ARCHITECTURE Design studio
AIR shihui zhong 531945 Group 10-11
Part Aâ€”The Case for innovation 1. Architecture as a Discourse 2. Computational Architecture 3. Parametric Modelling 4. Algorithhmic Explorations 5. Conclusion 6. Learning outcomes
Self Indroduction I am the third year Environment student and my major is Architecture. A lot of different study experiencees affect me as I come from China and I have been in Australia for nearly 5 years. I like doing different type of works, however, I am not good at doing digital programs. Since the start of Year1, I have learnt many useful technical tools such as Auto CAD, Rhino and sketch up, I have also learnt Indesgn and Photoshop as these are important tools for getting good visual effect. I can do these programs, but still not very proficient. Air Studio is the one which has highly technical requirement. In this area, I think we can have a good practice of using computer programs to design modern, digital and more sensitve building and structures. I atempt to understand the theme and purpose of studing Design studio. That is "practice makes perfect" . As I am in the process of coming up ideas and thinking the rationality, it is the time for me to learn how to use my knowledge to solve the problems.
A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE “Architecture, then, as discourse, discipline, and form, operates at the intersection of power, relations of production, culture, and representation and is instrumental to the construction of our identities and our differences, to shaping how we know the world.” — Dutton, Thomas A. and Lian hurst Mann
Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116. dutton, thomas a. and Lian hurst Mann, eds (1996). Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), p. 1
A.1.1 Architecture-- A Combination of Arts and Digital Technology
â€œArchitecture, then, as discourse, discipline, and form, operates at the intersection of power, relations of production, culture, and representation and is instrumental to the construction of our identities and our differences, to shaping how we know the world.â€?(Dutton, Thomas A. and Lian hurst Mann, 199 6). As Thomas A and Lian Hurst Mann said, the architecture is a combination of technics and the arts. Architectural skills and arts are closely related to each otherâ€œto make architecture is to construct knowledge, to build vision, and skills always lead the development of Architecture.
For example, if there is no geometric and measuring knowledge for Egyptian pyramids, it cannot be built. If we go to Richard William's article, he defined the Architecture as 'Arts', 'symbolic realm 'and 'spatial experience'. He also claimed that good architects need to have good vision and spatial imagination. The example of Mies van der Rhoe's German Pavilion, which was regarded as "a kind of reality reserve' and "encave capable of resisting as other the destructive onslaught of technological modernisation" in the reading is the one I analysis last year. The dire-
ct rectangular form and the open space are all the expression of the beauty of geometry. And in architecture thinking, I start to less how to stress "less is more". The discussion contributes to my design for the Gateway Project because I have learnt that Architecture design is not a single designing approach, it includes complex thinking which I need to find from the historical buildings. As the discourse, Architecture provides amazing skills which we need to learn and a large number of visual views to us. Thus I need to combine them together by using my own visual experience.
A.1.2 Precedents water cube Linking to the discussion of 'Architecture as a discourse', The Beijing National Aquatics Center in China, which is known as Water Cube(Fig 1.2.1), is my favourite design strcuture and can represent the modern architeture idea-combination of modern technical skills and visual views.
Fig 1.2.2 Weaire-Phelan structure
Figure 1.2.1 Water Cube view
Fig 1.2.3 Steel frames inside water
Although the form of the building is common rectangular shape is the architects put their efforts on the skin and construction, b William says in the reading it is important to "see the look of b initial idea of design is directly shown on the existing building---b traditional chinese meaning, where the square cube represents ea tion of them and represents lucky. The 4000 ETFE bubbles are col shiny, thus look like real bubbles in the visual effect. Another reason I like the building is the technic used for design an are the main support which is quite stableďźˆFig 1.2.3).
