 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 87 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 55 85,5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 55 o ] 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 87

Hl\_lm(Mn) = 54,05 ] <ZjbZgl 1. Cr2+3O3 + 2Al0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2+3O3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 + 2Cr0 hdbkebl_ev 960 ]

\hkklZgh\bl_ev o]

2. Fe 2 O3 + 3CO â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe + 3CO2 160 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;56 ]

960 x = 160 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 56 960 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 56 o ] 160

mij = η(Fe) â&#x2039;&#x2026; ml_hj = 0,9 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] Hl\_lm(Fe) = 604,8 ] <ZjbZgl +2 -2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Pb0 + 2C+4O2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 Z  Pb +4 O-2 2 + 2C O hdbkebl_ev

[  Cu +2 O -2 + hdbkebl_ev o]

\hkklZgh\bl_ev

C +2 O-2

\hkklZgh\bl_ev

â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu0 + C+4O2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 52 ]

2. Cr2 O3 + 2Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2O3 + 2Cr 152 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;52 ]

50


x 52 = 152 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 52 152 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 52 o ] 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 52

Ï&#x2030;(Cr2O3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10% = 90% mij 76 ml_hj Kr2O3) = = 84,4 ] = Ï&#x2030;(Cr2 O3 ) 0,9 Hl\_lm(Cr2O3) = 84,4 ] <ZjbZgl 1. Mo +6 O3-2 + 3H02 â&#x2020;&#x2019;Mo0+3H2+1Oâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 hdbkebl_ev 160 ]

\hkklZgh\bl_ev o]

2. CuO + C â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu + CO 80 ]

64 ]

160 x = 80 64 64 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 160 o ] 80

mij(Cu) = ml_hj(Cu) â&#x2039;&#x2026; η(Cu) = 0,85 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 128 = 108,8 ] Hl\_lm(Cu) = 108,8 ]

JZ[hlZObfbq_kdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\

<ZjbZgl Z Na0 + S0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2+1Sâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 Na 0 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 1eâ&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na +1 2 1 S0 + 2 e â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; S â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2

2Na + S â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2S [ Fe + H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; \ 2Al + 3Br2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlBr3 2. [ Zn + Hg(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Hgâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + Zn(NO3)2 Zn + Hg2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn2+ + Hg \ Mg + Pb(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg(NO3)2 + Pbâ&#x2020;&#x201C; Mg + Pb2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; Pb + Mg2+ <ZjbZgl Z Cu0 + O20 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2+Oâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 Cu 0 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2eâ&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu +2 2 O 2 + 4 e â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2 O â&#x2C6;&#x2019;2 1 51


2Cu + O2 → 2CuO

→ 2FeCl3 [ 2Fe + 3Cl2  \ Ba + 2H2O → Ba(OH)2 + H2 2. Z Cu + 2AgNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag↓ Cu + 2Ag+ → Cu2+ + 2Ag↓ [ Fe + Hg(NO3)2 → Fe(NO3)2 + Hg↓ Fe + Hg2+ → Fe2+ + Hg↓ <ZjbZgl Z Al0 + I20 → Al+3I3–1 Al 0 − 3e − → Al +3 2 3 I 02 + 2e − → 2I −1 tR

2Al + 3I2 → 2AlI3 [ Cu + S → CuS \ 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2 2. Z Fe + CuCl2 → Cu↓ + FeCl2 Fe + Cu2+ → Cu↓ + Fe2+ \ 2Al + 3Pb(NO3)2 → 3Pb↓ + 2Al(NO3)3 2Al + 3Pb2+ → 3Pb↓ + 2Al+3 <ZjbZgl Z Mg0 + H+1Cl–1 → Mg+2Cl2–1 + H20 Mg0 − 2e − → Mg +2 1 1 2 H +1 + 2e− → H 02

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2 [ 2Zn + O2 → 2ZnO \ Ca + Cl2 → CaCl2 2. Z Mg + Hg(NO3)2 → Hg↓ + Mg(NO3)2 Mg + Hg2+ → Hg↓ + MgNO3)2 \ Zn + FeSO4 → Fe + ZnSO4 Zn + Fe2+ → Fe + Zn2+ <ZjbZgl

