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Article: Breakfast Eaters Are Slimmer, More Active, and Less Depressed

Jeff Barnett Obesity is a complex topic woven with myriad issues like education, physical activity, and income. But in Delhi, India, childhood obesity is most closely linked to this surprising factor: breakfast. Children who skipped breakfast were much more likely to be obese, says a recent study from BMC Public Health.

This large study examined over 1800 students in eighth and tenth grade. The link between breakfast-skipping and obesity was straightforward. Those who never skipped breakfast were least likely to be obese. Those who skipped breakfast sometimes - a little more likely. Those who skipped breakfast all the time - very likely to be obese. To say this link was well-established is quite the understatement. But breakfast also correlated with many other obesity lifestyle factors. Breakfast-eaters possessed many positive qualities. They consumed more dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. Breakfast-eaters were more physically active, showed healthier attitudes about body image, and reported positive peer and parental influence. Breakfast-eaters were even less likely to be depressed. In short, breakfast-eaters showed the markers of a healthy lifestyle while breakfast-skippers showed the markers of an unhealthy lifestyle. 3


My opinion: Did breakfast cause all of this? Of course not. But this study clearly shows that eating breakfast daily is part of a healthy lifestyle that protects against obesity. Can someone skip breakfast yet lead an overall healthy lifestyle? Of course. But this study and plenty others show that’s less likely than you might think. Did eating breakfast result in better food choices throughout the day? Did it cause less hunger and overeating later in the day? Did the active, healthy weight students just need breakfast to support their levels of physical activity? We just don’t know. But this study and many others on populations across the world show that eating breakfast is part of a healthy lifestyle. Correlation isn’t the same as causation. But when correlation is this strong, it does us good to take notice. And breakfast correlates with health. References: 1. Arora, et al. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 12:881, 2012. Photo courtesy of Shutterstock.

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Summary: Breakfast Eaters Are Slimmer, More Active, and Less Depressed By: Jeff Barnett The article above suggests that people who skip breakfast are more likely to become obese. But breakfast is also linked with lots of other obesity lifestyle factors. Breakfast-eaters have many great qualities. They eat more dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. Breakfast-eaters were more physically active, showed healthier attitudes about body image, and reported positive peer and parental influence. Breakfast-eaters were even less likely to be depressed. In short, breakfast-eaters showed the markers of a healthy lifestyle while breakfast-skippers showed the markers of an unhealthy lifestyle. Did breakfast cause all of this? Of course not, But this study clearly shows that eating breakfast daily is part of a healthy lifestyle that protects against obesity. Can someone skip breakfast yet lead an overall healthy lifestyle? Absolutely, but this study and plenty others show that’s less likely than you might think. Definitions: Obesity: the state of being grossly fat or overweight. Body image: the subjective picture or mental image of one's own body. Depressed: (of a person) in a state of general unhappiness or despondency.

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Article: What's the Best Diet? Raw, Vegan, Vegetarian, or Paleo?

Heidi L. George Over the past 15 years, I have experimented with food in many different ways. I have challenged my body with all of the major diets in the world; from growing up with the Standard American Diet (SAD) way of eating to being a hard-core raw vegan, and now a full-flesh eating Palaeolithic, I have gathered a lot of knowledge through research and tuning into the voice of my own body. The experience of different diets has increased my awareness of how certain foods affect my body. As a teenager growing up in the Midwest, I experienced stomach-aches on a daily basis whenever I ate any type of meat, so I decided I would stop eating it and was then labeled "the vegetarian" in my family. I now know that the issue was not just eating meat but it was the fact I was eating factory-farmed meat instead of the organic grass-fed beef I am able to enjoy at this time in my life. After college and moving to California, I became a true hippie and joined in the "Vegan Revolution." Taking on the raw vegan way of eating was a huge shift for me. It was one of the most amazing experiences for my body, both physically and mentally. Through two years of eating almost all raw and one hundred percent vegan, I was able to cleanse my body of the many toxins that built up from years of living in the Midwest on the SAD and also from when I was a very unhealthy vegetarian who ate mostly a low-fat, high-carb diet. At this time, I also became conscious of how food affected me physically, mentally, and emotionally and learned for the first time about the ethics and politics of our food system. At the present moment, I have been following the paleo lifestyle and once again, feel absolutely amazing! Eating paleo has completely cleared up my digestion, gives me more sustained energy and cured me of major sugar cravings. I know this is what my body needs right now and it feels good to honor what it is saying to me. I am a firm believer that everybody is different. Through my own experiences and learning, I now realize each person is unique and only they can truly understand what foods are best to fulfill their health and well-being in life. Here is a brief breakdown of some of the most talked about styles of eating that have gained popularity over the past few years:

Paleo The Palaeolithic diet has become increasingly popular over the past year through its association with CrossFit. But, this way of eating has been around for thousands of years. The main idea 6


behind this diet is that you eat foods in their most natural state, such as meat, eggs, vegetables, tubers, berries, fruits, nuts, seeds and healthy fats (cold-pressed coconut oil and ghee).You avoid eating dairy, legumes, all grains, and processed foods because nature does not provide these foods in a way that is easily attainable to eat. The paleo lifestyle heavily promotes eating organic foods, grass-fed beef, free-range poultry and eggs, DHA fish oil, substantial amounts of healthy fats, UN-processed foods and no sugar. It also encourages individuals to be active and find time to enjoy the outdoors and become one with their body. Two of my favorite leaders in the paleo movement are Diane Sanfilippo of Balance Bites and Mark Sisson of Mark's Daily Apple. Vegetarian This diet has been practiced for centuries throughout the world but gained popularity in the States during the 1980s with the first edition of Diet for a Small Planet by Frances Moore Lappe. She combined the idea of not just eating healthier for your body, but also for the planet. Strict vegetarians do not eat any type of meat, such as beef, pork, poultry, wild game, or fish. They still consume by-products of animals, like eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt, and kefir, which are a form of protein. Tofu and various grains are also heavily encouraged with this diet. Taking on a vegetarian lifestyle usually leads people to become more aware of our Country's food system and is a great way to transition into a vegan diet. Vegan Becoming a vegan is not just about the food you eat but it is also a lifestyle. Vegans abstain from consuming any kind of animal product or by-product. Therefore, the bulk of their diet consists of vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, legumes, grains, fermented foods, and soy-based products (soy should be consumed in moderation). They also choose to not wear clothes manufactured from animals (fur and leather) and use products not tested on or exploitive of animals. Veganism has gained popularity over the past ten years and goes beyond what you put on your plate. There are many organizations teaching about the effects factory farming has on the planet and showing the world what is going on with our over-consumption and mass production of products. Veganism has also become popular among athletes. To learn more about vegan athletes, check out the awesome article by fellow Breaking Muscle contributor, Danette "Dizzle" Rivera. Raw Foods This style of eating consists of foods that are one hundred percent raw, mainly fruits and veggies, or food that is not heated above 118 degrees. Eating mostly raw is usually related to being one hundred percent vegan, but there are many people who follow a raw foods diet and also consume raw, organic, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat and eggs. Practicing a raw foods lifestyle is a great way to detoxify and cleanse your system. Because the food is not being cooked or heavily processed, your body will assimilate all of the nutrients, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals for quicker absorption and energy. One of my favorite raw food chefs is the creator of Kristen's Raw. With any style of eating, I also promote choosing organic fruit and vegetables, organic grass-fed beef, organic free-range poultry and eggs, and products that source organic and fair-trade, minimally processed ingredients. Be smart when shopping and do your research on companies and products and always make sure to support your local organic grocery store and farmer's market as much as possible. Practicing a healthy lifestyle through the foods you eat will transfer to a better over-all well being for your body, mind and soul.

