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Diplomacy and its practice vs

Digital Diplomacy How Many Disasters DO we Need The Senate of the Netherlands and

Parliamentary Diplomacy Diplomacy and the Unsaid Korean Unification and Global Peace Preventing Conflict Escalation

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Diplomat Magazine For diplomats, by diplomats Year 1, No 1, December 2014 First Ambassadors contributing writers, founders of Diplomat Magazine in June ’13 H.E. Carlos Jose Arguello, Ambassador of Nicaragua, Dean of the Diplomatic corps. H.E. Roberto Canzadilla, Ambassador of Bolivia, vice-Dean of the Diplomatic corps. H.E. James Lambert, Ambassador of Canada. H.E. Huynh Minh Chinh, Ambassador of Vietnam. H.E. Martin Valentino, Ambassador of Malta. H.E. Yasumasa Nagamine, Ambassador of Japan. Publisher Stichting Diplomat Magazine Honorary Associate Publishers Diplomats Dr. Eugenio Matos G. Minister Counselor, Dominican Republic Embassy Guillaume Kavaruganda, Minister Counselor, Embassy of Rwanda Editor Jan W. van der Loos Roy Lie Associate Editors Major General, Fabien Ndayishimiye Embassy of Burundi. Marketing Director PROOOST: Rick van Oosterhout Art direction Studio Kliek: Yumi Udo, Lara Roelofsma Communications Officer Aldo Rodriguez communications@diplomatmagazine.nl Diplomatic adviser in Brussels Baron Henri Estramant Junior Editor Eugene Matos De Lara, University of Ottawa Junior Publisher Duke Michael of Mecklenburg, University of Leiden Photographers Kim Vermaat Robert Huiberts Walter Buonamassa Hester Dijkstra Henry Arvidsson Sharon Reyes Cover page photography Sharon Reyes Stichting Diplomat Magazine is a non-profit Dutch foundation. It is the first official diplomatic magazine in Netherlands’ history, published by and for diplomats in collaboration with experts in international relations and diplomacy, the academia and dedicated volunteers from the Netherlands and overseas.

A broader selection of articles and contributions can be found in our free online version at: www.diplomatmagazine.nl The editors do their best to ensure the accuracy of all information in this magazine. However, mistakes and omissions are, regrettably possible. No rights may therefore be derived from the material published. All rights reserved. Nothing in this edition may be reproduced, stored in an automated database, or made public, in any form or by any means, whether electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

From the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps

The Hague, 3 November 2014 HOL-CAG-156

Dear readers, Just little over a year ago, I had the pleasure of welcoming the initiative of publishing the Diplomat Magazine, and anticipated that the international community in The Hague would undoubtedly receive it with enthusiasm. That prediction not only became true, but this Magazine quickly established itself as the leader media covering a wide range of diplomatic events, and thus as the number one consulting media for an overview of the most important diplomatic events in The Hague. Today, I am honored to congratulate once again the team of the Diplomat Magazine on their first printed edition, achievement that is taking place only a year after its launch. One of the most important features of this Magazine is that it is edited and published for diplomats, providing us with a very useful tool that facilitates our daily professional work. The Magazine has provided an additional benefit to the diplomatic corps by the social events it has already organized for many Embassies. The importance of the effort of the team of the Diplomat Magazine is recognized by the more than fifty Head of Diplomatic Missions, diplomats and officials from international organizations that have contributed with relevant articles that have appeared published in it, including those of two ministers of foreign affairs that wrote editorials for the Magazine. Many Embassies and Consulates in The Hague have benefited from the voluntary support of the Diplomat Magazine. Furthermore, since its first appearance it has also facilitated our access to the larger local community of which we form an occasionally not well-understood part. I wholeheartedly congratulate the dedicated volunteer diplomats and Dutch professionals that have made possible the online version of the Diplomat Magazine and now of this printed edition.

Carlos Argüello Gomez

Ambassador of Nicaragua Dean of the Diplomatic Corps

Diplomat Magazine Zuid-Hollandlaan 7, 2596 AL Den Haag, the Netherlands. www.diplomatmagazine.nl publisher@diplomatmagazine.nl

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diplomatmagazine Je tiens à adresser mes salutations les plus chaleureuses à la rédaction et aux lecteurs de Diplomat Magazine, à l’occasion de la parution de sa première et fort élégante version imprimée. La CIJ est la plus haute juridiction du monde, et la plus ancienne, la seule à être dotée d’une compétence à la fois universelle et générale, la seule aussi dont les membres sont élus à la fois par le Conseil de sécurité et l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies. Aux termes de l’article 1er de la Charte des Nations Unies, l’un des buts de l’Organisation consiste à «réaliser, par des moyens pacifiques, conformément aux principes de la justice et du droit international, l’ajustement ou le règlement de différends ou de situations, de caractère international, susceptibles de mener à une rupture de la paix». La Cour, qui constitue l’un des six organes principaux des Nations Unies, joue un rôle essentiel à cet égard. Dans l’exercice de ses fonctions judiciaires, la Cour est souvent appelée à désamorcer les crises, à contribuer à la normalisation des relations interétatiques et à relancer les processus de négociation tombés dans l’impasse. Elle le fait en interprétant et en appliquant le droit international, tant dans le cadre de sa procédure contentieuse que de sa procédure consultative. Depuis sa séance inaugurale tenue en 1946, la Cour a été saisie de plus de 150 affaires, dont 80 % concernaient des différends entre Etats et 20 % étaient des demandes d’avis consultatif soumises par des organes ou des institutions spécialisées de l’Organisation des Nations Unies. Par ses arrêts et ses avis, elle a contribué au règlement d’un grand nombre de différends internationaux et concouru au renforcement de la primauté du droit dans les relations internationales et au développement du droit international. Ses prononcés sont d’une grande importance en matière de diplomatie préventive. L’activité qu’a déployée la Cour mondiale au fil des décennies écoulées atteste de l’accroissement indubitable de la confiance qu’elle inspire à la communauté internationale. Au cours des vingt quatre dernières années, la CIJ a rendu davantage d’arrêts qu’au cours de ses quarante quatre premières années d’existence. Avec un budget de moins d’1 % du budget régulier de l’Organisation, la CIJ constitue un moyen de règlement pacifique des différends présentant un rapport coût/efficacité tout à fait exceptionnel. Quatorze affaires contentieuses auxquelles sont parties dix neuf pays du monde entier sont actuellement pendantes devant la Cour : six d’entre elles opposent des Etats latino américains, deux autres, des Etats européens et deux autres encore, des Etats africains, tandis que quatre autres affaires, auxquelles prennent part des Etats d’Asie, d’Europe et de la région du Pacifique, revêtent un caractère intercontinental. J’adresse à l’équipe de Diplomat Magazine tous mes vœux de réussite, en espérant qu’une version française de la revue verra bientôt le jour.


From the Registrar of the International Court of Justice

' The International Court of Justice plays a key role in maintaining peace' 'La Cour internationale de Justice joue un rôle essentiel dans le maintien de la paixk' By H.E. Mr. Philippe Couvreur, Registrar of the Court

I should like to extend my warmest greetings to the editorial board and readers of Diplomat Magazine, in connection with the release of its first luxury-printed version. The ICJ is the highest court in the world, the oldest, and the only one with both general and universal jurisdiction; it is also the only court whose Members are elected by both the Security Council and the General Assembly of the United Nations. Under the terms of Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations, one of the purposes of the latter is “to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace”. The Court, which is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, plays a key role in that regard. In exercising its judicial functions, the Court is often called upon to defuse crisis situations, to help normalize relations between States and to reactivate negotiation processes which have come to a standstill. It does so by interpreting and applying international law, through both its contentious and advisory procedures. Since its inaugural sitting in 1946, the Court has dealt with more than 150 cases, 80 per cent of which have been disputes between States, and 20 per cent requests for advisory opinions submitted by organs and specialized agencies of the United Nations. Through its judgments and opinions, it has helped to resolve a significant number of international disputes and contributed both to strengthening the rule of law in international relations and to the development of international law. Its rulings are of great importance in the context of preventive diplomacy. The record of the activities of the ICJ demonstrates that, in recent decades, there has been an unquestionable growth in the confidence and trust that the international community places in the World Court. In the past 24 years, it has delivered more judgments than during the first 44 years of its existence. With a budget of less than 1 per cent of the regular budget of the United Nations, the ICJ constitutes an exceptionally cost-effective way of settling disputes by peaceful means. The Court currently has 14 contentious cases pending before it, involving 19 countries from across the world: six of the cases are between Latin American States, two between European States and two between African States, while four other cases are intercontinental in character, with participating States from Asia, Europe and the Pacific region. I wish the team at Diplomat Magazine every success with their endeavour, and hope that in due course a French version will also be produced.


Foreword From the President of the Republic of Trinidad & Tobago


'The Diplomat is a magazine that focuses on a very special group of persons, who are truly the unsung peacemakers of the world.' Foreword

The Diplomat is a magazine that focuses on a very special group of persons, who are truly the unsung peacemakers of the world.

As a former resident of that beautiful city, The Hague, a former United Nations Appeals Counsel at the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (ICTY and ICTR), As a former resident of that beautiful city, The Hague, a former United Nations Appeals and a former Judge at the International Criminal Court (ICC) , I wish to engage the readers of the Counsel at the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (ICTY printed Diplomat Magazine with some of its envisaged positives.

and ICTR), and a former Judge at the International Criminal Court (ICC) , I wish to engage the readers of objectives the printed Diplomat Magazine with some its envisaged One of the hallowed behind the printed Diplomat Magazine is to of furnish its positives. distinguished readers with a wide array of information about activities in The Hague and elsewhere, pertaining to diplomacy and international relations around the world. It is therefore

One of the hallowed objectives behind the printed Diplomat Magazine is to furnish its heartening and humbling to see that the Caribbean Diaspora and Republic of Trinidad and distinguished readers with a wide array of information about activities in The Hague Tobago in particular, are also included in its journalistic mandate. and elsewhere, pertaining to diplomacy and international relations around the world. It Thisheartening is aptly demonstrated by the coverage in thisthe edition of the recently established is therefore and humbling to see that Caribbean Diaspora and Republic of Consulate-General Trinidad and Tobago in particular, also included in its island journalistic mandate. of the People’s Republicare of China on the Caribbean of Curacao, articles regarding the CELAC (Community of Latin American and Caribbean States) Summit in

This is aptly demonstrated by well-respected the coverageinternational in this edition the recently established Cuba, and ICC’s “Godfather”, the citizen of of Trinidad and Tobago, Consulate-General of the People’s Republic of China on the Caribbean island of the late President Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson, SC, OCC, TC. Curacao, articles regarding the CELAC (Community of Latin American and Caribbean The Diplomat Magazine will endear both departed resident diplomats by keeping citizen States) Summit in Cuba, and ICC’s “Godfather”, theand well-respected international of them Trinidad Tobago, and theinternational late President Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson, SC, abreastand of diplomatic events taking place in and around the Netherlands, OCC, TC. The Hague, the City of World Justice. Working and living in The Hague, this in particular international forum of peace and justice was a learning experience and a very fruitful and

