Operators Handbook, 1950 © Caterpillar Inc.

Page 1

Here's a booklet prepared especially lor equipinent operators. lt contains information on the operatioh

of bull-

dozers, scrapers/ rippers and cable controls, plus addi-

tional material on tires and grade stakes. Many of the

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techniques shown here were worked out by operators like yourselves and will be [amiliar to you. '!V'e hope

that the material in this booklet will prove

both

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interesting and helpful.

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OPERATOR'S HANDBOOK

U. AMMANN LId.

CATERPILLAR, Peoria, lllinois

LANGENTHAL, s}VITZERTAND FORM 3006I PRINTED IN U.S.A.

I


Efficienr operotion of bulldozers colls for knowing thc bene{its of oll mechonicol odiustments ond how lhese odiustments con be mode. It olso poys to keep up on nomes

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Thcre's o typc of 'dozcr for doing coch iob bcsr. Angling blodc Bulldozcrs, stroight blodc 'dozcrs, ond "U" lype Bulldozcrs drc ovo iloblc in hydroulic ot coble controllcd models. Thc opplicorions you orc qboul to sac gcncrolly fcoturc thc stroight blodc unit, but bcor in mind thot thc othcr lypca wc hovc iust mcntion채d, moy do thc work os wcll or in s omc coscr wilh grcotcr cff i-

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"Let's

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clcoring, first!"

rency.

Brush ond smoll lrees ore

BULIDOZERS

roots....usuolly done in first or sccond geor. An occosionol bocking up moy be necessory lo cleor the blode so it con olwoys cut cleonly. Otherwisc the blode will slide over roots ond occomplish litle.

For exomple....here's the stroight blode bulldozer with impor-

tonl porls indicoted.

Roise b lode h igh to for pushing

lcveroge

tre e s.

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go in

over

Lowor blode into ground ond doze cxposcd rools ond trec

completely cleor

of

groun d.

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ril{r$t ....ond here's on. ongling blode bulldozer with blode ongled 25". Remember these terms....o reol operotor knows his -unit bockwords ond forwords.

Angling ty pe'dozers con be odiusted to dri{t moleriol to e ither s ide by simply pulling o pin on both sides ond then

repos ilionin g

b

lode.

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Lorge lrees - l2 inches to 30 inches..,require more core ond time lo uproot. First contocl tree with blode high ond ccntered for moximum leveroge. Mokc contoct gently...push

o few times ot holf lhrottle while wotching the lop corefully. Look for de채d limbs - lhey're widow mokers! lf rree seems in good condition open rhe throttle ond try ogoin.

Bigger trees ond brush....4 to l0 inches in diometer usuo lly require more lhon one poss. About I lo 3 minutes ore required to do this operotion.

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*f* For digging nexl to hillsides or for penetrotion in hord ground, well design채채 Sulldozers con be tilred by turning the filting broce on eoch side in opposite direclions.

con o lso be tiooei lor-word or bockwords to motch ground conditioni, Tip blode by turning both broces in the some direction. Tipping olso exposes o new edge on the cutt'ing bit; therefore, it's o good ideo to tip the blode per'lodicolly for moximum production.

DON'T chorge info big trees ot full throttle. lt's o reol "widow moker" technique. And don't push loo long ot o lime. Trock spinning is wo sted effort.

Copyrishr 1950

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66terpillor Trqqtql Co,, Peorio, lllinois

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To remove the lorger lrees follow o 3 slep procedure: First, determine the

On oll units, exceDt onoling type bulldozers, blodes

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lowering rhe blode o few inches inlo lhe ground iust enough to strike ond cul

direction of foll....usuolly in the direction of leon....ond lhen moke o few posses on the opposite side to o depth of soy, 2 feet, or enough to cut some of lhe lorger roots.

Second, cul roots on both odiocenl

sides in o similor monner.

Build on eorlh romp up to the storting side of lhc tree to get still more leveiogc ond then push. As the lree storts

ovcr, reverse troclor quickly, for the rools pulling out of the ground moy domogc lhc mochine. Next fill stump holc ond lhen lift enlirc root section

cleor of the ground. Approximole time for such on operolion moy run from 5 to 20 minutes.

3


"Now let's tolk

obout stripping."

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p p ng rnvo I m o fer to pi led b o s prob P rt n c iPo

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for

rh e removol n o 5 tobilized

of top soi sub-grode.

ere for loter use in

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norrow rovines must be stripped, houls ore usuolly long. lt's o good ideo to feed top soil downgrode to scropers which work in the open ond ot low cosl on longer houls. Alwoys plon oll stripping operotions so other eorthmoving units con begin excovofion os quickly os possible.

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o ll pioneering cuts with in on inch or two of the upper slope stokes to stort fhe iob properly. lf this is not done, moleriol on the bock slope wi ll hove to be removed loter ot o

Begin

consideroble cost.