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Summary: What's the Best Diet? Raw, Vegan, Vegetarian, or Paleo? By: Heidi L. George In this article, the writer talks about the different diets that currently practiced and the differences between each diet. The writer suggests choosing organic fruit and vegetables; organic grass-fed beef, organic free-range poultry and eggs, and products that source organic and fair-trade are healthier than foods with processed ingredients. Be smart when shopping and do your research on companies and products. It is important to always make sure to support your local organic grocery store and farmer's market as much as possible. Practicing a healthy lifestyle through the foods you eat will transfer to better over-all wellbeing and a healthier body. These are likely attributed to lower caloric intake, processed sugars, and higher natural products. Definitions: Paleolithic: of, relating to, or denoting the early phase of the Stone Age, lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone implements were used. Cravings: a powerful desire for something. Fermented: (of a substance) undergo fermentation.

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Article: Ten fitness facts you need to know People testify all the time how exercising has changed their lives. They feel better, look better and sleep better along with a laundry list of other benefits. While all of this is fine and well many people who want to experience these benefits cannot because they find it hard to exercise. Right here, right now we will discuss ten fitness facts you need to know. Hopefully even one fact will help you with a breakthrough. 1. Gym membership prices are negotiable. 2. The perimeter of the grocery store is where 90% of the healthy food is. 3. Direct abdominal exercises are not necessary to get good abs. 4. Weight loss is not a physical challenge- it’s a mental one. 5. You burn more calories during the 23 hours you don’t exercise than the 1 hour you do. 6. You don’t need to do cardio to lose weight. 7. Eating healthy is not more expensive than a junk food diet. 8. Cooking your food can both lower some nutrient content, and make some more bio available. 9. There’s a high correlation between the fitness level of the people close to you, and your own physical fitness. 10. Consistency and patience are key to a long term successful weight loss. So there you have it and these are just a few facts of many. Get up and get out there. Set a goal and stick to it. If you’re a beginner, start slow, commit to exercising once a week then gradually increase. The only thing stopping you is you.

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Summary: Ten fitness facts you need to know By: No Author In the following article the writer is explains how exercise can positively impact a person’s life. The article describes helpful hints and important information that the reader can follow to improve their life style. For example, the article suggests that gym membership prices are negotiable; the perimeter of the grocery store is where 90% of the healthy food is located; direct abdominal exercises are not necessary to get good abs; weight loss is not a physical challenge- it’s a mental one, and you burn more calories during the 23 hours you don’t exercise than the 1 hour you spend working out. I think this article highlights some very important facts and makes you realize just how easy exercising can be and the impact it can have on a person’s life. During the winter break, I leaned that eating healthy isn’t just about eating your vegetables, it is eating 3 main meals during the day and snacks in-between. Also eating healthy doesn’t mean that you can’t have any deserts, as long as you don’t eat too much of it and you continue to exercise. Definitions: Consistency: conformity in the application of something, typically that which is necessary for the sake of logic, accuracy, or fairness. Correlation: a mutual relationship or connection between two or more things. Nutrient: a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life. 11


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Article: Change your workout routine to improve your fitness level While it’s important to make exercise a habit, too much routine can actually hamper your fitness efforts. By: Paola Loriggio Special to the Star, Published on Tue Jun 12 2012 They say consistency is the key to getting in shape. But while it’s important to make exercise a habit, too much routine can actually hamper your fitness efforts. After a few months of doing the same thing, your body hits a plateau, a phenomenon that frustrates even seasoned athletes. That means it switches from improving — getting stronger, faster, more powerful — to coasting, says Scott Thomas, a professor at the University of Toronto’s faculty of kinesiology and physical education. With any fitness program, “at first, you’ll see nice gains,” he says, because your body isn’t used to what you’re asking it to do. “But essentially your body adapts to the program and if you don’t change, if you don’t get better stimulation, you’re not going to break out (of the plateau).” He compares it to power plants providing energy to a city. If the city suddenly starts consuming more energy, it will require additional power plants. But once there are enough to meet the demand, there’s no reason to build any more. Similarly, once your body is fit enough to handle a certain workout, it stops improving and stays at that level, he says. The problem, he says, is that “people do the same thing and expect different results.” How you bust out of a plateau depends on your goals, he says. But the underlying idea is that you need to challenge your body so it’s forced to adapt. Beginners might try to increase how much or how often they work out, going from three times a week to four, for example. Or they may want to change it up with one or two weekly sessions of interval training, which places peak demand on those power plants, although for a short time, he says. Those already fitting in multiple weekly sessions may just need to increase the intensity of their workouts. Or, if they’re looking to ramp up their performance, they can try working with a trainer or other health professional to tailor a program to their needs and ensure it stays tough enough to get results. Variety is good, Thomas adds, so cardio fanatics should consider adding weights to their program and yoga buffs might want to get their heart rate up. “It’s often useful to think of a mixture of activities — you get more stimulation and less boredom,” he says. Still, simply trying something new might not be enough, especially if weight loss is the target. Unfamiliar activities feel harder, but they may objectively be less taxing, he says. And if you’re terrible at something, you may not be able to do it at a high enough intensity to reap fitness benefits. 13


To keep from getting injured as you revive your routine, make gradual changes, Thomas says. Muscles adapt fast, but tendons and ligaments don’t, so any sudden switch increases the risk of sprains and strains, he warns. And if you’re constantly pushing yourself and still not seeing results, ease off a little. Overtraining can undermine your efforts as much as slacking off, he says. It’s also possible — though unlikely — that you’ve reached your peak, he says. There’s a reason some athletic records seem to stick, he notes: at some point, your body just can’t get any better.

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Summary: Change your workout routine to improve your fitness level By: Paola Loriggio In this article it states that consistency is the key to getting in shape. But this article also argues that while it’s important to make exercise a habit, too much routine can actually hinder your fitness efforts and cause a plateau in your fitness progress. After a few months of doing the same exercise routine, your body hits a plateau, a phenomenon that frustrates even professional athletes. That means it switches from improving — getting stronger, faster, and more powerful— to coasting, says Scott Thomas, a professor at the University of Toronto’s faculty of kinesiology and physical education. That’s why you should change up your workout routine every once in a while to make sure you getting the results you want. But sometimes it’s also possible — though unlikely — that you’ve reached your peak. There’s a reason some athletic records seem to stick, at some point, your body just can’t get any better. Definitions: Ligaments: a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint. Plateau: an area of relatively level high ground. Interval: training in which an athlete alternates between two activities, typically requiring different rates of speed, degrees of effort, etc.

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Article: Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular disease includes a number of conditions affecting the structures or function of the heart. They can include: • Coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries) • Heart attack • Abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias • Heart failure • Heart valve disease • Congenital heart disease • Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) • Pericardial disease • Aorta disease and Marfan syndrome • Vascular disease (blood vessel disease) Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the U.S. It is important to learn about your heart to help prevent heart disease. And, if you have cardiovascular disease, you can live a healthier, more active life by learning about your disease and treatments and by becoming an active participant in your care. Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD) is atherosclerosis, or hardening, of the arteries that provide vital oxygen and nutrients to the heart.

Abnormal Heart Rhythms The heart is an amazing organ. It beats in a steady, even rhythm; about 60 to 100 times each minute (that's about 100,000 times each day!). But, sometimes your heart gets out of rhythm. An irregular or abnormal heartbeat is called an arrhythmia. An arrhythmia (also called a dysrhythmia) can involve a change in the rhythm, producing an uneven heartbeat, or a change in the rate, causing a very slow or very fast heartbeat. 16


Heart Failure The term "heart failure" can be frightening. It does not mean the heart has "failed" or stopped working. It means the heart does not pump as well as it should. This then leads to salt and water retention, causing swelling and shortness of breath. The swelling and shortness of breath are the primary symptoms of heart failure. Heart failure is a major health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly 5 million Americans. About 550,000 people are diagnosed with heart failure each year. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in people older than 65. Heart Valve Disease

Your heart valves lie at the exit of each of your four heart chambers and maintain one-way blood-flow through your heart. Examples of heart valve problems include mitral valve prolapsed, aortic stenosis, and mitral valve insufficiency. Congenital Heart Disease Congenital heart disease is a type of defect in one or more structures of the heart or blood vessels that occurs before birth. It affects about eight out of every 1,000 children. Congenital heart defects may produce symptoms at birth, during childhood, and sometimes not until adulthood. In most cases scientists don't know why they occur. Heredity may play a role, as well as exposure to the fetus during pregnancy to certain viral infections, alcohol, or drugs. Cardiomyopathies Cardiomyopathies are diseases of the heart muscle itself. People with cardiomyopathies -sometimes called an enlarged heart -- have hearts that are abnormally enlarged, thickened, and/or stiffened. As a result, the heart's ability to pump blood is weakened. Without treatment, cardiomyopathies worsen over time and often lead to heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. Pericarditis 17


Pericarditis is inflammation of the lining that surrounds the heart. It is a rare condition that is often caused by an infection. Aorta Disease and Marfan syndrome The aorta is the large artery that leaves the heart and provides oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. These diseases and conditions can cause the aorta to dilate (widen) or dissect (tear), increasing the risk for future life-threatening events, such as: • Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) • High blood pressure • Genetic conditions such as Marfan Syndrome • Connective tissue disorders (that affect the strength of the blood vessel walls) such as, scleroderma, ontogenesis imperfecta, polycystic kidney disease, and Turner's syndrome • Injury People with aorta disease should be treated by an experienced team of cardiovascular specialists and surgeons. Other Vascular Diseases Your circulatory system is the system of blood vessels that carry blood to every part of your body. Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system. These include diseases of the arteries and blood flow to the brain.

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Summary: Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases By: No Author

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States, Canada, and other developed countries. It is important to learn about your heart to help prevent heart disease. This article describes various health conditions related to the cardiovascular system with special emphasis on heart disease. Coronary Artery Disease: When there is a build up of plaque (generally composed of fats and cholesterol) in the arteries, the blood fails to efficiently move through these blood vessels. Over time, the accumulation of plaque causes the arteries to narrow and harden. Abnormal Heart Rhythms: The heart is an amazing organ that works 24/7. This is necessary in order to survive. We require the heart to beat at a steady state, and in general, the heart beats about 60 to 100 times each minute (totalling to approximately 100,000 beats each day!). However, sometimes your heart beat gets out of rhythm. An irregular or abnormal heartbeat is called an arrhythmia. Heart Failure: The term "heart failure" can be scary and the average person generally misinterprets this phrase. Heart failure does not mean the heart has "failed" or stopped working, however, it means that the heart is not pumping blood 19


sufficiently for survival. In severe cases, this can lead to a shortage of oxygen in the heart leading to a higher risk of a heart attack (an insult to the organ that causes the heart tissue to die). Congenital Heart Disease: Congenital heart disease is a type of birth defect in one or more physical structures of the heart or blood vessels. This can be caused by a mutation in the individual’s genome or due to environmental factors (or both). Cardiomyopathies: Cardiomyopathies are diseases of the heart muscle itself—the term cardiomyopathy literally translates to “heart muscle disease”. People with cardiomyopathies -- sometimes called an enlarged heart -- have hearts that are abnormally larger, have thick walls, and/or are stiff. Pericarditis: This is an inflammation of the lining that surrounds the heart. Aorta Disease: The aorta is the large artery that leaves the heart and provides oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. This disease can cause the aorta to widen and tear eventually leading to other chronic and life-threatening disease. Other Vascular Diseases: Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system and blood vessels. These include diseases of the arteries and blood flow to the brain. Definitions: 20


Ontogenesis imperfect: an inherited disorder characterized by extreme fragility of the bones. Turner's syndrome: a genetic defect in which affected women have only one X chromosome, causing developmental abnormalities and infertility. Heredity: the passing on of physical or mental.

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Article: Modify Your Diet so You Feel Terrific Though heart disease was recently "dethroned" as the leading cause of death in the United States (cancer now gets that title), it still represents a major hurdle to Americans' health. Contrary to popular belief, high cholesterol is not the major cause of heart disease. Fortunately, we are moving slowly away from the original diet-heart hypothesis that advocated low-fat diets for a healthy heart. The real key to preventing heart disease is to use a combined approach, one that treats all facets of your physical and emotional health. It's extremely important to eat real foods based on your metabolic type (to determine whether a low-fat, high-fat or other diet is best for you) and to get out and exercise--regularly and intensely enough. Further, you must address stress and your emotions, as too much stress and negative emotions will contribute significantly to this disease.

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Summary: Modify Your Diet so You Feel Terrific By: No Author •

heart disease was recently "ousted" as the top reason of death in the United States (cancer now gets that title),

Opposing popular belief, high cholesterol is not the main cause of heart disease.

We are moving slowly away from the original diet-heart hypothesis that supported low-fat diets for a healthy heart.

It's very important to eat real foods based on your metabolic type (to determine whether a low-fat, high-fat or other diet is best for you) and to get out and exercise--regularly and intensely enough.

You must come to terms with the stress and your emotions, as too much stress and negative emotions will add considerably to this disease.

Definitions: High cholesterol: Hypercholesterolemia is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a steroid that can be present in the fatty tissue of the body. Metabolic type: Proponents of metabolic typing believe that each person has a unique metabolism, and that the nutrients which are appropriate for one person may be inappropriate for another. Stress: A state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances. 23


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Article: Eating disorders on the rise: What you need to Know By Julie Relevant More kids than ever before are dealing with eating disorders in the United States, and the problem is showing up much earlier, too. According to a study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, children under 12 who were hospitalized for an eating disorder increased by 119 percent between 1999 and 2006. And it’s not just affecting girls and young women. A recent study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that 10 to 15 percent of males suffer from eating disorders as well. “Every time I looked at myself, I saw this huge stomach, love handles and a bald head,” said Brian Cuban, author of Shattered Image: My Triumph over Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The younger brother of Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban, Brian said he was “fat-shamed” by his mother, as well as bullied and physically assaulted at school, leading him to develop body dimorphic disorder – a condition that causes a person to have a distorted view of his or her body. About a third of people who are diagnosed with body dimorphic disorder also have an eating disorder, according to a study in the International Journal of Eating Disorders. During his freshman year of college, Cuban developed anorexia and bulimia eventually became addicted to drugs and alcohol, and even attempted suicide. He suffered for 27 years until finally getting help in 2007 and turning his life around. For boys like Cuban who suffer from an eating disorder, it’s harder to get help, let alone talk to their parents about it. “Gender stigma for men and body image has lagged way behind,” Cuban said. The obesity problem According to a recent study in the journal Pediatrics, teens that are overweight or obese are not only at an increased risk for developing an eating disorder, but diagnosing and treating the disorders is delayed. And on the flip side, binge eating disorder can lead a child to become obese. “You walk a fine line in trying to promote healthy eating and weight loss for the kids who need it and with those who don’t need it,” said Dr. Rebecca O’Brien, a pediatrician at Boston Children’s Hospital and a member of the AAP committee on adolescence. O’Brien said she’s seen kids who take a nutrition class at school and then start counting calories. What causes eating disorders? Eating disorders usually show up during puberty and in early adulthood, between the ages of 18 and 20. Although it’s not clear why a child might develop an eating disorder, genetics may play a role. “There may be some people genetically more loaded to get an eating disorder,” O’Brien said. Often times, an anxiety disorder or depression can co-occur with an eating disorder. Most likely, it’s a perfect storm of genetics, media messages, and the right set of circumstances— poor self-esteem and criticism by others. “You have to be really careful about making comments, particularly to young girls,” O’Brien said. “As they start to go through puberty, it’s a very uncomfortable time for kids.” Know the warning signs Think your kid has an eating disorder? Here are some things you should look for: 25


-Restricting calories, food avoidance, reading labels, changes in diet -talk about dieting -loss of menstrual periods -weight is 15 percent below ideal -distorted body image or body critiquing -purging, use of laxatives, excessive exercise -binging behaviors -secretive eating -isolating from family and friends -scraping and bruising of the finger joints -yellowing of teeth or dental problems. If you suspect your child may have an eating disorder, here’s what you can do: Talk Instead of assuming what your kid is going through, put yourself in his or her shoes and have an open mind. “Learning how to say something is as important as what you say,” Cuban said. Admit it “Get over yourself; it’s not about you,” said Cuban, who added that the biggest barrier parents face when getting help is that they think they failed. Yet realizing that you have no control over your child’s behavior is an important step. “All you can do is to put your child in a position to succeed,” he said. Enlist a pro “The sooner you get someone into treatment, the quicker they get better,” O’Brien said. She added it’s important to see your child’s primary doctor who can assess your kid’s physical health first and then help you find a specialist. Your child may work with a therapist and dietitian or a family therapist who can help you model habits and change behaviors.

Summary: Eating disorders on the rise: What you need to Know By: Julie Relevant •

Children under 12 who were hospitalized for an eating disorder amplified by 119 percent between 1999 and 2006.

A new study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that 10 to 15 percent of males suffer from eating disorders as well.

Teens that are overweight or obese are not only at an increased risk for developing an eating disorder, but diagnosing and treating the disorders is

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delayed. And on the flip side, binge eating disorder can lead a child to become obese. •

Eating disorders usually show up during puberty and in early adulthood, between the ages of 18 and 20.

Definitions: Eating disorders: any of a range of psychological disorders characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits (such as anorexia nervosa). Binging: indulge in an activity, esp. eating, to excess. Depression: severe despondency and dejection typically felt over a period of time and accompanied by feelings of hopelessness and inadequacy.

Article: The Different Kinds of Eating Disorders By Delilah Falcon While it may appear that the general health of American citizens is in a state of decline, some individuals are resorting to dangerous methods to improve their appearance or revolutionize their body image. Eating disorders are extremely prevalent in society today, and new eating disorders are being discussed in medical and health circles. There are many different types of eating disorders and these disorders are characterized by different actions, and different emotional and/or psychological triggers. Specific eating disorders will have varying effects on the individual's health and treatment options will vary greatly depending on the type of eating disorder. Below is a general overview of common eating disorders, possible triggers and signs of an eating disorder, and where to seek help. SIGNS OF AN EATING DISORDER Identifying an eating disorder is often very complicated and challenging. Individuals who suffer from an eating disorder may be unwilling to accept the truth about the harmful nature of their 27


actions. These individuals may rely on trusted friends and family members to provide them with awareness. Signs of an eating disorder include: • Dramatic fluctuations in body weight • Frequent trips to the restroom after eating • Eating large quantities of food with no noticeable weight gain • Excessive tooth decay • Preoccupation with weight or body image • Dehydration • Persistent illness • Delayed puberty • Depression • Anger • Lethargy ANOREXIA NERVOSA Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a refusal to consume sufficient nutrients and calories over an extended period of time. Individuals with anorexia are often obsessive about their appearance and their weight. They may use a body scale several times a day, portion food obsessively, consume only small quantities of food or no food at all and even purge overindulgent meals. Anorexia nervosa can be a long-term struggle or appear in haphazard spurts throughout an individual's life. BULIMIA NERVOSA Bulimia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a pattern of overeating and purging. The cycle begins with binge eating wherein the individual consumes large portions of food and exhibits no control over this behavior. After binge eating, a bulimic person will experience intense fear and guilt. These feelings prompt the individual to purge the meal through vomiting, fasting or even excessive use of laxatives. BINGE EATING AND OBSESSIVE DIETING Until recently, binge eating and obsessive dieting were not characterized as eating disorders. However, recent studies have proved that these disorders can be just as emotionally and physically damaging as anorexia and bulimia. Binge eating disorder, or BED, is characterized by consuming large quantities of food that do not correspond to hunger pangs or nutrition needs. Binge eaters do not purge their food after these eating episodes and are usually overweight or obese. On the opposite side of the spectrum, obsessive dieting is characterized by an indulgent need to participate in frequent weight-loss programs and diet regimens that may be dangerous or harmful to an individual's health. MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL TRIGGERS Most experts agree that eating disorders are characterized by a preoccupation with weight, body image, and/or food, but the reasons why an eating disorder develops are much more widely varied. An eating disorder can be an emotional, mental, or even a physical disorder. Issues that

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occurred during youth or development are often discovered to be triggers for eating disorders. For example: Verbal abuse with regards to weight or appearance that occurred during childhood can often lead to the development of an eating disorder. •

Some individuals' eating disorders are triggered by movies, magazines or television shows that portray a specific body image or lifestyle. •

Other triggers may include specific types of food, such as candy or junk food, an emotional trauma such as the death of a loved one or an emotionally turbulent breakup or other emotional issues such as increased stress, depression or anxiety. •

SEEKING HELP There are thousands of resources available for individuals who are struggling with an eating disorder, as well as for the families and friends of these individuals. Therapy sessions, treatment programs, treatment facilities and campuses, and a wealth of literature and media are offered throughout the world to help individuals who struggle with one or more of these prevalent conditions. Physicians, psychiatrists and nutritionists are striving worldwide to show individuals with eating disorders that they are not alone and that help is available. The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) has information about health facilities, treatment options and diagnosis advice. For more information from NEDA and other resources, visit the links below.

Summary: The Different Kinds of Eating Disorders By: Delilah Falcon •

There are numerous different kinds of eating disorders and these disorders are considered by not the same actions, and different emotional and/or psychological causes.

Bulimia nervosa is a disorder categorized by an arrangement of overeating and purging.

Until of late, binge eating and obsessive dieting were not categorized as eating disorders.

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Binge eating disorder, or BED, is categorized by consuming large amounts of food that do not agree to hunger pangs or nutrition needs.

Most experts approve that eating disorders are categorized by an obsession with weight, body image, and/or food, but the motives why an eating disorder develops are much more broadly diverse.

An eating disorder can be an emotional, mental, or even a physical disorder. Matters that happened throughout youth or development are usually discovered to be triggers for eating disorders.

There are thousands of resources available for individuals who are struggling with an eating disorder, as well as for the families and friends of these individuals

Definitions: Preoccupation: the state or condition of being preoccupied or engrossed with something. Therapy: treatment intended to relieve or heal a disorder. Nutritionists: a person who studies or is an expert in nutrition.

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Article: How can smoking affect your health? Cancers Tobacco use accounts for nearly 1 in 3 cancer deaths. Tens of thousands of women will die this year from lung cancer, which has shot past breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women. About 87% of lung cancer deaths will be caused by smoking. Not only does smoking increase the risk for lung cancer, it’s also a risk factor for cancers of the: • Mouth • Larynx (voice box) • Pharynx (throat) • Nose and sinuses • Lips • Esophagus (swallowing tube) • Kidney • Cervix • Bladder • Pancreas • Stomach • Ovary (mucinous) • Colon/rectum • Smoking is also linked to acute myeloid leukemia. Smoking raises your risk of heart disease and stroke Women who smoke greatly increase their risk of heart disease (the leading killer among women) and stroke. The risk goes up with the number of cigarettes smoked and the length of time a woman has been smoking. Even though most of the women who die of heart disease are past menopause, smoking increases the risk more in younger women than in older women. Studies suggest that smoking cigarettes increases the risk of heart disease even more among younger women who are also taking birth control pills. Smoking damages your lungs Smoking damages the airways and small air sacs in the lungs. This can cause chronic coughing, wheezing, trouble breathing, and long-term (chronic) lung disease. More than 90% of deaths due to chronic bronchitis and emphysema – together these are known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – are caused by smoking. The risk of COPD goes up with the number of cigarettes smoked each day and with the length of time a woman has been smoking. Female smokers aged 35 or older are almost 13 times more likely to die from emphysema or bronchitis than those who have never smoked. Smoking “low tar” or “light” cigarettes does not reduce these risks, or any of the other health risks of tobacco. The lungs grow more slowly in teenage girls who smoke. And a woman who smokes starts losing lung function in early adulthood. Smoking causes other health problems

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Smoking can cause or worsen poor blood flow in the arms and legs (a condition known as peripheral vascular disease or PVD). This can limit everyday activities such as walking, and lead to open sores that won’t heal. Even worse, surgery to improve the blood flow often fails in people who keep smoking. This is why many doctors who operate on blood vessels (vascular surgeons) won’t do certain surgeries on patients with PVD unless they stop smoking. Stopping smoking lowers a woman’s risk of PVD. And in people who already have PVD, quitting smoking improves the odds that PVD treatments will work. Women who smoke, especially after going through menopause, have lower bone density (thinner bones). This means they have a higher risk for broken bones, including hip fracture, than women who do not smoke. They may also be at higher risk for getting rheumatoid arthritis and cataracts (clouding of the lenses of the eyes), as well as age-related macular degeneration, which can cause blindness. Smoking affects your reproductive health Tobacco use can damage a woman’s reproductive health. Women who smoke are more likely to have trouble getting pregnant. Smokers tend to be younger at the start of menopause than nonsmokers and may have more unpleasant symptoms while going through menopause. Smoking can also cause problems during pregnancy that can hurt both mother and baby. Smokers have a higher risk of the placenta (the organ that protects and nourishes the growing fetus) growing too close to the opening of the uterus. Smokers are also more likely to have early membrane ruptures and placentas that separate from the uterus too early. Serious bleeding, early delivery (premature birth), and emergency Caesarean section (C-section) may result from these problems. Smokers are more likely to have miscarriages, stillbirths, and low birth-weight babies, too.

