The new working village As a strategy of urbanization (Guangzhou, China)
M.Arch Housing and Urbanism
The new working village Research Group: Hugo Hinsley (Tutor) Lawrence Barth (Tutor) Chao Wang (M.Arch) Yanran Zhang (M.Arch) Mingyu Zhu (M.Arch)
Architectural Association School of Architecture MArch Housing and Urbanism February, 2014
As a specific form during the process of urban development, the ViCs (Villages in Cities) has become a prevalent phenomenon of urban development in Pearl River Delta due to its spontaneous high level of urbanization. On one hand, it is lack of appropriate regulation and management. And on the other hand, the severe urban as well as social problems it caused prompt the municipality to take actions. Our vision is to regard the ViCs as a typical temporary form of settlements that represents the state of life in this era, to test a method without complete demolition. The aim is to look for its urban cultural significance and itâ€™s potential answer in terms of urbanization. Urbanus, Village/City, City/Village, 2006
Introduction Why Guangzhou? Chapter 1 New territory for upgrading 1.1 The under-transforming city center 1.2 ViCs as a way for transformation 1.3 The new town in Guangzhou 1.4 Shaping a new way of upgrading Chapter 2 The ViCs as a strategy of urbanization 2.1 The challenge of the ViCs 2.2 The ViC - From Village to Neighborhood 2.3 Intervene in the intermediate stage 2.4 The ViCsâ€™ insights towards urbanization â€“ create integrations! Chapter 3 Urban Concentrators as catalysts of productive neighbourhood 3.1 Dafen Village as case study to learn key components 3.2 Analysis of key elements 3.3 The tools of Urban concentrators 3.4 Production collaboration Chapter 4 Urban Concentrators 4.1 Urban structure 4.1.1 The role of junctions 4.1.2 Border strategy 4.2 Street system & hierarchy of public spaces 4.3 Hybrid condominium 4.3.1 Learn from new industrial buildings 4.3.2 Activate engagement of multiple uses 4.3.3 Donate public spaces as a continuation of urban streets 4.3.4 Change the pattern of production units for possible upgrading Towards new productive neighbourhood
Each year, only three or four days after the Spring festival celebration, Ms. Hua Zhang, a 21 year old daughter of a traditional farmer couple who cultivate in Szechuan province in inland China, will take an 18 hours train ride to Guangzhou to find a job in the industries which have no relationship with her background. Annually the local employers of the manufacturing workshops would be present at the job-fair organized by the Guangzhou municipality, trying to attract labor like Ms. Hua to work for them immediately, even while the whole country is still celebrating the New Year festival. Guangzhou, known historically as Canton or, less commonly, Kwangchow â€” is the capital and largest city of Guangdong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the Pearl River, about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and north-northeast of Macau, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port. One of the five National Central Cities, it holds sub-provincial administrative status. Year after year a huge amount of peasant workers, young college graduates, and overseas-educated talents, arrive in Guangzhou, along with financial capital, mostly foreign. Like many other cities which are slow to adapt, the ports are abandoned, old shops in towns are threatened by the massive shopping malls and new communities constructed outside the city center, as the spatial and social-economic patterns of the city are shifting dramatically.
Migrants waiting on the square of Guangzhou railway station. 8
The world factory, producing the "made in China" products. 9
City of Guangzhou
Why Guangzhou? Guangzhou is the third largest Chinese city and southern China's largest city. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 12.78 million. Some estimates place the population of the entire Pearl River Delta Mega City built up area as high as 40 million including Shenzhen (10.36 million), Dongguan (8.22 million) and most parts of Foshan (7.19 million), Jiangmen (4.45 million), Zhongshan (3.12 million) and a small part of Huizhou adjoining Dongguan and Shenzhen, with an area of about 20,000 square kilometers (7,700 sq. mi). In 2008 Guangzhou was identified as a Beta World City by the global city index produced by the GaWC, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. The whole region of the Greater Guangzhou is known as the world factory for decades, manufacturing low-cost electronic devices and daily household products for the rest of the world. The agglomeration of these factories and workshops become the magnet for diverse communities migrating from other parts of the country. Migrants in China are often referred as the floating population. Due to the socialist era administrative legacy, the Hukou system, this floating population cannot get access to social welfare including housing, health care and education provided by the city governments. Currently the average income of the migrant workers is only a third of urban residents. Many migrants tended to flock to the pocket developments called chengzhongcun, which means villages in the city. The ViCs (villages in the city) are residential quarters created in former villages both within and outside city limits as farmers build rental properties to cater to the housing demands of migrant workers. By exploring the transformation of the villages in the city in Guangzhou, and in the urban region, this work proposes a better model for upgrading both the spatial and the industrial pattern of the city compared with the aggressive and ambitious intentions of the government. The thesis is trying to develop ways that urbanism could intelligently reclaim the legacy of a unique system of the VICs to shape the way of modern city transforming. It is an attempt of to propose better use of under-valued land in key locations to contribute to the urban strategy, not only in Guangzhou, but many other Chinese cities.
Chapter 1 New territory for upgrading
1.1 The under-transforming city center
Today the large amount of capital invested in the regional center cities is causing transformation of the industrial and spatial pattern in the economic centers like Guangzhou to gain the profit. Involving various stakeholders, and with strong intervention of the policymakers on urban planning strategies, the transformation and upgrading of older urban areas is a great problem in developing countries. Over decades, attempts have been evolved and, while the definition of new city regions is struggling, the enthusiasms for the construction of new knowledge-based industrial regions has varied in time and place. Replacing the out-of-date urban sectors that occupy high potential land locations is favored by governments to solve the issues that interwoven with social and economic transformation. In such cases, rare chances like international events, for instance the Olympic games, are favored by the cities as tools. These strategies are related with these events to implement their schemes. However, not every city can get events that can shape the whole urban structure dramatically. The growing need for rethinking urban regions is widely discussed all over the world, and schemes for new clusters are related with the flow of the capital and the modern ways of production. These schemes which are intended to be suitable for the new industry usually require large amounts of investment in advance to attract the worldwide capital to leave established industrial regions .The huge risk of the success of these schemes in long term value is hard to estimate. The shift from the rural to city-centered urbanization is the result of a number of factors, such as Chinaâ€™s increased integration into the world economy in the 1990s, fiscal and administrative decentralization, and foreign investment pouring into urban areas. The city-centered urbanization is characterized by decisions to invest in major urban projects by bureaucratic elites from the central and municipal government. Dozens of cities on the east coast are designated as special economic areas and development zones. The Guangdong province was among the first regions selected. And Guangzhou, as the capital of the Guangdong province and the economic center of southern China, is enjoying the boom by the worldwide investment.