PICTURES http://www.chrisbosse.de/watercube/ http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2008/02/beijing-olympic/ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/2008/2006-12/28/content_769613.htm
Architects: PTW Architects (an Australian architecture firm), Arup international engineering group, CSCEC (China State Construction Engineering Corporation), and CCDI (China Construction Design International) of Shanghai
Fig 1.2.4 Start of grasshopper to creat geomatry structure
It is not hard to see that the computer technic is important for creating the Weaire–Phelan structure. I also try to create the geomatry form myself when I start using grassshopper. It is a good experience to know the original set for the Water Cube. When I create the form, I realise that the geometry can be found in natural systems like crystals, cells and molecular structures. Again the Water Cube design tells us to use computer programs to creat an e, we do not feel boring about this, that is why? The reason amazing space for different shapes and based on Weaire–Phelan structure（Fig 1.2.2). As Richard thoughts, that is modern Atchitecture. building and how is it achieved"(Richard,2005,pp106), the bubbles cover the cube,refers to water. The idea also has the arth and the those circles represent heaven, it is a combinaloured blue because they can reflect the sunlight to become
nd constrcution. Under the light ETFE pillows, steel frames
Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116.
A.1.3 Precedents Metropol Parasol
Architect: Jürgen Mayer-Hermann
Metropol Parasol(Fig 1.3.1) is a wooden structure which is located atSeville, Spain. The reason I chose it as the second precedent is the structure is quite interesting and it also looks like using the Rhino fabrication to create the form. Actually I have learnt Rhino fabrication in Virtual and it is a good experience to make modern structure. I think the design idea of the structure is mainly focus on the theme--nature and has the purpose of creating an attrative structure which can make a beautiful view with surround site in the urban area. Jurgen Mayer- Hermarn’s design is influence dby the vaults of the Cathedral of Seville and the ficus trees in nearby Plaza de Cristo de Burgos. The effect of city culture can be evidenced here and it becomes one of the “world’s most fascinating cultural destinations”. In order to solve the problem such as the hot weather, the umbrella form was produced. The architect created a 1.5m*1.5m geomatry grids, so that all components and panel are organized intensive in it(Fig 1.3.2). The method is very helpful for my Gatway Project Design because it tellls us how to translate the ideas to the site . The wooden honeycomb structure has six concrete base which form a body(Fig 1.3.3). In the curves, it contains four levels of the public space. The architect uses the different level of the stairs to form the museum space and when you look from up to down, the space looks like a piece of the clouds and people will develop the sense of layers. Things I learnt for my design from the precedent is the “softness” and “Movement” of the design space. Using Rhino skills to create the move and soft form can make the space and surrounding site look more open.
Figure 1.3.1 Metropol Parasol view
Figure 1.3.2 Metropol Parasol original grids set
Figure 1.3.3 Metropol Parasol sit concrete bases
A.2. Computational Architecture “For the first time perhaps, architectural design might be aligned with neither formalism nor rationalism but with intelligent form and traceable creativity.” — Terzidis, Kostas
terzidis, Kostas,Algorithmic Architecture,2006, p. x Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture's New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25
A.2.1. Computation—A New Media
Design, as a ‘purposeful activity”, aimed at achieving some welldefined goals(Yehuda E. Kalay,2004). The problem analysis, solution synthesis, evaluation and communication are all parts of design process and affected by computing. Computers, which can do the design process quickly and repeatedly, by following a set of instructions called program, can tells them in minute how to manilulate the electrical impulses in their circuits. Digital program plays important roles in Architecture. It helps people drafting and modeiling architecture. For example, with the continuous development of computer-aided design (CAD) technology, the use of computer graphics and drawing has become the basic requirements of the design work. Compare to the privious hand drawing work, it improve the efficiency as the designers can directly use the program to see the effect before built and do not need to do the reputational work. In contemporary architecutural design, generative design method is highly used to generate a set of images, sound and animations. “models of design capable of consistent, continual and dynamic transformation are replacing the static norms of conventional processes”(Yehuda E. Kalay,2004).Therefore, it is a communication between computing and design which can explore more possibilities. For my own gateway project design, it is helpful to use the computation because of the efficiency and it is innovative. As the purpose of the project is to explore new ideas to meet the theme of discourse, learning of computation is a process which aims to achieve the goal and increase the ability of generating our ideas.