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Summary: How can smoking affect your health? By: No Author •

Tobacco use is responsible for closely 1 in 3 cancer deaths.

Tens of thousands of women will die this year from lung cancer, which has shot past breast cancer as the number one cause of cancer death in women.

Roughly 87% of lung cancer deaths will be caused by smoking.

Women who smoke significantly increase their danger of heart disease (the leading killer among women) and stroke.

The danger drives up with the number of cigarettes smoked and the amount of time a woman has been smoking.

Studies propose that smoking cigarettes raises the hazard of heart disease even more amongst younger women who are also taking birth control pills.

Smoking injurers the airways and small air sacs in the lungs.

More than 90% of deaths due to chronic bronchitis and emphysema – together these are identified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – are affected by smoking.

Smoking can cause or worsen poor blood flow in the arms and legs (a condition known as peripheral vascular disease or PVD).

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Tobacco use can injure a woman’s reproductive health.


•

. Women who smoke are more expected to have trouble getting pregnant.

Definitions: Tobacco: a preparation of the nicotine-rich leaves of an American plant, which is cured by a process of drying and fermentation for smoking or chewing. Chronic coughing: Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi in the lungs. It is generally considered one of the two forms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the other being emphysema. .. Menopause: the ceasing of menstruation.

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Article: Smoking harms your brain as well as your body: It leads to sharp decline in mental ability, warns study By Jenny Hope Smoking is known to be highly damaging to physical health, being a major factor in cancer and heart disease. Now, however, its alarming effects on the mental well-being of millions of smokers have been outlined by British scientists. Lighting up regularly has been associated with a sharp decline in the performance of the brain, according to their study. They found that middle-aged smokers performed less well on tests compared with those without the tobacco habit. The project examined memory, planning and overall mental ability after four and eight years. The tests included asking people to learn new words or name as many animals as they could in a minute. Researchers concluded that smoking ‘consistently’ reduced all three performance measures after four years. They also found that high blood pressure and being overweight took their toll of brainpower – but not as much as smoking. The team warned that people need to be aware of the impact on their health of lifestyle choices, like smoking. Risk factor data was examined for more than 8,800 people aged 50 and over taking part in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The researchers at King’s College London were investigating links between the likelihood of a heart attack or stroke and the state of the brain. Smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and a high BMI all worsen the risk of dementia High blood pressure and high risk of stroke were also associated with lower scores for memory and overall mental ability after eight years. Being overweight was linked to poor memory, according to the findings published in the journal Age and Ageing. Lead scientist Dr Alex Dregan said ‘Cognitive decline becomes more common

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with ageing and, for an increasing number of people, interferes with daily functioning and wellbeing. ‘We have identified a number of risk factors which could be associated with accelerated cognitive decline, all of which could be modifiable. This offers valuable knowledge for prevention and treatment interventions.’ The researchers said their results indicate that high blood pressure has a gradual effect on the brain over a long period. This could explain why short-term trials of blood pressure drugs being used to treat mental decline failed to show a clear benefit. Recent laboratory research suggested a compound in tobacco called NNK provokes white blood cells in the central nervous system to attack healthy cells, leading to severe neurological damage. There are almost 10 million smokers in the UK. The habit is still by far the biggest single cause of preventable illness and premature death. It is a major contributory factor in causing heart disease and 39,000 lung cancer cases each year. Dr Simon Ridley, of Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: ‘Research has repeatedly linked smoking and high blood pressure to a greater risk of cognitive decline and dementia. This study adds weight to that. ‘Cognitive decline as we age can develop into dementia, and unravelling the factors linked to this decline could be crucial for finding ways to prevent the condition.’ Jessica Smith, of the Alzheimer’s Society, said: ‘We all know smoking, a high blood pressure, high cholesterol and a high Body Mass Index is bad for our heart. ‘This adds to the huge amount of evidence that also suggests they can be bad for our head too.’ One in three of the over-65s will develop dementia, she added.

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Summary: Smoking harms your brain as well as your body: It leads to sharp decline in mental ability, warns study By: Jenny Hope •

Smoking is known to be highly damaging to physical health, being a major factor in cancer and heart disease.

Lighting up regularly has been associated with a sharp decline in the performance of the brain

They found that middle-aged smokers performed less well on tests compared with those without the tobacco habit.

Smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and a high BMI all worsen the risk of dementia

High blood pressure and high risk of stroke were also associated with lower scores for memory and overall mental ability after eight years.

They found that middle-aged smokers performed less well on tests compared with those without the tobacco habit.

They also found that high blood pressure and being overweight took their toll of brainpower – but not as much as smoking.

Definitions: White blood cells: a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease; a white (blood) cell. 37


There are several types, all amoeboid cells with a nucleus, including lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. Central nervous system: the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord. Neurological damage: Sudden neurological damage, such as from a stroke or brain or spinal cord injury, can cause difficulty swallowing or an inability to swallow.

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Article: Moderate Alcohol Consumption Shrinks Brain Tuesday, December 23, 2008 by: Maryann Marshall Tags: alchohol, health news, Natural News (NaturalNews) We have been told that moderate use of alcohol is good for the heart. However, reports from the Framingham Study show that moderate to heavy alcohol use is associated with damage to brain tissue. Such damage to the brain may lead to higher risk of stroke or dementia. The Framingham Study began in 1948 to follow the residents of Framingham, Massachusetts and their offspring. The study is now following a third generation of participants. The goal of the study is to follow people over a long period of time, documenting their state of cardiovascular disease. At the beginning of the study, subjects have no evidence of heart disease. The subjects are put through a series of tests every two years. Over time, medical records are analyzed to determine risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Much of the information published about risk factors for heart disease and stroke comes from this study. The American Academy of Neurology presented evidence in 2007 from Wellesley College, Massachusetts. Carol Ann Paul M.S. and her associates reported that even moderate amounts of alcohol are associated with brain atrophy and possibly an increased risk of dementia or stroke. Researchers performed MRI scans on 1,839 people aged 34 to 88 to compare the volume of brain tissue to their cranial size. Subjects were classified as non-drinkers, former drinkers, low drinkers (1 to 7 drinks per week), moderate drinkers (8 to 14 drinks per week), or high drinkers (more than 14 drinks per week). Brain shrinkage numbers increased by .25 percent as amount and frequency of drinking increased. People who consumed more than 14 drinks per week had brains which averaged 1.6 percent smaller than those who did not drink alcohol. For women, especially those in their 70's, the change was more dramatic than for men. Researchers speculated that the differences may be associated with the smaller body mass of women. In addition, those who had a longer history of heavy alcohol consumption also had more brain atrophy. The team noted that men were more likely to become heavy drinkers than women. The same group reported again in 2008 in the Journal of the American Medical Association: "The public health effect of this study gives a clear message about the possible dangers of drinking alcohol," the authors write. "... This study suggests that, unlike the associations with cardiovascular disease, alcohol consumption does not have any protective effect on brain volume." They suggest further, longer term studies to determine the full impact of these findings. In general, brain volume decreases with age at an estimated rate of 1.9 percent every ten years. At the same time white matter lesions replace grey matter. Lower brain mass and white lesions are associated with problems in movement, thinking, learning, and memory. A 2006 study from the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam observed that people who 39


developed dementia decreased in brain volume between 5 and 17 percent during the eight year study. Those who were diagnosed with Alzheimer's had a decrease up to 40 percent. People with atrophy in parts of the brain known as the amygdala and hippocampus had the highest risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer's disease. The accelerated loss of grey matter under the influence of alcohol is worth considering before you down that second (or third) serving of spirits.

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Summary: Moderate Alcohol Consumption Shrinks Brain By: Maryann Marshall • Framingham Study show that moderate to heavy alcohol use is associated with damage to brain tissue. •

The Framingham Study began in 1948 to follow the residents of Framingham, Massachusetts and their offspring.

Researchers performed MRI scans on 1,839 people aged 34 to 88 to compare the volume of brain tissue to their cranial size.

Subjects were classified as non-drinkers, former drinkers, low drinkers (1 to 7 drinks per week), moderate drinkers (8 to 14 drinks per week), or high drinkers (more than 14 drinks per week).

Brain shrinkage numbers increased by .25 percent as amount and frequency of drinking increased.

Definition: Brain tissue: The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is larger than any other in relation to body size. MRI scan: Magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, or magnetic resonance tomography is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body in detail. Brain volume: rain size is one aspect of animal anatomy and evolution. Both overall brain size and the size of substructures have been analyzed, and the

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question of links between size and functioning - particularly intelligence - has often proved controversial.

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Article: Even Light Alcohol Consumption may Raise Cancer Risk in Women Friday, March 20, 2009 by: Reuben Chow Tags: alcohol consumption, health news, Natural News (NaturalNews) Alcohol consumption has previously been strongly linked with certain types of cancer, for example those of the mouth and throat, but its contribution to other types of malignancies have not been as firmly established. A large study conducted in Britain and recently published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute has found that even light to moderate alcohol drinking could raise a woman's risk of several common types of cancer. Details and Findings of Study The study team had examined the questionnaire data of almost 1.3 million middle-aged women who were involved in the Million Women Study. The women had gone for breast cancer screening between 1996 and 2001. The average follow-up period of the study was 7.2 years, during which over 68,000 ladies developed invasive cancers. Having accounted for other possible risk factors such as age, weight and cigarette smoking, the researchers found that even light to moderate drinking contributed to statistically significant increases in risk of common cancers, such as those of the liver, rectum and breast. In fact, even the consumption of as little as one alcoholic drink, or about 10g of alcohol, each day could heighten cancer risk. This is somewhat of a revelation, as cancer is usually associated with heavy drinking. Further, with every additional drink, the risk got higher. Risk of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and larynx also increased with alcohol consumption, as did total cancer risk. Lower risks for thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma were, however, linked with increasing alcohol consumption. Another interesting finding of the study was that cancer risk was raised regardless of the type of alcohol which was consumed, even wine. Limitations of Study the study, though, is not without its shortcomings, as some parties have quickly pointed out. For example, in analyzing the study data, the researchers had omitted women who reported not drinking any alcohol at all at the start of the study. This was based on the assumption that this might be a biased group due to the fact that some of those women may have stopped alcohol consumption because of poor health. The adoption of such methodology meant that the study did not have a "no alcohol consumption" reference group. Also, the women involved in the study had, for unknown reasons and motivations, voluntarily gone for cancer screening. This makes the study sample a self-selecting one, and such samples generally do not present a good representation of the overall population. Further, the questionnaires used in the study were self-administered, which are generally less reliable than person-to-person interviews. They were also said to be long and needing a 43


significant period of concentration, while they only briefly touched upon the subject of alcohol consumption. In addition, the second survey of the study took place three years after the first round, which is quite a long time lag. Conclusion what, then, should we make of this study? The research team is asking women to be aware of the risks and to take responsibility for their alcohol consumption. "Even relatively low levels of drinking - drinking at levels we considered relatively safe for women - increases a woman's risk of developing cancer. It's important that women are as well informed as possible about these risks, so they can take responsible action for how much alcohol they drink," said Naomi Allen, a cancer epidemiologist at the University of Oxford and the leader of the study. She also estimated that "about 5% of all cancer in women is due to moderate alcohol use." While the specific findings of the study may have to be taken with a pinch of salt, it remains that the overall recommendations put forth by Allen and her team will probably do more good than harm to the health of women who choose to follow them.

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Summary: Even Light Alcohol Consumption may Raise Cancer Risk in Women By: Reuben Chow •

Alcohol consumption has previously been strongly linked with certain types of cancer, for example those of the mouth and throat, but its contribution to other types of malignancies have not been as firmly established.

Light to moderate drinking contributed to statistically significant increases in risk of common cancers, such as those of the liver, rectum and breast.

The consumption of as little as one alcoholic drink, or about 10g of alcohol, each day could heighten cancer risk.

Risk of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and larynx also increased with alcohol consumption, as did total cancer risk.

Lower risks for thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma were linked with increasing alcohol consumption.

Definitions: Thyroid cancer: thyroid cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells. The most effective management of aggressive thyroid cancers is surgical removal of thyroid gland followed by radioactive iodine ablation and TSH-suppression therapy. Oral cavity: mouth: the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge; "he stuffed his mouth with candy"

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Pharynx: the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.

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Article: Many Teens Drinking, Taking Drugs during School: Survey By Amanda Gardner Health Day Reporter WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (Health Day News) -- Ninety percent of American high school students report that some of their classmates are using illicit drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, during the school day, a new survey found. When asked to estimate how many were involved, these teens reported that about 17 percent of students -- roughly 2.8 million -- are abusing drugs during the school day, according to the survey. "The findings are alarming but not surprising," said Bruce Goldman, director of substance abuse services at Zucker Hillside Hospital, in Glen Oaks, N.Y. "We know that teens abuse alcohol, cannabis, prescription medications. It makes sense that they do it at school where they congregate with their peers. Goldman was not involved with the survey, which was released Wednesday by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASAColumbia), in New York City. The survey is a timely one, coming out soon after a U.S. government study found that more teenagers start drinking and smoking cigarettes and marijuana in June and July than in any other month. The new survey also found that schools can be a hub of drug-dealing activity, with 44 percent of high school students saying they know a fellow student who sells drugs at their school. Half of respondents knew of a place near their school where kids could go to drink and get high during the school day, according to the yearly back-to-school survey, which polled 1,003 12-to17-year olds. And more than one-third said that students had ample opportunity during the school day to drug, drink and smoke without getting caught. Drug use in both public and private schools is on the rise, with 54 percent of private high school students reporting that drugs are available in their schools versus 24 percent in 2002 and 61 percent of students at public schools saying their schools are "drug infected," compared with 46 percent in 2002. Social media seem to be contributing to the overall trend, with 75 percent of teens saying that seeing photos of other teens partying on Facebook, MySpace or other social networking sites made them want to do the same. Nearly half of teens who have seen such pictures perceived that the teens in the photos "are having a good time." Kids who had seen such photos were three to four times more likely to have used marijuana, alcohol or tobacco compared to kids who had not viewed this type of picture. "Seeing teens partying with alcohol or marijuana on Facebook and other sites encourages other teens to want to party like that," said Emily Feinstein, project director for the survey and a senior policy analyst with CASAColumbia. "Clearly, parents really need to help children navigate that world safely." 47


The survey also looked specifically at parental supervision and parental expectations and found both to play a major role in teens' drug use. Children who are left home alone overnight are about twice as likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and three times as likely to have used tobacco, compared to kids who are not left home alone. Teens who believe their parents would not be "extremely upset" to know that their child was using drugs were less likely to engage in this type of behavior. "Parents need to be Hypervigilance and monitor their children's friends, both virtual and reality," Goldman said. The same goes for school personnel, he added. "If kids know who is using drugs, why don't the staff?" he asked. Feinstein concluded, "Preventing addiction is all about preventing teen substance use because the developing brain is more vulnerable. We really need to look at this as a health care problem rather than a behavioral problem and start screening and intervening early."

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Summary: Many Teens Drinking, Taking Drugs during School: Survey By: Amanda Gardner Ninety percent of American high school students reported that some of their peers were using illicit drugs and alcohol during the school day. Researchers at the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University conducted a survey of high school students to obtain the follow: • The surveyed students estimated that approximately 17% of their high school

peers -- roughly 2.8 million students -- are abusing drugs during the school day. • The results of this survey are timely. The United States government recently

identified that more teens are starting to drink, smoke cigarettes, and abuse marijuana. These patterns were especially higher during the months of June and July compared to any other time of the year. • Results from the survey also highlight that 44% of high school students admit

that they know a fellow student who sells drugs at their school. • Children who are left home alone overnight are about twice as likely to have

used alcohol or marijuana and three times as likely to have used tobacco, compared to kids who are not left home alone. • Teens who believe their parents would not be "extremely upset" to know that

their child was using drugs were less likely to engage in this type of behaviour. 49


Definitions: Marijuana: Cannabis, esp. as smoked in cigarettes. Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion. Cannabis: A tall plant with a stiff upright stem, divided serrated leaves, and glandular hairs. It is used to produce hemp fiber and as a psychotropic drug.

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Article: Move to Middle School Tied To Youth Drug Use April 08, 1999|By New York Times News Service. The first national drug-abuse survey to include elementary-school children among the respondents suggests that youngsters become more vulnerable to the lure of drugs once they leave the familiar environment of primary school and strive to fit into middle school. The new survey, by PRIDE, an organization based in Atlanta that counsels schools and parents on ways to inhibit drug use among the young, also bolsters again what many researchers have long said: that cigarettes, alcohol (primarily beer) and inhalants are used far more by children than are marijuana or harder drugs. PRIDE, an acronym for the National Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education, issued its findings Wednesday at its national conference in Cincinnati. Until now, drug-abuse surveys among children did not focus on those below the 8th grade. But PRIDE's survey questioned pupils from Grades 4 through 6. The survey found that the proportion of respondents who said they had smoked cigarettes in the last month jumped to 7 percent of 6th graders from 1.6 percent of 4th graders. Similarly 2.1 percent of 4th graders said they drank beer at least once a month, fewer than half the 4.7 percent of 6th graders who reported doing so. Monthly sniffing of glue and other inhalants also rose between the grades, although less so: to 2.7 percent of 6th graders from 2.2 percent of 4th graders. As for marijuana, only 0.4 percent of 4th-grade pupils acknowledged having smoked it in the last month, as against 1.7 percent of 6th graders. Officials of PRIDE also cited previous research, done for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, indicating that children's risk of engaging in drug use rises when they move from elementary school to middle school, which, depending on the district, begins in Grades 5, 6, or 7, and later from middle school to high school. Peer pressure and association with new friends appear to be the leading causes. The findings were based on responses from 26,086 pupils at public and private schools in 22 states during the 1997-98 school years. PRIDE sent a questionnaire to the participating schools with instructions for administering it, and all answers were anonymous. Doug Hall, a PRIDE spokesman, said the researchers had used a test-retest method in which the pupils were asked the same questions twice within a two-week period to catch any statistical inconsistencies. But the schools had all volunteered to participate in the survey, making them somewhat less representative than a broader nationwide sample would have been.

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Summary: Move to Middle School Tied To Youth Drug Use By: New York Times News Service • The first national drug-abuse survey to contain elementary-school children amongst the respondents mentions that young people develop more vulnerable to the trap of drugs once they leave the familiar environment of primary school and strive to fit into middle school. •

Respondents who said they had smoked cigarettes in the last month increased to 7 percent of 6th graders from 1.6 percent of 4th graders.

2.1% of 4th graders said they drank beer at least once a month, less than half the 4.7% of 6th graders who stated performing so

Once-a-month students would sniff glue and other things also increased between the grades, though less so: to 2.7% of 6th graders from 2.2% of 4th graders.

As for marijuana, only 0.4% of 4th-grade students recognized having smoked it in the previous month, as against 1.7% of 6th graders. •

Children’s danger of doing drugs rises when they change from elementary

school to middle school, which, depending on the district, begins in Grades 5, 6, or 7, and later from middle school to high school. • Peer pressure and meeting new friends seem to be the top causes.

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Definitions: Peer pressure: influence from members of one's peer group. Cigarettes: a thin cylinder of finely cut tobacco rolled in paper for smoking. Organization: an organized body of people with a particular purpose, esp. a business, society, association, etc.

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Fitness isu project for zainab al jaiashi