JZ[hlZWe_dljhebaDhjjhabyf_lZeeh\

Z  A 2Cl– – 2e– → Cl20 ( +)

( −)

K K+ + 1e– → K0 we a

− 2KClj\  → 2K + Cl2

52


[ A 2Brâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Br20 ( +)

( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K Zn2+ + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn0

2H2O + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2 + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; ZnBr2 + H2O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn + Br2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Zn(OH)2 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2. Dhjjhaby²kZfhijhba\hevgucijhp_kkjZajmr_gbyf_lZeeZih^ \ha^_ckl\b_fhdjm`Zxs_ckj_^u AZf_^e_gbxdhjjhabbkihkh[kl\m_l Z s_ehqghklvkj_^u [ ihgb`_gb_l_fi_jZlmju \ ihdjulb_aZsblgufbkehyfb JZajmrblkydjurdZld`_e_ah[he__Zdlb\gucf_lZee <ZjbZgl

Z  A 2Iâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; I20 ( +)

( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K 2H2O + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2 + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2NaI + 2H2O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; I2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2NaOH

[ A 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl20 ( +)

( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K Cu2+ + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu0 we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; CuCl2 jj  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu + Cl2 2. JZaebqZxlZ Obfbq_kdmxdhjjhabx²\ hkgh\_e_`bl obfbq_kdh_\aZbfh^_ckl\b_[ We_dljhobfbq_kdmxdhjjhabx² gZjy^mk obfbq_kdbfijhp_kkhfgZ[ex^Zxlkywe_dljbq_kdb_ ijhp_kku Ld\hagbdZ_l]Zev\Zgbq_kdbcwe_f_glFe-Sn b ijhl_dZ_lijhp_kk dhjjhabb <ZjbZgl

Z  A 2Brâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Br20 ( +)

( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K 2H2O + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2 + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2KBr + 2H2O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Br2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2KOH

[ A 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl20 ( +)

( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K Ca2+ + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca0 we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; CaCl2 j\  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca + Cl2 2. Mkbe_gbxdhjjhabbkihkh[kl\mxl Z Ih\ur_gb_dbkehlghklbkj_^u

53


[ Ih\ur_gb_l_fi_jZlmju \ DhglZdlk f_lZeehf :exfbgbcb pbgdjZajmrZlky[uklj__ldwlh[he__Zdlb\gu_ f_lZeeu <ZjbZgl Z  A 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl20 1 ( +)

( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K Na+ + 1eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na

2

we â&#x2C6;&#x2019; a

2NaCl  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Na + Cl2 [ A 2Brâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Br20 ( +)

( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K Fe2+ + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe0 we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; FeBr2 j\  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe + Br2 2. 1) GZg_k_gb_aZsblguoihdjulbc  bkihevah\Zgb_Zahlghcdbkehlu PbgdjZajmrZ_lky[uklj__ihlhfmqlhhg[he__Zdlb\guc f_lZeeq_f`_e_ah

JZ[hlZS_ehqgu_b s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeu

<ZjbZgl Z

[

\

1. Ca â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2 Z 2Ca + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CaO [ CaO + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 \ CaCO3 + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2. S_ehqgu_f_lZeeuijhy\eyxl\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z 2Li0 + Cl20 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Li+1Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;1 Li0 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Li+1 \hkklZgh\bl_ev Ca0 + S0 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca+2Sâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 Ca0 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca+2 \hkklZgh\bl_ev 20 ]

25 ]

3. KOH + HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KNO3 + H2O m( KOH ) 20 = n(KOH) = = 0,357 fhev M ( KOH ) 56 m( HNO3 ) 25 = n(HNO3) = = 0,397 fhev M ( HNO3 ) 63 LdHNO3 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_lhjZkq_l\_^_fihKOH. 20 ]

o]

KOH + HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KNO3 + H2O 56 ]

101 ]