A.2.2 Precedents Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is a world-famous museum which is used to display modern and contemporary art. It has been hailed as a "signal moment in the architectural culture", because it represents "one of those rare moments when critics, academics, and the general public were all completely united about something." (Tyrnauer, Matt , 2010). " The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao was built in 1997.It consists of glasses, steel, limestone and titanium, which is in dialogue with Bilbao’s shipbuilding industry. Besides, The organizing center of the museum is served by the atrium, which Gehry called The Flower because the shape. (Riding, Alan,1997) The most successful factor in the design of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is the use of computer software. The software is called Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application (CATIA), which is originally used for aerodynamics. Gehry used this software when he wanted to fix the process. The software is great tool for him to generate his idea and it can be evidenced as many curves on the exterior of the building, which is a new complex thinking of creating the new shapes. Besides, according to architect, “the randomness of the curves can also be used to catch the light”. (Aggerwal, Artika,2011). It is hard to emerge Gehry by simply hand drawing. With the help of the computer, it is easier for designers to show their designs to the public. Electronic design has become the main design methods. Gehry used CATIA to simulate the process of wind and air. He chose polyhedron as the external structure with surface and curve and it is a brilliant idea to do this. The surface and curve are like playing a symphony. Another highlight of the museum’s design is the use of water and the reflection will increase the brightness of the museum. It is a good example of showing the exploring ideas by using computation. For my gateway project, considering of the surrounding site and make the structure as a part of the site is quite important and I think the computation can help me do it by using different functions.
Architect: Frank O. Gehry.
Vanity Fair,Architecture in the Age of Gehry",22 July 2010. Aggerwal, Artika. Frank Owen Gerty,2011 “A Gleaming New Guggenheim for Grimy Bilbao”, The New York Times, 24 June 1997
A.2.3 Precedents Phoenix International Media Center Architect: BIAD UFo Phoenix International Media Center(Figure2.3.1) is a project which is still under construction. The project is invested by Phoenix Satellite Television (East) Beijing. There is no doubt that Phoenix International Media Centre is a great and fantastic building and it will be another landmark in Beijing after its construction. Phoenix International Media Centre is located in the southwest corner of Chaoyang Park in Beijing. The building is designed as the media office, the broadcasting studios and the production offices. Besides, Phoenix International Media Centre is also used as an important place for Phoenix Media to promote itself to the public. It provides the public with some space to get interactive experiences.
Except for the practicality, the design for Phoenix International Media Center is another highlight. The central logic of the design concept is to create a buildingin-building concept (Figure2.3.2)which is based on the model of “Mobius Strip”. “The sculptural shape provides the building a harmony relationship with the irregular direction of the existing streets, the sitting corner of the site, and the Chaoyang Park.”
The building’s surface is smooth and gives people a feeling of topological corporate culture of Phoenix International Media Centre. The most feature of the design of Phoenix International Media Center is the application of digital technology. Phoenix International Media Center takes the parametric design. The method helps modern buildings make prospective.The out structure of Phoenix International Media Center is not like a traditional design, it is very creative and Innovative. In the process of designing such a typical computerization example, designers use digital technology to analyze the relationship between related parts. Based on the explanation of “Mobius Strip”, which is “a surface with only one side and only one boundary component”, the model is related to the nature and gives people a feeling of peace. The computer technology used in the design also helps to simulate many possible feasible structures. Many designs of Phoenix International Media Center are not finished by painting. They are completed by programming, which is very advanced. For the design of gateway project, I will consider the situation of how to use the digital modelling connect the area outside. In this case, the circular form and taking views in different angles attract me and I can develop my ideas based on it.