The Diplomat Magazine both departed and resident diplomats by keeping memorable period in my lifewill and endear I welcome the facility to continue to feel part of life in the them abreast of diplomatic and international events taking place in and around the Netherlands from afar by way of The Diplomat Magazine. Netherlands, in particular The Hague, the City of World Justice. Working and living in Additionally, the appearance of a paper version the Diplomat first of its and The Hague, this international forum of peace andofjustice was aMagazine, learningthe experience a very fruitful and memorable in my life and toI welcome to continue kind in the Netherlands, constitutesperiod an excellent opportunity disseminatethe andfacility clarify the to feel part of life in the Netherlands from afar by way of The Diplomat Magazine. Additionally, the appearance of a paper version of the Diplomat Magazine, the first of its kind in the Netherlands, constitutes an excellent opportunity to disseminate and clarify the complexities of international issues to the diplomatic community. This launch comes less than two years after the start of the online version, read by some 40,000 persons per month. Finally, I wish to avail myself of this opportunity afforded me to commend the Diplomat Magazine to the Ambassadors, international judges, diplomats, foreigners and locals alike, in both online and printed editions. This type of inclusive initiative must be given our fullest support. I am confident that the paper edition will further bridge the gap between diplomatic, international, governmental and entrepreneurial organizations in the Netherlands, and I encourage current readers of the online magazine to welcome, embrace and support the international vision of the new quarterly glossy edition of the Diplomat Magazine. His Excellency Anthony Thomas A. Carmona, ORTT, SC President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

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From the Ejecutive Director of T.M.C. Asser Instituut

Dear readers, It is my honour to present to you the first printed copy of the Diplomatic Magazine, a publication which has been going from strength to strength since its inception in June, 2013. It is my pleasure to commend the Diplomatic magazine on its success to date. I encourage you to peruse this fine example and, if you are not already subscribed to the digital edition, to do so at your earliest convenience. Why? You may ask. Well, for the past year, this magazine has been a unique platform for the dissemination of relevant and interesting thought and discussion from the heart of the diplomatic and legal community in The Hague. It represents a reliable source of valuable information and it provides a unique insight into the activities and workings of those who are the key advisors to policy makers and government officials in their own administration. The Diplomatic Magazine is an exclusive portal to 107 overseas governments through their embassies in The Hague. It offers the reader an interesting mix of high quality and well researched analysis and political commentary on world affairs. It regularly features interviews with Ambassadors and other persons of influence making it essential reading for the diplomatic community and those working in foreign affairs. It provides timely and interesting snapshots of what is going on in the city of Peace and Justice. The T.M.C. Asser Instituut is a regular contributor to the Diplomatic Magazine. Our staff and much of our extensive network in the academic and legal communities, are dedicated readers. We are always pleased to have the opportunity to showcase aspects of our work to the Diplomat Magazine readership. We are convinced that by sharing our knowledge and views with the wider diplomatic community that we are not only bridge-building but we are paving the way for true international understanding and cooperation which ultimately forms the basis for universal peace, justice and security. I wish you a pleasurable read.

Ann O’Brien

Executive Director T.M.C. Asser Instituut

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‘ It is crucial that parliamentarians know each other, maintain dialogue and invest in their mutual relationships’ Ms LL.M Ankie Broekers-Knol, President of the Senate of the Netherlands.



The Senate of the Netherlands and Parliamentary Diplomacy By Ms LL.M Ankie Broekers-Knol, President of the Senate of the Netherlands. Photography: Sharon Reyes

In its broadest definition, diplomacy can be defined as the art and practice of conducting negotiations between two or more groups in order to achieve a particular goal. In today’s globalized world, diplomacy and international relations are no longer the exclusive preserve of governments. Members of parliament are undertaking more and more diplomatic activities, which supplement the efforts of the government within the context of ‘traditional’ diplomacy. We call this parliamentary diplomacy.

The Senate of the Netherlands is very internationally oriented and actively engages in parliamentary diplomacy. Historically, the Netherlands has always looked outwards. In view of the country’s open economy, it is important for parliamentarians to engage in international relations. The advantages of parliamentary diplomacy are that parliamentarians are ideally placed to build bridges between conflicting parties and that they are not bound by the positions taken by the government. Personal contacts between members of parliament of different states are likely to enhance mutual understanding and to establish alternative channels beneficial for bilateral relations between countries. Also inter-parliamentary contacts promote the development of the international democratic legal order. In international parliamentary fora parliamentarians are in place to engage in a credible exchange of expertise and

“Historically, the Netherlands has always looked outwards. In view of the country’s open economy, it is important for parliamentarians to engage in international relations.“

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to draw lessons-learned regarding the building of democratic institutions as well as for example political, intercultural and interreligious dialogue to safeguard pluralism. In more and more international policy areas parliaments are increasingly ‘needed’. An example is foreign affairs and defence policy. More and more military forces are training together and are being integrated. There is not much point to this if parliaments, when the time is there, vote for deployment differently (for or against). This is just one example why it is crucial that parliamentarians know each other, maintain dialogue and invest in their mutual relationships. Parliamentary diplomacy is key here. The parliamentarians of the Senate of the Netherlands establish relationships with parliamentarians from other countries by active participation in the parliamentary assemblies of international organisations and by organizing bilateral visits. With respect to the first pillar, senators take part in various parliamentary assemblies, such as the NATO, OSCE and Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly and in the inter-parliamentary EU conferences. In fact, in the winter of 2014 the Senate and the House of Representatives will host the annual session of the NATO

“The advantages of parliamentary diplomacy are that parliamentarians are ideally placed to build bridges between conflicting parties and that they are not bound by the positions taken by the government.” Parliamentary Assembly in the World Forum in The Hague. Looking forward further, the Senate will host the meeting of the Association of European Senates in the spring of 2015. Concerning the second pillar of bilateral visits, the Senate receives dozens of delegations each parliamentary year. Just this year we have received, amongst others, the Presidents of the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of France, Prince Albert II of Monaco, the Speaker of the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia, the President of Burundi and the Speakers of the Senate of Canada and Rwanda. In short, parliamentary diplomacy is important and challenging work, which the Senate of the Netherlands should continue to focus on.



Heads of State at The Nuclear Security Summit 2014 pictured: His Majesty King Willem-Alexander and Her Majesty Queen Máxima, Byung-se Yun, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea, Prime Minister Mark Rutte, Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein King of Jordan, Barack Hussein Obama President of the United States, Her Majesty Queen Máxima.

Korean Unification and Global Peace By Byung-se Yun, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea. Special Contribution for Diplomat Magazine in the Netherlands.

While the United Nations celebrates its 70th anniversary in 2015, Koreans will lament 70 years of national division. Considering all of the challenges and opportunities that the divided peninsula faces – and will continue to confront in the coming years – unification remains an important goal that we must continue to pursue. Founded formally in 1948 under UN auspices, the then-fledgling Republic of Korea immediately became engulfed in Cold War power politics, which hampered its efforts to join the UN – a goal not achieved until 1991. Since then, however, the Republic has more than made up for its late arrival. It is playing an active role in the UN – the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the Human Rights Council – and it is participating in numerous initiatives related to peacekeeping, development cooperation, climate change, nonproliferation, and human rights. During this time, the international community has also dramatically changed. Globalization and technological transformation have deepened interdependence, and yet insecurity, inequality, injustice, and intolerance remain undiminished worldwide. Two decades after the Rwandan genocide, we continue to bear witness to human cruelty and


horror – in Syria, South Sudan, and the Central African Republic, for example. Meanwhile, a billion or so of the world’s poorest people, including women and children, are barely surviving. Northeast Asia has its share of trouble. A rising China, a resurgent Japan, an assertive Russia, and an anachronistic North Korea have added new complexities and uncertainties to the region. The latter’s pursuit of nuclear arms is particularly worrying. On its part, the United States is now “rebalancing” toward Asia. Growing conflicts over history, territory, and maritime security, combined with an ugly resurgence of nationalism, risk triggering military confrontation, quite possibly through political miscalculation. Left unattended by policymakers and peacemakers, Northeast Asia’s tensions could undermine the region’s flourishing economy.

It is in this challenging environment that the Republic of Korea’s president, Park Geun-hye, took office in 2013. Her foreign policy – called “Trustpolitik” – aims to transform this atmosphere of suspicion and conflict into one of confidence and cooperation, and to build “a new Korean Peninsula, a new Northeast Asia, and a new world.”

‘Left unattended by policymakers and peacemakers, Northeast Asia’s tensions could undermine the region’s flourishing economy.’ The greatest obstacle to achieving this transformation is the North Korean nuclear question. Over the last couple of months, North Korea has threatened to carry out yet another nuclear test. Today’s most urgent task therefore must be to prevent this from happening, and then

diplomatAmbassadorial to check further advances in the North’s nuclear weapons and delivery capabilities. The semblance of peace on the Korean Peninsula remains fragile, and South Korea’s government has engaged in intensive diplomatic efforts to rally friends and partners in the region and worldwide to deter the North. The UN Security Council has adopted a series of resolutions to impose extensive sanctions, following the North’s three previous nuclear tests. Any further provocation will bring the full force of the organization’s sanctions to bear. Under these circumstances – in addition to the dire human rights and humanitarian situation in North Korea – Park laid out her vision for a unified Korea. In a recent speech in Dresden, she proposed three concrete and actionoriented proposals to the North that would address its humanitarian problems, build infrastructure for the common welfare and prosperity of the two Koreas, and promote integration of the Korean people.

‘Korea’s road to unification will undoubtedly be difficult, and will require the international community’s support.’ The humanitarian component of this strategy could be implemented regardless of political and security considerations. For example, it would involve implementing the UN’s 1,000-day project for maternal health and infant nutrition, aimed at ending the North’s chronically high rate of infant malnutrition. We can only hope that North Korea will respond positively to our proposal. It would be an important first step on a much longer journey. Korea’s road to unification will undoubtedly be difficult, and will require the international community’s support. In return, the new, unified country that we aspire to build will serve the interests of its neighbors and those of the wider international community in promoting global peace and prosperity. There is a recent precedent for this vision, and thus reason to be hopeful. Some 23 years ago, the geopolitical context that sustained the division of the two Germanys changed radically. Similarly, the day will come when Korea’s two UN nameplates will be replaced with one.

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Qatar and The Netherlands

By Khalid Fahad Al-Khater, Ambassador of the State of Qatar in the Netherlands.