54


20 x = 56 101 20 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 101 x= = 36,1 ] 56

Hl\_lm(KNO3) = 36,1 ] <ZjbZgl Z 2Na + S â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2S [ Ca + Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2 \ 2Li + 2H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2LiOH + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + H2O 2KOH + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2CO3 + H2O Ba(OH)2 + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + H2O ;Zjblh\Zy\h^Zlh`_[m^_lfmlg_lvgZ\ha^mo_ tR

3. CaCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 8% = 92% m(CaCO3) = 1000 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,92 = 920 ] 920 ]

o]

tR

CaCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 100 ]

56 ]

920 x = 100 56 920 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 56 x= = 515,2 ] 100

Hl\_lm(CaO) = 515,2 ] <ZjbZgl Z

[

\

1. Na â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaHCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4 Z 2Na + 2H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaOH + H2 [ NaOH + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaHCO3 \ 2NaHCO3 + H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2. @_kldhklv\h^u²kh\hdmighklvk\hckl\h[mkeh\e_gguo gZebqb_f\ \h^_bhgh\Mg2+ b Ca2+; kmffZjgh_kh^_j`Zgb_wlbo bhgh\gZau\Z_lkyh[s_c`_kldhklvxJZaebqZxldZj[hgZlgmxb g_dZj[hgZlgmx`_kldhklv tR

Ca(HCO3)2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + H2O + CO2 Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2H2O 11,5 ]

78 ]

3. 2Na + 2H 2 O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaOH + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; P 1D  = n(Na) = = 0,5 fhev 0 1D

 55


n(H2O) =

P + 2  = = 4,33 fhev 0 + 2 

LdG2H gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fihNa. 11,5 ]

o]

2Na + 2H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaOH + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;23 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;40 ]

 [ =   â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 20 ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026; 

Hl\_lm(NaOH) = 20 ] <ZjbZgl 1. NaOH + HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaCl + H2O NaOH + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NaHCO3 2NaOH + H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO4 + 2H2O 2. IjbgZ]j_\ZgbbfjZfhjjZaeZ]Z_lky: CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2 CaO + H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(OH)2 3. o]

3e

2Na + 2H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaOH + H 2 â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;23 ]

22,4 e

[  =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = ]   beb η G2) = 

x=

Hl\_lη G2) = 89,3%.

JZ[hlZ:exfbgbcb _]hkh_^bg_gby

<ZjbZgl 1. :O&O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 2Al + 3H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2 2Al + Cr2O3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2O3 + 2Cr 2Al + 3CuSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu Z

2. Al(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; AlCl3 Al(OH)3 Z Al(OH)3 + 3HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; AlCl3 + 3H2O [ AlCl3 + 3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl

Al2O3

56


t° Al2O3 + 3H2O \ 2Al(OH)3 3. :exfbgbc²k_j_[jbklh[_eucf_lZeee_]dbchq_gvfy]dbc <ZjbZgl 2Al 1. Fe2 O3 + â&#x2020;&#x2019;Al2O3+2Fe hdbkebl_ev

\hkklZgh\bl_ev

Al2(SO4)3 + 3BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 + 3BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; Al(OH)3 + NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na[Al(OH)4] 4Al + 3O 2 â&#x2020;&#x2019;2Al2O3 \hkklZgh\bl_ev

hdbkebl_ev

2. Al(NO3)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3 + 3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3NaNO3 Al2O3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3 Al2O3 + 3H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; AlCl3 2Al + 3Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 3. :exfbgbcijbf_gy_lky\ kZfhe_lhkljh_gbb^eyba]hlh\e_gby ijh\h^h\\ f_lZeemj]bbijbwlhfbkihevamxlky_]he_]dhklv \ukhdZywe_dljhijh\h^ghklvb \hkklZgh\bl_evgZykihkh[ghklv <ZjbZgl 1. 2Al + 3Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 2Al + 6HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 + 3H2 Al + FeCl3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; AlCl3 + Fe Al2(SO4)3 + 3BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 + 3BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; Z