A.3. Parametric Modelling “Parametric is a set of equations that express a set of quantities as explicit functions of a number of independent variables, known as ‘parameters'" —Weisstein, Eric
Weisstein, Eric.2003. CRC Concise Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. Second. Florida: Chapman & Hall/CRC. doi:10.1201/9781420035223-18 Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71
A.3.1. Parametric Modelling
Parametric is a “set of equation” which can “express a set of quantities as explicit functions of a number of independent variables, known as ‘parameters’ ”(Weisstein 2003).It breaks traditional architecture thinking and focus on the “Ontological Shift”(Woodbury,Robert,2010), which means to change the basic way of thinking the entities in the world. In the parametric modeling, the thinking of the basic geometrical elements is transferred to the “Computer script”, which “affords a significantly deeper engagement between the computer and user by automating routine aspects and repetitive activities, thus facilitating a far greater range of potential outcomes for the same investment in time”(Burry,Mark,2011). Therefore, the irregular forms such as Nurb surfaces, curves and point particles can be formed and it is the start to create those amazing and crazing shapes. Why is the Parametric modeling so important? It is not hard to see that we can use the tool to create or change the shapes easily we want during the process. Relate to the Architecture discourse, a successful design is not only visually attractive, but also has its own approach, in this case, parametric modeling is helpful to
transfer the ideas to the most suitable expression in a logical way.It also can be said that the parametric modeling is natural. On another side, the technique also has its shortcomings. “It turns out that these ideas are not easy, at least for those with typical design backgrounds. Mastering them requires us to be part designer, part computer scientist and part mathematic ian.”(Woodbury,Robert,2010)As Robert said, the parametric modeling may have a high requirement of the learning skill of software as well as the Math knowledge. In order to meet the updating requirements, it is also important to put new function in the software, which means designers need to spend times on the functions every time it is updated. Also, it may cost a lot if the designers change the shape for many times in the real design project. For my gateway project, parametric modeling is very helpful. In the lecture, some positive principles are mentioned, “All forms must be soft…All activities communicate with each other”. There are also some negative principles—“Avoid simple repetition…”It helps me to generate my ideas on how to create the attractive model using parametric tools.
A.3.2 Precedents Waterloo International railway station Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw& Partners
http://architourist.pbworks.com/w/page/13599732/Waterloo%20International%20Terminal http://ariellespratt.blogspot.com.au/2010/03/kolarevics-architecture-in-digital-age.html http://londonist.com/2007/11/what_now_for_wa.php http://www.eurotrib.com/story/2006/1/16/171313/141 Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48
Although parametric modeling is a modern tool, it cannot only reflect the characteristic of the century, but also show the architecture style. I choose the International Terminal Waterloo as the first precedent because it is “one of the earliest demonstrations of parametric modeling in archi tecture”(Woodbury,Robert,2010). “Easily change the shape” can be evidenced in the previous discussion, the exploring strategy can be evidenced in this example, which is “deferral”(Woodbury, Robert 2010).
The existing condition is that the train track curves through the station. However, Nicholas Grimshaw& Partners did not initially set the model to the proper location as they did not want it to be constrained by the curves. The fact is that the initial points and lines in the parametric model can be changed easily, we can see a lot of points which form the surface in Fig3.2.4, and each of the point can be moved. As the result, the designers made the decision in a deliberate strategy and changed a lot. The initial idea of the structure was from the bone structure of animals. Architects drew a lot of drawings to imagine the shape and inner structure. Fig3.2.5 shows the final roof structure. The unsymmetrial form shows the interesting idea, although it looks irregular, it is quite logical as using the math formula and knowledge. The design directly shows the idea of computer scripting, which encourages people to change the way of thinking based on the simple geomatry. Back to my gateway design, I also need to explore my thinking of creating the shapes to not only meet the requirement of the structure and location, but also the user experience.