Qatar and the Netherlands share common features: Both relatively small in geography but high in aspirations, they are open to the sea, and their international trade is the basis of their wealth and economic prosperity. It is then no surprise that the relations between the Netherlands and Qatar grew and developed beyond oil and gas industry. In few years, the bilateral ties between the two countries has expanded to a collaboration in several sectors such as education, sport, infrastructure, healthcare and seaport industry. Strong traditional diplomacy is also evident in the form of political consultations regarding a number of regional and international important issues. In August 2005 the Netherlands opened its Embassy in Doha on the occasion of an official visit of the former prime minister Mr. Balkennende, in the perspective of the increasing business interests of the Netherlands in the booming Qatar economy. A year later Qatar opened its Embassy in The Hague in September 2006, and in June of the 2007 the former Deputy Prime Minister of the State of Qatar visited the Netherlands and took part in key diplomatic and economic meetings. Since the opening of both embassies, the bilateral relations in different areas has witnessed various trade missions and official visits. In particular, the visit of H.M. The Queen of the Netherlands to Qatar in March 2011, which was a successful state visit at all levels, and a good beginning for a privileged relationship between the two monarchies of both countries. In recent years, Qatar has achieved key economic development goals, and continues to be a hub of development, constructions and innovation in all sectors. Qatar seeks diversification to reduce dependence on energy export as the main source of wealth. Thanks to the Qatar Vision 2030, which is pursued under the auspices of H.H. Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani, the Emir of the State of Qatar, progress continues more vigorously than ever. Since Qatar won the right to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, the Country became even more attractive to the Dutch expertise in infrastructure and sport management. The Port of Rotterdam has close cooperation with Ras Laffan port in Qatar with the perspective of both ports to develop their joint business in LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) industry and for Ras Laffan which is already one of the main LNG terminals in the world. Furthermore, the Dutch company Shell is currently involved in a huge project in Qatar that will create the world’s biggest Gas to Liquid industrial platform. While Oil and Gas will continue to be a key component of the relationship, the relations between Qatar and the Netherlands are steadily developing to encompass broader interests as the basis for a long and fruitful friendship.



Angola A booming economy By His Excellency, Dr. Luis José de Almeida, Ambassador of the Republic of Angola. Photography: Gualtiero Buonamassa.

Everyone today can pinpoint Angola on a world map. Independence was won November 11th 1975 due to the heroic combat led by its people in the resistance against oppression and the Portuguese colonialist exploitation. However, it was only in 2002 that the country was finally liberated from the war with the intervention of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). South Africa supported by its Western allies fought against our country, guilty in their eyes of destabilizing the former by supporting the African National Congress (ANC) and the South West Africa People’s


Organization (SWAPO) of Namibia. Covering an area of 1,246,700km2, that is, the equivalent of all Western Europe from the Portuguese coast to the Polish German border, Angola has around 20 million inhabitants. (Last May’s population census has not yet been published). Endowed with great mining riches, such as petrol, diamonds, copper, iron, gold, manganese, and phosphates, Angolan agriculture is one of the most fertile of the African continent. It has a varied climate, from tropical to Mediterranean. With stable water resources, irrigated by abundant rivers, Angola has a high water potential. It has bountiful flora and fauna with a variety of animal species; from lions to rare birds of great beauty, zebras, panthers, giraffes, elephants, and antelopes of many species. One of these is the famous giant black sable antelope that constitutes the country’s pride and symbol

palanca negra gigante. Angola has a long shore spanning 1,600km with fine golden beaches and one of the richest varieties of fish in the world. The Angolan sea is also known for its seafood including lobsters, crabs, prawns, shrimps, etc. Driven into a fratricidal war for many long years, peace was finally reestablished with UNITA’s surrender on April 4th 2002. Jonas Savimbi, the leader, was killed in combat on February 22nd 2002. With this newfound peace, the Angolan government launched an enterprise of reconstruction on an impressive national scale. Highways, railways, and airports were built. Dams were planned and reconstructed. Health centers, schools, continuing education centers, universities, and metropolitans were also built. Meanwhile, the inflation was controlled and lowered to less than

diplomatAmbassadorial 6.9%. The National Development Plan 2012-2017 was approved; economic growth was maintained at a high level as the government’s geological plan was approved to exhibit the country’s geological riches. This would allow for the planned exploited development of mineral zones of manganese, gold, iron, mercury, and phosphates beginning the same year. In the midst of an economic boom, Angola hosted the official visit of the Dutch Minister of Commerce and International Development, Mrs. Lilianne Ploumen, on 9th and 10th July, 2014. Let us remember that diplomatic relations between the two countries began in 1976, a year after the Proclamation of Independence of Angola. The Angolan Embassy was first installed at The Hague in 2011. Previously, the Netherlands were included in the Embassy’s jurisdiction in Brussels. Presiding over a delegation of 27 Dutch businessmen, the Dutch Minister was received by the Vice-President of Angola as well as the ministers of Commerce, Petrol, and Transportation, with whom she discussed the possibility of future cooperation between Angola and the Netherlands. On the Angolan side, we believe that major developments are yet to be achieved in the economic relations between the two countries. Angola has manifested the desire to see Holland engage more in a bilateral cooperation instead of solely business. Angola imports machinery, food, and agribusiness products from Holland and exports petrol and derived products to them. As the second largest African producer of petrol, Angola will produce liquefied natural gas (LNG) starting in 2015. The country is also one of the principal exporters of diamonds in the world. According to official estimates, it will soon prioritize its large reserves of iron, gold, phosphates, manganese, and mercury, meaning that Angola will not only depend on petrol exploitation. According to the credit rating agency Moody’s, the Angolan economy’s growth rate is estimated at 7.8% for this year. Other sources indicate that the country’s economic evolution has a tendency to ameliorate and its economic growth will escalate and peak at 8.4% in 2015. Angola is known worldwide as country where the people smile, sing and have a high degree of hospitality.

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foreign policy in The Netherlands

By María Teresa Infante Caffi, Ambassador of Chile to The Kingdom of the Netherlands.

The Hague is a post at the crossroads of culture, politics and juridical traditions. Not only in Europe but also at the world scale. At the same time, a large, varied and active Chilean community enriches the world of the Embassy and the Consulate with demanding areas of work. It is a unique place for diplomacy and learning, whereby a stuffed program of work ranging from international courts to bilateral relations and international politics fill the days. Last June, when the Netherlands played with Chile in the Football World Cup, it was a good moment to experience the friendly atmosphere of the city. For a foreign policy like the one Chile aims to sustain, it is of paramount importance to consider variations that integrate the political, economic, social, cultural, strategic and legal matters in a comprehensive and balanced picture. From migration to education, regional integration and participation in world forum, Chile’s diplomacy has to be able to prioritize and make a contribution of understanding diversities and to propose means to approach our societies. In Chile’s memories, there is a special place for Dutch people who have had an extraordinarily meaningful importance in the discovery of Cape Horn and Easter Island, two imposing territories of Chile, plenty of history and bravery, in line with the splendid geographical features that characterize them. Those Dutch citizens invite us to go through the ages to appreciate the significant changes that Chile and its people have undergone along the times. In more recent years, areas such as human rights, spiritual assistance, technology promotion, refugees, trade and business, investments, education and art creation among others, compose a rich picture of the simultaneous interests that a country like Chile has to promote in its relations with the Netherlands for the reciprocal benefit of learning from other’s experiences. There is still time in 2014 to continue strengthening links with our partners, mainly diplomats posted in the Netherlands, so as to give continuity to the promotion of values based on international law, cooperation, integrity, multilateralism and mutual respect for cultural diversity, as a democratic society has to. Altogether with a support for the effectiveness of the international organizations and tribunals based in the Netherlands.




Eurojust combats serious, cross-border organised crime: terrorism • cybercrime • drug trafficking • trafficking in human beings • counterfeiting • money laundering • computer crime • online child abuse • fraud, corruption and crime against property or public goods • criminal offences affecting the EU’s financial interests • environmental crime • organised crime groups

Eurojust supports EU Member States by: • coordinating cross-border investigations and prosecutions; helping to resolve conflicts of jurisdiction • facilitating execution of EU legal instruments, such as the European Arrest Warrant, confiscation and freezing orders, setting up joint investigation teams, and more That way, we help bring criminals quickly and effectively to justice.



‘By commemorating the 17th of July, we recognize past efforts that have fostered reconciliation in societies across the world and have positively affected the lives of hundreds of thousands of victims.’ Judge Sang-Hyun Song, President of the International Criminal Court.

Photography: UN Photo, Evan Schneider.

ICC President 17 July

A day to unite in building a more just world Speech by Judge SangHyun Song, President of the International Criminal Court, on the Day of International Criminal Justice.

When representatives of 120 states adopted the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), on the 17th of July 1998, they did so to build a more just world. Conscious that all people are connected, and that mass atrocities committed anywhere threaten the delicate mosaic of modern societies as well as world peace and security, they set up a permanent, international justice system to address crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide by holding individuals accountable either at the national or international level. Through such action, the Rome Statute system aims to help prevent such crimes, to protect all peoples from them, and to uphold what is best, but also most fragile, within us: the shared sense of justice that is a common bond of all humanity.

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Years later, when States Parties to the Rome Statute decided to name the 17th of July as the Day of International Criminal Justice, they invited all of us to commemorate the tremendous efforts of the many international courts and tribunals created in the last two decades while looking forward to what remains to be done. Among these courts is the ICC, the first and only permanent international criminal court with jurisdiction granted by states through a multilateral treaty. By commemorating the 17th of July, we recognize past efforts that have fostered reconciliation in societies across the world and have positively affected the lives of hundreds of thousands of victims. We also look to the future, and reaffirm the international community’s commitment to fight against impunity for the most serious crimes, and thereby to stop them from ever being repeated again. We are all exposed on a daily basis to news of massacres, crimes and war in multiple regions of the world. Where the ICC has jurisdiction, it endeavors to bring justice to the victims of these crimes. And where it is already involved, the Court’s intervention has galvanized more international attention to communities affected by crimes and the efforts essential

to aiding the survivors. However, we are all conscious of the limits of the ICC’s current jurisdiction, which have to be remedied by continued progress towards universal ratification of the Rome Statute. We recognize that the ICC is only one element in the wider Rome Statute system, the core of which is the responsibility of states themselves to investigate and prosecute the Rome Statute crimes whenever possible. The Statute is built on the principles of universality, complementarity and state cooperation, with the ICC itself as a court of last resort. Like many other parts of the emerging international system, it is still under construction. We continue our efforts and engagement with the international community so that this new global system can be established with firm foundations, where the law is sovereign and respected, and where justice for all is recognized as being crucial for peace, stability and development worldwide. We cannot succeed on our own. All states, organizations and individuals have a role to play in the fight against impunity. Each of us can make a difference. Every year, on the 17th of July, we review and rededicate our efforts to build a more just world, because we are all connected, and because justice matters to us all.



a smile and a thought ... Eelco Dykstra writes a monthly column called “A smile and a thought…” The columns put a playful spotlight on the interface between the Dutch and the international community it hosts. Yes, his musings may appear at times to be mildly provocative at first sight but they are first and foremost playful – with a little irony thrown in here and there… You be the judge! His columns are intended to give you ‘a smile and a thought’. A smile because perhaps you hadn’t quite looked at something that way and a thought because the column may leave you wondering… Eelco H. Dykstra, M.D. International Emergency Management: Member, National Council for the Environment and Infrastructure, www.rli.nl Dykstra International Emergency Management (DIEM), The Hague, www.diem.nu Director EMEA, International Katrina Project Inc. (IKP), Washington, D.C., www.ikp-europe.eu Professor (visiting) of International Emergency Management, The George Washington University, Washington DC (2005-2010) and University of Kuopio, Finland (2001-2004)


What If…

Already in 1977 the WHO recommended that “the patient must be isolated to prevent secondary infections by direct or airborne spread of the virus”. And what do we do in 2014? We fly thousands of military personnel into the affected countries to set up clinics (USA) and we fly rescue personnel with suspected infections out of the country to receive treatment at home (Netherlands, Spain, USA, etc.).

Imagine there would be an outbreak of Ebola in the Netherlands. What would you think? What would you do? Who would you call? Infectious diseases are normal. As long as we can remember, we have had them. Each year we get one or more attacks of runny noses and coughing, i.e. the common cold and, who knows, perhaps even a bout of flu. The good news about these kinds of infections is that after each cold we become resistant against that particular virus. The bad news is that so many new versions will develop that suffering the symptoms of ‘a cold’ is a lifelong fate. Accept it. Other infectious diseases are not so harmless. And to some extent, we humans are to blame. No, I’m not talking about antibiotics that are so over-prescribed that we now face the serious problem of microbes that have become resistant to all known medications but about our own behavior. And I’m also not talking about (not) washing your hands and other hygiene, that ought to be a given. What I am talking about is the inability to foresee and forecast where and when certain events and effects will take place – and to take appropriate measures before they happen. Ebola, like most infectious diseases, is not new. We know about it since 1976. So how come we act surprised about the emergence and extent of the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa? What does surprise me is the almost nonchalant way national governments are flying their possibly infected rescue workers back and forth to their home countries for treatment in their own ‘advanced facilities’.

Aside from these flagrant transgressions of the ‘isolation’ principle, another question beckons: if the current international response effort is aimed at saving as many lives as possible, shouldn’t these ‘advanced facilities’ be moved to victims in the affected countries instead of the other way around? Back to the “What If…?” scenario. So we face an outbreak of the Ebola virus in the Netherlands. The Dutch contribution to the international effort is coordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Buitenlandse Zaken). The Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS: Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport) obviously deals with the WHO and the medical treatment aspects of Ebola. The Ministry of Security and Justice (VenJ) aspires to coordinate everything, for instance through their website www.crisis.nl and its network of ‘Safety Regions’, or ‘Veiligheidsregio’s. ’ But where are the international helpdesks and websites that can assist non-Dutch speaking parts of the population? Where will members of the diplomatic community, foreign expats, non-Dutch speaking inhabitants, international students and visitors turn to for assistance and advice? They will probably contact their embassy. You. What would you think? What would you do? Who would you call? What would you advise? Important questions, so think ahead. Think “What If…”


australia in the hague a proud legal tradition By Neil Allan Mules, Ambassador of Australia to the Netherlands. Photography: Kim Vermaat.

The Australian Embassy in The Hague lies just behind the gardens of the Peace Palace, the preeminent centre for international law and justice opened in 1913. The official residence, not far from the chancery, was built during the same era and has been continuously occupied by Australian Ambassadors since the 1940s. Australia’s role in the development of international law and the delivery of international justice is similarly close and enduring. Recognising early on the utility of a world court, Australia ratified the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice in 1921 and subsequently accepted the Court’s compulsory jurisdiction. Australia played an important role in the drafting of the Statute of the Permanent Court’s successor, the International Court of Justice, and advocated in favour of compulsory jurisdiction. The Australian jurist and former Minister for External Affairs, Sir Percy Spender, served as Judge of the Court from 1958 to 1964 and President from 1964 to 1967. Eminent Australian international lawyer, Professor James Crawford, has been nominated for election as a Judge of the Court this year. Australia and Australians have also made a noteworthy contribution in the field of international criminal law. Australia played a significant role in the drafting of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and continues to work to promote its ratification. Australia has contributed financially to all The Hague-based international criminal courts and tribunals. The first Deputy Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Graham Blewitt, came to The Hague having prosecuted

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former Nazi war criminals in Australia. Three Australians have served as Judges of the Tribunal, including the former Governor-General of Australia, Sir Ninian Stephen, who drafted the first version of the Tribunal’s rules.

governance. Australian diplomats are active in the Assembly of States Parties to the International Criminal Court, the Administrative Council of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and The Hague Conference on Private International Law.

‘There is perhaps no more an important time as now to reflect on the necessity of international law and the hope of international justice.’ Today, Australians are working in senior roles throughout The Hague-based legal institutions as investigators, prosecutors, IT specialists, defence lawyers, librarians, researchers, translators, analysts and administrators. The Presiding Judge of the Trial Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, David Re, is Australian, as is the current Registrar of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, John Hocking. The Australian Embassy continues to provide practical and diplomatic support to the international legal institutions and works to strengthen and improve their

The Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote that humankind was at its worst when separated from law and justice. This was proven almost one hundred years ago when war broke out across Europe, less than one year after the Peace Palace opened in The Hague. There is perhaps no more an important time as now to reflect on the necessity of international law and the hope of international justice. Australia is committed to working to ensure that hope becomes reality.



‘The Netherlands has been the second largest investment country in Croatia for years, but there is certainly huge potential still to be used from the both sides.’ Ambassador Vesela Mrđen Korać.

Croatia the Youngest EU Member an Business Partner for Dutch By Ambassador Vesela Mrđen Korać. Photography: Gualtiero Buonamassa.

On July 1st Croatia celebrated its first anniversary of EU membership and on this occasion I would like thank the Kingdom of the Netherlands for its support and cooperation. After extraordinary political, judicial, democratic and social reforms, economy, employment and growth is in our focus today. Following a long period of steady rise until 2009, our GDP has been in decline in 2014 we expect positive results again. Croatia as many EU countries is facing a serious unemployment challenge, especially among the youngsters, which is of our prime concern. Fortunately, the valuable tourism sector has been growing permanently and our industry is starting to show first signs of recovery, restoring confidence and optimism in our business sector. The Croatian Government is undertaking very ambitious measures to enhance investment, trade and growth with very strong will of improving the quality of its industry. The Croatian system of incentives for investment is one of the most profitable in Europe, offering


the most employment incentives per employee (up to € 9,000), reduced income tax rates (0, 10, 20), and incentives for innovation and development. In that respect, the current strategic goal of the Croatian Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs is to promote economic potential and profile of Croatia as an attractive and solid international business partner. Being an integral part of the EU market largely facilitates trade and overall business relations, already highly developed between Croatia and the Netherlands in the amount of 650 million EUR and almost 400 thousand Dutch tourist visited Croatia last year. The Netherlands has been the second largest investment country in Croatia

for years, but there is certainly huge potential still to be used from the both sides. Trade exchange is growing with dominant Croatian export products being: boats, ships, pharmaceutical products, mineral fuels and oils, footwear, electrical machinery and equipment. At the same time Croatia imports from the Netherlands: tobacco, meat, live animals, fertilisers, as well as plants, bulbs, flowers. Croatia and the Netherlands have a lot in common; being maritime European nations creates specific lifestyle and strong dedications in overcoming the challenges. The main business sectors in Croatia are the food industry; ICT; pharmaceutics; chemistry, shipbuilding, the automotive industry, tourism; and the strong orientation towards innovation and research nicely complement the Dutch top sectors. While in some areas as in ICT we can learn from each other through creating successful joint ventures locally or in the third markets. In some areas such as agricultural water


Croatia Meet & Greet By Ellen J. Brager. Asociate Editor, Photography: Kim Vermaat. Diplomatic Spouse contributing writer for Diplomat Magazine.

After the celebration of the first anniversary of Diplomat Magazine last week, the Carlton Ambassador Hotel was again the trusted venue for another prominent event. Indeed, one year ago, on July 1st, the Republic of Croatia became an official member state of the European Union after a demanding process that took more than 10 years to be completed. H.E. Mrs. Vesela Mrđen Korać and Mr. Marko Korać, Ambassador of Croatia and her spouse, commemorated the achievement of this important strategic goal by hosting this month’s Meet & Greet. In the warm evening sun, the outside terrace of the hotel was packed with friends of the Croatian Embassy and other diplomatic missions in The Hague, as well as several people who had played key roles in the preparations and negotiations towards the EU membership, such as laywers, consultants, special advisors and members of Parliament. The

Croatian Embassy proudly offered culinary specialties from the country to their esteemed invitees who, upon arrival, could choose between red, white or rosé wine from various parts of the country, as well as delicious cold cuts, such as “Pershut”, a cured ham akin to the Italian prosciutto, Kulen, a sausage similar to Spanish chorizo and Poli salami. For the sweet-toothed there were also elegant boxes of hazelnut almond nougat on every table, while women dressed in typical Croatian costumes from the region around Zagreb carried around different flavors of ice cream, certainly a favorite among the guests. The conversations were lively, the mood was celebratory and the atmosphere was as warm and welcoming as the country itself! It was another very successful evening organized by Diplomat Club The Hague and Diplomat Magazine in collaboration with a local embassy and distinguished sponsors.

d Traditional Businesses management we invite the Dutch knowhow and investors to join us in our endeavour of brining Croatian sectors to the most competitive European level. In general, Croatia offers secure business environment, stimulating investment climate, highly educated and relatively low cost labour, modern transportation infrastructure, an easy access to the neighbouring markets of South Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and other regional markets with a high quality of life. In addition, new explorations of gas and oil potentials in the Adriatic and continental Croatia are enhancing strategic position of our country as a very

attractive energy hub in our region and Europe as well. At the end, I would like to invite Dutch businesses interested in learning more about Croatia and its business opportunities to contact the Croatian Embassy in The Hague as we would be happy to provide initial business information and facilitate B2B contact. I can personally promise that each business proposal would be carefully handled and assisted by trade diplomacy experts at the Embassy in The Hague and in our Ministry of Foreign and European Affaires in Zagreb.

‘I would like to invite Dutch businesses interested in learning more about Croatia and its business opportunities to contact the Croatian Embassy in The Hague.’ diplomat magazine #1


‘s Ochtends: golfen in Monastir ‘s Middags: bezoek aan het amfitheater in El Jem

vrij om alles te beleven



‘The public deserves to know the truth about the ICC’s jurisdiction over Palestine’ By Fatou Bensouda, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. Photography: Kim Vermaat.

Recent media reports and commentaries have erroneously suggested that the International Criminal Court (ICC) has persistently avoided opening an investigation into alleged war crimes in Gaza due to political pressure. As Prosecutor of the ICC, I reject this baseless allegation in the strongest terms. It is devoid of any merit. When an objective observer navigates clear of the hype surrounding this issue, the simple truth is that the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC has never been in a position to open such an investigation for lack of jurisdiction. We have always, clearly and publicly, stated the reasons why this is so. The Rome Statute, the ICC’s founding treaty, is open to participation by states. As Prosecutor, I can only investigate and prosecute crimes committed on the territory or by the nationals of states that have joined the ICC Statute or which have otherwise accepted the jurisdiction of the ICC through an ad hoc declaration to that effect pursuant to article 12-3 of the Statute. This means that, at the present time, the alleged crimes committed in Palestine are beyond the legal reach of the ICC, despite the arguments of some legal scholars that fundamental jurisdictional rules can be made subject to a liberal and selective interpretation of the Rome Statute. As such, they appear to advocate that as the object and purpose of the ICC is to end impunity for mass crimes, the Court ought to intervene, even where clear jurisdictional parameters have not been met. This is neither good law nor makes for responsible judicial action.

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The Palestinian Authority sought to accept the jurisdiction of the ICC in 2009. The Office of the Prosecutor carefully considered all of the legal arguments put forth and concluded in April 2012, after three years of thorough analysis and public consultations that Palestine’s status at the United Nations (UN) as “observer entity” was determinant – since entry into the Rome Statute system is through the UN Secretary-General, who acts as treaty depositary. The Palestinian Authority’s “observer entity” status at the UN at that time meant that it could not sign up to the Rome Statute. As Palestine could not join the Rome Statute, the former Prosecutor concluded that it could not lodge an article 12-3 declaration bringing itself under the ambit of the treaty either, as it had sought to do. On the 29th of November 2012, Palestine’s status was upgraded by the UN General Assembly (UNGA) to “non-member observer State” through the adoption of resolution 67/19. The Office examined the legal implications of this development for its purposes and concluded that while this change did not retroactively validate the previously invalid 2009 declaration lodged without the necessary standing, Palestine could now join the Rome Statute.

That Palestine has signed various other international treaties since obtaining this “observer State” status confirms the correctness of this position. Nonetheless, to date, the Rome Statute is not one of the treaties that Palestine has decided to accede to, nor has it lodged a new declaration following the November 2012 UNGA resolution. It is a matter of public record that Palestinian leaders are in the process of consulting internally on whether to do so; the decision is theirs alone to make and the ICC Prosecutor cannot take this decision for them. By the very nature of the Court’s mandate, every situation in which I act in my capacity as ICC Prosecutor will be politically fraught. My mandate as Prosecutor is nonetheless clear: to investigate and prosecute crimes based on the facts and exact application of the law in full independence and impartiality. Whether states or the UN Security Council choose to confer jurisdiction on the ICC is a decision that is wholly independent of the Court. Once made, however, the legal rules that apply are clear and decidedly not political under any circumstances or situation. In both practice and words, I have made it clear in no uncertain terms that the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC will execute its mandate, without fear or favour, wherever jurisdiction is established and will vigorously pursue those – irrespective of status or affiliation – who commit mass crimes that shock the conscience of humanity. The Office’s approach to Palestine will be no different if the Court’s jurisdiction is ever triggered over the situation. It is my firm belief that recourse to justice should never be compromised by political expediency. The failure to uphold this sacrosanct requirement will not only pervert the cause of justice and weaken public confidence in it, but also exacerbate the immense suffering of the victims of mass atrocities. This, we will never allow.



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Eurojust was established in 2002 by the Member States of the European Union. Its mission is to support and strengthen judicial coordination and cooperation between national authorities in the fight against serious cross-border crime affecting the European Union. Eurojust brings together investigators and prosecutors from the 28 Member States of the European Union and beyond. Each Member State seconds a senior representative, called a National Member, to work at Eurojust in The Hague. They are experienced prosecutors, judges or police officers of equivalent competence. Each year, Member States refer over 1 500 serious cross-border crime cases to Eurojust: terrorism, drug trafficking, illegal immigration, trafficking in human beings, fraud - particularly Missing Trader Intra-Community and excise fraud, corruption, cybercrime - including images of child sexual abuse, criminal offences affecting the EU’s financial interests, organised crime groups and environmental crimes. The most important tools that Eurojust has are: coordination meetings (over 200 each year), joint investigation teams (over

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100 each year) and coordination centres (more than 10 each year). Partners are offered the possibility to work together in their own language, and Eurojust provides tailor-made legal support, analysis and funding for operational needs. Ultimately, this should lead to serious cross-border criminals being brought before the courts in the Member States. Eurojust can ensure round-the-clock availability and the real-time transmission of information as well as the coordination of measures on common action days. Eurojust helps to prevent and resolve conflicts of jurisdiction where more

‘Crime doesn’t stop at the borders of the 28 Member States’ than one national authority is in a position to undertake an investigation or prosecution in a particular case. Eurojust also facilitates the execution of mutual recognition instruments such as the European Arrest Warrant. Obviously, crime doesn’t stop at the borders of the 28 Member States. Therefore, Eurojust has signed cooperation agreements with Liechtenstein, the Swiss

Confederation, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the USA, Norway, Iceland and Moldova. Currently, Liaison Prosecutors from Norway and the USA are posted at Eurojust, and 2015 will see a Liaison Prosecutor from the Swiss Confederation arrive. Where there is no cooperation agreement in place, Eurojust has nominated contact points. In the field of criminal law, embassies and consulates can play a role, namely when judicial cooperation involves third States. In many parts of the world, diplomatic channels are used to transmit mutual legal assistance requests, to provide video conferencing facilities with Eurojust or as a source of information. A liaison prosecutor or liaison officer plays the role of facilitator and can deal with a copy of the request, but the original, with signature and seal, should be channelled according to the agreement. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty offers new opportunities for strengthening Eurojust, such as the setting up of a European Public Prosecutor’s Office (EPPO) ‘from Eurojust’. The European Commission initiated the reform of Eurojust in July 2013. Please visit www.eurojust.europa.eu



india and Indo-Dutch Relations By H. E. Rajesh N. Prasad, Ambassador of India to the Kingdom of the Netherlands.Photography: Kim Vermaat.

Less than two months ago, India completed the largest democratic exercise ever conducted in history. An electorate of more than 800 million registered voters cast their votes in over 900,000 polling stations. This was done through nearly two million electronic voting machines to choose candidates from over 300 political parties for the 543 seats in the Lok Sabha (Lower House of the Indian Parliament). Apart from the large turnout in the elections (over 66%), for the first time in 30 years, a political party secured a majority in the national Parliament on its own. The new government led by Prime Minister Modi has come to power on the twin planks of governance and development. It has already made known the emphasis it is placing on development through a number of measures focusing on, inter alia, the supply side of agro and agro-based products, skill development, development of infrastructure, etc. as also its desire to rationalize and simplify the tax regime to make it non adversarial and conducive to investment, enterprise and growth. India today means many things to many people. The images range from that of a large overpopulated country with poverty to a vibrant democracy with a robust and growing middle class, a large pool of skilled manpower and a country which has made advances in the fields of IT, space, biotechnology etc. For many, the connection to India comes from its spiritualism and things like yoga, Ayurveda and meditation. However, to my mind, the defining characteristics and by far, India’s greatest attributes are its open society, tolerance, pluralism and democracy.


The linkages between India and the Netherlands are historic with contacts going back more than four hundred years. Traders, scholars, itinerant travelers have come to India from the Netherlands during this period. By some accounts, the first Indian came to the Netherlands in 1667. Diplomatic relations between India and the Netherlands was established in 1947 and has been cordial and friendly. In the more recent past, trade and investment have become the dominant themes in our bilateral ties. Today, the Netherlands is both a significant trade and investment partner of India. A number of Dutch majors have had a presence in India for a long time and are household names. We now also have a large number of Indian companies in the Netherlands including all the IT majors. The substantial Indian diaspora in the Netherlands is also playing a useful role and acting as a bridge between the two countries.

There is a good potential for taking bilateral ties between the two countries to a higher level. The complementarities are fairly obvious. On the one hand, India has a young demographic profile, large and growing domestic market, a significant pool of knowledge workers and huge developmental requirements especially in the infrastructure. The Netherlands, in turn, has expertise and niche technology across a broad range, solid credentials in research, world class educational institutions as also a requirement for skilled personnel and a market for its exports. There is a natural match. Areas of special interest for greater cooperation include water and waste management, infrastructure and logistics, agriculture, shipping, cold storage chains etc. The Netherlands is a friendly, informal and hospitable country. I have found goodwill and friendship from my Dutch interlocutors as also a genuine interest in India and a desire to strengthen ties with India. This has been most gratifying.

‘India’s greatest attributes are its open society, tolerance, pluralism and democracy.’


Austria (and the Netherlands) beyond stereotypes

By H.E. Werner Druml, Ambassador of Austria.

The two can look back to an old and also complicated past. Their common history began in the 15th century, they have though taken completely different paths, a land with an ancient calvinist and republican tradition and on the other side a catholic imperial past, the conditions could not have been more different. Today the Netherlands and Austria are two modern and successful countries and important partners in the EU. Perceptions of each other, as often is the case, are dominated by stereotypes. Tourism, skiing, Mozart, the New Years Concert and the ball season still dominate the public perception of Austria abroad. There is obviously a lot of truth in all that, but needless to say, Austria is much more, as much as the Netherlands, which goes way beyond cherished, but stereotypical images. For sure, tourism is an important, and increasingly so, economic and also human factor in our relations. One out of ten Dutchmen go on vacation to Austria, 6 out of 10 winter tourists prefer skiing – and I suppose, everything around it – in the Austrian mountains. However beyond this traditional service sector Austria is an innovative, industrial high-

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tec location – a successful automotive industry being only one example – and for good reasons an interesting destination for Dutch investments. For sure, the Ball season with hundreds of balls in the carnival season is a very specific Austrian tradition, and the Viennese Ball in the Netherlands a well cherished institution. The yearly Life (AIDS) Ball in the Vienna Rathaus, that is probably the craziest of its kind in the world, is definitely beyond such traditions. For sure, Mozart and the classical music tradition is an important cultural factor, and rightly so, given the highest standard of all kinds of performing institutions in the whole country. But also culturally is Austria a place of and for contemporary expressions. Be it in modern experimental music, be it in theater, the Wiener Festwochen, a major festival for partly eccentric expressions, be it ImPulsTanz, the biggest modern dance festival in Europe – obviously always with Dutch participation – be it in architecture, and here also a significant presence in the Netherlands with the Amsterdam Opera House or recently the spectacular Eye Film Instituut Nederlands in Amsterdam from Austrian Architects. Admittedly, the tourist boards do, and for good and understandable reasons, use cherished clichés, mostly attractive and simpatici, addressing needs and expectations. But that the “Sound of Music”, one of the most successful films in the US, which has formed stereotypical views of Austria, is practically unknown in Austria should speak for itself. Austria and the Netherlands are, and how should it be otherwise, open and modern countries, and also with an important international presence. Finally Vienna and The Hague are two cities with a particular international aspiration, here the City of Peace and Justice, there a UN seat and host of many important international organizations.

INDONESIAN NEW MINISTER By Baron Henri Estramant. Photography: Gualtiero Buonamassa.

The Indonesian Ambassador to the Netherlands, Her Excellency Retno Marsudi, was appointed yesterday by the new President of Indonesia Joko Widodo as the first female Minister of Foreign Affairs in her country. Ambassador Marsudi contributed to improve and enlarge the relations between Indonesia and the Netherlands notably in the political and commercial sector by supporting large delegations to visit Indonesia notably Primer Minister Rutte and Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Lilianne Ploumen. Ambassador Marsudi is one of eight women due to form the new Indonesian cabinet. She is a career diplomat, having served before the Netherlands as ambassador to the Kingdom of Norway as well as the Foreign Ministry’s Director-General for the Americas and Europe. Retno Marsudi holds a degree in International Relations from Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta in Java. Her husband is an architect. She is well-versed in European and Dutch institutions but is likely to focus a lot on Sino-Indonesian relations due to the PRC’s increasing assertiveness of the South China Sea. Ambassador Marsudi presented her credentials to former Queen Beatrix on 25 January 2012.



Canada Meet & Greet

an outstanding event! Photography: Gualtiero Buonamassa.

Carlton Ambassador Hotel was once again dressed for an important diplomatic event. It was the turn to H.E. James Lambert, Ambassador of Canada to the Kingdom of the Netherlands to host its particular Canada Diplomats Meet&Greet. Canada offered a welcome drink inside a warmth atmosphere. Ambassador Lambert showed us his musical talent as jazz-guitarist. A considerable number of Head of Diplomatic Missions attended Canada’s diplomatic party. Her Imperial and Royal Highness Archduchess Johanna of Austria was accompanied by Baron Henri Estramant. Diplomats Meet&Greet was initially created by Diplomat Magazine as part of its core philosophy and promotional strategy. It will continue to be one of its most promotional and entertainment projects to benefit the diplomatic community.



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sweden Close friends for 400 years On April 5, 1614 a treaty on defense, trade and shipping was signed between Sweden and the Netherlands. As part of this treaty, it was decided to exchange resident ambassadors, which makes the Netherlands the first country with which Sweden exchanged ambassadors in this way.

By Håkan Emsgård, Ambassador of Sweden to the Netherlands.

2014 is a very special year for me as Swedish Ambassador in the Netherlands. This year we are celebrating 400 years of diplomatic relations between Sweden and the Netherlands. A milestone in the relations between our countries, but also an excellent opportunity to look forward together.


Relations between the countries have since then remained close. The extensive trade has linked our counties throughout the centuries. During the Dutch golden age in the 17th century trade with the Baltic region was a main source of wealth and prosperity for the Netherlands. Today, a large part of the Swedish foreign trade passes through the port of Rotterdam. Bilateral trade stands for close to seven billion euro per year. Sweden and the Netherlands rank among each other’s 10 largest export markets. The celebrations in 2014 will focus on the excellent relationships that exist between our two countries. Rather than looking back, we are focusing on areas of mutual interest and where both countries face similar challenges - in order to shape our common future. Business between our two countries is central in this respect. For me, there are three sectors that are particularly interesting when it comes to the bilateral relations. One of these sectors is innovation and research, with particular focus on sustainability – both Sweden and the Netherlands ranking high on the Global Competitive Index. What

can we do in order to maintain these positions? Secondly, a very interesting sector is the creative industries sector; film, music, fashion, design. And thirdly we focus on public sector challenges, such as healthcare, ageing populations, education, local government, labor market participation. These are all challenges our two societies share and where joint solutions are needed. To learn from each other is key. One highlight of the celebration year took place in the beginning of April when the Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia paid an official visit to the Netherlands, accompanied by the Swedish Minister for Trade, Dr. Ewa Björling. This two-day visit was a huge success, and also showed the close relationship between the Royal Families. In addition to this, I am looking forward to a number of activities, ranging from a Swedish Month in The Hague, focus on Swedish film for a young audience at the International Cinekid Festival in Amsterdam, business events in cooperation with the Brabant region and the Royal School of Technology, a digital bridge between the Netherlands and Sweden and much, much more. If you want to know more about the celebration year, please visit www.swe400nl.com

Photography: Kim Vermaat


DM & Panorama Mesdag In October, Diplomat Magazine and Panorama Mesdag organized a courtesy visit to the permanent exhibit of Panorama Mesdag here in The Hague. Entering Panorama Mesdag is like stepping into the largest painting of the Netherlands. You have a 360º look around you and you will experience the magic of this illusional panoramic view from 1881. The view is never the same. On dark winter days the scene is grey and chilly. When it is sunny outside the fleeting light is superb. This vista of sea, dunes and of the old fishing village and emerging seaside resort of Scheveningen was created by one of the most famous painters of the ‘The Hague’ School, Hendrik Willem Mesdag. With its enormous size (120 x 14 meters) the Panorama Mesdag is a unique cultural heritage monument. The cultural visit was very well attended by heads of diplomatic missions accredited to the Netherlands and members of the diplomatic corps, including the Ambassador of Venezuela H. E. Ms. Haifa Aissami, Ambassador of Croatia H. E. Ms. Vesela Mrden Korac and Marco Korac, Ambassador or Kosovo H.E. Ms. Vjosa Dobruna, Ambassador of Burundi, H. E. Ms. Vestine Nahimana, Mr Jose Angel Bucarello Minister-counsellor of Venezuela, the Deputy Head of Mission of the Embassy of Pakistan in Berlin amongst other distinguished guest. After a guided-tour to the Panorama, a coffee break was offered to the invitees. This is one additional element and a renowned practice of Diplomat Magazine’s interest in promoting culture for the diplomatic community.

The Netherlands, Germany and Europe By Franz Josef Kremp, Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Germany and the Netherlands are extremely close partners. The two countries are becoming steadily more interconnected, and that is a good thing.

‘ We are very important trading partners for one another.’ diplomat magazine #1

‘With its enormous size (120 x 14 meters) the Panorama Mesdag is a unique cultural heritage monument.’

Business, tourism and infrastructure are but a few of the most prominent examples. Germany is the Dutch’s favourite travel destination for very diverse reasons. Alongside geographical proximity Germany boasts an array of different landscapes, a varied cultural scene and low prices. In 2012 Germany was once again the number one travel destination for Dutch tourists, the number of overnight stays rose by 2.9% compared with the previous year, to nearly 11 million. By the same token the number of German visitors to the Netherlands increased to over three million. We are very important trading partners for one another. The Netherlands is Germany’s second most important trading partner, after France, with bilateral trade worth 158 billion euros in 2012. Below the national level an important role is played by cross border cooperation, particularly through the five Euroregions. The Euroregions are voluntary associations of public law bodies in the German-Netherlands border region, with regional authorities – and in some cases chambers of commerce – playing a particularly important part in cross border cooperation. Germany and the Netherlands are both one of each others’ most important political and economic partners, whose advice and understanding can be counted on and whose role in safeguarding European interests is regarded as essential. Ensuring that the European project continues to be a success in the future remains a common concern for us both.



Diplomatic studies at Clingendael The effectiveness of foreign policy is increasingly influenced by collaboration with actors outside of the public sector.

By Jan Melissen, senior research fellow at the Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’.

In close cooperation with the Strategic Advisory Unit of the Dutch MFA, Clingendael is currently conducting a pilot research on the complex policy networks of the Ministry. The rapidly changing global environment is forcing MFAs to become more open and flexible, which seems like a break with their traditional organisational structure. The Dutch MFA recognizes that their networking practices need to be updated to modernday realities. After all, the effectiveness of foreign policy is increasingly influenced by collaboration with actors outside of the public sector.

‘Diplomat Magazine is an excellent platform for the international diplomatic community to share knowledge of diplomacy and international relations.’ Ten departments, directorates, task forces and embassies in and outside Europe are participating in interactive workshop sessions, with the aim of thoroughly analysing their networks and networking practices. The digital dimension of modern policy networks is, of course, a distinct and important subject. The workshops in the MFAStrategy Lab result in a wealth of information about the diverse networks of the different units of analysis. It is clear that excellence and a strategic perspective on networking are essential to produce the desired diplomatic outcomes. This project will result in a report that is to be published on the Clingendael website in the beginning of 2015.


europol By Michel Qullé, Deputy Director Operations, Europol, The Hague.

First of all, I would like to say that I am honoured and proud to contribute to the first printed issue of Diplomat Magazine in the Netherlands. In fact, it is a result of my first encounter with former Charge d’affaires a.i. of the Dominican Republic Embassy in The Hague, Dr. Eugenio Matos G (Diplomat Magazine Associate Publisher) during a welcome reception offered by Her Majesty, Queen Beatrix on 16 January, 2013 at the Royal Palace in Amsterdam. Europol, our organisation located in The Hague, maintains close links with the international community of the city, in the broader sense but also with its citizens. Despite this location, our organisation should be better known by the Dutch citizens. It is for us a good opportunity to increase our visibility in the Netherlands. Europol (777 staff) is the law enforcement agency of the European Union. Our aim is to help achieve a safer Europe by supporting the law enforcement agencies of European Union Member States in their fight against serious international crime and terrorism. More than 700 staff at Europol headquarters in The Hague, the Netherlands, work closely with law enforcement agencies in the 27 European Union Member States and in other non-EU partner states such as Australia, Canada, the USA, Norway and Colombia. As Europol officers have no direct powers of arrest, we support law enforcement colleagues by gathering, analysing and disseminating information and coordinating operations. Our partners use the input to prevent, detect and investigate offences, and to track down and prosecute those who commit them. Europol experts and analysts take part in Joint Investigation Teams which help solve criminal cases on the spot in EU countries. Europol personnel come from different kinds of law enforcement agencies, including regular police, border police, customs and security services. This multi-agency approach helps to close information gaps and minimise the space in which criminals can operate. Some 130 Europol Liaison Officers are based at Europol headquarters. These ELOs are seconded to Europol by the EU Member States and our non-EU partners. They guarantee fast and effective cooperation based on personal contact and mutual trust.

Welcome to theTimeless Zone

Time in Macedonia has a special dimension – here centuries and millennia are mutually interwoven and have always flown together… That is why, what happened here during all past times is in an unbreakable relationship with what is going on today. The territory of Macedonia is its body – and its soul can be best seen through the body. Feast your senses. Be brave. Explore Macedonia. Create memories which will never fade away.

Senses are the gates to our souls



Our Diplomatic Excursion, a Huge Success! By Gonda Buursma. Photography: Henry Arvidson.

Diplomat Magazine’s first one-day excursion was a huge success. 45 diplomats, amongst them ambassadors, their families and friends, enjoyed the first of a series of trips by luxury coach to visit the province of Zealand. These excursions represent a unique opportunity for diplomats to visit top Dutch attractions at the best level. We departed at 10:15 am from the Carlton Ambassador Hotel, heading directly to the Deltaworks, a place that is of capital importance for the ‘survival of the Netherlands’ in terms of protection from the sea. Here Mr. Van de Hoef, Director of the installations, was expecting his diplomatic guests and companions for a VIP guided tour. After a short welcome speech with coffee, tea and pastry the guests got to see a film about the building of this huge project that protects the lower areas in the Netherlands against flooding. Then we had a private tour to see the Storm Surge Barrier on the river Oosterschelde, declared as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.


We then headed to Middelburg, the capital of the province of Zealand. Upon arrival, the Mayor of Middelburg, Mr. Bergmann, was very honoured to receive such special guests. He welcomed them in the spectacular historical city hall, one of the top three most beautiful buildings in the Netherlands. His warm speech was followed by a reception, a tour of the building by a professor from the Roosevelt Academy and a goody bag with complimentary souvenirs. Afterwards, ambassadors, diplomats, family and friends had some free-time in Middelburg. Most ambassadors opted to follow Mrs. Buursma for a short guidedtour in the historical city centre. We were all then welcomed back on the bus with champagne and Leonidas pralines, courtesy of Mr. Marc Stockbroekx, CEO of Diplomatic Card. Fortunately, after a wet and windy start, it was very sunny in the afternoon and we all enjoyed the scenery on our way back to The Hague, where we arrived around 19.00. After this very successful diplomatic tour participants were already signing-up next trip in June! It was my privilege to share with distinguished members of our volunteer staff , such as our English-Spanish translator, Mrs. Sonia Meijer, owner of Direct Languages Center and Henry Arvidson, our official photographer for Diplomat Magazine.


The Hague’s Diplomats are at the Heart of the City of Peace and Justice By Abiodun Williams, President, The Hague Institute for Global Justice. Photography: Gualtiero Buonamassa.

Last years’ centenary celebrations at the Peace Palace were a reminder that The Hague’s role as an international center of diplomatic activity is not new. The anniversary gave cause to reflect on the reality that, notwithstanding The Hague’s profile as an international legal capital, the role it plays is even more expansive. This is not merely a center of law, but more broadly, a place where justice is sought. And the pursuit of justice, as the United Nations Charter underlines, must go hand in hand with peace. The genesis of the Peace Palace reminds us that efforts to entrench the international rule of law are ultimately efforts to achieve lasting peace. In this way, The Hague is not only a legal capital but, as the city’s mayor importantly recognizes, the International City of Peace and Justice. The mission of realizing the promise of The Hague’s institutions and expertise is not one that rests only with courts, or with local policy-makers. It is a goal which is shared by knowledge institutions like The Hague Institute for Global Justice and by the diplomats resident in the Netherlands. Since arriving in The Hague nearly two years ago, I served in senior postings at the United Nations and at the United States Institute for Peace. I am therefore to either New York City and Washington DC, two cities whose diplomatic corps’ boast enormous expertise. Nevertheless, since arriving in The Hague, I have been continually struck by the quality, ingenuity and effectiveness of the diplomatic representatives who live and work in the city. They are, I find, some of the best in the world. The work that the diplomatic community carries out here, on behalf of individual nations and the international community is, I believe, one of the attributes that is transforming The Hague into a pre-eminent international political capital.

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The Hague Institute, the organization which I lead, seeks to harness this experience and to ensure that, in this era of ‘networked diplomacy’, innovative links are made between the diplomatic corps, policy-makers in the Dutch government, business leaders, civil society and academics. Through our monthly Hague Roundtable Series, we convene events under the Chatham House Rule to discuss key international issues and trends, including, for example, migration, the work of the ICTY and the Iran nuclear deal. Our Distinguished Speaker Series, which over the past year has welcomed - amongst others - Prime Minister Edi Rama of Albania, Foreign Minister Miroslav Lajčák of Slovakia, former German Foreign Minister, Joschka Fischer, and former Dutch Prime Minister, Jan Peter Balkenende, aims to provide a platform for the world’s leading statesmen to engage with the diverse community of practitioners in The Hague, especially those in the diplomatic corps. This November, The Hague Institute will continue its mission to spearhead policy initiatives with the potential to reform global institutions for the better by launching a Commission on Global

Security, Justice and Governance. Co-covened by the Institute and the Stimson Center in Washington, D.C., the Commission is chaired by former U.S. Secretary of State, Madeleine K. Albright and former Nigerian Foreign Minister, Prof. Ibrahim Gambari. Its recommendations, which informed a report launched in June 2014, aim to influence the debate which will take place at the 2015 World Summit, held to mark the 70th anniversary of the UN. The close ties that have been formed between The Hague Institute and many of the diplomatic missions in the city has been critical to our ongoing work. In the months and years to come, I look forward to welcoming many more colleagues from this diverse community to The Hague Institute and to continuing our work to convene experts and disseminate cutting-edge knowledge to those in the policy-making process. In so doing, I am convinced that the eyes of the world will increasingly turn to The Hague, not only in search of legal solutions, but also as a place where peace is pursued and achieved.






On Saturday, 6 July 2014 the second edition of The Embassy Festival took place on the tree-lined Lange Voorhout in The Hague. The festival spotlighted the many different cultures of The Hague through a bustling one-day programme featuring music, art, literature, dance, culinary delights and refreshing beverages. Festival goers experienced a cultural trip around the world, beginning in the early afternoon with a varied musical tour spread out on two outdoor podiums. In addition, the festival presented the Creative Arena and several pavilions portraying the best and most typical international food, drinks and cultural highlights of the many countries that have made themselves at home in the international city of The Hague. CLASSICAL STAGE

One of the highlights of the Classical Stage was star soprano Gudrun Sidonie Otto (D), hailed as one of the most exciting new singers of her generation. A slightly firmer sound was charged by the Cannonball String Band ft. Mike Bailey (GB / IE / US). Bailey

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is a world-class violinist and along with the other Cannonball men, he delivered a steaming set of improvisations on Irish and Scottish melodies, as well as bluegrass numbers. Audiences also enjoyed divergent and awe inspiring performances by flutist Felicia van den End (NL), accordionist Marieke Grotenhuis (NL), guitarist and composer Josué Amador (MX), awardwinning flutist Elisabeth Champollion (D), chamber orchestra Ardesko (AU/NL/FI/CZ), spoken word artist Anja Sicking (NL) and singer-songwriter Veerle Winkelmolen (NL).

‘A global & cultural melting pot against the picturesque backdrop of the Lange Voorhout’ 43


‘A wave of global culture swept through The Hague during the second annual Embassy Festival’ FOOD FOR THOUGHT

The Creative Arena brought a wide variety of art and entertainment. From fairy tales to traditional dances, from music to storytelling by authors and inspiring entrepreneurs offering visitors food for thought. The question that comes up more often is how the festival can play a role as a meeting point for international contacts in the field of Business and Trade. The idea is to create this meetingpoint at the Embassy Festival for one day, this will be the meeting point for organisations and people involved in international business. A place that inspires, gives the opportunity to have informal conversations with CEO’s, Head of Missions and provides a platform for true pioneers with extraordinary ideas. The Embassy Festival will invite speakers who they think can carry out their unconventional way of looking at international business.



With the presence of the many embassies, NGOs and multinationals the city of The Hague enjoys continuous interaction with the rest of the world, giving itself every right to call itself an international city. The third edition of the Embassy Festival will present visitors with a beautiful compilation of international culture that can be seen, heard, tasted and experienced. Embassy Festival is organised by PROOOST, the organisation behind the annual LIFE I LIVE Festival in The Hague.


www.embassyfestival.com embassyfestival@prooost.nl +31 (0)70 360 60 33



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Egypt`s former King about his homeland By Baron Henri Estramant. Diplomat Magazine’s Diplomatic Adviser in Brussels. Photography: Dr Robert Suzic.

Baron Estramant, has interviewed the former King of Egypt about the ongoing unstable situation in his homeland. King Fuad II, was a child monarch from 26 July 1952 to 18 June 1953 when Egypt was proclaimed a republic. He was only six months old when his father King Farouk abdicated to appease revolutionary, anti-monarchist forces in Egypt. He was the last “monarch” of the Mohammed Ali Dynasty that had ruled Egypt since 1805.

You were nominally the 12th monarch of the Mohammed Ali Dynasty, and 3rd “King of Egypt and Sudan” for a brief period between 26 July 1952 and 18 June 1953. Albeit you did not grow up in Egypt you see yourself as an Egyptian and a man with a “duty” towards Egypt. How responsible do you feel for your country, and how can you achieve anything from your exile in Switzerland?

I have always felt that I have a “duty” towards Egypt. There was a period when it would had been unwise for me to undertake anything concerning Egypt. Times have changed and hopefully are going to get better. Opportunities may arise in the future where I could promote Egypt in one way or another from wherever I live. You were merely 6 months old when you became the constitutional yet nominal “King of Egypt”, since then you have lived in exile mostly in Monaco, France, Morocco and Switzerland. What is your current status? Are you allowed to visit Egypt? Do you travel with an Egyptian passport? When were you there last? Are you now in a self-imposed exile?

I am an Egyptian Citizen. I can go to Egypt whenever I wish and I was last there four years ago. As I could go and live there at any time I chose, the term self-imposed exile, which was true a few years ago, is inappropriate today. Call it a diplomatic decision. There is a bit of revival, perhaps mostly nostalgic for royalty around the world once an oppressive regime falls. We experienced it in Afghanistan where the former monarch even became “Father of the Nation”, in Libya the Prime Minister asked parliament to restore the honour of Al Senussi. In the Balkans the end of Communism brought a wave of interest for the members of their deposed royal

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houses, however, the royals heirs were long kept away from Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, etc. On the other hand, all the interest and media coverage has led to no political or cultural role for the heirs of deposed royal houses, with the exception of Cambodia in 1993 or the purely ceremonial role given to King Mohammed Zaher Shah of Afghanistan. Are you not missing out by staying away from Egypt? Could you not return to your country without being involved into its complicated politics?

The nostalgia for a monarchical system has been reverberating in Libya whereas in Egypt the monarchical past has not sparked the same enthusiasm, particularly not amongst the younger generation which makes up the bulk of the population. Do you think it might have to do with the bad image spread during the last 60 years against your father King Farouk I? Some people might portray your dynasty as foreign because of its Albanian-Turkish roots?

Egypt is coming out of a serious political turmoil. My presence there could had been misconstrued or misused even if I had kept myself totally out of politics. I have never wished to be a burden or an involuntary hindrance to the Egyptian Authorities. I do not have to live there to serve my country.

The bad image that was so falsely spread during the last 60 years against my father King Farouk has been greatly corrected over the last few years and another picture emerges today. A lot remains to be done. I am confident that historians and some are already at work, will restore the truth about my father’s reign and work as it was so badly distorted after his abdication.

‘There was a period when it would had been unwise for me to undertake anything concerning Egypt.’ You have stated in the past that you do not support any monarchist political parties or endorse any political movements. Would you rather see yourself as a cultural ambassador for your country?

I would welcome the opportunity to serve Egypt as a cultural ambassador or in any other useful capacity. However, it must be well understood that I would undertake such a duty only with the approval and cooperation of the Egyptian government in power.

Politically you are not relevant, yet, one day you may be called upon in playing a role, even if ceremonial in contemporary Egypt. What are your visions? How do you think you can be useful to your country? What would be the ideal and realistic scenario for you?