[

\

2. Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2O3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3 Z 4Al + 3O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al2O3 [ Al2O3 + 3H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O \ Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3Na2SO4 3. :exfbgbch[jZam_lijhqgmxhdkb^gmxie_gdmgZk\h_c ih\_joghklbihwlhfmhgg_hdbkey_lky^Ze__ <ZjbZgl 1. 2Al + 3Br2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlBr3 2Al + 3S â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2S3 2Al + 6H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2. 2Al + 6HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 + 3H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; AlCl3 + 3KOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; D&O 3HCl + Al(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; AlCl3 + 3H2O 3. GZih\_joghklbjZkdZe_ggh]hZexfbgbyf]gh\_gghh[jZam_lky hdkb^gZyie_gdZdhlhjZyaZljm^gy_l^_nhjfZpbx 57


JZ[hlZ Blh]h\Zyihl_f_V

<ZjbZgl 1. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 + H2O Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2 + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + ZnCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Zn(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + CaCl2 ( +)

2. A 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl20 ( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K Fe2+ + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe0

2H2O + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2 + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; FeCl2 + H2O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl2 + Fe + H2 + Fe(OH)2

1)

3. Al 4)

Al2O3

2)

Al(NO3)3

3)

Al(OH)3

5)

Al(OH)3 AlCl3 1) 4Al + 3O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al2O3 2) Al2O3 + 6HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al(NO3)3 + 3H2O 3) Al(NO3)3 + 3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3 + 3NaNO3 4) 2Al + 6H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 5) Al(OH)3 + 3HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; AlCl3 + 3H2O 4. :exfbgbc²kZfucjZkijhkljZg_ggucf_lZeeb hlghkbl_evgh obfbq_kdbbg_jl_gaZkq_lh[jZam_fhchdkb^ghcie_gdb :exfhl_jfby²kihkh[\hkklZgh\e_gbyf_lZeeh\babohdkb^h\ ijbf_gyxl\ f_lZeemj]bb 5. 140 ]

o]

CaO + H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(OH)2 56 ]

74 ]

 [ =    â&#x2039;&#x2026; x= = ]   η(Ca(OH)2) = = 0,984 beb 

Hl\_lη(Ca(OH)2) = 98,4%. <ZjbZgl 1. Al2O3 y\ey_lkyZfnhl_jgufhdkb^hf Al2O3 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaAlO2 + H2O Al2O3 + 6HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 + 3H2O ( +)

2. A 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cl20 58


( −)

K Na+ + 1e– → Na0 we a

− 2NaClj\  → 2Na + Cl2 5) 2) 1) 3) 4) 3. Ca  → CaCl2 → CaO → Ca(OH)2  →CaCO →Ca(HCO3)2  1) 2Ca + O2 → 2CaO 2) CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2 3) Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3↓ + H2O 4) CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 → Ca(HCO3)2 5) Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2CO2↑ 4. DZevpbc²hq_gvfy]dbcb j_Zdpbhgghkihkh[gucf_lZee 5. Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3↓ + 2NaOH ω(Na2CO3) = 100% – 5% = 95% m(Na2CO3) = 80 ⋅ 0,95 = 76 ]

76 ]

o]

106 ]

100 ]

Ca(OH)2 + Na 2 CO3 → CaCO3 ↓ + 2NaOH  [ =    ⋅ x= = 71,7 ] 

Hl\_lm(CaCO3) = 71,7 ] <ZjbZgl 1. Al(OH)3 + NaOH → Na[Al(OH)4] Al(OH)3 + 3HCl → AlCl3 + 3H2O tR

2Al(OH)3  → Al2O3 + 3H2O ( +)

2. A 2I– – 2e– → I20 ( −)

K K+ + 1e– → K we a

− 2KIj\  → 2K + I2 5) 2) 4) 1) 3. CaCl2 → CaCO3  →Ca(HCO3)2 3) →CaCO3  →Ca(NO3)2  →CaCO3 1) CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2NaCl 2) CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 → Ca(HCO3)2 tR

3) Ca(HCO3)2  → CaCO3↓ + CO2 + H2O 4) CaCO3 + 2HNO3 → Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2 5) Ca(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2NaNO3 4. @_kldhklvh[mkeh\e_gZkh^_j`Zgb_f\ \h^_bhgh\Mg2+ b &D2+. tR

Ca(HCO3)2  → CaCO3 + H2O + CO2↑ Ijhbkoh^blh[jZah\Zgb_gZdbibb aZkhj_gb_dhleZ 59


5. CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; Ï&#x2030;(CaCO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 20% = 80% m(CaCO3) = 500 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,8 = 400 ] o]

400 ]

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 56 ]

100 ]

 [ =    â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 224 ] 

Hl\_l] <ZjbZgl 1. KZHy\ey_lkyhkgh\gufhdkb^hf Z CaO + CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 [ CaO + H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(OH)2 \ CaO + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCl2 + H2O ( +)

2. A 2Brâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Br20 ( â&#x2C6;&#x2019;)

K Cu2+ + 2eâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu0 we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; CuBr2 jj  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu + Br2 3.

1

Al2O3

2

Al2(SO4)3

3

Al 4

AlCl3

5

Al(OH)3

1) 4Al + 3O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al2O3 2) Al2O3 + 3H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O 3) Al2O3 + 6HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 + 3H2O 4) 2Al + 6HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2AlCl3 + 3H2O 5) AlCl3 + 3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl 4. < ijbjh^_Zexfbgbc\klj_qZ_lky\ \b^_Al2O3 \ khklZ\_]ebgu [hdkblh\g_n_ebgZb qbklh]hdhjmg^Z 3,15 ]

o]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;63 ]

164 ]

5. Ca(OH)2 + 2HNO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(NO3 ) 2 + 2H2O  [ =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;    â&#x2039;&#x2026; x= = 4,1  â&#x2039;&#x2026; 

60


mij(HNO3) = η(HNO3) â&#x2039;&#x2026; ml_hj = 4,1 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] Hl\_lm(HNO3)2 = 4,02 ]

61


L_fZVI@_e_ahF_lZeemj]by JZ[hlZ@_e_ahb _]hkh_^bg_gby

<ZjbZgl 1. 4Fe + 3O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe2O3 hdkb^`_e_aZ III)

2Fe + 3Cl2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2FeCl3 oehjb^`_e_aZ III) tR

Fe + S  â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeS kmevnb^`_e_aZ(II) 2Fe + 3Br2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2FeBr3 [jhfb^`_e_aZ(III) 2. +26Fe 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2 tR



 

 

< kh_^bg_gbyo`_e_ahijhy\ey_lkl_i_gbhdbke_gby 3. 3Fe2+ + 2K3[Fe(CN)6] â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe3 [Fe(CN)6 ]2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 6K+ l_fghkbgbc

4Fe3+ + 3K4[Fe(CN)6] â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe 4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 12K+ 32 ]

28 ]

[bjxah\uc

4. CuSO 4 + Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + Cu  n(Fe) = = 0,5 fhev   n(CuSO4) = = 0,2 fhev  LdCuSO4 gZoh^blky\ g_^hklZld_jZkq_l\_^_fihg_fm 32 ]

o]

CuSO 4 + Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + Cu 160 ]

 [ =    â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 12,8 ] 

64 ]

Hl\_lm(Cu) = 12,8 ] <ZjbZgl 1. Fe(NO3)3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe2O3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl2 1) Fe(NO3)3 + 3NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3NaNO3 1)

2)

3)

4)

tR

2) 2Fe(OH)3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe2O3 + 3H2O 3) Fe2O3 + 3H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe + 3H2O 62


4) Fe + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl2 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; 2. Kh_^bg_gby`_e_aZkhkl_i_gvxhdbke_gbyijhy\eyxl \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Zijbwlhfhdbkeyykv^hkl_i_gb hdbke_gbyldboZlhfijbwlhfi_j_oh^bl\ [he__mklhcqb\mx nhjfm< g_dhlhjuokemqZyowlbkh_^bg_gbyfh]mlijhy\eylv hdbkebl_evgu_k\hckl\Zdh]^Zbagbo\ul_kgy_lkyf_lZeebq_kdh_ `_e_ah 3. Fe + 2HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl2 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; FeCl2 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)2 + 2NaCl 4Fe(OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4Fe(OH)3 112 ]

oe

4. Fe + H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + H 2 56 ]

 [ =    â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 44,8 e 

22,4 e

Vij G2) = η G2) â&#x2039;&#x2026; Vl_hj = 0,98 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e Hl\_lV(H2) = 43,9 e <ZjbZgl Z Fe + H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + H2 [ Fe + CuSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + Cu \ Fe + 2HBr â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeBr2 + H2 ] Fe + Pb(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(NO3)2 + Pb 2. )H2b )H2O3 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; hkgh\gu_hdkb^u)H 2+ 2 b )H 2+ 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; hkgh\gu_ ]b^jhdkb^u 3. Ij_^eh`_ggu_\_s_kl\Zfh`ghjZkihagZlvijbihfhsb jZkl\hjh\1D2SO4 b NaOH. FeCl2 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH) 2 â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaCl a_e_guc

BaCl2 + Na2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO 4 â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaCl [_euc

< hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_[m^_lNaCl. 4. 2HCl + FeCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl2 + H2O + CO2 m(FeCO3) = 0,8 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 50 = 40 ] 40 ]

oe

116 ]

22,4 e

2HCl + FeCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl2 + H2O + CO 2  [ =  

63


x=

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = 7,72 e 

Hl\_lV(CO2)=7e <ZjbZgl 1. Fe  â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl3 1) Fe + H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + H2 2) FeSO4 + 2NaOH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Na2SO4 3) 4Fe(OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4Fe(OH)3 4) Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl3 + 3H2O 2. <h^gu_jZkl\hjukhe_c`_e_aZ(III) bf_xldbkemxkj_^mldkheb h[jZah\ZgukeZ[ufhkgh\Zgb_fb kbevghcdbkehlhcb \\h^_ ]b^jhebamxlky Z FeSO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl2 + BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; [ FeSO4 + Ba(NO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Fe(NO3)2 4. 1)

7]

2)

3)

4)

18 ]

2Fe + 3Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2FeCl3

P )H

 = = 0,125 fhev 0 )H  P &O   n(Cl2) = = = 0,253 fhev 0 &O  

n(Fe) =

LdCl2 gZoh^blky\ ba[uld_jZkq_l\_^_fihFe. 7]

o]

2Fe + 3Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2FeCl3

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;56 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;162,5 ]

 [ =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 20,31 ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026; 

Hl\_lm(FeCl3) = 20,31 ]

JZ[hlZKihkh[uijhfure_ggh]hihemq_gbyf_lZeeh\

<ZjbZgl Z `_e_agZyjm^Z )H2O3) [

1) ihemq_gb_\hkklZgh\bl_ey \ 2C + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO Fe2O3 + 3CO â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe + 3CO2 2) \hkklZgh\e_gb_ tR

3) CaCO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO + CO2

3) reZdhh[jZah\Zgb_

64


CaO + SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaSiO3 3CaO + P2O5 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3(PO4)2 MnO + SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; MnSiO3 2. o]

0,1 ]

C + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO 2

12 ]

44 ]

[  =    â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 0,0273 ]  P &  = Ï&#x2030; K  beb Pkl 

Hl\_lÏ&#x2030; K   <ZjbZgl Z qm]mg [

\ 2Fe + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2FeO Si + 2FeO â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 + 2Fe Mn + FeO â&#x2020;&#x2019; MnO + Fe 2P + 5FeO â&#x2020;&#x2019; 5Fe + P2O5 C + FeO â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe + CO 2. 2Al2O3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4Al + 3O2 Ï&#x2030;(Al2O3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0,4% = 99,6% m(Al2O3) =0,996 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 50 l l 49,8 ]

o]

2Al 2 O3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4Al + 3O2 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;102 ]

4â&#x2039;&#x2026;27 ]

 [ =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 26,36 l  â&#x2039;&#x2026;

Hl\_lm(Al) = 26,36 l <ZjbZgl Z Al2O3 b Na3[AlF6] ([hdkblu

[

â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaAlO2 + CO2 \ Al2O3 + Na2CO3  2NaAlO2 + CO2 + 3H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Al(OH)3 + Na2CO3 2Al(OH)3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al2O3 + 3H2O tR

65


we a

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2Al2O3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4Al + 3O2 :exfbgbcijbf_gy_lky\ kZfhe_lhkljh_gbbf_lZeemj]bbb ^ey ba]hlh\e_gbyijh\h^h\ 2. o]

1,96 e

Fe + H2SO4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeSO4 + H 2

56 ]

22,4 e

[  =    â&#x2039;&#x2026; x= = 4,9 ]   Ï&#x2030;(Fe) = = 0,98 beb 

Hl\_lÏ&#x2030;(Fe) = 98%. <ZjbZgl Z qm]mg [

\ 2Fe + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2FeO FeO + C â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe + CO 2FeO + Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe + SiO2 5FeO + 2P â&#x2020;&#x2019; 5Fe + P2O5 FeO + Mn â&#x2020;&#x2019; MnO + Fe 2. ] K ² ] Fe3C) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; x%  â&#x2039;&#x2026; x= = 54%  Hl\_lÏ&#x2030;(Fe3C) = 54%.

66


AZ^Zqbk ijhba\h^kl\_ggufb f_`ij_^f_lguf kh^_j`Zgb_f G_f_lZeeu R

1. SiO2 + 2C  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si + 2CO m(C) = 80 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,92 ] d] t

o d]

73,6 d]

tR

SiO 2 + 2C  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si + 2CO 60 d]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;12 d]

[  =   â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  x= = 184 d]  â&#x2039;&#x2026; 

Hl\_lm(SiO2) = 184 d] o d]

R

m f3

248 d]

t 2. 2Ca3(PO4)2 + 10C + 6SiO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 6CaSiO3 + 10CO2 + P4 120 d]

224 f

124 d]

x 248 = 120 124 120 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 248 = 240 d] K

o 124

m  = 224 124 224 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 248 m f3 KH

124 mij (C) 240 ml_hj K  = d] Ï&#x2030;(C) 0,9 Hl\_lm(C) = 266,7 d]V(CO) = 448 f3. o d]

3. P4

124 d]

400 d]

+ 5O2 + 6H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4H 3 PO 4 4â&#x2039;&#x2026;98 d]

x 400 = 124 4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 98 124 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 400 x= = 126,5 d] 4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 98

ml_hj J 

mij (P)

η(H3 PO4 )

=

126,5 d] 0,8 67


Hl\_lm(P) = 158,2 d] 120 d]

tR

o d]

4. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 3H2SO4  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3CaSO4 + 2H 3 PO 4 310 d]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;98 d]

m(Ca3(PO4)2) = 0,6 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 200 = 120 d] 120 x = 310 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 98 120 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 98 o d] 310 mij(H3PO4) = ml_hj â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ρ(H3PO4) = 0,8 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 75,87 = 60,7 d] Hl\_lm(H3PO4) = 60,7 d] 5. SO2 + NO2 + H2O = H2SO4 + NO mjjZ = Ď â&#x2039;&#x2026; V = 1,66 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 100 = 166 d] m(H2SO4) = Ď&#x2030; â&#x2039;&#x2026; mjjZ = 166 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  d] o d]

m d]

122,84 d]

SO 2 + NO2 + H 2 O = H 2SO 4 + NO 64 d]

18 d]

98 d]

x 122,84 = 64 98 64 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 122,84 o d](SO2) 98

m  = 18 98 18 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 122,84 = 22,6 d] G2H

m 98 Hl\_lm(SO2) = 80,22 d]m(H2O) = 22,6 d] 6. â&#x2C6;&#x2020;Ď&#x2030; J  Âą  2,13% Ď&#x2030; G2H  beb 2,51% Hl\_lĎ&#x2030; G2H   7. mgZ^a=5 mih^a mh[s= mgZ^a+mih^a=6 mih^a mgZ^a G2H  Ď&#x2030;gZ^aĂ&#x201A;mih^a=0,88 mgZ^a=4,4 mih^a mih^a G2H  Ď&#x2030;ih^aĂ&#x201A;mih^a=0,8 mih^a mh[s=4,4 mih^a+0,8 mih^a=5,2 mih^a mh[s (G  H  P ih^a mh[s G2H

= = 0,867 = 86,7% m h[s 6m ih^a Hl\_l

68


F_lZeeu

o d]

10 d]

1. Ca(OH)2 + Na 2 CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2NaOH + CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;40 d]

106 d]

x 10 = 106 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 40 106 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 10 o d] 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 40

Ï&#x2030;(Na2CO3) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2% = 98% m( Na 2CO 3 ) 13,25 = mkh^u = d] Ï&#x2030; ( Na 2CO 3 ) 0,98 Hl\_lmkh^u d] 2. HgS + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Hg + SO2 Ï&#x2030;(HgS) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10% = 90% m(HgS) = 0,9 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 600 = 540 d] 540 d]

o d]

233 d]

201 d]

HgS + O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Hg + SO 2

540 x = 233 201 540 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 201 o d] 233

Hl\_lm(Hg) = 465,8 d] 3. m( K) 3 = mdZjl = ] Ï&#x2030; ( K) 0,006 Hl\_lmdZjl ] 4. 39,3% â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 38% Ï&#x2030;ijbf = beb 39,3% Hl\_lÏ&#x2030;ijbf = 3,31%. 458 ]

o]

m d>`

5. 3Mn 3 O4 + 8Al â&#x2020;&#x2019; 9Mn + 4Al2O3 + 2500 d>` 3â&#x2039;&#x2026;229 ]

9â&#x2039;&#x2026;55 ]

458 x = 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 229 9 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 55 458 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 9 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 55 o ] Mn) 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 229

69


458 m = 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 229 2500 458 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2500 = 1666,7 d>` m 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 229 Hl\_lm(Mn) = 330 ]Q = 1666,7 d>` 750 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 860 = 645 ] Z m(Au) = 1000 875 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 800 = 700 ] [ m(Ag) = 1000 Hl\_lZ m(Au) = 645 ][ m(Ag) = 700 ] o d]

170 d]

106 d]

62 d]

7. Na 2 CO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; kl_deh 1D 2 2

m(Na2O) = 0,17 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 1000 = 170 d] x 170 = 106 62 106 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 170 o d] 62 Hl\_lm(Na2CO3) = 291 d] 8. 2Na2O2 + 2CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Na2CO3 + O2 Ï&#x2030;(Na2O2) = 100% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2,5% = 97,5% m(Na2O2) = mi_j â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ï&#x2030;(Na2O2) = 0,975 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] 312 ]

oe

me

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;78 ]

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;22,4 e

234 e

2Na 2 O 2 + 2CO 2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Na2CO3 + O 2 312 x = 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 78 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 312 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 o e 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 78

312 m = 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 78 22, 4 312 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22,4 m e 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 78 Hl\_lV(CO2) = 89,6 eV(O2) = 44,8 e 9. m(Ca(OH)2)= m ]Zr â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ï&#x2030;(KZ HG  =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = d] ba\

o d]

51,6 d]

100 d]

74 d]

CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(OH)2

70


x 51,6 = 100 74 100 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 51,6 o d] 74 m(CaCO 3 ) 69,73 mba\ = = d] 0,95 Ï&#x2030; ( CaCO3 )

Hl\_lmba\ d] 10. mdjh\b = 80 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  d] ] djh\b²o ]aheu ] djh\b²] aheu 5600 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,33 o ] 32 ] aheu²\] Fe 150 ] aheu²] Fe 57,75 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 16 y= = 6,16 ] 150 Hl\_lm(Fe) = 6,16 ]

71

Химия, 8-9 класс Радецкий А.М. 2000 год.  

Химия, 8-9 класс Радецкий А.М. 2000 год.

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