The expansion of ViCs
1.2 ViCs as a way for transformation Today, the rapid urbanization process has not only resulted in the builtup region stretching out along the â€œdeveloping corridorsâ€? encouraged by the favorable state policy, but many plots with the presence of strong productive networks is also becoming the most preferred areas for redevelopment, known as the Villages in the City (ViCs). They might be known as critical social focus features, however, a new method to position the pressure of urbanization has been delivered by the ViCs along with a general shift of the testing site. The current center-located ViCs in Guangzhou contain 1 million inhabitants within extremely high-dense territories, while showing considerable production capability. For years, many of the inhabitants in these regions have started industries related to the state-driven ones spontaneously. The majority of the migrants list convenience as the top reason for choosing ViCs. The ViCs contain a variety of retail and service establishments to meet the every day demands for migrant workers and villagers, in comparison with regions outside the city. The accessibility to the urban infrastructures and public amenities of the ViCs give them potential for the future upgrading. Once the government acquires village land and compensates for the land loss of villagers with urban hukou( to make them acquire the urban citizenship), it often collaborate with real-estate companies to redevelop entire ViCs by building high-rise and market rate commercial properties. As most existing structures are demolished in the redevelopment, painstaking negotiations are often carried out between developers, governments and village landlords to determine which buildings are legal and how much the compensations should be. As the available cropland has been built on, developers and the city government have been increasingly targetting the residential land on which villagers have built rental properties, and the pressure to redevelop ViCs has been mounting higher and higher.
Since the 1990s, the Guangzhou municipality identified a list of 138 ViCs for intervention.
Location of 138 ViCs in Guangzhou
>20000 10000 - 20000 5000 - 10000 3000 - 5000 1000 - 3000 <1000
Population Density (inhabitants/km2)
Wholesale Market Cluster Shopping Mall Shijin Industrial Area
Guangzhou Sience Centre
Fangcun Logistics Centre
Dongsha Economic Development Area
Key Production Regions
According to China Business News [2012.11], Guangzhou has 138 ViCs in total, covering 22% of the urban region.Registered residents are approximately 300,000, while the living population is more than1000,000 actually. It is planned to complete alteration for 52 ViCs during 3 - 5 years. In 2012, almost 100,000 migrant tenants was involved in the alteration for 9 ViCs. All of them are located in central city with good accessibility, and has been high-dense places where migrants and Ant tribe agglomerates for years.
1.3 The new town in Guangzhou
Knowledge City City center
In the year 2009, the Guangzhou municipality initiated the Sino-Singapore Knowledge City plan. A new town 35 km away from the city center covering 123 Km2 is planned. In the promotion booklet, the vision of Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City is summarized as a unique, vibrant and sustainable city Compared to its counterparts in the West and in other developing countries, the Chinese state has enormous power and resources to undertake ambitious mega-scale projects to remake the urban landscape in rather astonishing short time. Positioned as a model and catalyst for the economic transformation and environmental enhancement of Guangdong, the freshly-born new towns are alienated away from the city center and would take decades to be fully accepted by the new residents to have both their working and living life there.
The common way of generating the new industries in well developed urban areas: evacuating a new urban periphery region and building high-standard buildings to locate the new residents and workers has its own disadvantages. This model, however, is still being widely used as a way to implement the “urbanization” process in many countries, especially the developing countries. The excessive reliance on the new towns produces conflicts between the traditional and emerging industries both in spatial and social patterns. During the process of economic and physical rapid development in cities where the old fabrics lose their attraction to new investment, the centralized decision making system generates standard strategies on a large scale. Pertaining to the social and economic transformations that exist today, new frontier programs, such as Guangzhou Knowledge city will not provide new towns to reduce the population and industry agglomeration in the city center regions. As the dominant factor that defines the future development of cities, the “new regions” have an important role to play in shaping everyday life and thus, should go beyond just satisfying the current enthusiasm for the new industries. Hence, the need is to reconsider the conventional way of implementing urban renovation and to use strategically the qualities of existing built fabric to create integrated urban development that combines private and public sectors, in order to address the social, political and economical shifts. In cities like Guangzhou, the potential residents for the new city regions include: the former farmer residents, they acquire the housing in the new towns as pension; the under class residents in the old town, they usually holds working skills but are out-of-date; the immigrants along with their financial capital. Still the huge need of workplace and housing for the new immigrants of lower class is hardly considered. And the state owned land-planning system usually simply shapes the land into single functional plots for easy access for the developers. And this mode can stimulate the inflation of real estate market. To acquire a more balanced and less speculative way of intervention in such environments, the new towns configuration could not be a copycat, but as key characteristics that can give insights into the development of new and efficient ways of new working region undergoing urban transformation.
. Roads can easily be underused for a decade before a new town become vibrant; . Government projects as first-step to boost new towns; . New-town housing oriented to upper classes are often less occupied; . Economic development area which led by industrial driven force can easily be well-operated, together with financial services and real estate.
1.4 Shaping a new way of upgrading
"Urbanization should not be understood simply as demographic trends, such as certain percentage of people living in cities, or as settlement types, such as the Central Business District, ghettos, suburbs and exurbs. Rather, â€œthe urbanâ€? should be understood as a process, one that is integral to the larger dynamics of global capitalism. The urban process entails certain moments and effects that should be positioned as the center of critical urban studies. "
Brenner (Urban China, p.100)
Since the innovation made in the information technology, the urban spatial structure, which is suitable for the industrial age, is gradually abandoned. Much of this has great connectivity but under-valued. To deal with this industrial and social heritage, strategies have been attempted to understand the intrinsic targets for the transformation. These transformation methods are no longer restricted to the construction of new regions but have a more complex and comprehensive approach that contributes to the support of new productive region. The challenge is to transform the city center in such a way that it not only responds to the drivers of change but also protects the livelihood and the rights of the underprivileged community, for the larger benefit of the city. In order to response to this challenge, it is important to strike a balance between consolidating the existing community and opening up space for other stakeholders in upgrading the backward area, so that an optimum realization of the existing infrastructure and the value of the central location of the site can be materialized. These attempts manage to reuse the well-developed urban infrastructure and working and living units to boost the new industries. Meanwhile it offers self-learning procedures for the work force settled in these regions. Although, this method varies in scale and relationship with the local socioeconomic transformation, they are crucial interventions for a more integrated city planning giving insights for urbanism in territories that need regeneration in a critical way.
Prospects Beijing Seoul Tokyo
Taipei Hong Kong
Pearl Delta Conurbation
GuangZhou inner-ring road
Ho Chi Minh City
Kuala Lumpur Singapore
Hong Kong Macau
Pearl Delta Conurbation
Chapter 2 The ViCs as a strategy of urbanization
2.1 The challenge of the ViCs
75% < 40% Residence
1 -‐ 5% 15 -‐20% Civic building
5 -‐ 15% 0 -‐ 4% Industry
1 -‐ 5% Road & Square
80% 70% 60% 50% Vics
30% 20% 10% 0%
Road & Square
The comparison of landuse distribution between ViCs and other lands in the city gives strong evidence to the characteristics of ViCs. The dominance of residence and industry gives explanation to the 'working + living' life pattern, also showing ViCs as highly productive regions. In the future, the high population, not only common classes but skilled people, as well as the production units in the ViC are considered crucial for the transformation in this urban area.
Today the ViCs has become a typical urban phenomenon with its specific urban identity compared to other city regions. Its spatial quality is different, its production pattern is different, its social status is different, etc. However, it might give an opportunity for an alternative version of urbanization through its spontaneous development based on its own property. Although many of the ViCs have started industries related to the state-driven ones spontaneously which gives hope for potential development, most of them are facing difficulties. The fact that the buildings in these regions offering low-cost working and living space for the new immigrants and start-up industries is not sustainable and intrinsically lack of competitiveness. Due to the lack of proper development strategy and policy, the spontaneous industries can hardly compete with the explicit real estate driven areas and these regions gradually turn into ghettos for the underprivileged class in the city. Meanwhile, the basic Hukou system has begun to gain piecemeal reforms. It, however, continues to serve the function of channelling cheap labour to the booming industrial regions while denying migrant workers urban citizenship rights. Especially in the housing market, Hukou prevents migrants from the accessing many public housing programs targeting the low-income groups, and skyrocketing housing prices put market housing out of their reach. The ViCs offered them the basic affordable housing and way of living at lower living expenses. The local government continues a campaign to urbanize and redevelop ViCs, the affordable housing options are becoming fewer and fewer for these migrants. The right to housing is a principal component of rights to urban life. The huge disparity in housing conditions between migrants and urbanities shows a prominent distinguish of social classes the ViCs are still largely needed before these migrants can gain equal footing with their urban counterparts.
A platform for exchanges is needed!
Quick development of real estates has already eaten up the empty lands outside the ViC. Although the land property restriction not allows the ViC to be easily changed into market-housing projects, the existing informal housing are under big pressure with the expansion of housing towers. And currently, no planning tools could prevent this to happen! The formal housing and informal housing are standing opposite along the boundary of the ViC, causing not only the discontinuity of built fabric, but social segregation among different classes. Now, activating the exchange upon production and consumption should be delivered instantly to release the contradiction. Either for commodities or services, a platform for exchange is severely needed.
Guangzhou Tangyong Village: Fine 100RMB for recruit in the village from nonlocal factories The basic industry of Tangyong village is garment industry. However, compared to better reward from the companies outside the village, the local industries show weaker competitiveness. A lot of ads to employ storekeeper and turner are turned over to deaf ear. One security person told the journalist that nonlocal factories recruit in the village took away their labour force and increased the difficulties of recruitment for local enterprises. Also, this will bring some heterogeneous working groups into Tangyong village that they donâ€™t need for main garment industry. The reporters also acknowledged that the security team of Tangyong are recently investigating migrantsâ€™ temporary residence permits. Thus, there is local protectionism behind these clumsy tricks. The migrants, who were attracted by the local enterprises, also wants to change the environment, go outside of this forbidden place, and get a free choice for job opportunities. From this perspective, a long transition period of time is needed before the local enterprises and foreign enterprises could compete equally standing on the same platform.
Based on great pressure from the quick development of investordriven projects, Tangyong village is losing its socio-economic attractions. The existing mode in the ViCs, living, industrial as well as infrastructure, is not able to support the upcoming new knowledge-based industries. An effective way to help Tangyong upgrade itself and shift its role into a positive one is urgently needed before severe contradictions are caused under the heavy pressure of rapid city transformation. Therefore, how to quickly act the ViCs in a certain location, taking advantages of existing conditions, changing the industrial mode and urban fabrics to contribute to the urban productional transformation becomes the main challenge.
2.2 The ViC - From Village to Neighborhood
From village to neighborhood, the â€œVillages in the Cityâ€? (the ViCs) is a phenomenon comes along with urbanization. With the rapid expansion of the city region, urban territories enclose former villages located in the city periphery. However, the different land property treatments make the village becomes a barrier for state driven development, which form the ViCs. Due to its origin and property, to merge with the other urban territories is the inevitable trend of the ViC itself. The aim, to create socioeconomic exchange between the ViC and city to help its own upgrading, can maximize the value of both areas that meets the fundamental demand of knowledge-based economy. Thus the ViC could be a strong strategy as well as testing ground to lead the next round transformation.
During the opening up economic reform since 1980s, the agriculture land was turned into industrial use and the Gong She (working commune) in the former agriculture based villages was reformed to stock corporations selling and managing the land in the villages . While the dominant part of the land in the rest of the city regions is state-owned, part of the land in the villages is owned by the original villagers thanks to the socialism legacy. Meanwhile, with the increasing factories in these original rural areas, large numbers of migrants is coming to the city and need low-cost accommodation. Due to lack of the entry level housing in the state driven schemes, the villagers build up additional housing units in the land where they own and share the majority part for the immigrants in mega cities like Guangzhou.
The ViCs in three developing stages
With the rapid development rate, large numbers of ViCs has spread over almost each corner in the cities like Guangzhou. The accessibility to the urban infrastructures and public amenities of the ViCs make them potential for the future upgrading. Since the 1990s, the Guangzhou municipal has identified a list of 138 ViCs for intervention and each single one of them is specialized in a specific stage in the formation process. Among the 138 ViCs listed by the Guangzhou municipal, those having a fairly closer location in the old city center today have become the ghettos for the low-income class as described above. The intervention on these ViCs for further upgrading and transformation is interwoven with many stakeholders and are commonly fail to acquire the understanding of the dynamic of the ViCs. Today, the intermediate stage of ViCs is at the crossroad and shows the most potentials. They usually spread on the periphery of the old town center, have demonstrated the early stage of economic and spatial characters of the well-evolved ghettos ViCs. More importantly, they still hold underutilized lands as the opportunity for quick intervention in a consensual way. Tangyong village is 3.7 km north to the old downtown center of the Guangzhou city. The highway and railway lines make it a significant location in the logistic network. There is large amount of workshops and agencies engaged in the automobile industry around and inside the village due to the presence of the prosperous Guangzhou Automobile Group. Yet, there are numerous realestate driven residential towers that have been constructed at the fringe of this ViC. Also the state driven mega scale projects including tube lines, public gardens, expo center, luxury hotels and other public amenities have a strong presence just a few kilometers east to the village. Also, the unique land property system in the ViCs and its key presence in the expanding urban region provided a test ground for the quick intervention to respond to the challenge of a wider urban region. To study the ViCs like Tangyong, we aim to define a strategy to moderate the excessive competition during the process of urbanization for better social well-being.
2.3 Intervene in the intermediate stage Today the first ever ViCs formed decades ago without proper administration and intervention of the policy-making level, have evolved into problematic neighborhoods which hold contrast in both form and urban structure by the ex-villagers dwelling and the rest of city. The high building density, insufficient amenity and public space turned these ViCs into a breeding territory for illegal trades like drugs and prostitutions. The intermediate ViCs like Tangyong, however, are currently in their crucial stage, facing the real estate driven development and the policy. It is either going to be traded as a potential land filled with high density condo towers or grown spontaneously into a even more complex of social and spatial issue, making it less easier be transformed. Lack of understanding of the temporary and adaptable industrial along with the spatial pattern of the ViC the local authority tend to have a constant opposition of the presence of the ViC. Under the regulations and laws of the Guangzhou municipal, in each purgation project, 96% of the land seizure was turned into the land for the real estate market while the rest is paid as pension for the villagers. Thus, once the upgrading project done, it is usually a new high dense concrete and steel wood to guarantee the investment is paid back. Thus, this way of treatment which tries to use the real estate driven strategy to evacuate the ViCs keeps creating problems in other areas in the cites. To give another vision of development, we take the intermediate stage ViCs, Tangyong Village as a test case, to quickly act in response to wider urban region. The proposed way to intervene, is to create a workspace pattern which can easily activate social exchange. The neighbourhood would support an innovative industrial sector at a local scale and be able to extend a high-tech exchange at a regional one. In such way, itâ€™s possible to keep its character for the spontaneous evolution of different social classes. Gradually, We imagine the engagement between the industries and their neighbourhood to constitute the next generation industrial environment, finally to become a part of the city.
2.4 The ViCs’ insights towards urbanization – create integrations! If urbanization is a process, the Vic is a temporary urban language that comes along with it. It needs to upgrade to catch up the new trend of transformation, and in the meanwhile, it should serves the urbanization by acting a positive role. The ViC should not be demolished! The existing conditions we see, the poor spatial quality and the weak local production, represent the migrants’ life of distress and the villagers not knowing what to do. These social questions cannot be solved by radically demolishing the ViCs, rather, would intensify contradictions between different classes. On the contrary, take the ViC as a strategy to mitigate the conflicts would be a complete and sustainable solution. By providing a feasible way of further incremental development for various existing elements, it is a support for local production and people in the village. The aim is to stimulate the spontaneous driving force for upgrading from the ViC itself.
BALANCE VARIOUS INTERESTS AND CREATE INTEGRATIONS
The rapid transformation of industry urgently needs the new proper territory in the proximity 38 of metropolitan. The local government encourages the construction of mega development zone by approving favorable policy to attract the intended tenants.
An increasing scarcity of housing is common in the center and periphery of mega cities. The real-estate development secures profit
To change the role of the ViCs in the process of urbanization, the key is the fundamental legacy, the collective land ownership, which is different from state-owned. This specific land property make the ViC a double-edged sword. In order to strategically intervene in such a case, the existing configurations of the informal should be seen not as an obstacle to re-development, but as an opportunity to provide a reflexive respond with the other urban areas in order to boost collaborations to maximize the value of both areas. Becase of the collective land ownership, relative administrative institution divides the land for each family as housing land. Such policy makes the land of the land subdivided and highly mixed, and buildings usually adaptable. Various additional values are brought. Firstly, it is compatible for various classes to live and work here and create sustainable ecology with the urban system. Secondly, the land use is more favorable to individual goods and market demands, instead of investorsâ€™ and municipalâ€™s interests. Thus the ViCs create such an urban environment that diffenrent social classes are gathered here, looking for potentials in industrial economy. In order to take this opportunity, great attention should be paid to enhance local economic viability and its efficiency. The strategy to achieve this is through promote collaborations among diffenrent stakeholders for industries to upgrade and people to live better. Various interests could be balanced via a shared environment. More possibilities could be found with shared resources and information. For example, an exchange platform for balanced opportunities will serve as social ladder for people who live there to step up. Also for enterprises, better optimizing the allocation of resources can reinforce the industrial competitiveness. In such a way, it is possible to strengthen its social-economic status as a whole during the spontaneous evolution.
in the limited land-using right period by maintain the unreasonable inflation.
The less consumption of commuting and the combination of working and accommodation are preferable for migrant workers. Meanwhile the inadequate of civic infrastructure and 39 mono-dimensional structure request the upgrades of the ViCs both for the villagers and migrants.
LAND PROPERTY LEGACY TO TRIGGER CROSSOVERS The fundamental legacy of the Vics is the rural collective land ownership, different from the other land of the city that is owned by the municipality. Because of this particular property, the Vic can be flexible to respond to its surrounding urban area, where the government has the initiatives in hands. Spatial tools could be an effective catalyst to associate and negotiate between the villagers and the municipality, sometimes investors, in order to trigger crossovers among different sectors and bring additional values.
Tangyong Urban Fabric
PRIMARY ROAD CONCENTRATION
CONTAINERS OF LIVING + WORKING
Layer 1 Potential elements
Layer 2 Lack of integration
The strategic location of Tangyong plays a crucial role in a city-scale production zone. 20km south to Guangzhou International Airport and 5km north to Guangzhou railway station, the village is well connected by mobility infrastructure. Moreover, a large automobile industry zone as well as the regional civic center is located in eastern side. And a mixed industrial zone, mainly for garment, furniture and automobile is closed located to the west of Tangyong. The existing situation provides a lot of favorable sectors around, however, they are currently disconnected to each other, either in industrial relationships or with discontinued spatial mobility infrastructure. Spatial strategies are targeted to stimulate productive collaborations among the village and other urban regions to boost the local economy. With the synergies happen to Tangyong village, its socio-economic competitiveness will be strengthened as a whole.
Logistics Station the logistics station is proposed to serve the diverse production sectors of this region in order to enhance the production spine of the Vic which links the mixed fabrication zone and the city center. Also improving the corridor development supported by the railway.
Fabrication & Warehouse Along the railway, warehouses and some particular industries are proposed in the empty land to enhance the local industries, which are garment, furniture and automoblie . And through this to guide the development of its adjacent area in the Vic.
Mixed Fabrication Zone (Garment, Furniture, Automobile)
Research Cluster The junction of the fabrication spine, water front and the exchanging spine is proposed to establish particular institutions or research clusters to create cross-over relationships with the local industries contributing to the upgrading of the industrial chains and
This thesis aims at explore the urban integration to mitigate the conflicts between investor-driven (formal) and selfconstructed (informal) territories. The proposal develops a set of "urban concentrators" serve as a platform to deliver social exchanges, and optimize the current infrastructures to reach a larger productive region. 44
To City Center
Real Estate The real estate project has been standing here for more than one decade. Its way of treating the surroudings, enclosed by bar, is not favorable towards a new integrated neighbourhood. Also, the typology of the building is very differnt from the informal settlement.
Mobility Infrastructure Tangle Road is currently a major road connecting the Tangyong village to the city centre. Massive transpotation including population and goods are relied on good accessiblity and structure of this mobility infrastructure, for further upgrading of the village.
Waterfront The waterfront is supposed to become an important role to deliver pedestrian friendely environment, and thus to stimulate crossover activities between Tangyong and the opposite neighbourhoods.
To mitigate formal with informal, to bring together various stakeholders, to combine diverse production sectors, to integrate resources in a larger urban region - â€œurban concentratorsâ€? are a set of spatial tools targeted as a platform of social exchange with high efficiency, having a great potential to bring socialeconomic value for Tangyong.
based upon economic, political and social relationships.
Based on different scale, there are three main spatial tools of urban concentrators: urban structure, street patter regularization and hybrid condominium. The tools define key elements like platform, courtyard, open space, street, road interface and road junction in order Applying urban concentrators in to deliver integrations, and also multi-scalar planning strategy, by organize those functional spaces. changing the production pattern in buildings, blocks and villages, the proposal has the potential to provide easy steps for existing elements to upgrade through a long-term process, with a synthetic effect
Chapter 3 Urban Concentrators as catalysts of productive neighbourhood
3.1 Dafen Village as case study to learn key components
High density and homogeneous spatial pattern
Unfavorable main street could be key exchanging place
The production process entends to the outdoor space
Mass production of replicas of classical oil painting works
Mixed use housing with woking units on the ground floor
Dafen Village, today well known as The Oil Painting Village, is located in the center city of Shenzhen, a new Special Economic Zone established for the economic reform of the opening-up policy in China. This city, built up from empty land within only two decades, is now facing hundreds of problematic ViCs due to the over-quick urbanization, among which Dafen is a typical one.
C Juzikeng Village 13m
Dafen Village D
D 1.5m 8m
1.5m C A
E 1m 7m 1m
E 1m 7m 1m
City Vehicle Route Neighborhood Vehicle Route Pedestrian Street Alley Passage
In terms of local production, Dafen has really successful experiences for other ViCs to take. Its oil painting industry has affected overseas markets. Today, around ten thousands painting related workers inhabited the 4 square kilometers territory and produce replicas of classical oil painting works. Many of the artists are trained at art academies in the required techniques and produce dozens of replicas daily. It is the repetitive art works sold with relatively low prices shows the success. Although the local production in Dafen seems to catch the industrial opportunity, the production pattern is still traditional. Limited spatial strategies are taken through the urban renovations and could hardly change the way it works. The workspaces are unit separated and people donâ€™t speak to others even next units. Spatial pattern is important in terms of triggering social interactions and sharing production-related resources. During a long-term process, its industrial pattern will gradually change towards a knowledge-based production neighborhood.
Due to the unfavorable industrial pattern, the communal space in-between these working units couldn’t play a good role. What if we organize the access points around the communal space, change the façade, improve landscape environment, or link buildings with bridges? These advanced spatial methods could affect people’s way of living and working.
3.2 Analysis of key elements
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PATTERN AND ACCESS POINTS 2000
When Thangyong village is all surrounded by farmland and still mostly depended on traditional agricultural production, the main access to the village has the strongest attractions in the regional scale.
When the urban growth begins to take up the agricultrual land and big-mass industry appears in this periphery zone, Tangyong village starts to look for its own production mode. While these two begins to compete with each other.
Today along with the rapid development of industrial production, the ViC, due to its limited economic growth, has already lose its attractions.
INFRASTRUCTURAL ATTRACTION IS IMPORTANT!
As for the big-mass industries develops quickly with strong competitiveness, the ViC is losing its previous attraction with its limited economic growth over the decade. One manifestation is the access points of the mobility infrastructure all shifted to other region of the city far away from the ViC. In order to upgrade the ViC, it is important to bring good accessibility to revive vitality brought along with infrastructure that supports the previous productive activities as well as logistics access.
EXISTING STREET CONDITIONS Yueâ€™an driving school
Tangyong community center
Water and electricity service
 Tangle Road
Sanbian Garment factory
Adhisive tape factory
 Xiyuan Road
Building materials shop
 Xintang Alley one
STREET PATTERN IS IMPORTANT!
The current streets in Tangyong village are not functioning well but complex and disordered. The primary road, Tangle road, which actually not a high-grade city road but currently has the best accessibility to the village, is degraded into community-like street due to losing its attractions. New industrial attractions should be introduced here to strengthen its strategic role. The high street, Xiyuan Road, is currently carrying both factories and neighborhood services. Small branches are not distinguished so that both goods storage and pedestrian activities are using the same space, leading to low efficiency of the street system. Thus not only a well-connected infrastructure network is important, how to clear distinguish and give specific characteristics to street pattern is important as well.
Perspective view of existing Tangyong village
THREE-IN-ONE BUILDING: PRODUCTION + STORAGE + LIVING
This typical three-in-one building represents the traditional working pattern in the ViCs, small production units, having diverse functions within one unit building. Although this mixed use brings great convenience and creates an autonomous industry, it has severe security problems. Moreover, the high dense ViC which is lack of exterior public spaces makes the migrants nowhere to go but feel trapped inside the unit building. As new arrivals, the most thing they need is to get opportunities, and these units block their chances!
PRODUCTION UNIT ORGANISATION IS IMPORTANT!
 Goods stacked up on the groundfloor outside buildings;  Informal steel rooms that causing security problems;  A housing after fire.
 Land in the ViCs is divided into squares.
The characteristics of small production units Due to the collective land property, each ViC will divide the collective land into family-use housing land. For example, in the city of Shenzhen, housing land for each family is 10m*10m. The typical land division of the ViCs generates the typical small production unit buildings. It is usually family-owned and developed into mills that employ migrants as cheap labors. First of all, it has favorable aspects. It break up the economic consolidation owned by the village as collectives, thus each individual mill can develop their own production and the competition among them stimulate the development. However, it also brings disadvantages. The small-unit production pattern operates separately. In pursuit of maximum profits, each unit building increases the density beyond safety without any consideration of exterior environment in-between. Spatially, there is no favorable public spaces, no spatial hierarchy, no transitional spaces. And in term of social status, everyone stays in workspaces and don’t communicate with people outside. This becomes the actual reason of the migrants’ living status of “only to survive”. In the future, multiple ways to change the production pattern should be suggested according to industrial demand in specific case. Because the traditional production pattern still has its advantages, an easier way to implement is to give the alternative options to upgrade in the near future.
3.3 The tools of urban concentrators
ROAD ACCESSIBILITY To highlight the function of mobility infrastructure to reach a further region for upgraded industrial sectors.
LANDSCAPE Different typologies of public spaces and landscapes can change the way of daily life and gradually influence the production efficiency.
INSTITUTIONS The introduction of new educational institutions will bring balanced job and learning opportunities for migrants and villagers.
PRODUCTION The boost of local production facilities in the ViCs will promote the local income and improve the quality of life of local residents.
SHARED STOCKS Various stakeholders are introduced to join in. Current production units are to be shifted into shared stocks companies.
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AREA NEEDS TO CONSIDER THESE ASPECTS. 58
An urban structure is tool to define the location of key urban elements, and their spatial relationships. By looking at nodes, axis, and zones with functional consideration, to establish a network for integrated space. The aim is to deliver good accessibility using the concentration effect of infrastructure and to highlight the function of certain parts in order to help local industry to reach a lager region.
Regularize the pattern of streets is, to distinguish each different characteristics in a street system. They do different jobs and show different urban characters. This is fairly important in terms of creating hierarchy of public spaces, including open spaces, yards, etc. By looking at their positional relationships and treatments towards streets, we can imagine a series of dynamic urban activities.
As an architectural tool, the condominium merges with the informal housing in a new typology that helps bring people together. The new-built condominium combines creative studio and high income housing with previous local production and affordable housing. A proposed upgraded condominium for existing informal territory is to partly open their production area and circulation space for living to trigger future change of working pattern. The goal is to attract new financial and social demographics into the ViC.
THREE ELEMENTS ARE DEVELOPED AS MAIN TOOLS THAT EMPHASIZE INTEGRATIONS OF PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES. 59
TOOL #1: AN URBAN STRUCTURE THAT TRIGGERS INTERACTIVE SPACES
With a view of regional scale, Tangle road links a set of key sectors and facilities in series. Its role of significance of reaching a city scale is far beyond other roads in Tangyong village. Thus, branches are organized based on this primary infrastructure and so does border treatments. Key junctions are defined to highlight their function into a further region.
Mixed production area Civic Cneter
To city center
The main structure is targeted to merge informal territory with the formal industrial territory. Several key zones are anchored along the main infrastructure guided by public spaces. These crossover relationships beyond the boundary of the ViC are supposed to support hybrid functions and appeal multiple stakeholders to lead the transformation in the near future. Surrounding areas in the north part of Tangyong village, then are organized in a grid to merge the fabric, among which clear hierarchy of streets and open spaces could be seen.
Layer1 Open space
Layer3 Structure of intervention
Layer4 Fabric grid
Layer5 Building size
TOOL #2: STREET PATTERN REGULARIZATION
STREET PATTERN OF INFORMAL AND FORMAL 1
Logistics Access Pedestrian Access Primary road Secondary road Service passage Neutral Road Unilateral Road (One side with building) Pedestrian Street
The existing condition shows the ViC of Tangyong are functioning fairly hybrid and complex, especially shown on street pattern. Industrial zones are juxtaposed with informal housing territories while the street pattern are not continued in terms of subdivided grid, hierarchy and also street characters. If village are managed to become a comprehensive production zone, it’s crucial and urgent to rethink the street pattern throughout the territory. To regularize the street job, it’s possible to improve the efficiency of transportation and create better environment for pedestrian activities. Pedestrian-friendly streets and courtyards usually enclosed with continuous building façade usually supporting commercial activities. Neutral road happens in industrial areas with interrupted building alongside. Unilateral road means a mixed character of the street, open space is a way to change the character along the street. Service passage has no vegetarian and always set to meet the demands of logistics and building interval distance.
TOOL #3: HYBRID CONDOMINIUM AS A TYPOLOGY TO GENERATE NEW DYNAMICS IN THE URBAN FABRIC
TRADITIONAL FAMILY PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE VICS
2nd Floor: Living 1st Floor: Production Studio Ground Floor: External Service and trade
Hybrid Condominium is an upgraded building typology based on the traditional working unit building. It maintains the mixed function of previous three-in-one building, storage or service at ground floor, production on first floor and living on top. Moreover, it changes the organization of these working and living units for predictable upgrading of productive management mode, that is, the local production units turns into collaborative enterprises with shared stock for a group of people. Meanwhile, hybrid condominium offers qualified public spaces for interactive events. The analysis of informal housing shows high density however relatively low plot ratio. The approach is to increase open spaces and improve the environment, at the same time, apply an incremental growth to on top in order to guarantee the high building area. Additional building areas are prepared for new knowledge-based industry to take. This typology can be both new-built and applied to existing informal housing alterations.
The prototype of original production unit, with private enterprise
Within an urban block, leave some open spaces in order to create lower building density
Organise units in a logical way with clear spatial hierarchy
local production orginal living newcome hybrid soho communal space
The organization of living units can be changed according to management mode.
Hybrid soho, which could be creative studios plus living, is introduced.
ADMINISTRATION & INNOVATIVE STUDIOS
An existing empty site is chosen for first-step test of hybrid condominium in Tangyong village. This new-built building mainly provides relocations for the alteration project of the informal housing in the village. The relocation costs can partly be took back from the additional building areas. Ideal investors will be willing to join in due to this strategic location at the intersection of two primary roads.
In the future:
Expo s Cen ition tre
A further step of upgrading the informal territory is based on proper relocation of local people. Also the surrounding territories should have already implemented upgrading approaches; otherwise the new-built hybrid condominium in the center of informal community will give too much pressure to its surrounding neighborhood.
3.4 Productive collaboration
Freight Rail Station
New plug-ins to lead the future transformation:
New Industrial Building
Extending from interior to exterior, connecting small yards into regional scale, distinguishing different character of public spaces, a continuous system of free spaces integrates the various possibilities in the productive neighborhood and creates the dynamics of this urban territory. WHOLESALE MARKET SECONDHAND MARKET
RETAIL + LIVING
New Industrial Building
Based upon multi-scalar methodology, three spatial tools are emphasized here as approaches to help integration of production activities in the ViC. Upgrading the production mode, bringing in various stakeholders, promoting the efficiency of street system, improving quality of public spaces, better reaching a further region, creating continuous ur-
ban fabrics over informal and formal territories, the three of them are each targeted towards different aspects but all with the ambition to bring synergies on a social-economic level, that is, to support a sustainable and spontaneous evolution in influencing the territoryâ€™s re-development and help the ViC finally become a part of the city.
Chapter 4 Urban Concentrators
4.1 Urban structure
While acknowledging urbanizationâ€™s tendency to scaleup the production through multiple sectors, an urban structure is a means to address these crossover territories emerge at where new collective and public spaces, new social institution and amenities and new economies are forged. Spatial strategies try to link formal and informal territories by supporting local and regional dynamics through well-accessed connections between each other and the insertion of knowledge-based uses of components in key locations.
Movement along the main backbone
Movement through inner courtyards of open blocks
Sequence of well-defined pockets
4.1.1 THE ROLE OF JUNCTIONS One significant principle to manipulate the urban structure is through playing the role of junctions. It highlights the concentration of infrastructure to reach a further region. By defining buildings with certain functions in key locations and using open spaces as a leading space, a sequence of activities can draw people inside. The main production spine supports open spaces which serves as collector and distributor can come along with a transformed exposition center and institutions from previous industrial factory. While a more neighborhood environment provide relax and easy life with open spaces connected to pedestrian routes. 74
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4.1.2 BORDER STRATEGY
As there are informal and formal fabrics interwove with each other in this territory, itâ€™s considered to be crucial to pay attention to the border. A continuous sequence of urban life, living and working events, change gradually from streets to yards, from industrial zones to housing areas. Well-defined public spaces and building treatments are key manipulative elements.
Movement into courtryard (informal territory)
Movement through courtyard to open spaces (new-built)
Movement through informal and formal territories
4.2 Street system & hierarchy of public spaces By regularize the functions of streets, clear hierarchy of public spaces is defined to deliver spatial integrations within a continuous and extendable structure. Different spatial characters are distinguished under a logical relationship with street grade, faĂ§ade treatment, landscape setting and so on, which in the future determines the movement pattern and peopleâ€™s way of using them. From architectural scale to regional scale, the role of street system serves as engagement spaces, creating friendly and high-efficient production environment.
SWISS COTTAGE AS A WAY TO LEARN STREET PATTERN
As a place for urban public amenities, it chooses the typology of open block mainly to effectively attract and hold people with a friendly environment in the middle of the block. This seems interesting when looking at its treatments towards the streets. Main accesses and entrances towards the yard and dominant facilities are all along with two primary roads, best drawing attention from the region nearby. In such a way, active movement or still activities are ordered in a clear sequence with its relationships to street system.
quality of public spaces
Swiss Cottage, located in Camden borough of London, currently serves as a center of learning, recreation and sports in a regional scale. The only available useful condition from its site is the adjacent streets. The success of Swiss Cottage shows the importance of taking advantage of the street pattern to engage the public spaces as an urban concentrator.
Swiss Cottage, Camden, London
Primary road Secondary road Community passage Pedestrian pathway quality of public spaces
primary road in the south
community road in the north
secondary road in the east
high way in the west
WAYS OF STREETS LINKING PUBLIC SPACES
Basically, there are three ways of streets linking public spaces: streets cut through public spaces, streets come along one-side, and streets set back from public spaces with a building in-between. In different cases, public spaces are called differently like square, open spaces, yards and so on.
Street cuts through open spaces
Street with one-sided open spaces
Street with open spaces behind
Buildingsâ€™ different street treatments:
Different characteristics of streets:
Streets with one-sided open spaces, well-defines by surrounding buildings
Informal territories with potential of various kinds of street treatments and crossover relationships with public spaces
Key parts of the active urban structure are designated for interventions as examples of different street treatments towards public spaces. The first proposed intervention is an open space adjacent to primary road serving as a guidance spaces for an influential exposition center. The second intervention is a proposal for informal territory re-development. By keeping main characters of the existing fabric, with just doing a little bit change, the whole series of public spaces systems will work much better.
a. STREETS TO DEFINE OPEN SPACES
 Square of Pompidou Center;  Diagram showing streetâ€™s relationship with open space in a proposed area of Tangyong;  Open spaces with streets on one-side.
In most cases, open spaces are organized alongside at least one street. Called square or green park, according to landscape characteristics, an open spaces brings active environment in urban life. Three elements should be pointed out: streets to bring outreaching, open spaces to create free flowing space; building facades as well as their entrances to keep relatively enclosed identity. 
In this triangular site, located quite strategically along Tangle road towards a new developing zone in the west side of the ViC. A proposed open spaces is to lead the fabric transition from formal, especially the real estate in opposite the road to informal in the ViC. Civic use could be ideal for the building adjacent to it, for instance, an exposition center, by transforming the previous factory building. Moreover, the open space crosses over the street to get joint relationship with the building opposite.
 Sketches showing relationships with steet, building and open spaces;  Unilateral street with green park on one side;  Open spaces in Potzdamer platz.
b. STREET SYSTEM TO DELIVER A SEQUENCE OF SPACES
Primary road Secondary road Community passage Pedestrian pathway
Hirarchy of proposed area
The proposal to renovate the informal territory is to demolish as little as possible, by give clear redefinition of THE OPEN SPACES, STREETS, YARDS as an effective tool to bring people together in public spaces and to segregate them from backspaces where necessary. Among these, to regularize street pattern for different characteristics is the dominant one to give others practical instructions and also the buildings.
Assembly Production Storage Administration Exhibition Retail Housing
A sequence of functional spaces with clear spatial identity
4.3 Hybrid Condominium
"For many, work is already a combination of learning , producing and playing."
--- Frank Ogden (alias Dr.Tomorrow) wrote in Die Zeit (1/1999)
Four blocks in the proposed site demonstrate how applying hybrid condominium will (1) activate engagement of multiple uses; (2) donate public spaces as a continuation of the urban street system; (3) gradually change the pattern of production units for possible upgrading. The first two objectives cover a general idea of hybrid condominium and will be presented in new-built buildings and the last one aims at how to deal with the existing informal housing.
4.3.1 LEARN FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
1. Providing mixed functions vertically as well as logistics access
Storage Assembly Production Exhibition Administration
-----Administration -----Assembly / Production
2.Industrial production to organise/define public realm
Storage Assembly Production Exhibition Administration
4.3.2 ACTIVATE ENGAGEMENT OF MULTIPLE USES
Living Perspective section of hybrid condominium triggerng integrations
Contributing the ground and first floor to a series of basic facilities shared over the neighborhood, retail, cultural and recreational facilities, and bringing in incremental functional spaces on the top for new-arrived stakeholders, social integration and a vicinity support network can be enhanced. On the boundary of merging formal industrial zone to informal housing territory, this proposed hybrid condominium act as a convertor by providing a series of transitional spaces. Open block along with public functional spaces maximize the possibility for continuous movement into another urban environment, thus to mitigate with the formal and informal.
Creative studios Neighbourhood open space
Cultural and recrea recreational facilities
4.3.3 DONATE PUBLIC SPACES AS A CONTINUATION OF THE URBAN STREET
The urban street system defines good quality of public spaces in the neighborhood, and this hybrid condominium model gives explanation in an architectural scale. The architectural language it uses, terrace, communal spaces as bridge at a central core, well-defined ground floor, leads a guided tour from the external street into community-integrated spaces. By creating such an extendable and crossover spatial integrations, the aim is to attract various stakeholders to join in. As a model that partly for relocating the nearby informal housing and its local productions, the mix of different social classes will bring synergies in terms of productive and social benefit.
Axonometric of hybrid condominium drawing various stakeholders by a continuous flow space system
4.3.4 CHANGE THE PATTERN OF PRODUCTION UNITS FOR POSSIBLE UPGRADING One production workspace unit:
Storage Goods Access
Detachable Production Neighbourhood:
Communal Production Neighbourhood:
According to traditional three-in-one buildings, one production workspace unit contains all functions of living, production and storage that lead to severe security problems and social segregation towards the exterior spaces. Alternative organizations of production pattern are very needed for future upgrading. With the understanding of proposed gradual evolution by supporting local production, instead of radical and mandatory plug-in new production mode, two proposals are suggested here for optional upgrading through a long-term gradual change. The first step detachable production neighborhood aims at join their production area together with social interactive spaces as well as communal goods access. Though they might be still operated separately in the near future, the adjacency of these inspirational places will forge the combination of production pattern. The second proposed communal production neighborhood suits those who are willing to constitute their communal entrepreneurs at once and can benefit from more public spaces together.
The economic influence of traditional production pattern
Industry & Space
Industry & People
￥ ￥ ￥ ￥
Actually, there are favorable aspects of traditional production workspace unit in terms of economic benefit for individuals like villagers and migrants. Today large numbers of mass-production factories are located far from urban environment, while here in relatively small-scale, the production comes along with other urban functions in a neighborhood scale, giving opportunities to break up the consolidation of centralized administration and creates dynamic ownerships. Partly owning to the collective land property legacy, this gives opportunities for those labours and a future development of local production units into shared stock enterprises.
Different ways to anchor Living units from production spaces
Detachable production neighborhood Communal production neighbourhood
Detachable production neighbourhood
This proposal shows an application of detachable production neighborhood as a typology of hybrid condominium. Based on previous separate unit buildings and their production and storage spaces on the ground floor, a combined base is suggested here to trigger future collaboration. Within a short term, they can still operate separately and individual circulation system supports this kind ofÂŹ traditional way. And the living units on top will stay always.
Layer 5 Seperate living units
Layer 4 Seperate circulation
Layer 3 Groundfloor (detachable production units and communal interactive space)
Layer 2 Proposed morphology
Layer 1 The existing condition
Communal production neighborhood In this case, a total collaborative production area is shared with these adjacent groups of people. The outcome is not only to scale up the production, but more importantly, to get benefit from a lager and well-organized communal public space shared in-between, as a hybrid condominium to provide continuation of urban fabric into a larger zone. The living units share a more intensive and convenient circulation system as a tool to integrate peopleâ€™s daily life.
Layer 5 Seperate living units
Layer 4 Linked circulation
Layer 3 Groundfloor (combined production area)
Layer 2 Proposed morphology
Layer 1 The existing condition
Towards new productive neighbourhood Tangyong Village, as seen in this thesis, provides many insights in how to productively integrate mix use in order to gain more industrial and economic competitiveness. Acting as multi-performance approaches, the three tools of urban concentrators are efficient in creating and supporting a network in all its different scales and enabling new synergies to be developed in order to increase productivity. Choosing these spatial strategies are based on the analysis of how peopleâ€™s urban life are influenced and could be gradually changed by key urban elements. There are multiple interventions to be quickly tested in this rapid transforming environment, however, the ViCs as a strategy can only be integrated into the discipline of urbanism once the logic of growth and future tendency and its physical reflection are understood. While the practice goes on, there is critical thinking of an alternative answer of urban development from the implications that the ViC could present.
References: Fei Xiaotong. 1986. Small Towns in China: Functions , Problems, and Prospects. Beijing: New world Press. Feuerwerker, Albert. 1983. “The foreign presence in China,” in John K. Fairbank, ed., Republican China 1912-1949, Part 1. Cambridge Histories Online, Cambridge University Press. Bray, David. 2006. “ Building ’community’ : New strategies of governance in Urban China.” Economy and Society 35(4): 530-49 Friedman, Eli, and Ching Kwan Lee. 2010. “Remaking the world of Chinese labour: A 30-year retrospective .” British Journal of Industrial Relations 48(3): 507-33 Leung, C.K. 1996. “Foreign manufacturing investment and regional industrial growth in Guangdong province, China.” Environment and Planning A 28(3): 513-36. Hsing, You Tien. 2010. The Great Urban Transformation: Politics of Land and property in China. New York: Oxford University Press. Lin, George. 2007. “Chinese urbanism in question: State, society, and the reproduction of urban spaces.” Urban Geography 28(1): 7-29 Brenner, Neil. Forthcoming, 2013. “These on urbanization.” Public Culture 25(1).
Publications: CHEN Dan, LI Yongchun. “The study on policy of the society and economy deveIopment in renovation of In-city Village.” Chinese and overseas architecture, 9 2008. ETH Zurich, MAS Urban Design. Building Brazil! Edited by Rainer Hehl Marc Angelil. Berlin: Ruby Press, 2011. Jurgen Adam, Katharina Hausmann and Frank Jutter. Industrial Buildings. Publisher: Birkhauser, 2004. Krier, Lion. “Urban Components.” Architectural Design 54 (Jul-Aug 1984): 43-49. REN Xuefei (Michigan State University). Urban China. Cambridge : Polity, 2013. URBANUS. Village/City, City/Village. Beijing: China electric power press, 2006.
Images: 1. Xu Xueqiang. 2012. Research in the Industrial Development and Layout of Guangzhou. Planning and Design Institute of Zhongshan University & Urban and Regional Research Centre of Zhongshan University. p20 2. http://wenku.baidu.com/link?url=86YsLgRyzmYcQB7Bf7cS0Pzc64-dFkWrr_u57Vh8K5htEeTorr9eKjxI-5AGup9BrfqBVwa486eAhmBx9LWaahtHrrdjwVtOARmNmebbAYu
Architectural Association School of Architecture MArch Housing and Urbanism February, 2014
Published on Feb 21, 2014