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Keep pioneering cuts sloping into the uphill side lor moximum eorthmoving efficiency. Moke shorf swinging posses os you work downhill ro drift moteriol over the side of the cut, Moke pioneering cuts wide enough so thot scropers following will hove fheir reor wheels on solid fooling. Otherwise scropers will hove o tendency to tip owoy from the bocks

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ln rough or sleep terroin where hilI sides

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s not U s o b le s m ter to may see d n I o od d n g I the pott tng of s oc k P les or te so hot v OU d o n ot d oz e ove oo greo o d s ton c et T tY to h ond e eo h ood n v v o bo ut 200 ox mum e on o m Y

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of fill is reoched, the äozer ocross the center line of the rood lo o position o long fhe lower toe stokes o{ the iitt. Keep o moderote distonce from toe slokes to ovoid covering them. Subse' quenf posses will squeeze moteriol ouf to slokes ond will eliminote extro work. When the poinl

A]yoyl stort or pioneer oll side hill cuts from the top of hills ond then work your woy down with the cut. lt moy be necessory to reoch the storling point by climbing up o more groduol slope on the opposite side o{ the hill. Working downhill gives you the odvontoge of gravity.

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should turn from the slope side ond pioneer

On mony iobs o lirtle "roughing oul" will enoble lhe'dozer lo moke its woy up the hill. On others, when terroin is ex-

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ceptionolly steep ond rocky, hong o block ond tockle on o tree or onchor point ond use onother troctor lo pull the originol mochinc up the hill. lf the pioneering troctor hos o suitoble winch it con pull itself up.

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Rough {in ish ing is o iob thot most operotors toke o lot of pride in doing we I l. Here ore o

few pointers

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Work very steep oreos by honging on the line until o bench is well storted.

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On overoge terroin slort cuts working stroighf down the h;ll moking short pqsses to bench out on- oreo lorge enough so thot the lroctor con eventuolly turn ond work porollel to lhe rood,

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When. trucks or wogorrs ore used for houling, bulldozers ore

ideol spreoding tools ot the fill. Blode shou.ld be kept in o stroight position so th.ot äoteriol is drifted iirectl/u.d.r the curting edge. Depth of o spreod is usuolly set up in the job specificotions to obtcin des'ired compoction. '

5


A motor groder is thc bcst suited tool for ditch work, but the Bulldozcr con bc used cffectiv ely for ropid c on strucli on of rough

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\ Side slopes con be finished with o'dozer by storting ot the top ond trovelling porollel to the right-of-woy. Eorth from eoch poss will foll to the lower side of the blode ond form o windrow. This mote riol is then picked up on succeeding posses fi lling up irregulorities in terroin. Don't ollow blode corner to dig os the slope will sleepen beyond iob specificotions.

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Another method commonly used. Stort ot the bottom ond trovel diogonolly up the slope. ln this woy o windrow will be continuolly drifted to one side ond will tend to fill low spols or irregulorilies.

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o bulldozer to finish, be sure trocks ore level bcforc dropping the blode. Otherwise the blode will bite in when it shouldn't. Remember thot the blode tends.to fo llow ony up or down movement of the trock f romes. Do not ottempl to finish closer thon one or lwo tenths of o foot os this phose con usuolly be hondled more efficiently with motor groders. tDozers ore produclion units, not Whcn using

{inishing tools.

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Bockfilling is the plocement of eorth ogoinst buildings, obutmenfs, droinoge pipes, or the filling of lrenches or ditches. Moneuverobility o{'dozers moke them ideol {or th is type of work.

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turn the troctor porollel to the

ond ploce one trock on this romp. Blode is now outomoti colly in posilion to qrooye out one side of thc "V". An -ongling type blode is ideol, of courserfor this kind of o job os it con cost moteriol to the outsidc of rhc dirch line os it moves dirch

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"V" type ditches con be conslrucfed quickly by first building up o romp iust inside fhe edge of the proposed ditch. This is done only for the first 20 feet of dirch.

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long.

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Repeot this entirc proccdurc (or op' posite holf of thc dirch ond thc ia' sult is on excellcnt ditch. Wcll designed'dozers ore cquipped with o tilting orrongemenl which enoblcs one corner of fhe blode to be lowercd.

Such o design eliminotes the need for building lemporory eorlh romPs to get blode into o tilt position.

HERE ARE A rEW HINTS

PUSH. LOADING

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Don't cross culvert with troctor unless there ore I2 inches of solid moteriol on

toP.

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[ngling blode bu lldozers ore excellent for bockfi lling ditches os they con drift moteriol into the trench while mointo ining f orword motion

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With stroiqht blode'dozers opprooch ot on ongle ond end uP coch poss

bv swinqing into the struclurc or cLlvert lor smooth, fo st results.