A.3.3 Precedents Galaxy SOHO
Architect: Zaha Hadid
Figure 3.3.5 Figure 3.3.6
Another precedent I choose is the Galaxy SOHO in Beijing, China. The project began in 2009 and just finished last year. It consists of 4 towers which are 15 floors in height and the total area is about 46965 square meters. Zaha Hadid not only created a flowing and organic interior space, but also made it as a landmark in the area. The main theme of the design is from the thinking of Chinese courtyard and the purpose is to create a large inner area. Each building has its individual atrium and core traffic, the integration of different levels with the space t creates the outdoor platform. As the result, people can take broad views in all direction at the platforms and it is a 360 degree world without corners. As I said in the previous discussion, the parametric modeling is used to easily change the shape, Zaha Hadid used the tool to make a continuous structure with flowing lines, which contains the combination, division and solvation process. Architectâ€™s idea inspires us that we can develop our own ways of thinking to create shapes and flowing space rather than the regular ones by using the parametric modeling. PICTURES
http://www.huftonandcrow.com/projects/gallery/galaxy-soho/ http://homeklondike.com/2012/10/30/galaxy-soho-by-zahahadid-architects/6-galaxy-soho-by-zaha-hadid-architects/ http://www.arcspace.com/features/zaha-hadid-architects/galaxy-soho/ http : / / w w w. f ang w u z ai x i an . c om / b e n c an d y. p hp ? c it y _ id=1&fid=19&id=1386
A.4. Algorithmic Exploration
The interesting example I choose looks like using panelling tool to create but it is actually done by grashopper.It is efficient to use grasshopper to generate the points and we have done a lot in class task. I divided the surface and using explode tree to explore the points, thus I can choose three points in every four to form the triangle. The design can relate to the precedents I choose such as Waterloo International railway station and Phoenix International Media Center which are covered with glass thus light can go through the structure. What I have understood for new architecture is to generate ideas in a new way. For this design, the new idea is to make the space more open ny using the connection with outside area through the empty space.I have mentioned it in the privious chapter and the parametric tool makes the structure more complex.
Figure 8 Class task Vase
A.5. Conclusion Through the case for innovation, the meaning of using digital technology has been identified. Although it is the optional choose in architecture design, more and more architects and designers learn the skill as it is the representation of new architecture and ideas. The argument can be supported by three main area, they are Architecture as a Discourse, Computational Architecture and Parametric Modeling. Architecture as a Discourse has a generate idea that Architecture is a combination of arts and technical skills, Computation shows the importance of learning the computational programs and parametric modeling part tells us the exact task and function the of the skill which we need to achieve. After the research and analysis of these area, I deicide my design approach to be like strips and folding with irregular patterns. I will take the area of continuity and cohesion into special consideration, as the result, I may use some skills from tessellation to make the structure include more patterns and consists of different parts, but it still works as a whole structure. It is innovative for me and it can make the space look more open thus people can take a broad view. Last but not least, digital skills help the architects and us in the designing process because of it efficiency, it is important to continue exploring the technics by ourselves.
A.6. Learning outcomes During the four weeks, I have learnt a lot about the theory and practice of architectural computing. Firstly, architectural discourse gives me the idea of how to make more possibilities by using visual design as well as the digital skills. It is important to look back to the historical buildings to see the changes in the designing the process, thus I can take the ideas in the past to modern architecture in order to generate my thinking in a new way, which towards a logical and complex direction. Also through the experience in learning computing and parametric, it seems that I am in the process to solve different levels of problems. I have known the function and ability of the digital tools which can make the building more fashion and well organized. I am also awared of those
main figures the architects used often to achieve their design approach. The improvement for me is to start using the parametric modeling tool which is grasshopper. It is helpful to get lots of solutions for one problem. At the beginning of the semester, I just knew a little bit about the architectural discourse issue and have no idea with the parametric modeling. The fact is when I look some modern building, I can only say that the building looks cool and it uses the digital technics. However, I couldnâ€™t explore my ideas on how to make it look like this. Now I can use grasshopper and try to imitate the structure and understand the important thinking, thus it contributes to my own design. It is also helpful to go back to the past project in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency.