Page 1

Title

廢墟 輪迴再生

Reincarnation of Ruins Rethinking the meaning of “change” through the ruins in Hong Kong. A thesis trying to build a place- conscious commune by contemplating the relationship among the neglected ruins, new town developments and landscape design. Ng Yuen Yung Yuyu 1


REINCARNATION OF RUINS: A reconciliation among Abandoned Structures (Ruins), New Development and Landscape by Ng Yuen Yung Yuyu Supervised by: Chung Wang Leung Thomas A thesis submitted to the School of Architecture, CUHK in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture The Chinese University of Hong Kong May 2017

3


Title

CONTENTS p.7........................ Abstract p.8........................ Introduction (Hypothesis, Precedents, Research Methodolody)

Chapter 1

廢墟與文明.............................................................................p.12-23 Ruins and Civilization Definitions The Historical Perspective The Dilemma of Hong Kong’s Ruins

Chapter 2

頹垣、推土機與本土.............................................................p.24-41 Ruins, Bulldozer and Locality

Chapter 3

廢墟、新市鎮發展與地景...................................................p.42-47 Ruins, New Town Development and Landscape

Chapter 4

A new framework for integrating new and old, man-made and nature

案子: 皇后山廢墟................................................................p.48-61 Case Study of Queen’s Hill Former Camp Ruins

Chapter 5

Fate of ruins under exisiting system Theoretical Framework Essay on Functions of Ruins: Local Identity & Place- consciousness

Research methods/ techniques Comparison between Past and Present Tradition of Oppressed/ Local Memories

輪迴再生..................................................................................p.62-119 Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces (Design)

District Analysis Site Selection & Master Planning Draft design (Semester 1) “Final” design & focused design (Semester 2)

p.122-127............ Final Panel, Model Pictures p.130-133............ Appendix p.134-137............ Bibliography, List of Images p.140-141............ Acknowledgements 5


Abstract

REINCARNATION OF RUINS A reconciliation among

Abandoned Structures (Ruins), New Development and Landscape

This thesis tries to build a place-conscious commune by contemplating the relationship among the neglected abandoned structures (ruins), new town developments and landscape design. It is neither to deny the need of new housing developments nor to restore the demolished building to its perfect state. Instead, it is to provide alternatives to build on top of the existing context and physical landscape, be it historically consistent, ruined, or demolished. ‘(R)uins are more about remainders and reminders. A tour of “ruin” leads you into a labyrinth of ambivalent temporal adverbs—“no longer” and “not yet,” “nevertheless” and “albeit”—that play tricks with causality.’1 Ruins’ allegorical ability has growing importance in an era full of tabular rasa and commodified revitalization. “The allegorical method, like film, rips up the manifestly natural context of things, snapping open the apparent continuity of nature and history and prising apart space for reinterpretation and transformation.”2 The aim of the project is to establish a local identity that echoes the past and responds to the present, which allows further interpretation of a place by the future generation. Through the allegorical feature as well as the transformative character of ruins, the thesis tries to achieve balance between sensual experience and utilitarian approach, and create moments like a collage that allow one to reflect. As a touchstone, Queen’s Hill Former British Camp in Fanling is chosen as the project site. Instead of preserving, it is transforming. Instead of restoring, it is reviving. This thesis book is a collection of theoretical writings, research findings, design progress and proposal that work althogether in search for the meaning and future possibilities of today’s ruins. KEYWORDS Ruins, allegory, landscape, new-town development, transformation

Notes: 1. See Ruinophilia: Appreciation of Ruins Svetlana Boym 2, See Walter Benjamin’s Critique on Allegories 7


/Introduction/

T

his thesis challenges the existing ways of developments and conservation. Against the negative image of ruins, this thesis attempts to build up a theoretical and logical foundation for an alternative architectural approach to the local ruins. Ruins, in this project, are seen as potential tools to build a placeconscious commune. Through researching, rediscovering and reflecting, ruins can transform into new dialectics and alternative designs that contribute to sustainability in terms of economy and environment. In this regard, the former Queen’s Hill Camp is chosen as the project site to explore different concepts.

/Theoretic Hypothesis/ The onslaught of large scale barbaric developments in recent years is leading our city towards an inhumane and unsustainable place1 in terms of culture, economy and environment. At the same time, there are numerous derelict buildings all over Hong Kong that are standing at the edge of either being demolished without any attention, or being left to decay and rot without care. But are these derelicts really meaningless to us? Walter Benjamin, a German Philosopher, once said: “Allegories are, in the realm of thoughts, what ruins are in the realm of things.” To turn the comparison around, ruins have long been viewed as allegories. They are always pointing beyond themselves to some abstract totality. And at another level of abstraction, the gap between ruin and totality has itself been insistently conceived as some kind of second-order allegory. Allegory upon allegory, ruin upon ruin. Throughout the western history, ruins often takes an important role in cultural, political, and psychological

aspects. Although the value and meaning of ruins have been changing throughout different periods, ruins always have the ability of arousing dialectics or alternative thinking through its contrasting features against the mainstream culture and artwork at that certain period. Believing that ruins are not merely outdated city trash that ought to undergo brutal demolition, this thesis proposes the following theoretical hypothesis. If ruins are properly handled, benefits of ruins is two-fold: First, ruins may embody rich historical narratives of the locals and dialectical issues that are often neglected by the official history. This allows reconnection between our present and the past, and consequentially form a setting to build place-consciousness. Second, ruins can be the alternative architectural solution to foster a more sustainable and economic built environment.

/Relevant Theories and Projects/ Finnish architect, Marco Casagrande, founder of C-Lab and Ruin Academy in Taiwan, has proposed a theory of the Third Generation City1, in which the element of ruin is viewed as something man-made having become part of nature. In this regards, ruin establishes a living fragment of the third generation city that counters the modern spaces produced by global technology and standardized construction methods. In the Third Generation City, ruins contribute to create alternative sustainable lifestyle against the modern standardized model. Unlike Casagrande’s direct connection to ruins, Carlo Ratte Association has revealed a proposal to re-design a former American military village in Germany into a commune committed to the ideals of the sharing


Introduction

economy. The abandoned site is seen as a place for future, a place for testing ideals.

/Vision of this project/ This thesis lies between the two aforementioned approaches. Environmentally speaking, ruin is treated as a living fragment of modern city, connecting human nature back to the wilder nature. Socially speaking, ruin is seen as place awaiting for transformation: a source of creating alternative communes. “Alternative commune” may sound like hippies. Yet, it means much more than a group of people with special hobbies. Around the globe, different communes have started up with a simple same reason: people have a common vision of living style, but the society at that time could not satisfy them, so they create one. Indeed, small scale of commune has been starting up in the rural villages in Hong Kong against the extreme consumerism and capitalism in the mainstream culture. More and more citizens started to agree on such propaganda, but are unable to live such a life in reality in this time. This thesis tries to address the reality as well as the idealistic common vision. Instead of a careless comprimise or an impossible dream, it is providing a pragmatic alternative against the monotonous direction of development in today’s Hong Kong.

Top/ Ruin Academy in Sugar Factory, C-Lab Middle/ Sekeping Kong Heng, Seksan Design Bottom/ Patrick-Henry Commune, Carlo Patte Association Notes: 1. Third Generation City follows the first generation where humans’ peacefully coexisted with nature and the second generation built walls and stone structures everywhere in an attempt to shut out nature. In the third generation however, nature, which can never be truly shut out, grows back through the ruins, through the cracks in the wall, sucking human nature back into the wider nature. Third Generation City concentrates on local knowledge and urban acupuncture. Third Generation cities are those that have grown from the ruin of industrial society but lie beyond its fordist structure of social and economic organization. Principally, Third Generation cities can be conceived of as rhizomatic in nature and ultimately, bound up with pre-existing and future conditions of human construction. 9


/Research Methodology/

T

he thesis project is composed of two key elements: ruins and commune. In order to explore these two components, the methodology is also composed of two parts that run in parallel: theory and application. While the first part aims to establish a perspective on how to look at ruins, the second part investigate on the district level to understand the needs of the present community, as well as the potentials of the site itself.

/Theoretic: How to see ruins?/ To answer this question, this part of research starts from looking at the western history of ruins and related theories to explore the changing meanings of ruins from the past. Then, the research zooms into local scale to explore the trends and views on ruins in Hong Kong, and to look into the debates of current developments. This part of research extends deeper to look at the fate of ruins under existing preservation or revitalization approaches, to make a logical argument against those ways of development and conservation. To raise the question on the relationship between the buildings from the past and local identity, an analytic essay on “Locality and Architectural History and Development” is written to attempt offering another angle on “locality” that is based from architecture and ruins. Through understanding the concept of “ruins”, “locality”, and the concurrent issues that are relevant, a new perspective for looking at local ruins can be established and become a theoretic foundation which can be applied on the next part of research. In this regard, a series of writing of the definition of ruins and a framework of treating ruins are developed. Details of background research on ruins and existing

developments is summarized as below. 1. 2. 3.

Definition of Ruins (Theories) Global Scale (History development) Local Scale (Modern perception)

These are further discussed from Chapter 1-2.

/Application: How to create meaningful architecture out of ruins?/ Searching for the “Spirit of the place”: In Chinese, “locality” (本土)literally means “originated from soil” (本於土). It suggests the idea of looking into the root, the origin. But which period of Hong Kong is our origin? Who are the people concerned when we say “local Hong Kong people”? Can architecture from the past tell us more about ourselves? Can we gradually transform into ‘interpretive communities’ if we learn to look at our past? Regarding to how to look at the past, and the relationship of history to the present, Walter Benjamin once said “the tradition of the oppressed teaches us that the ‘emergency situation’ in which we live is the rule. We must arrive at a concept of history which corresponds to this.” As a continuous development of the theoretical foundation, this part of research explores the history and stories associated with the specific site (Queen’s Hill). Although this part involves a lot of historical research, it is at the same time an application of the theories mentioned before. The approach of historical research in this part


Introduction

involves oral history interviews that aims at discovering the stories or allegories embedded in a place, which is vital to create a dialectic environment. This part is summarized as below: 1. District Level Analysis (History, Facts) 2. Site Analysis (Morphology, Interviews, History, Data Collection) 3. Concept Design (Masterplan, drafts) 4. Final Design (Focused plan, programs) Further elaboration can be seen through Chapter 2-5.

11


CHAPTER 1


Title

Ruins and Civilization 13


“Method of this project: literary montage. I needn’t say anything. Merely show [zeigen]. I shall purloin no valuables, appropriate no ingenious formulations. But the rags and the refuse—these I will not inventory but allow, in the only way possible, to come into their own: by making use of them” Walter Benjamin


Definitions Title

Ruin

Reincarnation

/ˈruːɪn/ (n)

/ˌriːɪnkɑːˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ (n)

1. The remains of a building, typically an old one that has suffered disintegration 2. The state of being physically destroyed, collapsed, or decayed, especially through such natural processes as age and weather

1. A new version of something from the past 2. The rebirth of a soul in another body 3. A reappearance or revitalization in another form; a new embodiment

“Allegories are, in the realm of thoughts, what ruins are in the realm of things.”

“Don’t grieve. Anything you lose comes round in another form.”

-Walter Benjamin

- Jalaluddin Rumi

“The allegorical method, like film, rips up the manifestly natural context of things, snapping open the apparent continuity of nature and history and prising apart space for reinterpretation and transformation.”

“It is not more surprising to be born twice than once; everything in nature is resurrection.” -Voltaire

-Walter Benjamin ‘(R)uins are more about remainders and reminders. A tour of “ruin” leads you into a labyrinth of ambivalent temporal adverbs—“no longer” and “not yet,” “nevertheless” and “albeit”—that play tricks with causality.’ -Svetlana Boym

15


Definitions

/Defining Ruins/

Abandoned Buildings, Derelicts and Ruins

R

uins are both tangible and intangible. The tangible parts are the physical decayed, fragmented pieces of construction material. Beyond the tangible aspects, ruins can be highly intangible: sensual, reflective and dialectic, when intervention is involved.

emphasized and compared to the modern confined environment in general, may trigger an alternative aesthetic fascination, commonly seen as “ruin gaze” or “ruin porn”, characterized by the burst of popular derelicts photography taken by urban explorers around the globe. John Patrick Leary, a professor at Wayne State University in Detroit once said: “So much ruin photography and ruin film aestheticizes poverty without inquiring of its origins, dramatizes spaces but never seeks out the people that inhabit and transform them, and romanticizes isolated acts of resistance without acknowledging the massive political and social forces aligned against the real transformation, and not just stubborn survival, of the city.” This kind of fascination, merely focuses on the state of the subject (derelicts, in my definition) and how it came to be dilapidated, without addressing the linkage between past and present, the political and social forces behind. Ruins are beyond derelicts, with the embodiment of “political, and social forces”..

The words “ruins”, “abandoned”, “derelicts” are often interchanged and confused. They can all be associate with the impression of collapse, remainders, reminders, decay, destroyed. To be more critical for discussion, I define them as follow. Abandoned: A general term describing buildings that are deserted or left, uninhibited. (no hint of condition and time) Derelicts: They are generally abandoned buildings, but specified to those in poor condition. (usually have been abandoned for a while) Ruins: They can be derelicts in the physical sense. But they can be also a state of decay, or a naturally decayed or destroyed place (building, district, town). The term “ruin” can be seen as a verb, as an action, while implies the hidden driving force of “being ruined”. Ruin does not only imply the physical appearance as “abandoned” or “derelicts” do, but is embedded with reasons and narratives behind. Ruin can be associated with “ruination” as well, which suggests a transformative or decaying process, instead of a static object.

In the modern lens, “ruin” allows us to witness the stain of time, throw us nostalgia, a nostalgia that is reflective but not restorative. Instead of aestheticizing the past, “Allegories are, in the realm of thoughts,what ruins are in the realm of things.”2

Derelicts are abandoned buildings of poor conditions. The physical appearance of derelicts, when being

17


/The Dialectic Ability of Ruins/ “Allegory is against the symbol, which is whole, beautiful and aesthetically contained.”

-Walter Benjamin

T

he allegorical approach to history is a neverending, unfinished approach. Yet, it is critical of continuous and progressive historical time. It disrupts the notion of linear historical progress. Similarly, this allegorical approach to ruins will never be completed. Yet, it is critical of the wholeness, newness and confines of new buildings. It attempts to disrupts the fake completeness of new developments.

/Building consciousness through Ruins/

The ruin, encourages a piecing together, a reading of the fragments, just like how allegory requires a readerly intervention. The “fragments” are not limited to the tangible materials, but also fragmented stories, history, memories behind the ruins, that altogether contributes to build consciousness, be it personal consciousness, place consciouness, sense of community. The allegorical method is dialectic, a discourse between two or more contradicting things, that aims to establish the truth or induce new critical meaning. Fragments of ruins, when juxtaposed with new development plans, induce conflicts between various ends, such as old versus new, completeness versus fragmented, restorative versus reflective, reconstruction versus ruins. enclosed versus open... These conflicts are pieced together and result in a new critical meaning that is derived by the intervention of the viewer.


Definitions

/Tensions embedded in Ruins/

/Truths from dialectics/

These tensions are no longer about creating new formulations for designing poetic or dramatic architectural spaces. As Walter Benjamin stated for his literary project,

competition, materialism and disconnection”.

The ultimate aim of inducing dialects is to encourage the community to search for truth of opinions through experiences, and eventually think of the social and personal values. This process may make years or century, but it is important especially in a society that is spoiled by consumerism that “shift[s] away from values of community, spirituality, and integrity, and toward

Lessons are learnt from allegories, through the tensions generated from experiencing constrasts, from understanding conflicts and struggles.

“Method of this project: literary montage. I needn’t say anything. Merely show. I shall purloin no valuables, appropriate no ingenious formulations. But the rags and the refuse—these I will not inventory but allow, in the only way possible, to come into their own: by making use of them.” Walter Benjamin, The Arcade Project:460

This thesis is also about making use of the embedded tensions of ruins, but not inventing new formulas. Ruin presents unqiue tensions that new or restored buildings could not show: the fragile equilibrium between upward force of man-made structures and the downward gravity force of nature, formal and informal, restricted and organic, persistence and decay, fears and desire... By making use of the technique of juxtapositions of existing situations of ruins, dialectics among various topics can be induced: new and sustainable development, top- down and democratic plannings, confined and open spaces, perfection and wabi-sabi aesthetics, rejuvenate and ageing, eternal life and death... Much more precise dialectics can be investigated with allegorical approach.

19


/The Historical Perspective/ Global Scale Research study

i. Historical Perception of the ide

T

o understand the perception of ruins, the theory and history of how ruins was considered throughout the western history is summarized by a timeline right). The content of the timeline is partly aligned to what is suggested in Brian Dillon’s article “Fragments from a History of Ruins” . The other part took reference from Albert Speer s ruin theory and Walter Benjamin’s allegorical view of ruins. The timeline has shown that throughout the history, the meaning of ruinschanges according to specific environment and social background. There is no single fixed meaning on ruins. However, ruin is always perceived as a tool against the mainstream culture or specific agenda of the power.

Throughout the history, the perception of ruin points much further beyond its physical towards a mainstream culture of the period, be it architecturally, historically, culturall It provides a ground for reflecting the present by linking to the past, and imagining n

Artefacts of the Past

Aestheti Pow

Renaissance

Baroque

Neoclas

Re-discovering the past and bring it forward in a radical manner: scientifically, historically, and aesthetically.

Symbol of transience, reflection of the truths, especially the tragedies of social, human culture, politics.

Architecture is intentiona ruined in a certain way sim in order to legitimize the

Decoding the past

Symbol of human tragedy

-

Bernardo della Volpaia’s drawing of Pantheon in Rome

The allegory has been linked up with wide range of sensual and intellectural activities: historical appreciation, mourning for political crisis, aestheticization of power, romanticization of decay, blending of nature and man-made, critique of industrial revolution, cultural cycle, questioning the modern development, etc... As we are able to overview the meaning ruins in the past, we step into a melting pot of ideas. It’s time for us to ask ourselves: what does ruin mean to us, particularly in Hong Kong, now?

“Ruination”: Burying the past Ruination is mthyfying the history. In Renaissance, archaeology gaps of fragmented history. The Ruins: Antiquities/ Artefacts Roman ruins were seen as antiquities and artefacts, in which learnt from them. To discover hidden ruins, archaeological excavations and discoveries had started. These knowledge were re-intepreted to create new designs.

Re-interpreting the order

Brunellischi Santa Maria Cathedral, Florence (Filippo Brunelleschi visited Rome to study the ancient Roman ruins and their classical order. By re-intepreting what he learnt, he designed the largest dome on Santa Maria Cathedral.)

Everlasting

Parthenon in

“Ruination”: Allegory Ruination is seen as an allegory. The decay of objects resembles the tragedy of the man-made world, especially such as the consequence of war. Allegory is not just a symbol, but a story politics. The Ruins: Emblem of transience Ruins are not symbols of myths. They take part in a setting of tragedy. It is an emblem of transience, an antidote to myth. It is anti-aesthetic.

Emblem of Transience

Jan Brueghel the Younger , Allegory of War, 1640s (Ruins become backdrop of allegories, dramas, depicting the horror, tragedy of politics, society, human history.)

Reveals Tragedy of the period

“Ruination”: Permanance The process of ruination symbolises p stretching the physicl lifetime and the generation.

The Ruins: Imaginary future, aesthetic “Hitler liked to say that the purpose o his time and its spirit to posterity. Ultim remind men of the great epochs of h architecture, he remarked.”

Melancholy

John Soane, Imagined view of the B (The newly reconstructed building is This is depicted also in Albert Spee


Ruins and Civilization

ea of “Ruins”

l state, but reflects the defiance ly, politically or environmentally. new possibilities.

Trash Porn

Contaminated Nature= ruins

ticizing wer

Modern/ Contemporary

Now

The ageing process, decay nature of buildings explicit a sense of the life cycle of everything, including culture as a whole.

Ruins, the physical derelicts, are mostly conceived as trash that does not fit modern standards. However, some see ruins as a pleasure like “porn”, which is an immature way of admiration.

In an era of tabular rasa, ruins are now conceived as sources to relink to the past. It is also considered as a source for sustainable development. The modern period is a melting pot of all previous ideas.

Traces of Humanity

Outdated, Impoverished

?

ssicism

Romanticism

Industrial Revolution

Realism

ally designed to be milar to ancient ruins e political power.

Ruins are idealized to satisfy aesthestic pleasure. Imaginary visions combines culture and nature.

Modernization is destroying the natural environment as well as the civilization. The contaminated nature itself is seen as ruin.

Social tensions

g glory

Idealized process of culture

n ruins

Hubert Robert, Imaginary view of Louvre Peinture Francaise

permanence and continuation, e glory of now to the future

cizing current power of his building was to transmit mately, all that remained to history was their monumental

and pride

Bank of England in ruins, 1830 imagined as a classical ruins. er’s Theory of Ruins Value. )

Adolph Menzel, The Iron-Rolling Mill

John Ruskin, Painting of aged Venetian Architecture

Televised demolition of Pruitt–Igoe Urban Housing, 1972

Wide variety of ruins we have today: factories, derelicts of futuristic dreams, unbuilt towers, personal aspirations

“Ruination”: Process of man-made become part of nature The process of ruination is imagined as a harmonic process of man-made objects returning to the nature. It is an idealised romantic vision of the integration of culture and nature.

“Ruination”: Modernization The modernization is a process of ruination. It kills the natural environment, as well as the humanity with its emerging social tensions.

“Ruination”: Ageing The ruination is a provcess of ageing. Age of a ruin explicits a sense of the life cycle of the artifact, and of culture as a whole. In contrast to inhumane mass production and industrialization, ageing of the buildings speaks of history of human.

“Ruination”: Demolition! With the advancement

“Ruination”: Different perceptions... The contemporary period is exposed to all sorts of ruins. Some slowly ruining from the long history, some suddenly left to be ruined because of failed dreams...

The Ruins: An idealized setting Ruins are imagined as ideal setting for keeping man made objects and nature in balance. Even it is not the reality, the romantics even create this ideal by building fake ruins, just to build up the picturesque scene.

The Ruin: Destroyed Nature “But mere smoke would not blow to and fro in that wild way. It looks more to me as if it were made of dead men's souls— such of them as are not yet gone where they have to go, and may be flitting hither and thither, doubting, themselves, of the fittest place for them.” The ugliness of the destroyed nature becomes a reflective mirror of the downside of modernization.

The Ruins: Witness of men “Its glory is in its Age, and in that deep sense of voicefulness, of stern watching, of mysterious sympathy, nay, even of approval or condemnation, which we feel in walls that have long been washed by the passing waves of humanity. It is in their lasting witness against men...”

The Ruins: Trash? Demolition of ruins becomes a normal phenomena. Ruins have no economic value. Ruins have no value at all. They must be replaced by functional new buildings.

The Ruins: Experimental ground for different concepts Learning from all historical periods, now we can choose and experiment around different concepts. Can ruins be the source of sustainable development? How to use this resource for a better future?

Realizing the idealized

Contaminated nature

Hohenberg, Ruin of Carthage, 1778 (An entirely new structure on the model of the Ancient Roman temple, as a picturesque garden feature)

Man-made blends with Nature

Philip James de Loutherbourg, Coalbrookdale by Night

Restoration vs Preservation

Viollet- Le- Duc, Restoration of ruined Château de Pierrefonds (Strongly opposed to John Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc believes complete restoration is the way to restore the glory of the ruined building. To him, restoration should take the building to its original design, even age value is completely erased.)

Ageing: Cycle of culture

21

of destructive technology, demolition soon replaces the inefficient process of ruination. Old things soon replace by new developments. Outdated values replace by new visions, but the demolition also results in tabular rasa.

Anarchitecture

Gordon Matta-Clark, Splitting, 1974 “Completion through removal... Creating spatial complexity, reading new openings against old surfaces. Light admitted into space... Breaking and entering...” Gordon Matta Clark suggested the interest in voids, gaps, left-over spaces.

Reflection

C-Lab, Taitung Ruin Academy, 2014 “ Urban acupuncture is the weed and the acupuncture point is the crack. The possibility of the impact is total, connecting human nature as part of nature. The theory opens the door for uncontrolled creativity and freedom.”

A Melting pot? What do we want?


/The Dilemma of Hong Kong’s Ruins/

N

owadays, Hong Kong is facing an onslaught of new developments that are swallowing Hong Kong’s rural lands and local history. These developments are mostly top down planning that ignores existing context and local memories. Recent years, more and more locals join demonstrations and rallies to to stand for their own right. Yet, the government continues to exploit the land through a barbaric manner. Nevertheless, at the same time, there are indeed large amount of ruins around Hong Kong that are not yet listed on the developer’s agenda. They are on the edge between being demolished and being neglected. Through research, it is found that the trend of local ruins photography gains popularity in recent years. Unlike the “ruin porn” in foreign countries, the ruin photography in Hong Kong often aims to raise the awareness of existing development and the dilemma on revitalization. It is also a form of mourning of the incapability of changing anything in reality. This indicates that there is a certain motive within the public, to start looking ruins beyond aesthetics, but associating it to political and social concerns of the city.


Ruins and Civilization

23


CHAPTER 2


Title

Ruins and the Bulldozer 25


/Fate of ruins under existing system/ VS. A New Mindset

L

ooking into Hong Kong’s legal framework of historical buildings, we would understand that only those considered as graded heritage can be preserved. Various features of ruins are selected and analysed. Two scenarios (Hong Kong & Europe) are listed to demonstrate the fate of old buildings under different rules. Yet, complete guidelines towards the protection or transformation of other unlisted old structures is lacking. In many cases, these old buildings were simply knocked off without hesitation, leaving us a city lack of local history. Bulldozer development becomes common nowadays, and demolition seems to have the upper hand than any kind of preservation.

Research study

ii. Theory & Framework for today

Throughout the history, the perception of ruin points much further beyond its physical s towards a mainstream culture of the period, be it architecturally, historically, culturally It provides a ground for reflecting the present by linking to the past, and imagining ne

(a) Learning from history and current practic

Post- War Commercialized

Fast pace Urbanization

Age value

Historical value

Remain Ruins

Revitalization & Conservation

Preservation

(Only declared monument)

Demoli

“Self- financing” Policy

But if we learn from the past, we can see that ruins does not only bears a passive dialectical function, but also a potential for physical transformation in various approaches, namely remain intact, adaptive reuse, build upon and revival. For this project, these transformation are not merely subjective choices, but have gone through a process of understanding and reflection of the past. Transformation is an active process. Ruins are not treated as a singular static heritage object, but as a component of a bigger historical context, that keeps updating through time.

Theories of Alo

Use valu

Hong Kong Heritage

Historical va

Monument

Age valu

+

Relative art v

Europe Heritage

Preservation

(as heritage/ archaeology)

Newness va

Conservation

High-value heritage Only

Realist

(b) Derived Theory and Framework for proje Process of Transformation Ruins 1. Rediscovery Historical, contextual research

3. Re- sh

New user new me


Ruins and the Bulldozer

y’s local ruins

state, but reflects the defiance y, politically or environmentally. ew possibilities.

ces

ois Riegl

alue

tality

ue

value

Baroque/ Realism

Middle Age/ Realism/ Modern

Middle Age

Post- Modern/ Neo- Classicism/ Romanticism

Relative art value Historical value

Use value

Age value

Kunstwollen

Kunstwollen

Age value

Historical value

Recreate/ Revival

Kunstwollen

ition

ue

Contemporary (Melting Pot)

Ruins features

Remain intact

Adaptive re-use

Building upon

(Ruination)

(Refurbish old)

(New intervention based on ruin)

Collective Conscious

Theories of Alois Riegl

Recyclable

Sustainable design

Use value

Rediscovery

Collective Memory

Historical value

Collective Unconscious

Kunstwollen

Allegory Imagination

(Melding different past elements in the new built)

New Possibility:

Active Transformation (Action: Base on collective consciousness)

Aestheticization Age

Age value

Disobedient Relative art value

alue

Existing “Ruin Porn”:

Passive Appreciation (High land price)

(Low land price)

Demolition

Remain abandoned

Non- stop Urbanization

Post- War

Baroque

ect

haping

Contextual elements

Contextual elements

Contextual elements

27

Contextual elements

s

m n gra ctio Pro nne Co

rs impose eaning es

Rel


/Theoretical Framework/Reflective, Transformative

“The allegorical method, like film, rips up the manifestly natural context of things, snapping open the apparent continuity of nature and history and prising apart space for reinterpretation and transformation.” -Walter Benjamin

T

o step beyond such kitsch aesthetics, “ruins”, in this thesis, is more related to what Walter Benjamin suggested as “allegory”, with the major difference that “ruins” can be sensually and physically experienced while allegory is mostly mentally understood. Ruin, is identified as a aspecific genre under the umbrella of derelicts”, acknowledges the histroy, stories, and massive political and social forces aligned against the real transformation which demonstrates allegorical character. Unlike the intended aestheticization of power (nostalgia of an imagined past), demonstrated by the German Architect Albert Speer’s Ruins Theory, “ruin” in this thesis is considered closely related to Walter Benjamin’s “Allegory”m with two important features:

Reflective and Transformative. Reflective is the ability of ruins to reveal the truths of various aspects related to past and present, which can be nostalgia, a nostalgia that is reflective and prospective, but not restorative. Transformative is the possibility of re-intepretating the meaning and narrative of ruins

and transform is to reach another level of critical meaning. “Reflective” and “transformative” coexists. Without transformation, the ruins will eventually left to rot, to become rubbles, or be demolished under the pressure or efficiency and economy. It is important to note that the sequence of reflective and transformative cannot be reversed. One cannot expect a reversible transformation. If the ruin is altered while the embedded reflection is ignored, the ruin is then no longer treated as ruins, but merely general derelicts. And that alteration is not “transformation” but merely an adaptive reuse of the physical remnant, in which the allegory behind the ruins vanishes. Illustrations at the right hand side visualize what the above text mentioned. This is a basic framework of the project. In order to spread its influence, clusters of ruins are interlinked and branched out to build a functional network through programs that are synchronized with the district development.


Europe HeritageUse value

Recyclable

Sustainable design

Rediscovery

Collective Memory

New Possibility:

(as heritage/ archaeology) Collective Unconscious

Kunstwollen

High-value heritage Only

Aestheticization

Realist

Age

3. Re- shaping

(High land price)

Historical, contextual research

Active Transformation

Conservation

(Low land price)

New users impose new meaning

Demolition

(Action: Base on collective consciousness)

Remain abandoned

Ruins and the Bulldozer

Non- stop Urbanization

REFLECTION

TRANSFORMATION

Post- War

Age value

Disobedient

Baroque

2. Translation Translating the dialectics into physical experience

Existing “Ruin Porn�:

Passive AppreciationPhysical components Contextual elements

Ruins Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Contextual

Contextual elements

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relev an tD er e es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e

Contextual elements

Contextual elements

elements Contextual elements

Contextual elements

Relev an tD er e

s

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Ruin Reflection + Transformation

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relev an tD er e

Contextual elements

Contextual elements

Contextual elements

29

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e

Reflection + Transformation

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Ruin

Intra-dependence (Intra- connected)

Relev an tD er e

ments old en natural

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e

Reflection + Transformation

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Ruin

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relev an tD er e es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Ruin Reflection + Transformation

Contextual elements

m n gra ctio Pro nne Co

Contextual elements

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e

Supporting elements (Can be new or old buildings, or even natural landscape)

Focused Reflection RUINTransformation

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Ruin

Focused Ruins (Abandoned)

Reflection + Transformation

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Single/cluster

Ruin

Contextua elements

Intra-dependence (Intra- connected)

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Reflection + Transformation

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Baroque

Physical components

Supporting elements (Can be new or old buildings, or even natural landscape)

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Post- War

Focused Reflection RUINTransformation Ruin

Relev an tD er e

Translating the dialectics into physical experience

(Abandoned)

Relev an tD er e

Relev an tD er e

Non- stop Urbanization

2. Translation

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Contextual elements

m ns gra ctio Pro nne Focused Ruins Co

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

TRANSFORMATION

Ruin

Relev an tD er e

Demolition

REFLECTION

Remain abandoned

Single/cluster

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

New users impose new meaning

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Historical, contextual research

ts/ lic

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

(Low land price)

3. Re- shaping

Contextual elements

Relev an tD er e

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

(High land price)

1. Rediscovery

Contextual elements

es ciliti Fa

Relev an tD er e

Process of Transformation

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Relative art value for project (b) Derived Theory and Framework

Relev an tD er e

Imagination

Preservation

1. Rediscovery

es ciliti Fa ts/ lic

Allegory

RuinsPassive Appreciation

Historical value

Contextual elements


/Rethinking “Locality” through Hong Kong’s Architectural History and Development/ The case of Queen’s Hill Military Camp and its Context

T

he debate on “locality” has continued for years in Hong Kong. As a political topic, it generates heat but not light. This essay attempts to use architecture as a concrete lens, to establish a definition of Hong Kong and local identity. In this essay, the Former Queen’s Hill Military Camp is used as an example to explore various aspects of Hong Kong’s architectural history and development. This essay is comprised of several fragmented chapters to discuss different concepts that are integrated at the end of the essay.

/Locality/ “The past is a foreign country: they do things differently there.” Under the fast pace development of Hong Kong, the past is something almost unrecognizable and inconceivable due to the missing link of knowledge between the present and the past. The strangeness of the past intensifies when we look back before photographs and documentary remains of our ancestors. To discuss about local identity, we must first understand what “local” means to us. In Chinese, “locality” (本土)literally means “originated from soil” (本於土). It suggests the idea of looking into the root, the origin. But which period of Hong Kong is our origin? Who are the people concerned when we say “local Hong Kong people”? The book “Media and Politics in Post-Handover Hong Kong” suggested that Hong Kong people should have transformed from apolitical disconnected individuals to ‘interpretive communities’ that were able to enact active political dialogues among themselves and the government since the handover in 1997. Unfortunately, this remains a dream as the SAR government’s communication with the public lacked exactly such two- way codetermination

and constitution. The concerns over PRC relations had dwarfed the concern over public relations in HKSAR government. The cautious and subservient role to China exemplifies the inabilities and indecisiveness of the government, which contradicts with most Hong Kong people’s expectations. Can architecture from the past tell us more about ourselves? Can we gradually transform into ‘interpretive communities’ if we learn to look at our past? Regarding to how to look at the past, and the relationship of history to the present, Walter Benjamin once said “the tradition of the oppressed teaches us that the ‘emergency situation’ in which we live is the rule. We must arrive at a concept of history which corresponds to this.

/Summary of Development/

Queen’s

Hill

The Queen’s Hill (Burma Lines) Camp is located in Fanling, near Sha Tau Kok Road. New developments such as Liantang Boundary Control Point Project and Northeast New Town are in proximity. Queen’s Hill Camp was a military training base of the British army back in the 50s. Located in Fanling, it was started as a training base for the British soldiers (Figure 1), and since the 60s, it became home to a group of Gurkha soldiers, who defensed Hong Kong from Mainland China (Figure 2). In 1992, since the battalion was dismissed, the ownership of Queen’s Hill Camp was handed over to the Hong Kong Government. It was then used by the Royal Hong Kong Police Association as police quarters, police offices,


Ruins and the Bulldozer

Top Left/ 1954 Site Map of Queen’s Hill Top Right/ 1967 Site Map of Queen’s Hill Bottom Left/ Nissen Hut Bottom Right/ HK Hut

31


and training base for police dogs. Since 2001, Hong Kong Police moved out and Queen’s Hill Camp has been left abandoned. Occasionally, some photographers or filmmakers utilize the abandoned place as their backdrop. In 2011, the Education Bureau invited expressions of interest for the site in Fanling. Eventually, nine local and overseas institutions replied. Nevertheless, the government ditched Queen’s Hill university plan in 2013, and decided to launch a massive residential development scheme instead. The new residential scheme plans to demolish most of the remains of the former Queen’s Hill Camp.

/The spirit of Queen’s Hill (Kwan Tei) and its relationship to local identity/ When dealing with history, we often assume that it is possible to reconstruct the series of periods that the past has gone through. This traditional approach to the past feigns ignorance, and indeed contribute little to build up local identity and consciousness. Looking into Queen’s Hill, most people look into the fact that it was once a big piece of land used by the colonial power and now it is handed over to our hands. Without recognizing the true meaning of this piece of land to Hong Kong people, we can only postulate that the launch of new residential development project is an appropriate decision. Yet, this paper attempts to argue that Queen’s Hill bears multilayered significance to Hong Kong people, in terms of historical, architectural, social, and economical aspects. The conception of history is not always linear. Instead,

it is fragmented and relational. It is more significant to the present than to the past. A similar thought can be summarized by Laurent Olivier: ‘In truth, we know nothing at all and will never be able to know anything about the past “in the past,” when it was the present unfolding; it has passed by and gone. At best, there may remain some scraps of it… The only knowledge of ancient times that we can acquire through them in relational; that is, a knowledge based on our particular relationship, here and now, with the remains of the past that it is given to us to deal with.” In this sense, we have to be conscious, critical and observant towards the present day situation when we look into the past. And we have to be open minded enough to accept that the conception of the past is always changing as we discover more and more of it. To talk about the history and architectural significance of Queen’s Hill, I hereby slice through the linear history into three fragments for deeper investigation.

/“Historical”: Colonial Period/

Nissen Huts: The urge of setting up border control in the 50s During the 50s, the British Army started to occupy the west of Queen’s Hill. Occupants were mainly British soldiers. The first set of buildings were the Nissen (figure 3) and Romney Huts, which were standardized military structures in British campsites worldwide. The Nissen Hut is a prefabricated steel structure, made from a half-cylindrical skin of corrugated steel. Originally designed during World War I by engineer and inventor


Ruins and the Bulldozer

Major Peter Norman Nissen, it was used extensively during World War II. The existence of Nissen Hut at Queen’s Hill does not only tell us that Hong Kong is occupied by the British, but reminds us of a much more complex historical backdrop. During the 50s, Hong Kong began to face a backdrop of the resumption of British sovereignty after the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong ended in 1945, and the renewal of the NationalistCommunist Civil War in mainland China. Facing the sudden large influx of refugees from the mainland, the British government struggled to accommodate these “illegal immigrant”. To quickly respond to this situation, cheap and quick set up for border control against the illegal immigrants was thus mandatory. In contrast to the monumental, impressive, luxurious western architecture that attempts to show off the colonial power on the Hong Kong Island, these cheap and easy- to- build Nissen Huts precisely depicted the another side of reality of the colonial power: the urge and hastiness of preventing the surging population. These huts are standardized structures built according to the British Handbook, but is definitely not considered as colonial.

at its longitudinal face for ventilation, and its roof is extended to create a verandah outside the living space for reducing heat by shading. Probably, the most foreign feature of the HK Hut is the chimney and fireplace. Without any stylistic features, it is hard for us to classify it as colonial architecture. Yet, the simplicity and basicness of such modest output enables us to think about what is truly “colonial architecture”. Probably it’s more than merely climatic adaptation.

/HK Huts: The humble adaptation to Hong Kong climate/

Professor Sir Ralph Lilley Turner, MC, who served with the 3rd Queen Alexandra’s Own Gurkha Rifles in the First World War of 1914-1918, wrote of Gurkhas: “As I write these last words, my thoughts return to you who were my comrades, the stubborn and indomitable peasants of Nepal. Once more I hear the laughter with which you greeted every hardship. Once more I see you in your bivouacs or about your fires, on forced march or in the trenches, now shivering with wet and cold, now scorched by a pitiless and burning sun. Uncomplaining you endure hunger and thirst and wounds; and at the last your unwavering lines disappear into the smoke and

/Hindu Temple tells us a history beyond Hong Kong/ The Brigade of Gurkhas draws its heritage from Gurkha units that originally served in the Indian Army prior to Indian independence. The brigade includes infantry, engineering, signal, logistic and training and support units. In the war in Nepal back in 1814, the British attempted to annex Nepal into the Empire. The Army officers were impressed by the tenacity of Gurkha soldiers and eventually they became part of the British Army.

Although the Nissen and Romney Huts were very costeffective and easy to build, they were not comfortable enough to accommodate the soldiers in long- term. As a results, the British War Office came up with a standard building typology “HK Hut”( Figure 4) specially for Hong Kong climate. With the same principle as those great colonial architecture in Hong Kong Island or Kowloon, the HK Hut is equipped with many openings

33


wrath of battle. Bravest of the brave, most generous of the generous, never had country more faithful friends than you.” After the conflict in Malaya in 1951, the Gurkhas were transferred to Hong Kong to carry out security duties. At that time, recruit training and Gurkha Headquarters were mainly stationed in Hong Kong. Queen’s Hill is one of the training base for the army. The mutual respect and admiration between the British and Gurkha do not appear only on the fact that the Gurkhas remain loyal to British Army for a long period of time, but also in the remains of architecture. The Hindu Temple (Figure 5) in Queen’s Hill was built in 1968 when the Brigade of Gurkhas were sent to defend Hong Kong during the turbulence of the Cultural Revolution. Unlike the other standardized buildings, this Hindu Temple was specially designed for the Gurkhas and is dedicated to the God of Destruction in Hinduism (State religion of Nepal). The form of the temple resembles a lotus which symbolizes beauty and holiness in Hinduism. The plan is hexagonal and the structure is reinforced concrete formed by twelve triangular upright slabs joined together in three dimensional geometric tent shapes to form a six-pointed crown. The exterior is painted in pale green, which applies to most of the other camp structures in Queen’s Hill, probably as a camouflage. Yet, the interior is painted in blue and red primarily. While blue symbolizes bravery, manliness, and determination, red symbolizes sensuality and purity. Although the architecture is quite simple, the careful design of form and selection of colours illustrated that the British observes and respects the religion of the Gurkhas. The existence of the Hindu Temple in Hong Kong marks an interesting relationship between the British and the Gurkhas that has longed for two

hundred years. Living under the shadow of the British, the Gurkhas has actually served Hong Kong for more than four decades without much recognition from the general public in Hong Kong. The existence of such a unique form architecture also reminds us that the Gurkhas have contributed in defending Hong Kong for a long time, and deserves respect and appreciation from all Hong Kong people, so that they can eventually be a part of the vibrant society of Hong Kong.

/Unofficial Pre- History Debate on the origin of a place name/ Queen’s Hill Camp is located at Kwan Tei in Fanling. Just separated by a road, there’s another former British Camp called “San Wai Camp”. “Kwan Tei” means “military place” in Cantonese. It is widely believed that the name Kwan Tei is related to the two British campsites in Fanling. However, when checking from the Xin’an County (新安縣志), it is discovered that the name “Kwan Tei” exists since 1830s. There is a saying that the name of the place originates from Sung Dynasty (Figure 6), in which a group of soldiers who were loyal to the Sung Empire were left in Hong Kong due to the incapacity of the ship to bring all the soldiers to the North. Those soldiers could only sustain their lives by farming around Hong Kong. Kwan Tei is one of the major agricultural village that was set up by these remaining soldiers. We cannot verify if this story a true fact or not. However, we at least know that our past is not only about the colonial power. Long before being a colony, there were


Ruins and the Bulldozer

Top Left/ Hindu Temple in Ruin Right/ News Clip of Kwan Tei’s Origin Bottom Left/ Hunters at Fanling

35


some Chinese started to build villages here.

/The buried history: Kwan Tei Racecourse/

Before Queen’s Hill Camp was established, there was a racecourse at Kwan Tei (Figure 7), Fanling in 1930s1950s. This is not well known because of its short life span. The track is now impossible to identified due to the construction of Sha Tau Kok Road and the nearby village developments that cut through the former racecourse. Anyway, through looking into past records, it is found out that Kwan Tei has the first record of Female Jockey and Ladie’s Day racing among the six racecourses in Hong Kong history. Edna Farr, one of the racers described Kwan Tei racecourse as follow. ‘Fanling was a lovely little course,’ she reminisced, ‘all grass, and with the wonderful hills behind. I think Fanling was very dashing, because in those days in England ladies could only ride in point-topoints. Of course I used to go racing at Happy Valley, and it was wonderful high up in the boxes and stands even in 1932.’ The northern part of the New Territories back in the 30s was sparsely populated and open, which was ideal for good riding, presenting a varied terrain and many unexpected obstacles. Unfortunately, all these charming scenes could only be found in words and limited photographs. It is difficult to relate these pieces of description to today’s Fanling, in which massive and monotonous residential high rise buildings and factories invaded the old beautiful natural landscape. This added piece of history tells us that before the British Army came in, Fanling was already used by British as recreational purposes due to its rural landscape. It is

ashamed that the modern society blindly accepts the redevelopment proposal as a solution to land supply, ignoring its rural history and context.

/Local memories: Nostalgia with the British, Innocence with the Gurkhas/ Mr. Chu, a local farmer who was a history teacher before, did research of Fanling through oral history collection from interviewing local villagers. Speaking of Queen’s Hill Camp, he mentioned that the British soldiers often went to the bars in Luen Wo Hui (a traditional market square in Fanling). When the British soldiers were drunk, they hired Chinese coachmen to take them back to the Queen’s Hill Camp. Sometimes the British were so drunk that they refused to pay the coachmen fee, and consequently ended up with fights between the coachmen and British soldiers. Yet, other than these little fights, the local people lived harmoniously with the British as the British were generous to the local businesses usually. One of the famous restaurant by that time was Better ‘Ole (Figure 8-9) opened by a former soldier in 1947. It was acquired by a local family since 1962 to continue the service. Although the restaurant has closed now, it won the hearts of many locals and British by memories. Mike Arden, a former Royal Artillery bombardier with the Gurkha’s Brigade, met his wife at the Better ‘Ole more than 40 years ago. “It is the closing of another page in Hong Kong’s history and it will be sorely missed” he said. This old restaurant of simple structure resembles the village houses fitted well in the rural setting (Figure 10)


Ruins and the Bulldozer

of Fanling in the past. Occasionally, some middle age locals like to look back and think of the “good old days” during the colonial period. Does it really mean that they are eager to be under British’s rule? Or is it just a nostalgia of the old lifestyle, compared to the blinded developments nowadays?

/Post War Memories/ /Tradition Of Oppressed/ As to know how the Queen’s Hill Development affects people who live nearby, I also conducted an oral history interview with two men who used to live near Queen’s Hill.

While there were so much nostalgic sentiment associated with the British, there was almost no connection between the Gurkhas and local residents. In the military camp, learning Cantonese was restricted for the Gurkhas as a measure of the British to stabilize the military force by minimizing communication between Gurkhas with the locals. This measure becomes one of the reason that Nepalese who stay in Hong Kong after 1997, despite have been living here for decades, have low proficiency in Cantonese. Yet, without much historical records and physical witnesses of the contribution of Gurkhas to Hong Kong, many locals simply think that the Nepalese are not eager to adapt to local culture and discriminate them…

Mr. Ko, a local farmer, who used to live and work at the foot of Queen’s Hill (Figure 11), was forced to move away due to the construction of the Sha Tau Kok Road in Fanling in 1996. Then he built his new home, reinvested efforts in the new farm at Ma Shi Po Village. Suddenly, couple of years ago, Mr. Ko was again forced to move out of the his farm land. And this time, instead of the colonial government, he sacrificed his home and farmland to the private developers and Hong Kong SAR Government for the sake of “New Town Development”… And now he is living at Kwan Tei… And no one knows if the private developers will take his home again in the near future…

In this sense, architecture becomes an important artefact to educate and remind us of the past. For example, the Nepalese Hindu Temple and the Gurkhas’ facilities in Queen’s Hill Camp becomes artefacts that tell us the historical events that experienced by the ancestors of the Gurkhas we come across today. To build up local consciousness is not just about yelling a few slogans, but recognizing the origins of the formation of our modern society and appreciating what reminds us of the past by giving a physical value to it. Architecturally speaking, it is about keeping or nurturing the old spirit physically through preservation, conservation, or other relevant innovative ways.

A friend of Mr. Ko, who owned a house at Queen’s Hill for two generation, was also forced to move away due to the new development of residential housing at Queen’s Hill. Although he was compensated with a public housing unit at Tuen Mun, he frequently come back to Fanling to visit his old friends. New housing developments cut off the existing social network, and the victims can only use their own ways to maintain it. Their tragedies are real stories of many local villagers at Fanling. However, as most of us are so distant from the

37


rural life of Hong Kong, we become numb to demolition and developments. It seems that there’s no room for most people to think about “development” in our busy lives, unless you are one of the victims or have a conversation with someone like Mr. Ko. The British influence from Queen’s Hill Camp extends further to Luen Wo Hui, which was formed by local villagers. Other than the western bars and restaurants, St. Joseph Church (Figure 12) was also built at Luen Wo Hui during 1953, primarily for the British Army that stationed in Kwan Tei, including those in Queen’s Hill Camp. Luen Wo Hui is an interesting place to explore post-war stories concerning the rural communities. Many villagers were refugees from the Cultural Revolution with Kuomintang background. Before the handover of Hong Kong, Luen Wo Hui was filled with flags of Kuomingtang every 1st October. Luen Wo Hui was like a melting pot of different political agendas that end up with a vibrant and diversed community. Unfortunately, in recent 20 years, the ruling class (hegemony) in Hong Kong becomes the developers who own vast amount of land. Since then, the fabric of Luen Wo Hui has been brutally changed according to developers’ proposals, and is no longer synchronized with the public realm. Walter Benjamin said, “The tradition of the oppressed teaches us that the “emergency situation” in which we live is the rule. We must arrive at a concept of history which corresponds to this.” In this regard, architecture has two functions. First, the remaining architecture from the past provides us a physical linkage between our present “emergency situation” and the tradition of the oppressed. Second, it acts as a witness to assure us that the history did happened before. Only by keeping the associated

architecture and learning from it, we would not be thrown into the dark abyss of unbearable lightness, or being “rootless”.

/Whose and which Queen’s hill?/ To simplify the analysis of Queen’s Hill, one could draw a rough conclusion by few sentences. The ownership of this land has transferred from the British to the Hong Kong Government since the handover of Hong Kong. As it has been left abandoned for many years on our hands, we ought to utilize it to solve our “land problem” now. However, the above has over-simplified the complexity of the place, in terms of history, people, context… The barrack may not embody high architectural value, but they are the witnesses of a particular period of time and place. From these tangible sources, we can talk about the spirit of that time, and reveal the other side of Hong Kong. From these witnesses of the military forces of the colonial power, we would understand more in depth the relationship between Hong Kong, Britain, and the minorities like Nepalese. There is not much places like Hong Kong that is so heavily relying on her nearhistory to build local identity. Facing the onslaught of new developments that sprawls all over Hong Kong, we are now competing with time to re-discover our own local history against being spoon-fed with the official history written by authority. During the colonial period, we as locals had no choice but to accept what the British decided for us. But since the place has been handed over the Hong Kong Government, we all have a right and responsibility to decide its future.


Ruins and the Bulldozer

Top Left/ News Clip of Better Ole Top Right/ Bird Eye View of Queen’s Hill East Wing

39


The future is not set on an empty canvas, yet it is to add a stroke on a paper full of drafts. The stroke depends on how we want to respond to the past and the present. This essay may not give an answer of what local architecture is, but attempts to reflect our ignorance to the background and history of existing architecture by posing a few questions when dealing with historical or existing architecture:

worst being produced and marketed as an image, as a simulacrum or pastiche…” Probably, to avoid that kind of simulacrum or pastiche, we should really dig through the meaning and history behind the existing buildings, so that we can link up the present and the tradition, and start building a “local identity” that relies on place consciousness.

Who are the ones we want to respond to? The local Chinese villagers who cultivates the land, the British who see Fanling as a nice rural place, the locals who acquired British’s business, or the Gurkhas who worked silently for Hong Kong’s security? Which Queen’s Hill are we referring to? The village set up by the soldiers of the Sung Dynasty? A lovely recreational place for the British? A training base of the Gurkhas against the influx of population from mainland? A large land supply for new housing development? Only by recognizing what is the uniqueness of a place and, and integrate them with the present with honesty and integrity, should we be able to build a sense of community and local consciousness, and start to recognize what “locality” means. In the book “The condition of postmodernity”, David Harvey mentioned “[t]he assertion of any place-bound identity has to rest at some point on the motivational power of tradition. It is difficult, however, to maintain any sense of historical continuity in the face of all the flux and ephemerality of flexible accumulation. The irony is that tradition is now often preserved by being commodified and marketed as such. The search for roots ends up at

References L. P. Hartley. The Go-Between. 1953 Racing Memories Website. http://racingmemories.hk/hottopics/ kwanti-racecourse/#. Retrieved on 18/12/2016 Gwulo Website. http://gwulo.com/atom/14043. Retrieved on 19/12/2016 South China Morning Post. “Time for reminiscing as last orders loon at Better ‘Ole Bar”. 7/1/2007 Antiquities Advisory Board. Historic Building Appraisal of Hindu Temple. David Harvey. The condition of postmodernity. 1989 Walter Benjamin. On the Concept of History. 1940 Other References Oral History Records from Mr. Chu (朱耀光) Interviews with Mr. Ko and his friend


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CHAPTER 3


Title

Ruins, New Town Development and Landscape 43


/Development Issues/Commodified Revitalization & Tabular Rasa: Crisis of Identity.

B

eyond the consideration of breaking the urban fabric, demolition of older structures has been recognized as one of the major source of environmental pollution. Retaining historic structures and reusing them for new purposes is increasingly desirable and profitable around the globe.

/The masquerade of development/ The problem we are facing now in Hong Kong is that we seem to fall in between “commodified revitalization� and tabular rasa bulldozer development for meeting modern requirements. Indeed, many local citizens still have strong believe in the bright future that large scale infrastructure and modern construction may bring to us since the local developers and the government have instilled a false positive impression of new developments: demolition of the outdated means bring new life and prosperity. Under the masks of the new developments or redevelopment, however, are the sacrifice of place history and sense of identity to make way for the monopoly powers. This painful bitterness has been long aestheticized as the force for economic boom. Yet, are we really enjoying it? What does the materialistic world mean to us, if that means sacrifice of memories and old values?

/Crisis of Identity/ These sacrifices have become unbearable in recent years, as signified by the growing number of


Ruins, New Town Development and Landscape

45


social unrest and protest against demolition of old structures. Nowadays, more and more people are aware of our local history. It is not about a nostalgia of the colonial power, but about looking for the truth, standing with integrity, respecting to our own past, be it an honourable or shameful one. Without history, we have only ignorance. This ignorance prevents us from being grateful to our ancesters, being conscious of the place we are living, recognizing the relationship between oneself and society... All these will one day create a crisis of identity.

/Environmental Issue/ Besides, these two approaches generate massive amount of construction waste, that occupies 25% of the landfill in Hong Kong. This is definitely not a sustainable way of construction. We cannot rely on reclamation and keep demaging our environment in long term. What if the ruins suggest new programs and industries? What if the ruins and landscape can be transformed to accommodate new facilities? What if the rubbles can be used in new construction project? Does it mean there’s a way to let the ruins remain, regenerate, renew?


Ruins, New Town Development and Landscape

Research study

iii. Sustainability issue of current development practice

Sustainability is measured in four dimensions: (1) Environmental; (2) Economic; (3) Cultural ; (4) Social. Current development practice in Hong Kong neglects the

Commodified Revitalization

Tabular Rasa

Environmental Damage

Heritage and its historical landscape are all commodified as luxury settings and are unable to evoke new creative industries. The essence of the past has been greatly altered that is almost misleading. The economic and social dimensions of the heritage are neglected and leads to an unsustainable development.

The fantasy of a blank slate erases all exisiting elements of context: nature, urban life, history... Architecture becomes an object independant to the place. All communal facilities are packed into a single mall, discouraging one’s exploration of a place. Every district becomes characterless and results in “place unconscousness”.

With massive demoliton, construction and destruction waste occupies 25% of the landfill in Hong Kong. With the new charging scheme, some developers even pour the waste elsewhere illegally, which greatly harms the environment at the green belts.

(Economic, cultural unsustainable)

(Social, cultural unsustainable)

(Environmental unsustainable)

Heritage

25%

landfill waste

=

+

What if... Construction/ Destruction waste becomes

What if... New communal facilities are

What if... Creative industry and new programs are

Sources Of New Materials?

Integrated With Existing Context?

Driven By Cultural Heritage/ Ruins? Cultual heritage inspired new programs

Interactive Relationship Heritage

New

Users’ needs reform heritage

Decay

Decay Sustainable Cycle

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Title

Case Study: Queen’s Hill Former Camp Ruins 49


/Past and Present/ Comparative Study of site’s past and present

T

his session documents a series of comparative study between the site or buildings in the 70s and today’s situation through historical drawings and photographs. The historical drawings may not depict the actually historical scene, but illustrates the intended design of the site. It is an interesting process to explore the discrepency between reality and ideals, as well as how time and nature transform the site and buildings. In the past, the site is exposed to sunlight in most areas. Trees were rarely seen on the old satellite photographs. In contrast, the site today is vastly covered with vegetation. Although the site has been abandoned since 1997, some of the trees planted by the British Soldiers in the 70s blossom today. The old buildings are empty, but the nature take care of them by sheltering them under her tree crowns. Decay may not always be desperate. Instead, it shows us the power of nature.

“Nature has transformed the work of art into material for her own expression as she had previously served as material for art.”

-George Simmel


Case Stude: Queen’s Hill Ruins

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Case Stude: Queen’s Hill Ruins

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Case Stude: Queen’s Hill Ruins

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/The Memories/Interview Record Interviewee: Brian Clift (Former British Guard on Queen’s Hill in 60s) Y: Me B: Brian

Y: Hello, I just saw your link posted on gwulo.com, about the pictures of Queen’s Hill Camp in a group. They a very precious set of pictures depicting the old days ! I’m currently doing architectural research for Queen’s Hill Camp, and would like to ask permission to use the pictures with credits. Do you own the pictures? If you have time, I would love to hear more about the buildings, the environment of the place from your own memory, because large part of the campsite is now demolished for making tall public housing before we even know about the history of a place.. (sad) B: Hi Yuyu, Sorry for the delay in answering your message. My PC was not allowing access to them but luckily I picked up the message on my phone. In answer to your message, yes I am the owner of most of the photographs. The ones that do not belong to me are clearly marked with the owners name. If they would be of help to you i would be happy for you to use them for your project. I notice from Gwulo that “oxygen” has contacted Elaine Kwan, (Is that you?) who also had access to the photographs, but I am not sure if she used any of them. I will help where I can but as I explained to Elaine, I was not stationed at Queens Hill Camp, but only went there on a few occasions during 1956/57 to provide a temporary guard on the camp while it was unoccupied, so my knowledge of the camp is quite limited, Aafter 60 years my memory is not too clear But I will try to help if you have any specific questions. Y: Thanks Brian. Nice to hear from you. Yes, oxygen is me on gwulo. I have contacted her for more details about the camp and she had gave me some useful information as well. As to get a greater picture, can you tell me the setting of the site and its surrounding: 1. To be

more specific, nowadays it is more like a forest and the buildings are hidden by the trees around. Was it like that before, or all of them are clearly visible from the outside (I imagine trees around were cut down to construct the buildings more easily)? 2. There were a lot of farmlands around the camp back in the 50s, as a guard there, in your experience, did you have any interactions with the farmers? And do you go to the Luen Wo Hui (fanling city centre/marketplace) for entertainment? 3. How often the Hindu temple is used ? Were there a lot of Gurkha troops living there with their families ? (More than British?) B: Question 1. The camp was not heavily wooded but there were a lot of pine tress scattered around the whole camp. They were not very big at that time. I don’t know if it is this type of tree that now covers the area, or if there was another species that invaded the camp. The attached photo gives an example, it was taken from near the northern perimeter of the camp, looking in a westerly direction, the light coloured buildings were near the entrance to the camp. The barracks buildings in the foreground were probably replaced by the ones shown on later photographs. The small paths were probably created by soldiers who patrolled the camp perimeter while on guard duty.I thought I should explain something about our visits to Queens Hill. We were there to guard the camp while it was empty, and awaiting the next regiment to occupy it. Our guard was made up of not more than twelve to sixteen people. We worked one day on duty and one day off duty for two weeks each visit.. During the duty days we worked two hours and rested for two hours through the 24 hour period. Most of the buildings in the camp were locked, so we only occupied one small block for living and sleeping, and one hut for use as a


Case Stude: Queen’s Hill Ruins

INTANGIBLE PLACE HISTORY: AN INTERVIEW ABOUT THE FRAGMENTED MEMORIES OF PAST LIVES These memories are not a concise history, but fragmented pieces of the past. These memories and oral history are the intangible remainings from the older generation, and they are fundamental first hand sources for the younger generation to rediscover a place without official record, and hidden history. On that notion, ruins are the tangible remainings, in which requires active exploration. The presence of these ruins does not automatically tell us the history, but provides us an entrance to let us rediscover the past and reflect the present, only if we want to. Instead of erasing the past brutally for new development, why don’t we take time nurture it into a more meaningful place, through a more sustainable, intellectual way of development?

The Social Spaces in Queen’s Hill It seems that the lawn outside the camp structure was a perfect place for resting and chatting among the guards or the soldiers.

Trees and visibility

Duty in Queen’s Hill

“The camp was not heavily wooded but there were a lot of pine tress scattered around the whole camp. They were not very big at that time. I don't know if it is this type of tree that now covers the area, or if there was another species that invaded the camp...it was taken from near the northern perimeter of the camp, looking in a westerly direction, the light coloured buildings were near the entrance to the camp. The barracks buildings in the foreground were probably replaced by the ones shown on later photographs. The small paths were probably created by soldiers who patrolled the camp perimeter while on guard duty. “

“We were there to guard the camp while it was empty, and awaiting the next regiment to occupy it. Our guard was made up of not more than twelve to sixteen people. We worked one day on duty and one day off duty for two weeks each visit..”

The Leisure in Daytime

“Regarding our leisure time when we were at Queens Hill. In the daytime we spent many hours exploring the villages and farmland.“

Spaces of the Guards

The Villages

“ During the duty days we worked two hours and rested for two hours through the 24 hour period. Most of the buildings in the camp were locked, so we only occupied one small block for living and sleeping, and one hut for use as a guardroom. The only other building we had access to was the vehicle repair bay. ”

“Queens Hill Camp was surrounded by farmland and small villages. The main crop in those days was rice. On our days off duty we would wander around the farms and villages but did not have much interaction with the local population. I think it would have been different if we had been stationed there permanently. Attached a view of the farms and villages to the south of Queens Hill with Fanling beyond. In the centre of the photograph just beyond the village, you can just make out the building that is Tang Chung Ling Ancestral Hall, which is still there today. “

The villages nearby

The Nightlife

Sleeping Outdoor

To obtain more cool breeze, the guards or the soldiers often sleep at the verandah during good days.

“In the evenings we would often walk to Fanling, first by the narrow road through the paddy fields then by the Sha Tau Kok Road. We rarely walked much farther than Fan Leng Lau Road, where there was an open air cinema/theatre (Chinese films only) and there was a small cafe/bar close to there where we would spend the evening. We never stayed too late as we had to walk back in the dark, and because there was no street lighting back then. Whlle walking back up the Sha Tau Kok Road in the dark, a few people ended up falling into the nullah which was the Ma Wat River..“

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The Paddy Fields

The picture shows that there’s massive land for farming near the camp. Mountains and trees are clearly seen even from a distance.


guardroom. The only other building we had access to was the vehicle repair bay. Perhaps this will explain my lack of knowledge of most parts of the camp. Attached a view of the camp from the garden of a nearby farmhouse. As you say Queens Hill Camp was surrounded by farmland and small villages. The main crop in those days was rice. On our days off duty we would wander around the farms and villages but did not have much interaction with the local population. I think it would have been different if we had been stationed there permanently. Attached a view of the farms and villages to the south of Queens Hill with Fanling beyond. In the centre of the photograph just beyond the village, you can just make out the building that is Tang Chung Ling Ancestral Hall, which is still there today. The village in the foreground is still there but the houses there are more modern and a bit taller, (three and four storeys now). I often use Google Maps Street View to have a look at the area. Y: Yes, it is amazing to see the Ancestral Hall standing until today! I went there last week and it is well maintained. It’s nice to see how it looks like back in those years. Quite different indeed. Thanks for your detail reply, I enjoyed reading it very much, especially it’s from the precious memory of many years ago. And it helps me understand much more about the operation of the camp for sure.


Case Stude: Queen’s Hill Ruins

/Post War Memories/Tradition of Oppressed A Postscript on the Interview with Mr. Ko and his friend (Victims of Queen’s Hill New Development)

A

s to know how the Queen’s Hill Development affects people who live nearby, I also conducted an oral history interview with two men who used to live near Queen’s Hill.

The British influence from Queen’s Hill Camp extends further to Luen Wo Hui, which was formed by local villagers. Other than the western bars and restaurants, St. Joseph Church was also built at Luen Wo Hui during 1953, primarily for the British Army that stationed in Kwan Tei, including those in Queen’s Hill Camp. Luen Wo Hui is an interesting place to explore post-war stories concerning the rural communities. Many villagers were refugees from the Cultural Revolution with Kuomintang background. Before the handover of Hong Kong, Luen Wo Hui was filled with flags of Kuomingtang every 1st October. Luen Wo Hui was like a melting pot of different political agendas that end up with a vibrant and diversed community.

Mr. Ko, a local farmer, who used to live and work at the foot of Queen’s Hill, was forced to move away due to the construction of the Sha Tau Kok Road in Fanling in 1996. Then he built his new home, re-invested efforts in the new farm at Ma Shi Po Village. Suddenly, couple of years ago, Mr. Ko was again forced to move out of the his farm land. And this time, instead of the colonial government, he sacrificed his home and farmland to the private developers and Hong Kong SAR Government for the sake of “New Town Development”… And now he is living at Kwan Tei… And no one knows if the private developers will take his home again in the near future…

Unfortunately, in recent 20 years, the ruling class (hegemony) in Hong Kong becomes the developers who own vast amount of land. Since then, the fabric of Luen Wo Hui has been brutally changed according to developers’ proposals, and is no longer synchronized with the public realm.

A friend of Mr. Ko, who owned a house at Queen’s Hill for two generation, was also forced to move away due to the new development of residential housing at Queen’s Hill. Although he was compensated with a public housing unit at Tuen Mun, he frequently come back to Fanling to visit his old friends. New housing developments cut off the existing social network, and the victims can only use their own ways to maintain it.

Walter Benjamin said, “The tradition of the oppressed teaches us that the “emergency situation” in which we live is the rule. We must arrive at a concept of history which corresponds to this.” In this regard, architecture has two functions. First, the remaining architecture from the past provides us a physical linkage between our present “emergency situation” and the tradition of the oppressed. Second, it acts as a witness to assure us that the history did happened before. Only by keeping the associated architecture and learning from it, we would not be thrown into the dark abyss of unbearable lightness, or being “rootless”.

Their tragedies are real stories of many local villagers at Fanling. However, as most of us are so distant from the rural life of Hong Kong, we become numb to demolition and developments. It seems that there’s no room for most people to think about “development” in our busy lives, unless you are one of the victims or have a conversation with someone like Mr. Ko.

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/Tangible Remnents of History/Architecture that

gives us evidence about the past

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uins are buildings that are passed down from the past, but are ignored by the present. Unlike heritage and monuments, ruins are not carefully investigated because they have no “historical or architectural value” in the modern academic sense. Yet, we can still learn a lot from ruins, if we look at them deep enough. In terms of planning and architectural design, Queen’s Hill Camp does not have any glamorous and fancy designs. Instead, it humbly demonstrates a way of addressing the landscape, as well as efficient and effective construction through the details. At this ruined state, nature (wild vegetation) is gaining an upper role. Instead of “invading” the built structures, the nature is growing towards the them, overwhelming them. The nature is not destroying the building, but showing a possibility of co-existence. Can this unique balance of nature and man-made be more expressive in future sustainable designs? Can we integrate the seemingly contradicting “controlled environment” and “natural environment”?


Case Stude: Queen’s Hill Ruins

Verandahs

Like other colonial architecture, these humble versions of buildings also have verandahs, to adapt to the tropical climate. Without air conditioning, these blocks are designed to maximize the comfort against rain and heat. Most buildings have verandahs to create a threshold between the exterior and interior, offering an alternative space with more breeze. The verandah also acts as a shading device, to keep the interior not overheating. Most buildings have windows on both sides to facilitate cross ventilation within the interior space.

Low Cost Shading Details The buildings are mostly built in reinforced concrete to keep the cost low. However, that does not mean the buildings have to be dull. Interplaying with the slightly displacement of concrete blocks, an interesting wall pattern is created to allow air to pass through, at the same time offer a shading effect. This kind of efficient but nice designs can be seen in many old estate buildings as well. Different kind of glass are used in the windows. Some are translucent, some are coloured, some integrated with a grid frame. Instead of just a block for shelter, it seems that there’s a careful thinking behind concerning privacy, confidentiality, openess to views, etc.

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Title

Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces (Design) 63


/Linkage to District/Potential relationship with exisiting neighbourhood

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o establish a relationship with the neighborhood, the Fanling district is analysed to identify the different industries and contextual elements in proximity. In recent years, new development with high density has spread over the district. Area for rural farmlands is decreasing, while the residential towers is sprawling over the landscape.

Co-Existence of Urban And Rural

4.6km to Shenzhen Border (Luo Hu) Mapopo Community Farm

Urban Public Housing

Local Economy & Manufacturing From Luen Wo Hui Old Market (By cycling: 2.6km, 20min)

To reconcile the contradicting elements, it is essential to create a win-win relationship to both sides. Urban development and rural landscape should co-exist for sustainable development in long term. Urban development offers modern technology, social network and enhances economic activities that requires high density, while the rural farmlands can make use of the waste generated by the urban community and turn them into production of food, that contribute back to the urban society. Since rural landscape is usually tranformed slower, it offers a perfect ground for learning place- history, especially history related to indigenous villages. The illustration shows the potential of Queen’s Hill to relinking the fragemented elements of the district.

Heritage Walkway From On Lok Industrial Village (By foot: 2.2km, 35min) Rural Farmland

From Fragmentation to Reconnection Queen’s Hill, Fanling, New Territories

The Map shows a New Network System linking Queen’s Hill Development with other parts of the neigh The four paths have different characters. They were originally seperated and unrelated. By breaking the boundary of the former Queen’s Hill Camp, these paths becomes interconnected. Queen’s Hill New Housing Development is not just a housing estate, but also a base for local people to Circle area shows the focused design of the project, which is the heart of Queen’s Hill.

St. Joseph Church Luen Wo Hui

Ruins and natural landscape as mediation?

Old Mark Luen Wo


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

Village Walkway From Kwan Tei (By foot: 0.6km, 8min)

2.7km to Ping Che

Fung Shui Pond Soy Sauce Factory

Kwan Tei Village

HEART OF QUEEN’S HILL

Queen’s Hill Peak

Lung Yeuk Tau Indigenous Village

hbourhood.

Hiking Trail To Lau Shau Heung Reservoir (By foot: 2km, 30min)

Agricultural Land

learn about the place.

rket Hui

Community Farm Ma Shi Po

Lo Wai Lung Yeuk Tau

Tung Chen Soy Sauce Factory Sha Tau Kok Road

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Reservior Lau Shui Heung


/Critique of Top-Down Proposal/

拆卸廢墟,重新區劃,由零開始打造成三萬人的新住宅區

Demolish, Re-zoning, Forge a new residential development from scratch (Government Proposal)


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

從廢墟作基點,認識社區歷史及實際需要後規劃

Learning the history and needs of the community through identifying the allegory of ruins, then plan how to make use of ruins accordingly

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/Site Analysis and Design Drafts/

fragmented

Concep Comm

concept design

T

o understand the landscape of Queen’s Hill, plans are repeatedly studied and drawn. Buildings with more importance are identified and investigated.

With the vision to build a place- conscious commune, programs are drafted out and fit into appropriate old structures by instinct. These first drafts are then taken deeper ruins/ design in the following term. Layout Plan into of existing

Photos of theThis site session presents the drafts and drawings produced in the first semester.

Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (1/10)

Layout Plan of existing ruins/ Photos of the site

Concep


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

pt Sketch Plan linking munal Zone to Spiritual Retreat

pt for Former School

The retreat connects to the communal zone by a graduation from transquility to intellectual or interactive environment. The former school can be transformed into a communal kitchen and canteen. Instead of spending enormous effort to hold the already-weaken structure, the less69ideal part can be taken away to create a new open space for all to enjoy sunlight and natural plants. The act of destruction becomes constructive. It allows users to rethink about the two sides


Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Possibl

Concept Sketch Plan linking Communal Zone to Spiritual Retreat

Concept for Former School


le Design Proposals (2/10)

Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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posals (3/10)

Sketch Plan: Spiritual Retreat / Past Present Dilemma

Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Po


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

ossible Design Proposals (3/10) Concept Sketch Plan: Spiritual Retreat / Past Present Dilemma

Concept Sketch Plan: Spiritual Retreat / Past Present Dilemma

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Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (5/10)

“Restored Heritage” The Past

Pre-determined program Models Models of of different different periods periods of Hindu Hindu Temple of Temple

Original Drawings

Original Drawings

The Dialectics: Past/ Present This is a new built “heritage” that is rebuilt according the the original drawings. It is new, but it presents the past that may have never been accomplished. The new temple accomodates a set of models of the “ruin”, recording the change of it. It triggers one to think what is present, what is past, what is the meaning of history. Is it merely knowledge? Or is it more about the present and future through looking at the past?


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

Appendix Appendix 2.2.4. 2.2.4. Spatial Spatial Analysis Analysis on on Ruin Ruin Clusters Clusters and and Corresponding Corresponding Possible Possible Design Design Proposals Proposals (4/10) (4/10)

“The “The Ruin” Ruin” The The Present Present

Transformative program Transformative (Hindu Temple - program Ruin - ?) (Hindu Temple - Ruin - ?)

Ruin Ruin

Yoga Meditation Shelter Yoga Meditation Shelter Without restrictions as heritage, the ruin can Without restrictions as heritage, the ruin can transform freely. The Hindu Temple was used transform freely. The Hindu Temple was used to worship God Shiva, God of Meditation, to worship God Shiva, God of Meditation, and thus it is obvious that it has great potenand thus it is obvious that it has great potential to become a Yoga Shelter, which fits the tial to become a Yoga Shelter, which fits the need of stressful citizens, or those who seek need of stressful citizens, or those who seek for spirituality. This transformation addresses for spirituality. This transformation addresses both the past and the present by forming a both the past and the present by forming a link between them. link between them.

Reflection Reflection

Process: Get hands dirty Process: Get hands dirty Transformation does not have to be Transformation does not have to be restorative. Instead it is about fitting the restorative. Instead it is about fitting the present needs by the users. By engaging in present needs by the users. By engaging in simple plantation (celebrating the natural simple plantation (celebrating the natural environment), and construction (e.g. yoga environment), and construction (e.g. yoga deck), users become part of the transformers deck), users become part of the transformers of the ruin, bringing the ruin alive in terms of the ruin, bringing the ruin alive in terms of function. After then, the program may be of function. After then, the program may be transformed according to agreements among transformed according to agreements among participants. participants.

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Transformation Transformation

Reclaiming the place Reclaiming the place As regular carers and planters, users (resiAs regular carers and planters, users (residents) gradually build up a sense of bedents) gradually build up a sense of belonging to the place. This former Gurkha’a longing to the place. This former Gurkha’a Hindu Temple slowly transforms into a place Hindu Temple slowly transforms into a place for all who care about it and look for spiritufor all who care about it and look for spirituality. The ageing walls become an important ality. The ageing walls become an important witness of the transformation process, and witness of the transformation process, and tells the new-users that “it is from the past”. tells the new-users that “it is from the past”. And it is the beginning of building a placeAnd it is the beginning of building a placeconsciousness. consciousness.


Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Po

ble Design Proposals (6/10)

Concept Sketch Plan of Bazaar

Layout Plan of existing ruins/ Photos of the site/ Plan of Concept Design


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

ossible Design Proposals (6/10)

Concept Sketch Plan of Bazaar

-Utilizing the chimneys of the ruins, introducing social space between commercial activities. -Linking the bazaar at a radial manner, so as to increase the accessibility and flow.

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Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clu

Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (7/10)

Layout Plan of existing ruins/ Photos of the site

Concept Sketch Plan for Temporary Residence


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Concept Sketch Plan for Temporary Residence

usters and Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (8/10)

Land art/ living museums/ Outdoor art

A blended mixture of artists village, visitors’ residence, land art, and agroforestry. The cluster itself is a living art museum that is changeable and adaptable to the needs of occupants. The occupants are the main drivers of how the space is appropriated.

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nalysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (9/10) Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (9/10)

Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on Ruin Clusters and Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (10/10) Concept Sketch Plan for Indigenous Learning

The Indigenous Learning This is a place for learning the local from the indigenous lifestyle, indigenous history. Learning process emphasize on experiential application and reflection. The playground is a compost area. Kids are responsible for the “worm farm”, learning to do simple composting throught collecting food waste from surrounding households, and re-contribute the compost to the farms around. The process of turning “waste” to useful compost is similar to how ruins are used in this project. You learn from the waste, transform it, and it becomes useful in a new way. The centre courtyard may include keyhole gardens, to maximize the diversity of crops in order to allow the children to explore the interest of permaculture and organic produce. The courtyard can also be an outdoor hall for large scale gatherings. Pits are used as mini- outdoor classrooms. The upper hill part of the cluster can be used as formal classrooms in case the weather is bad. Local oral history archiveLayout is introduced Planinto of the existing ruins/ blocks as to keep record of the fragile history of rural area. Photos of the site The whole cluster remains open access to the commune. The communes can take up positions at this school as a duty and a job. The archive is also open to all, so everyone is a contributor, as well as an audience. This kind of lifestyle let the communes experience what alterntive lifestyle we can have, against the mainstream.

Layout Plan of existing ru

Photos of the


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis on on Ruin Clusters andand Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (10/10) Appendix 2.2.4. Spatial Analysis Ruin Clusters Corresponding Possible Design Proposals (10/10) TheThe Indigenous Learning Indigenous Learning

Concept Sketch Plan Plan for Indigenous Learning Concept Sketch for Indigenous Learning

ThisThis is aisplace for for learning the the locallocal a place learning from the indigenous lifestyle, indigfrom the indigenous lifestyle, indigenous history. Learning process em-emenous history. Learning process phasize on experiential application phasize on experiential application andand reflection. reflection. TheTheplayground playgroundis isa acompost compost area.area. KidsKids are are responsible for for the the responsible “worm farm”, learning to to do do sim-sim“worm farm”, learning ple plecomposting compostingthrought throughtcollectcollecting ingfoodfoodwaste wastefrom fromsurrounding surrounding households, households,andandre-contribute re-contributethe the compost compostto tothe thefarms farmsaround. around. TheThe process of of turning “waste” to to process turning “waste” useful compost is similar to how useful compost is similar to how ruins are are usedused in this project. YouYou ruins in this project. learn from the waste, transform it, it, learn from the waste, transform andand it becomes useful in a new way. it becomes useful in a new way. TheThe centre courtyard maymay include centre courtyard include keyhole gardens, to maximize the the di- dikeyhole gardens, to maximize versity of crops in order to allow the versity of crops in order to allow the children to to explore the the interest of of children explore interest permaculture and organic produce. permaculture and organic produce. TheThe courtyard cancan alsoalso be be an an out-outcourtyard doordoor hallhall for for largelarge scalescale gatherings. gatherings. PitsPits are are usedused as minioutdoor classas minioutdoor classrooms. rooms. TheThe upper hillhill partpart of of the the cluster upper cluster cancan be used as formal classrooms in in be used as formal classrooms casecase the the weather is bad. Local oraloral weather is bad. Local history archive is introduced intointo the the history archive is introduced blocks as to record of the frag-fragblocks as keep to keep record of the ile ile history of rural area.area. history of rural TheThewhole wholecluster clusterremains remainsopen open access to the commune. TheThe comaccess to the commune. communes cancan taketake up up positions at this munes positions at this school as a duty and a job. TheThe school as a duty and a job. archive is also open to to all, all, so so ev- evarchive is also open eryone is a contributor, as well as as eryone is a contributor, as well an an audience. audience.

uins/

ThisThis kindkind of of lifestyle let let the the comlifestyle communes experience what alterntive munes experience what alterntive lifestyle lifestylewe wecancanhave, have,against againstthe the mainstream. mainstream.

e site 81


/Design development/ Sketches


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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/Final Design Strategy/

0. Original Landscape (Before Development) Mixture of natural vegetation and abandoned structures

Exisiting Structures in 2007

1. New & Old Relationship a. Clear-cut between new & old (Government’s Proposal)

Some exisiting structures and natural vegetation are demolished to build the new structures.

Proposed New Housings Exisiting Structures

b. Integrating new & old (Thesis Design Proposal)

Exisiting structures are transformed into new functions to serve the new community. In return, the physical place history can be preserved.

Proposed New Housings Exisiting Structures with new functions


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

2. Programmatic Distribution a. Highly Centralized (Government’s “Housing” Proposal)

Different programs are clearly allocated to specific building or podium mall. Spatial interaction with the site is little.

Education: Government/ International School Retail: Shopping Mall Communal: Government Complex

b. Dispersed over Site (Thesis “Queen’s Hill Community” Proposal) Communal programs are allocated into the existing structures over the site with appropriate new interventions for daily purposes. Specific old buildings are transformed to celebrate its ruin aesthetics with meditative purposes.

Education: School of Indigenous Learning Retail: Bazzar/ “Hui” Market Communal: Canteen/ Meeting Hall/ Library Public Open Space Meditative: Spa/ Yoga Artists’ Residence/ Hostels

Partial Design for enhancing local identity (Preliminary Draft)

a. Hostel/ Artists- in- Residence Visitors or Artists can be inspired by the site, and create land arts to further define the spirit of Queen’s Hill.

Art events related to the land and nature can be held by artists on site.

b. School of Indigenous Learning Unlike formal schools, this school provides education on local history and natural knowledge to enhance the local identity gradually.

Minimal benches and table are set under the tree for outdoor classroom.

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School’s playground is integrated with the natural environment of the site.


/Design/Master Planning Concept 線膠裝 一本

T

he site planning is characterized by the interwining routes of programs. The programs can be classified into 4 categories.

The “Prologue” is an introductory session for visitors or residents who want to know about the place history. The “active/communal” features daily activities and civic functions that are accomodated in the transformed old structures. The “meditative journey” is a sensual and reflective experience through the old structures and landscape.

Instead of classifying the blocks into “Private”, “Public”, and “Subsidied” Housings in the conventional way, this project encourages a cooperative plan for the collective housing (合作社 房屋). With the membership-based corporation, each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit. A primary advantage of the housing cooperative is the pooling of the members’ resources so that their buying power is leveraged, thus lowering the cost per member in all the services and products associated with home ownership. 1 In this corporation, housing unit is no longer a tool for earning money, but simply a space to live. This helps buildings a place-consciousness as people are really living at the place together, due to the lower incentive for buying and selling the properties. Compared to the Government Proposal, this scheme employs varied heights of towers to build not only a better skyline, but also a more intimate relationship with the landscape. By adding a few storeys on some of the blocks, the number of housing units remains about the same as the Government Proposal.

Notes: 1. See definition of cooperative housing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Housing_cooperative


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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This masterplan shows the overall design at the heart of Queen’s Hill. It shows the connections between the different clusters of old structures and the new towers, with mediation of the landscape.


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

1. Active/ Communal Market/ Bazaar

0. Prologue

History Museum/ Visitor Centre

Canteen

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Farm

Library

2. Meditative

Post OďŹƒce

Workshop

Hindu Temple

Meeting Rm

Yoga/ Spa Peak Pavilion

3. Education/ Art/ Eco- tourism


Yoga Centre

Meditation Pool

Community Meeting Hall Outdoor Cinema

Peak View Deck

Final design/ Section

Library

Community Canteen

Multi-media Centre


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

Cafeteria & Post Office

Filtration Pond Bridge

Pottery & Material Workshop

Farmers’ Market/ Clinic/ Retail/ Restaurant

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Clinic

Cafe

Bridge to Bazaar Central Plaza towards Community Canteen Peak View Deck

Final design/ Section

Post Office & Bank Library and Multi-media Centre

(Pottery and Material Wor


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Farmers’ Market Cafeteria

Leisure Garden

rkshop)

Visitor Centre & History Museum

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/Design/

00. The Prologue

T

he �Prologue� of the design introduces the background of Queen’s Hill to whoever interested. It is a welcoming door for all who visit or live at this place. Echoes with the demolished Nissen Hut that was near to the site entrance and respects to the topography, the new design of the Visitor Centre is inspired to use prefabricated steel structure for its spatial configuration with Earth as skin for climatic protection. Similarly, the Pottery Workshop is hidden inside the landscape for natural thermal protection for the pottery making process. With entrances at the north and south sides, it also acts as a tunnel connecting the bazaar and library.

Prologue/ Visitor Centre/ Pottery Workshop


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

Visitor Centre & Local History Museum Earth as primary building elements, inspired by traditional Nissen Hut structure.

Using earth as a climate barrier, with fabrication method similar to Nissen Hut.

Traditional Nissen Hut that were demolished due to new development.

Pottery & Material Workshop Earth as primary building elements.

Workshop Program:

Investigating new methods of reusing recycled materials. E.g. Material Testings with Chinese Ink. Through the program, residents will find unique way of re-using the wasted resources, so as to create their own spirit.

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/Design/

01. Active & Communal

View to plaza from residential tower 1/F


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T

he “Actvie and Communal” is a daily routine for the residents. All communal activities such as dinning, shopping, leisure, entertainment, social meetings can be found here. The abandoned buildings are transformed accordingly to accommodate these activities. Instead of “preserving”, these old buildings are given their second lives. As time changes, program specifications changes. Users can decide whether or not to build upon it. It’s not against building new things, it’s just an alternative choice of construction. A construction that continues its history, instead of erasing it. Creative conservation and series of new interventions allow different communal programs to take place inside the existing structures and over landscape. These programs allow residents to use the old structure and the natural landscape in daily basis, and thus may gradually arouse one’s historical consciousness of the place. Openings are added with attention to the deterioration as well as historical drawings, so as to create a balance among modern functions, structural issues, and its original form.

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/Building Upon/

/Farmers’ Market/ Remaining walls from the abandoned structure as market partitions, protected by a new roof with skylights


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/Recreate/

/Multimedia Centre/ Roof profile resembles the chimney structures of HK Huts, with open view to the bridge linking to the workshop. 103


/Building Upon/

/Library courtyard/ With new pergolas connecting the scattered old buildings that are transformed into reading rooms, archive, book collections


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

“Prising apart space for reinterpretation”

/Sunken Kitchen in Community Canteen/ The Community Canteen demonstrates how the old and decayed structure can be transformed to accommodate new program with skylights opening at the structural failure parts. Instead of restoration, nature is mostly welcomed at these fragile points of structure, bringing up new spatial qualities at the seemingly “problematic” spots. The footprint of the sunken space takes reference from the location of the pool and plant area of the original design drawing.

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“Prising apart space for reinterpretation�

/Community Canteen Entrance/ The original roof structure has structural failure. Instead of repairing it, this project attempts to break through it and allows sunlight and rainwater entering the building. Metaphorically, it can be conceived as growing new life at where seems failure. Architecturally, it acts as a skylight that introduce light and air into the dining areas. /Outdoor Cinema/ The canteen is connected to the outdoor cinema through a tunnel under the landscape. The cinema acts as a threshold between the canteen and the community meeting hall. This cinema can be used for watching movies as leisure, or public presentation as community function. Its form is like a ditch which everyone passed by can overlook what is happening within. In other words, it tries to attract attention and promote civic participation.


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/Design/

02. Meditative Journey

Walking towards the former Hindu Temple through the deck with trees surround you


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

T

he “Meditative Experience” is a reflective journey with insight into new and old structures and landscape elements. Unlike the social functions of the “Active & Communal” routine, this is specially designed for mentality, spirituality, individuality. Everyone has different extent of extrovert and introvert attitudes. If the “Active & Communal” is more about extroverts, the “Meditative Experience” is about introverts. Yet, the line cannot be drawn so clearly. This meditative journey provides you space to reflect on yourself, as well as the society. You can be thinking of yourself, but you cannot escape looking at the layers of developments that the society brings to you. Making use of the allegorical character of the decayed structures and ruins, this journey leads you through an experience of learning the past, looking at the present, and thinking about the future.

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/Remain Intact/

/Gurkhas History Gallery / The former Hindu Temple was built specially for the Gurkhas troops. As the Army has gone, the Temple is abandoned and naturally decayed. Through the years of abandonement, though, many local hikers or photographers tried to enter Queen’s Hill to look for this hexagonal architecture. The signs of decay hints the age of the building. The hexagonal geometry is uncommon in Hong Kong’s indigenous culture, but is significant in Hindu Gurkhas, This aged temple is a perfect place for learning about the rarely known past of Gurkha’s contribution to Hong Kong. This is also a place for us to reconcile the relationship between the majorities and minorities of our society.


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/Between Revival and Build Upon/


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/Layering of old and new/

Left /Water Feature outside Hindu Temple/ Looking into the original drawings of the Hindu Temple, water is identified as one of the main feature of the architecture that was not realised. As the temple decays, nature starts to play a role in the aesthetics of the architecture. As a mediation between the architecture and wild nature, a stone walkway on water is newly designed to extend the existing water ducts that was disused.

Below/Layers of nature and new developments/ Almost like a collage, the view along the uphill slope features the overlaying elements of nature and man-made buildings. Along the meditative journey, you are mostly surrounded by trees. But here is the moment that reminds you that you are still part of the modern society and developments.

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/Between Remain Intact and Build Upon/

Below /Natural view towards the Spa/ As you walk up hill, you can see the mountains behind Queen’s Hill. With trees and flora by the two sides, you slowly breath in fresh air and temporarily forget about the hustle and bustle in the city. Right/Meditative Spa/ Eventually, you arrive to this old building. It was the place where the British Army lived, and is now transformed into a meditative spa with minimal touch. On the walls, you see little cracks where the ivy climbs in. Immersing yourself into the warm water heated by the original chimneys, you look up and feel the sun shinning on you.


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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/Layering of new and old/

Below /Plan of Spa and Yoga Centre Right/View Deck on Yoga Centre/ After dipping yourself into water, you can air dry yourself at this spot. Sitting calmly, letting the water dripping off from the gaps between the wooden panels. Looking out from here, you see the old buildings in front of you, and the new towers you living in at the back of them. It is a co-existence of old and new.


Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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/Layering of new and old, nature and landscaping/

Below /Walking to the peak/ Right/Peak View Deck/ Finally, you arrive the highest spot of this project. Here you can have an overview to Queen’s Hill development. On a sunny day, you may be able to see the pads and fields around the district.

Hopefully, by this time, one would realize the possibility of the co-existence of rural and urban developments, old and new architecture, historical memories and modern ideals.


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Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

123


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Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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Reincarnation of Deserted Spaces

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Table. 1: Building Schedule of Queen’s Hill Camp (West Wing) (Source from historical data)

Table 1. Schedule of Queen's Hill Camp (West Wing) Building Number Use Type of Building Condition (Remains/ Demolished) 1 Officers' Mess Nissen Hut Demolished 1A R.G.F. Mess Camp Structure Demolished 2 Officers' Mess & Room Nissen Hut Demolished 3 Officers' Latrines Camp Structure Demolished 4 Officers' Mess Nissen Hut Demolished 4A Officers' Mess Camp Structure Demolished 5 Officers' Showers Nissen Hut Demolished 6 Officers' Office & Stores Nissen Hut Demolished 7 Guard House Nissen Hut Demolished 7A Guard House Camp Structure Demolished 8 Detention Rooms Nissen Hut Demolished 9 Ordialy Rooms Nissen Hut Demolished 9A R.G.F. Latrines Camp Structure Demolished 10 Officers' Stores Nissen Hut Demolished 11 Pioneers' Room Nissen Hut Demolished 12 Medical Clinic Nissen Hut Demolished 12A Boiler House Camp Structure Demolished 13 R.G.F. Latrines Camp Structure Demolished 14 R.G.F. Showers Nissen Hut Demolished 15 R.G.F. Dining Hall Nissen Hut Demolished 16 R.G.F. Dining Hall Nissen Hut Demolished 17 R.G.F. Cook House Nissen Hut Demolished 19 W. Os Mess Kitchen Nissen Hut Demolished 20 W. Os Showers Nissen Hut Demolished 21 W. Os Dining Hall Nissen Hut Demolished 21A W. Os Latrines Camp Structure Demolished 22 Signal Room Nissen Hut Demolished 23 Signal Room Nissen Hut Demolished 24 Officers' Showers Nissen Hut Demolished 26 R.G.F. Latrines Camp Structure Demolished 27 Officers' Stores Nissen Hut Demolished 28 Armour & Shoe Makers' Shop Nissen Hut Demolished 29 Nation Store Nissen Hut Demolished 29A Butchers' Shop Camp Structure Demolished 29B H.Q. Officers' Stores Nissen Hut Demolished 30 Office Nissen Hut Demolished 30A R.G.F. Showers Nissen Hut Demolished 31 Showers Nissen Hut Demolished 32 Church Room Nissen Hut Demolished 32A Sport Stores Camp Structure Demolished 33 Office Nissen Hut Demolished 34 Latrines Camp Structure Demolished 35 Preparation Room Nissen Hut Demolished 35A Cook House and Store Nissen Hut Demolished 35B Cook House Nissen Hut Demolished 36 Dining Hall Romney Hut Demolished 37 Dining Hall Nissen Hut Demolished 38 R.G.F. Latrines Camp Structure Demolished 39 Officers' Stores Nissen Hut Demolished


Appendix

40 R.G.F. Dining Hall 41 R.G.F. Latrines 42R.G.F. Cook House and Store 42A R.G.F. Showers 42B Office & Stores 42C Office & Stores 43 R.G.F. Latrines 44 Living Quarters 45 Living Quarters 46 Living Quarters 47 Living Quarters 48 Living Quarters 49 Living Quarters 50 Living Quarters 51 Living Quarters 51A Latrines 52 Living Accomodation 53 Living Accomodation 53A Transformer House 54 Living Accomodation 55 Living Accomodation 56 Living Accomodation 57 Living Accomodation 58 Living Accomodation 59 Living Accomodation 60 Living Accomodation 61 Living Accomodation 62 Junior Ranks Club 63 Living Accomodation 64 Living Accomodation 65 Living Accomodation 66 Living Accomodation 67 Living Accomodation 68 Living Accomodation 69 Living Accomodation 70 Living Accomodation 71 Living Accomodation 72 Living Accomodation 73 Living Accomodation 74 Living Accomodation 75 Living Accomodation 76 Living Accomodation 77 Living Accomodation 78 Living Accomodation 79 Living Accomodation 80 Living Accomodation 81 Living Accomodation 82 Living Accomodation 83 Cinema 84 Living Accomodation 85 Office

Nissen Hut Camp Structure Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Camp Structure HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut Camp Structure HK Hut HK Hut Unique Structure HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut Unique Structure HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut Romney Hut HK Hut HK Hut

131

Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Remains Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished


86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111

Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Living Accomodation Officers' Living Quarters Officers' Living Quarters Officers' Living Quarters Officers' Living Quarters Latrines Showers Showers Showers Showers Latrines Stores & Workshop Chinese Latrines Chinese Latrines Chinese Latrines Pump House Repair Shed

HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut HK Hut Camp Structure Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Nissen Hut Camp Structure Camp Structure Camp Structure Camp Structure Camp Structure Unique Structure Camp Structure

Demolished Remains Remains Remains Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished Demolished


Table. 2: Building Schedule of Queen’s Hill Camp (North and South Part) (Source from historical data) Building Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 * * * * 18

Appendix

Table 2. Schedule of Queen's Hill Camp (North and South Part) Use Type of Building Condition Two-storey Accomodation Demolished Two-storey Accomodation Demolished Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Remains Two-storey Accomodation Demolished Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Standard M.Q. Remains Two-storey Quarters Remains Two-storey Quarters Remains Two-storey Quarters Remains Two-storey Quarters Remains Two-storey Quarters Remains Two-storey Quarters Remains Welfare Centre Family Shop Medical Clinic Hindu Temple (Grade 3) Gurkha Primary School 133

Unique Structure Demolished Unique Structure Demolished Unique Structure Demolished Hexagonal Plan Concrete Structure Remains Unique Structure Remains


/Bibliography/

Annotated Bibliography Riegl Alois. The modern cult of monuments: its character and origin. Translated: K. W. Forster and D. Ghirardo, Oppositions 25, 1982. Alois Riegl’s original classic essay ‘‘The Modern Cult of Monuments: Its Character and Origin’’ (1903) is often cited as the first, and most profound, formulation of values-based preservation. The translated version allows people over the world to gain a new perspective to evaluate monuments. Riegl’s essay has a practical aim to develop a method for managing the growing body of antiquities in the charge of the Austrian state. Despite the different context, it is a good reference for developing a theoretic perspective towards Hong Kong’s antiquities. Brian Dillon. Ruin Lust: Artists’ Fascination with Ruins from Turner to the Present Day. London: Tate Publishing, 2014. Brian Dillon is a novelist, critic and curator who has explored many ancient and modern ruins. This book explains why human are fascinated by ruins, and how ruins provoke dreams about futures. This is an artistic view on the aesthetics of ruins, which is possibly useful in both research and design phase. Julia Hell and Andreas Schonle. Ruins of Modernity. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2010. The book attempts to illustrate a unique interdisciplinary collection, that traces discourses about and representation of ruins from a richly contextualized perspective. The authors do not only talk about the history of how human look at ruins aesthetically, but also discuss ideas about ruins by philosophers such as Immanuel Kant, Walter Benjamin and Georg Simmel. The chapters are divided into five parts covering different aspects of ruins in modernity. This book is especially helpful not on understanding aesthetics of ruins, but in understanding why ruins exist today. This is particularly useful in future analysis of the specific ruins in modern urban cities and developing an original methodology towards Hong Kong’s ruins. Paolo Rossi. The Dark Abyss of Time. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1987 This book, written by a distinguished Italian historian of philosophy, is mainly about archaeology and the philosophy behind, yet its explicit argumentation inspires beyond its scope, but also in some points that touches the modern discussion on brutalism and whether or not it is worthy to preserve.


Other Bibliography 朱耀光, 《再思鄉土:討論及反思 》, 種植香港 - 立秋 (2016) Dillon, Brian, “Fragments from a History of Ruin.”, Cabinet, Issue 20 (Winter 2005/06), Chapter: Ruins John McGowan. “Ruins.” Posthegemony. John McGowan, 30 January 2006. Accessed December 21, 2016. http:// posthegemony.blogspot.hk/2006/01/ruins.html. Boym, Svetlana . “Ruinophilia: Appreciation of Ruins.” Atlas of Transformation. Accessed December 21, 2016. http:// monumenttotransformation.org/atlas-of-transformation/html/r/ruinophilia/ruinophilia-appreciation-ofruins-svetlana-boym. html. Lebbeus Woods . “War and Architecture”. Pamphlet Architecture no.15. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993 Atlee, James. Towards Anarchitecture: Gordon Matta-Clark and Le Corbusier (Tate Papers, Issue 7), 1 April 2007. Accessed November 5, 2016. http://www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/tate-papers/towards-anarchitecture-gordonmatta-clark-and-le-corbusier Bingham-Hall, Patrick. “Woha Selected Projects”. Vol. 2. Balmain, New South Wales: Pesaro, 2015. Print. Armstrong, Rachel, Monika Michalowicz, and Davina Jackson. Vibrant Architecture: Matter as a Codesigner of Living Structures. Warsaw: De Gruyter Open, 2015. Print. Harrison, Ariane Lourie. Architectural Theories of the Environment Posthuman Territory. New York: Routledge, 2013. Print. Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, and Roseline Bacou. Piranesi: Etchings and Drawings. Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975. Print. Murphy, Richard. Carlo Scarpa and the Castelvecchio. London: Butterworths Architecture, 1990. Print. Myers, Tracy, Lebbeus Woods, and Karsten Harries. Lebbeus Woods: Experimental Architecture. Pittsburgh, Pa: Carnegie Museum of Art, The Heinz Architectural Center, 2004. Print. Woods, Lebbeus, and Clare Jacobson. Slow Manifesto: Lebbeus Woods Blog. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2015. Print. Cavalcanti, Lauro. Roberto Burle Marx: The Modernity of Landscape. Barcelona: Actar, 2011. Print.

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Rizzo, Giulio G., and Roberto Burle Marx. Roberto Burle Marx: Il Giardino Del Novecento. Firenze: Cantini, 1992. Print. Thoren, Roxi. Landscapes of Change: Innovative Designs and Reinvented Sites. Portland, Or.: Timber, 2014. Print. Scarpa, Carlo, and Yutaka Saito. Kenchiku No Shijin Karuro Sukarupa. Tokyo: TOTO Shuppan, 1997. Print. Spiro, Annette. Paulo Mendes Da Rocha: Bauten Und Projekte. Sulgen: Niggli, 2002. Print.


/List of Images/

Cover Background Image Editted from HK Urbex’s photograph p.9 Top Ruin Academy Sugar Factory by C-Lab http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5429/f905/c07a/809a/0e00/0259/slideshow/IMG_2624.jpg?1412036840 Middle: Sekeping Kong Heng by Seksan Design http://www.kaboboyan.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/72-1024x576.jpg Bottom: Patrick-Henry Commune by Carlo Patte Association http://www.designboom.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/carlo-ratti-associati-patrick-henry-village-designboom03818x558.jpg p.16, 48-55 Queen’s Hill Ruins Images HK Urbex p.24-25 Image showing protestors against NENT Developments https://cdn.hk01.com/media/images/89912/xlarge/70feda77add6da611442f593a1eff6da.jpg p.45 Composite poster images Online newspaper clippings p.57 Queen’s Hill Historical Images Brian Clift Note: all site photos, diagrams, drawings and images are by author unless otherwise noted

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感謝誌 Acknowledgements The year-long thesis is definitely not an easy task. The term “Ruins” has been controversial and challenged since the first critique, but I insisted working on it till the end of semester and eventually followed my first instinct. This is only possible with the support of my thesis advisor Professor Thomas Chung Wang Leung, who has been supportive and has given me great intellectual freedom to study my own interests throughout the semester, while giving me valuable and relevant design suggestions. I would also like to acknowledge my dearest studio companion, Ip Yi Lok Ivy, who shows support to my project by engaging in the endless intellectual discussions, as well as heartfelt mental support through the five years at University. Besides, it is such a pleasure for me to get to know Mr. Brian Clift, Mr. Chu and Mr. Ko through my thesis. Through the interviews with them, I have learnt the real stroies from the past, that youngsters like me could impossibly experience. I am very delightful and grateful for they have spent precious time to re-capture their long-lost memories and share with me their true life-stories and sincere thoughts on the rural side of Hong Kong. In addition, I would like to acknowledge HK Urbex for providing me their amazing photographs of the inaccessible ruins. Not to mention that I would not be able to understand the site thoroughly without their pictures, their acute sensibility to ruins aesthetics and history draws me into this subject with passion. I enjoyed the chats on conservation and abandoned buildings with them. Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my family and to my boyfriend for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and when I am struggling with depression and anxiety during the process of researching and designing. Below is a list of members who are involved in the production who I would like to mention individually.


Name

Scope of production assistance

Josephine Lam Mother Lingsum Cheung Naughty Wong Daniel Chan Max Kwok

Assembly of 1:2000 site model/ 1:250 model Assembly of 1:2000 site model/ 1:250 model Assembly of 1:250 model Assembly of 1:250 model Assembly of 1:250 model Assembly of 1:250 model

The thesis is an exploration process. The final presentation does not mark an end, but a starting point of further discoveries of the forgotten side of Hong Kong. The academic project does not only allow me to understand my hometown, but also enriches my life experience. All these would not exist without sharing. Thank you, my dearest friends and teachers!

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Thesis Book  

Reincarnation of Ruins A reconciliation between abandoned buildings (ruins), new town development and landscape design.

Thesis Book  

Reincarnation of Ruins A reconciliation between abandoned buildings (ruins), new town development and landscape design.

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