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Dozers ore excellent units for pushlooding scropers in the cut. Gener-

olly push-looding is used to heop up extro lorge scropers. Also used lor overoge size scropers working in hord moferiol or when o decreose in looding time meons extro production. And, of course, wheel type troctors pul ling scropers ore o lso designed for push-looding os speed on the houl ond not troction is o prime considerotion.

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Good operotion is vilolly importont

in push-looding os profits con bc mode or lost in the cuf . "Cho in lood" wherever possible to eliminote dcloy in swifching from one scropcr to onother. Remember o competenl mon on o pusher unit, o{fects thc production of more thon one scropcr.

aa dlwoys contocf scroper ond push in o "stroight-line" monner using full power on both trocks. lf scroper ond pu ll troctor ore ot on ongle with pusher, iocknif ing wi ll occur cousing smoll loods ond longer loodi.9 times. lt poys to stroightcn out befora continuing looding. 7


Pushcr operotors should

know their iob rhoroughly so thot they con be woiting for the next scroper ot lhe

Avoid h itting lirGs.. .

correct spot. By guiding scropcrs properly, fhe "cul" is kept in good condition ond scropers ore ossured of full fost loods.

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69-. o lorge rock is imbedded in o group of smoller ones, loosen ond remove the smoller ones before ottocking the big one. Operofors should remember thot if o rock doesn't move, something is holding it. Before proceeding, find couse ond remedy it lo prevenf mochine domoge. When

Continue pushing ofter o full loqd is goined so pull troctor ope rotor con shift to o higher geor for o quick get-o.woy ond more production. ln sonjy or soft footing this extro push reolly poys off ond soves mochine mointenonce.

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Mony rocks such os shole ond sondstonc orc found in tioped . position. . Alw-oys dig under the outcrop, lift, s;d

brcok it out rother thon try to penctrole fro- ihe opiosite sidc. Sometimes driving o troctor on top wi ll crus'h such

rocks moking removol eosy.

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Lv Whon pushor troctor

is equipped with

ln loose or sondy moteriol try looding with both troctors in second geor insteod of low geor. While in low geor ond poor troctive conditions exist,

o

ripper olwoys remember thot the primory responsibility is to lood scroper3. Rip. pers oie o good inveslment for foster looding, bur do your ripping ond house

excessive slippoge moy result.

ond lifiing,

cleoning when no scrop6rs ore oround.

ROCKS

ANI' FROZEN

On frozen ground penetrote through thc crust by ti lring onc corncr of the blode. Once qn orco is pcnctroted iits o simp.le_ molter lo work ogoin st the exposed odge by pushing

Whon.regu.lor.l.ooding-tools ore not ovoiloble it is possi ble to utilize bulldozers {or filling trucks ond troilers. inelined romps, built of eorlh, steel or wood, ote o meons to ossist looding economicolly when level lerroin predominotes.

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Rocks ore oenerolly removed by using one corner o{ the blode os this ollows full power of the froctor to be opplied on o short section of the blode. lt's o good ideo to ti lt one corner for better penetroti on.

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side furthest from the rock. This o llows troctor to move forword ond crowd the rock without stolling engine. Powerful

will lifi the rock

free.

ln hilly countryside onother type of romp or grizzly con be construcled {or quick loodinj. Spreod o loyet of eorlh on lhe romp to minimize weor on plonking. Be sure these struclures ore strong enough to support u.eight of lroctor ond lood.

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Lorge single stubborn rocks con be removed by using the coble control for lift ond disengoging the steering clutch on the blode oction

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Another woy of looding is to excovote o verticol-bonk lrench to o depth suitoble for truck use, lt's o good sofefy meosure to sheoth the eorth sides of this trench to ovoid cove.ins. Houling units tend to come in bunches, so olwoys hove o stock pile of moterioi neor by for inslont use. 9


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WORKING ON SOTT TILLS

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is brought to soft fills with troilers or trucks,'dozers ore generolly used for levgling ond spilling moteriol over the end. Alwoys keep rhc f ill cnd high os the troctor will mire less if When corth

it con bock up going down

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grode.

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Do nol push molcriol further lhon obsolutcly ncccssory in ordcr to stoy on firm footing. Whcn bocking up, do nol roisc blodc os illustroled hcre. Roising thc blodc puls cxtro wcight on ?hc front idlors cousing grcolcr lrock pcnetrotion. Lcr blodc floot os you bock owoy from rhc cdgc of soft fills.

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lo e xper I mcnt rh rh c t P nt on Y our stroight-type'dozc r I rpPr ng thc ( orwo rd f b ockwords offects the d igs I n9 of ng

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te n denci e s wh c h

pro du ct ton

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And, use your tilting odiustment too. .if you wonl to rock up some reol production records. A few moments spent in rototing the tilting broces will poy off on mony iobs. Do not exlend either broce beyond the point where threods stoll to show os bending moy occur

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under extro heovy shock.

"Whcn moinlqining houl roods. . ."

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l. Use holf throff le only. .

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2. Engoge f lywhecl clutch slowly. 3

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Kcep both slecring clutches cngoged,

don'f twist or lurn.

scldom gcl mired down.

Good operotors

Work

downhi

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lf possible "slot doze" to keep lood from spilling oround the sides o{ lhe blode. Troclors operoted side-by-side increose production in mony

for greoter production.

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molerio I lo cn 9n z zly for longcr hou ond b I ood s Thc "U ty Pc dozsr s deo o f rh s k I nd of ork

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Angling blode dozers ore ideol for widcning fills. Troval o foot or lo from the slope linc so thot eorth rolling off rhc blodc cnd

will foll over thc edgc.

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Don't forgct thot o full blode hondlcs morc ccsily thon on empty onâ‚Ź. When finishing, corry ol lcost ho lf o lood on thc b lo

de.

cs it minimizcs spi llogc oround sides of the blodc ond ollows greoler loods to bc moved on coch cycle. "U" tdozers ore ol3o uscd for gcncrcl work of oll kinds.

suc h os eorlh, Rock, of iob. domoge course, moy rhe blode bose, so such proclice i s

When Jinis-hing _in.non-solid moleriols, drog rhe blode bockwords for o smootli

nol lo berecommended whereobrosive molerio I is

common.

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Youtvc seen how lhe froctor ond bulldozer work; now let's toke o look ot the most common piece of towed equipment -- lhe scroperl It's importont to know ils vorious ports.

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Don't bock up further lhon necessory ond don't push eorth for greoter distonces thon required. These ore common foults of inexperienced opercitors,

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Know whcre the next poss is going to be mode ond where moteriol willbe ploced. Alwoys hove o plon o{ operotion,

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RAPERS

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Thc trocfor-drown scroper i s o one-mon fool, requiring only rhe ope.otor to perform lhe iobs of . . .

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Keep o tight line on your coble control. Excessive slock in line during operotion tends to couse kinks ond une-ven spooling which moy result in premoture bieok-

When dropping down o steep hill or over thc sidc of o fill, use blode for o broke.

o9€r or flottening of coble on

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Thc troctor-drown scroper is used most efficiently wherc powcr, rother thon speed, is the essentiol foctor. . . . where lorge loods must be pulled ot lower speeds, due to poor ground conditions, usuolly on medium length houls.

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drum.

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Älwoys use the correct sized coble ond type specified by the troctor ond bulldozer monufocfurer.

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Whcn troveling, corry the blode Iow or obout 14" obove thc around. This proctice helps protect cronkcose ond vitol ports of the troctor.

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Proper o pplicotion of equipmenl-to-iob meons more efficienl operotion. Short houls ore usuolly ond lcd by troctor-'dozcr combinolion, mcdium houls by troclor-scroper combinotion, ond long hou ls by high-speed, rubber-tired rigs. This is zoning rhe iob, ond zoned iobs ore profit iobs.

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i When lroctor hos completed o full turn, drop the cutting edge to slort looding. As the scroper furns, lhe

lf no bulldozer is ovoiloble, scropers con pioneer sidc-hill culs. At fhe poinl where the cul should be stortcd, lurn shorply toword the row of

hillside corner of the blode will cut into the high side of rhe hill.

stokes obove you.

ln this monner o bench will bc storted. Repeot this procedure whenever looding next to the bonk. Result will be cuts lhot- olwoys slope toword rhe-high:id". This prevenrs scropar from drifting,

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Spreod moterio I ot the fi ll while trovel-

ling downhill - it's much eosier ond quicker lo eiect moteriol with old mon grovily behind you!

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ln houling from cul to fill on the first few posses, work oreo will be unev6n ond steep. Adjust cutfing edge low cnough lo cul down rough or high spols, ond with opron holf open, ollow eorlh lo loll out of the bowl where low spols ore encountered.

As looding on o side hill cut progresses, d trench will .develop. As trench_ing begins, o berm or ridge devclops neor lhc outsidc edgc of the cut ond muat be removed. This ridge shoulä be rcmoved by stroddling with the troctor ond scroper.

Whenover possible, lood down

hill in the direcrion of rhe fi ll. Prepore the cut for down hill looding or o grode thot wiJl permil relurning in 3rd or 4th geor.

CTI{TIR IINE OF

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On the f ill, rhc first lood should be spreod within o foot or lwo of the too stokes, bul for enough owoy to ollow for compocfion ond spillogc whcn odditionol loyers ore spreod. Otherwise toc stokcs moy bccome covcred.

@

o fill, keep the outside edges high ond center seclion low to ptcvent the scroper from rliding over the shoulder ond to keeo thc fill slooe uniform. lf ' onlv work ing o doy shift, the low cenier should be built up ot the end- of doy for droinoge in When constructinE

After unloqding, lurns mode wilhout lowering opron o? leosl six inches moy snop conlrol cobles. Never lrovel ovcr unoven ground with opron fully roiscd ond eiector plore oll lhe woy forword.

When looding wotch the grode stokcs. Don't lood beyond the point wherc

the cul runs into rhe fill.

evenl of roin.

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wET, STICKY

"lf rhe need orises, culverts moY be covered by ujing o scroper."

MATERIAL

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lYhen enough molerio I is present,

NTTT\

Firsf, the lroclor ond scrop€r should spreod olong eoch side of fhe pipe ond unlood moleriol os close to the pipe os possible. Alternote loods to eoch side to e liminote mov ing culvert oul of line.

rock the steering clutches so thot the troctor swings ond twisls os il lrovels porollel to the pipe, thus pushing moteriol ogoins? fhe pipe ond compocting it. Repeot this procedure until obout 20 feet of

pip€ is covered with 12 inches of fill. The troctor con now poss over th€ pipe without donger of domoge.

--

When looding wet, sticky moteriol, where troction is bod, best results will be obtoined by toking o thin cut. Keep opron os low os possible to prevenl moteriol from bonking up in fronl.

\

Stroddle looding moy be used in wet, sticky moterio I to

improve performonce.

J&,*.

0

SItP

4I

2

To cover the remoining pipe, the lroclor ond front wheels of the scroper should be driven ocross the covered pipe seclion. Then turn the lroctor short, troveling olong side lhe pipe, ond stort unlooding. When scrop€r is unlooded, lurn the troclor shorply owoy from pipe so thot reor wheels of scroper will not trovel over uncovered porlion

o $tP

3

ofthe pipe. Continue opsrolion until completed.

lf possible, unlood or preod down hi I I ot

highest possible speed.

Spreod in thin loyers for better compoction -obout 6 to 8 inch loy. ers for €orth, 3 to 6 inches for sond. Generolly, dopth of spreod is set up in job speci-

ond loosen ilself.

SAND

3"- 6"

s

When unlooding, roise bowl o foot or more before spreod is storled. This gives needed cleoronce for moteriol to poss under the bowl.

Now roise lhe opron lo its moximum height ond bring the eiector plote forword slowly --- obour'12 inches ot o lime. After eoch movomenl forword, permit the eiector plote to return obout 6 inches. This ollows moteriol ro f;ll bock

61 8"

fi cotions.

f1 ,

For conlrollsd spreoding, the bowl should be lowered to rhe desired deprh of spreod. Roise ihe opron os the lroctor moves forword so thot the moteriol folls out ond uniformly rolls under the cutting edge. Move ejeclor plote forword steodily for uniform flow. l6

Smooth rhe fill ond houl rood when relurning to the cut by ollowing the elector to r€lurn obout 8 inches while thc opron is srill in the roised position. Lower bowl unril ir touches the ground. Then roise the bowl slighrly so thot ir will cur o{f the high spots.

i ..)

-<;fi-,.-

When looding sond, roise the opron ol leosl lhroe feet, ond drop the bowl while troveling in s€cond or lhird geor to toke odvontoge of momentum. Lood until engine lugs down. At this point sond will be pushed up in o pile o-

heod of lhe blode.

Now lower the opron into the pile of sond ond roise bowl ot some time. When engine RPM's hove picked up, lower the bowl ond repeot the operolion. Do rhis unti,l scropcr is looded. This operotion is known os "pumping

t7


--__ )

\

\ )

After scroper is looded ond opron closed, the bowl should be ro ised one to two inches obove the ground ond hald in th is position while troveling forword severol feet. This w ill level of{ the pile of loose moteriol in fronr of thc pron

LOADING BOULDERS

_K

\

J

o

\

Grovel moy be hondled in muih rh e some woy. However ot times it moy be difficult to clos e the opron when PUMP. tn g in grovel. lf this should ho ppen, bo ck up tho s cro Pet o f ew inches with cutl ing edge still in the ground ond ol s ome time lower the o pron while roising the bowl.

*-<tb-

scrop_er con be used to finish side slopes in this monner: Roise opron ond bring eiector lorwoid to within

six inches. o{ front position. Then drive onto slope, porollel to rood, ond lower cutting edge so thot il is iust'drog-

ging ond smoothing slope.

'Scroper efficiency is tncreosed by routin s ond P I onn ing work in t h ose rh r€e woys:"

t ) -1?

The

\

Storr finishing ot top of slope so thot moteriol will roll to the Iower side in o windrow. The windrowed moferiol be worked down to the bottom os succes's-i-"e posses will ore

m

ode.

\ Oump

b

Cut

0ump

(b

4rr

*

\

>-

.-...

/-

Q --'1-a-

'\cr

--.€

o

\

c

\ it. As front wheels of scroper come olong side rock, turn troctor bock loword rock so thot,o"k i. butween culting edge. ond front scroper wheels. you ore

When rock i s positioned so thot lroctor ond {ronl scroper *heels connol be driven over it, heod troclor stroight for rock ond turn shorply iust before reoching

Working from o single cut in two directions liminotes on extro time consuming turn in lhe

1:

then in posifion fo lood.

\

e

cut.

--ilLt--

-j' ( L

((

Cut

Dump

,,;.s

\- ------S\

L

--/,

-/ When tho rock hos been

lifted sufficientlv ond storts to s lide bock into the bowl, puli oheod severol feet so thot oorth will oush the rock bock for enough to permit closing the opron.

lf rock becomes stuck while unlooding, force moteriol into bowl to chonge its position. Thcn eiect. After rock is unlooded, sw€rvo rhorply to cleor

/

1. .t -:

/

a

the rock.

Working two cuts with o common fill between them eliminotes o turn on the fill.

Opening o series of cuts olternoting with fi lls eliminotes

mony lurns ond soves mony minules during the doyts work.

I8

l9


'When you've

got

o

job thot colls for b r9 production ot hi eh won t s peeds, you'l one of the "Coter

G00stiltcl( IIOP

"Here ore three foctors to help you dec i de when y ou're in the "hi9h-speed" zone nd should use rubbertired rigs

D00R 0PtRÄIfi0 rtviR

PtR

I

rubber tired rigs. de gn sd for

ot

h igh -s Pes d z on€ ong€r h o uls.t'

_-1 4i-Ld

\

I

lw

ond

2z

a-r

) rl

.'I /: ls..) n

._,

B0II0[|

/

000ßS

UICTOR CIEU TIICTOR PTAIT

cABtt Rtfl.

cAEtt

0RAtI

tRtlilt Sl0t

PlJSllTR 8I.OCl{

s

I

I

dlt

{

ä<-

z

Whan houling distonces ore sufficiently greot to permit trovel ot high-

When houling conditions ore ovorog€ or obove overoge.Good

overoge speeds.

ARI'l

houl roods poy off.

llAUt

ß

SPRIAD

UIr

ilRTll rvrc0lt

? ->

< SCRAPTR

The four-wheel troclor units operote much like o truck.

'J--

They con be teomod with bottom dump eorth wogons, scropers,

ond s ide-dump eorth or OUÄRRY

IRAII.IR

wogons.

quorry

o

H

pusher

rta414^, unit is

ovoiloble to help in loodi.g. ( Self-looding with

rubber-tired rigs is not efficient in most coses.)

After looding, the whoel-type unit is copoble of houling, sprooding, or windrowing ond roturning lo the cut using it's own powcr ond lroclion.

I

E

(

H

0

Ia

a

{

-lu q

\ The obiliry to interchonge houling units is on importont feolure logether with the foct thot the unit con be used for drowbor work, indepondent of towed units. On... ... 20

ll, CONSTRUCTION JOBS,

INDUSTRIAL PLANTS,

BULLDOZING WORK, AND WATER WAGONS.

When troveling in poor footing, brokes moy be used to mdneuvor out of soft spots. this is occomplished by opplying the broke to lhe wheel thot is slipping, thus

lhrowing full power to the drive wheel with the best fooli ng.

Brokes moy olso be usod to oid in mcking shorp turns. Apply broke on the side of directionlof-turn ond r.it -i lI swing shorply without moving forword. Brokes should bo used in "mokini turns only ot slow speeds. 2l


.--

+----

"Wogons pulled by wheeltype ttoclor3 lo ll into genet ol closleg:" two

".7t1

\

\

h\

.\\ Becouse of speed, wheel units over other equipment ot fhe {ill.

be give n preference Let the whee l-type equip-

sh ould

o t1

./

I

ment spreod in the middle oi over oreos wfiere they con rurn fost ond get bock to the cut.

CI

close --\ to the ground. This will moinloin o low cenler of grovity for better 3tdbility, broking ond fost stopr in on emergency.

When ttoveling on th€ houl rood, keep the culting edge

"lt's very importont lo properly mointo in houl roods when using rubberlired, high-speed equipm

Enfe.r

fill ot highest, sofe speed ond begin spreoding without slockening

con be mointoined by controlling blode height.

speed.

Proper lif t

z

I

enl

qK

Bottomdump €orth wogons wi th rheir moior opplicotion on leveel, €orth-fill dcms, oirporlr, ond roods,

f{

7

1,1

:.1

o

Side dump quorry troilers thot find their moior opplicotion in quorries or rock tunnol proiecls.

I J

r-'1

I

\-

-q.

Ö

ü

tl lf no motor groder or bulldozer is ovoiloble, mointoin houl rood by the some method os used in smoothing o lill --- by occosionolly drogging the cutting ed9e. 22

lI moteriol begins looding foster in one side of scroper the other, check oir pressure in lhe scroper lires.

thon

Dumping with bottom-dump wogons is donc

in control led windrows The size of wind-

row con be controlled by width of door oponing.

ü

Normol dumping for side dump wogonr ir into grizrlics, crurhc?s ot wo3lcd ovcr sidc hills.

23


Ccble controls con be clos-

red os multiple.disc c lutches similor lo the steering clutcher on the trock-type l?oclor. They ore mode in r ingle ond double-drum un

its.

Ăź I

t

!.

A burtan-type tirc for gieotest flototion. Thir typo of rirc finds gencrol uso opcrolions othor thon in mud.

Single drum unils ore front mounted ond

on

ore ured for operoting bulldozers.

Double drum unitr ore mounled on the reor of ltre lroctor ond ore used for operoting 3cropâ‚Źt3, bulldozers ond olher

lowed equipmenl.

+ A

bor typg

When operoling o bulldozer with o fronl mounled coble control, the control lever ir moct commonly locoted on the right side of the operotor.

tiro is urcd for "otf-rood" work whcrc srcotost lroclion ic

noodcd . Bert for mud bccouse of inherenl clconing oärion.

Pushing lhc contl.ol lever owoy from operotot releorec the broke ond ollows lhe bulldozer lo drop to the giound for digging.

Moving the lever toword the qperotot cngoge. lhe clutch ond roises the bull-

dozei. ln neutrol porilion, the broke ir oulomolicol ly opplied.

The conlrol levers hove two odiustments which moke for better oerotion: retting levers clorer or fqrther o*oy fro- rhe operolot tokes core ol the rhort or long'ormed mon.

W 0 A rock-typo lirc for "on-roodrt

is uted for rhe Duroosc of creoting g?oole3t Tcai3loncc to obrosivc wcor o. domogo by rdcks. 24

ond quorry work

(j

The operotot engoges either the riEht or left drum clutch by pulling the proper lever loword himself. Pushing lhe Jevers owoy

releores rhe coble drum brokes.

7

Roising o. lowering lever tokes core of rhort or toll mon.

the rhe

I

t{ 25


The "Coterpillor' s tur d v

er

u

sed

o

do

[0]{'T

he

rugged jobs thot speed

up conslruction

erolions.

I,IfT

op.

ARlil

PlJSIITR BRACl(TT

\üil,

ilfI

ü!

cA8tt

0

a

\l'\ll,,

I.IFT SlltÄYIS

niltl,l

/4

o 1

(/"

.>

-"'ä-=\ TOOIll

IIP

tltTCfi Lfil{

BOOY

Avoid ripping too much, Moteriol which is

too

broken is oftcn hordcr to lood thon chunky motoriol. ping with two leeth in wet cloy tends lo dry it out

RIPPERS

sH0tt

I

t.

moke eosier looding.

f

ine ly

Rip-

To prevent bending or breoking teeth, never turn while they ore in the ground.

cnd

crErt

a

RtH0vAStt

e

ITIIH

)

I

I

I

'ln

,,1

rittr /

o

r

\(,

lll

r

<_,

_

---J'

t

-__, _

)

)'-t'.

--

3

F

""'tllh"

I

v,

Rippers ore used to breok up shole, hordpon, cemented

ly o single coble is needed to ooerole the ripper ond control the depth of penetrotion of its three removob le tee.th.

grovel ond other moteriols so thot they con be looded

On

or bulldozed.

P

lon work to ovoid congeslion ond interference wilh olher Scropers should be rouled lo lrovel on

equipmant on the job. the unbroken section.

"Here ore o few rules which every

operotor follow:"

j

"-&

shou ld

F-

-*\-

..t

rrr\1

o

J{,,,!/rn

ttz-*1o.

rr,

ll

-tüt

11

,' D

rlll

ü14.1

,'r'l

I

w-!/"-,//ll

.,_,q

stoil next to the slope line ond work out loword the cenf€r. This will help keep the cul low on the sides ond crowned in the middle when scropers slort to When ripping

w

26

ork.

it should usuolly be the center one. However, when constructing o side ditch, instoll one toolh in the outside brqcket ond work corefully to ovoid ripping where it is not dosired. When using only one tooth

lhe best proctice is to stop ond hook th" ceniär ioorh under the edge of the slob, ond then roise ond lower the ripper lo crock the slob- Aspholr, ond block top con usuolly be ripped os the Itoclor lrovels forword. When riooinq concrete,


.,-'-

We've mode o lot of references to cut ond fill stokes. So, here's o description of whotthey ore, why they're u sed ond where

\üe

/'

a

they're to be found

v

the stroto. lt's the groin of the cut.) Alwoys work o go irrst the gr oin from on exposed end or outcrop.

..J|4"-

\r-_ tr

rl.

)

When llre troclor becomes stolled bv o lorge rock or boulder, toke the troctor out of geor, Then engoge the moster clutch ond both footbrokes ot lhe some time. Now, roise the ripper, by engoging the cable control clutch. This will loosen or bring fhe rock out.

When ripping rock, wotch

q-

even ground.

ll

.>-l

(

Engineers us€ stokos to indicote ony porf of o iob in relotion to ils storling ploce of zero. These stokes ore ploced ot intervols of 100 {eef ond ore colled stotions. They ore ploced closer logether on un-

--{&

o .\\tt/4r

"When you've

do, b ino

d

the

ti on

gol cleoring to

bulldozer-ripper comis o hord working poir)

2t R0A0vlÄY

-

s

üq

l

BtÜt IOP

OR

ORADE STAl{IS

0

tüi

t'

It is good proctice lo mount o bulldozer on the troctor thot's used for ripping. There is usuolly spore time between periods of ripping when the toctor moy be used os o

@

pu

cR0l{ll

ciltTtRLlilt SIIOlJI.DER

BAIl(SLOPI

Stokes indicote the omount of cut, or the distonce slroight down to the finished grode, ond the distonce out ot right ongles from the center line --- to either left or right out-

side limit.

sher.

clJT

ROÄD BIO st

slloljt 0tR st 0Pt

0Pt sIAr(r OITCll

CUT

When trees must be removed, the ripper con be used lo cut theroots oround theträä.

.dA

,ülhr,

\\

tb

rult ROID

q€

ü ,p

ü

cr

SllOUTDIR

L1 LT ,l{"

BIO

BI.UT TOP

=

w

es

2B

.qs

\\\ SLOPT STAl{I

IIÄTÜRAI. GROlJIID

i= ciltItRLlilt

The roots cut, the bulldozer con be usecl lo push the tree over ond out of lhe woy.

OR

Gnt0t sTil(rs

:t\'

ilLl. R0A0t/ÄY

Stokes indicote fhe omounr ot fill, or the distonce stroight up to the finished grode, ond the distonce

out ol right ongles from the cenler line --- to either left or right outside limit. 29


On the r€vetse or bock side of this center sloke is oloced the dirlonce to the grode. A cut ig morked "C",'o fill "F". With l0),1 feet to remoye on cenler lo grode, the

" Core should be tqken to keep the c ut or fill stokes undisturbed . They ore needed to moke checks on , s lopes ond t

morking would be

c

uts.t

(

1A

t

ül

PnoP0st0

R0A0

The center line stoke foces the storting point ond is morked with the dislonce from zero. For inslonce, the stoke 1200 feet from the beginning would be morked 12 + 00.

This would indicote 12 full slotions of 100 feet eqch.

Often there will be o mork on the front of the stoke lndlcoting

the cenler line, whlch I

ike

th is

looks

The rop figure shows lhe omount in feet ond lenths of o foot. The zero in-

dicqtes the rloke is

cenler line.

A fill of 5 faet would

morked

be

I'|0VI SIAI(I T0 lltnt

The centerline stoke is useless os soon os work is done on center of cul orfill. lr should be removed ond driven into ground neor one of rhe ourside slokes to preserve it for reference.

on

Cur necessory lo finish grode is morked under letler "C". Below thot is o second number in' d icoting distonce to center line.

Id>-=..'

eär

u

goo

Sometimcs odditionol reference stokes ore set ten feet out from cul and fill sfokes so thol informotion on slope stokes will not bc lost if o troctor runs over lhem.

The moteriol in this booklet hos been prepored for you . . . to help you in your job os on equi pment oPerotor 0tIflr lt0I

--.4&ü4/il|tü,sd

.r}.-

-üE--

Cul or flll stokes cre ploced ot rlghr ongles lo lhe cenler llne ond fcce loword thä center.

A I ro I slope (45o) meons for eoch foot of cut you move ou, one foot. Thus o cut ot stolion 12 + 00 would be morked on the bock like ( A) . . . ond on lhe front side focing the rood moikings would look like this (B) (i f o 7.8 foot cut wos indicoted.) ( The 17.8 feel morking is the dis. tonce from oulär line of roqd lo lhe cul slqke ossuming o 20 loot rood bed.)

G:-

lllcLl,0tD

0tTcfl llcr.lJ0r0

I

When finishing, blue topped stokes ore used. These stokes ore driven into the grode uniil the blue top of stoke is

flush with proposed finished 9rode.

Keep

ient

it in o convenpot, reody for

s

quick re{erence on the i ob. Good

luck to you!

/,

/t, ///'

q Btcl{

tR0ilI

lf d itches ore to be included in the cut, the top width of thc ditch must be included in the distonce morking on the front of the cut sloke.

30

3l