I think I have already answered that question. Future events are in the hands of Allah. Your eldest son and heir, HRH The Prince of the Sa’id (Upper Egypt), Mohammed Ali, wed last year a grand-daughter of Afghanistan’s last monarch, Princess Noal Zaher Khanum, in Istanbul. He was even born in Cairo unlike his siblings. Did you have to request a special permission for it back in 1979? How active is your eldest son in the Egyptian cause? How close does he follow the ongoing developments in Egypt?

Yes, a special permission was given by the late President Sadat for my eldest son to be born in Egypt.



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How many

disasters do we need? By Barend ter Haar.

It is said that governments are only able to change course when a disaster occurs. Without disasters governments tend to become complacent and lazy. If there is some truth in this thesis – and just look around to see that it is the case – then the question is how many disasters it takes to make a government change course. Let us, with this question in mind, have a quick look at two threats: the threat to international cooperation and the threat of Russia. After that we will turn to the Ebola crisis. It took the West-Europeans a lot of war to realize that giving up some sovereignty in exchange for close cooperation and integration is preferable above exercising the sovereign right to vilify people with different languages and religions and to go to war with them from time to time. The question now is how long this broad consensus will hold. Will it require another war to convince political parties that higher defense budgets and involvement in international wars (how necessary they might be) can never be a substitute for international cooperation? The Russian occupation of Abkhazia and South Ossetia did not make European governments fully realize that Russia was no longer willing to play the geo-political game according to the West-European rules. Even the annexation of the Crimea did not suffice. Only when Russia started intervening in Eastern Ukraine, Western governments came to realize that they could no longer pretend that nothing had changed. Both cases illustrate how difficult it is for governments to learn from their experiences. Let us now look at the Ebolacrisis. Nor the specific time, nor the specific place were predictable, but it was a foreseeable crisis in many other respects. We knew beforehand that new epidemics of infectious diseases take place from time to time, new because of a new variety of an existing disease, or new because of the place where the epidemic breaks out. We also knew that many of the least developed countries are unable to deal properly with such outbreaks, and we also knew that the World Health Organization is insufficiently prepared to deal quickly and adequately with such a crisis. We knew that, but what did we do? As far as the Dutch government is concerned: very little. Promoting global health is very low on its agenda. The Dutch ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport has as its motto “The Netherlands healthy and well”, but seems insufficiently to realise how much public health in the Netherlands depends on global health. And for the Dutch ministry of Foreign Affairs neither global health, nor education (key to public health), nor strengthening global cooperation in these fields are priorities. It will be interesting to see what lessons both ministries will draw from the current Ebola crisis.

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Diplomacy and the Unsaid By Biljana Scott. Professor at Oxford University, Senior Lecturer at DiploFoundation and Visiting Professor at the London Academy of Diplomacy.

‘Diplomatic language’ has a bad name, carrying connotations of equivocation, obfuscation and prevarication. And yet, as this article sets out to show, diplomatic language involves a valuable skill: knowing how to detect and deploy the unsaid. I define the ‘unsaid’ as ‘meaning conveyed implicitly through language’ rather than that which is not communicated at all or non-verbally through body language, and I suggest that a mastery of the unsaid is essential both to international and interpersonal diplomacy.

There are several good reasons for resorting to the unsaid: (1) we can keep our options open longer through equivocation; (2) we secure room for manoeuver through ambiguity; (3) we may plausibly deny what has been implied but not said explicitly; (4) we can persuade others better by priming them with stories-in-a-capsule (such as metaphors). And should you question whether these are ‘good’ reasons, then consider the following: (5) we can show tact and save face through indirectness; (6) we can enhance in-group identity and affirm community membership through tacit understanding (what need not be said because it is understood). And finally (7), since interpretation involves speculation, we are being true to our cognitive make-up when we fill in the gaps of sensory input (including linguistic input), with informed guesses about what that input might mean. Having outlined the key functions of the unsaid, the remainder of this article identifies and exemplifies four types of implicit communication found in diplomatic discourse.

1. ‘Mind the Gap’ Gaps abound at many levels of language. At word-level, we find gaps between compound terms such as Public Diplomacy (diplomacy by, for or with the public?), and climate security (securing the climate against human emissions, or humans against climate change?). Between sentences we find gaps between the juxtapositions of parataxis (Have children. Will travel), a device repeatedly used by President Bush in the countdown


to war in Iraq in order to associate Saddam Hussein with 9/11 in people’s minds: “Saddam Hussein is a threat to our nation. September 11 changed the strategic thinking, at least as far as I was concerned, for how to protect our country.” Gaps may also be inserted through the device of scope ambiguity in order to give rise to multiple interpretations. Does the scope of the negative in The President may not ratify the treaty indicate that he is not allowed to, or that he is in two minds over ratifying it. Does the scope of ‘Olympic’ in No demonstrations are allowed in any Olympic sites, venues or other areas, extend to and include ‘other areas’? Scope ambiguity is frequently encountered in UNSC Resolutions. Gaps can also be inserted through the addition of contrastive stress (‘Now this is worth considering’), and through the addition of prepositions in ‘power to’ or ‘power over’; ‘fear of ’ or ‘fear for’; ‘to laugh with’ or ‘to laugh at’. Further gaps abound between connotations and denotations, between intended and possible meanings (both within and across cultures), and between literal and ironical meanings. It is when we bridge gaps unwittingly, as we so often do, that they may prove misleading.

Narratives may be found in connotations, for instance, which tell a story by foregrounding certain attributes and backgrounding others (as in security fence vs apartheid wall). Metaphors and analogies similarly invite the listener to articulate the larger significance of what little has been said (bankers are wolves in shepherds’ clothing). Listeners can be covertly guided in their understanding of causes, consequences and ethics through the framing power of figures of speech. Priming is particularly effective where values are implied. In the case of the Roadmap to Peace, the prior existence and attainability of ‘Peace’ as a destination is assumed by the metaphor, as is the resourcefulness of the various teams involved. The only reason, therefore, why the destination might not be successfully reached, allowing for a few trials and tribulations along the way, is because of lack of will power. Or so the metaphor would have us believe. Change the metaphor, and you change the associated expectations and value judgments.

3: Ambiguities

2: Stories in a capsule

There are many different forms of ambiguity, from vagueness to homophony, all of which depend on focus: how far one zooms out to a (potentially) deceptive larger picture, and how far one zooms into linguistic features or hidden assumptions.

One of the most effective forms of persuasion involves the manipulation of inference. By providing a narrative, we can structure our interlocutor’s perceptions and influence their actions.

Vagueness is canonically exemplified by the underspecification involved in the ‘One China’ policy (which China: PRC or ROC?), and by UNSC Resolution 242 where the absence of the article ‘the’

diplomaticnews in “demands immediate withdrawal … from [the] territories occupied in the recent conflict.” raises the possibility of withdrawal from only ‘some’ territories, not ‘all’. Vagueness is also involved in the exact referent of special and differential treatment, reasonable force and Socialism with Chinese characteristics. At the other end of the scale, lexical ambiguity concerns the presence or absence of particular features. Thus, sorry has the features [±responsibility]: (I’m sorry I hurt you vs I’m sorry the weather is bad), an ambiguity capitalised upon by the ‘Letter of the two sorries’ issued by the US over the Hainan Island Incident. Similarly ‘to sex up’ is ambiguous between the features [±mendacity], as Lord Hutton acknowledged in his summing up of the Iraq inquiry. Homophony is another source of ambiguity potentially relevant to diplomacy. A play on cross-linguistic puns was initiated by Sir Charles Napier, who sent a one-word telegram in 1844 on the capture of Sindh consisting of the Latin

word ‘peccavi’, Latin for ‘I have sinned’, homophonous with ‘I have Sindh’. Current examples of punning used in order to evade political censorship may be found in Chinese, a language which is naturally rich in homophones. The image of a river crab wearing three wrist-watches, for instance, is a popular icon derived from the homophony between the word for ‘river crab’ and that for ‘harmony’, which occurs in a government policy on the ‘Harmonious Society’ that has come to symbolise official censorship. Similarly, ‘to wear a watch’ is homophonous with the word ‘represent’ which occurs in another government policy that has come to be identified with censorship, namely the ‘Three Represents’.

4: Indirect Speech Acts There are several ‘unsaids’ involved in courtesy, arising from the close correlation between directness and discourtesy: the more frank we are, the more face-threatening we seem. Conversely, tact invariably has recourse to implicit communication. One of the most

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pervasive reasons for cross-cultural (or indeed interpersonal), misunderstanding is the failure to recognise the discrepancy between what people say and what they mean by what they say. As in the joke about “what is the difference between a diplomat and a lady”, a seemingly simple utterances such as yes, no and maybe, can perform different actions depending on who is saying it, to whom, with what intention. * S ince implicit communication is a particularly useful resource in diplomacy, for the reasons outlined in the introduction, it seems advisable to master the unsaid rather than be mastered by it. In order to do so, one needs to understand how the unsaid works and where it is most likely to arise and thrive. This summary of four categories of the unsaid provides a preview of how such an understanding might best be secured.

For those who make history, and those who make their own


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Diplomacy and its practice vs Digital Diplomacy By Dr. Luis Ritto, former EU Ambassador to the Holy See and the Order of Malta and Former EU Permanent Representative to the United Nations Organisations. Emeritus Professor at the International School of Protocol & Diplomacy and expert on diplomacy, diplomatic protocol and world affairs.

‘ Change is the law of life. And those who look to the past or present are certain to miss the future’ – John F. Kennedy (1963) A new area in diplomacy that has seen a steady increase in its use in the past 20 years or so is the one of “digital diplomacy”. Also called “numerical diplomacy” by the French and “e-diplomacy” by the British, digital diplomacy describes a new method of conducting diplomacy and international relations with the help and support of the internet and other communication technologies (ICTs). A new method that is more inclusive, open and transparent than the diplomacy that was used in the past, which was more secretive and exclusive, working discretely behind closed doors. In fact, and as I wrote in my previous articles, diplomacy has evolved greatly in the past 100 years to become more public and open. Besides, it is managed nowadays by a great number of actors, like for example non-governmental organisations, elected politicians, cultural and trade organisations, academic experts and civil society organisations. This trend is there to stay and the new technologies of today are playing an important part in not only making diplomacy more efficient and cost-effective, but also by pushing it in the direction of being more open and transparent. Experts say that communication is the essence of diplomacy. Stearns, as quoted by Jönsson & Hall in their book called “Essence of Diplomacy”, goes as far as to say that “there has never been a good diplomat who was a bad communicator” 1. This being so, it is no surprise that the technologies of communication have always been used to improve the communication work of diplomats. And as technologies progress, so have progressed the communication tools of diplomacy. The use of ICTs has in particular improved the service delivery of diplomatic missions with limited staff and which have high demands for provision of information to the public, as we will discuss in more detail later on in this paper.


To make my point clear, I think that it is worth to recall here how diplomatic communication has evolved over time and how it played a vital role in diplomacy. History books tell us that diplomatic communication dates as far back as two millennia. At that time it was rudimentary and mainly based on messengers and merchant caravans, who were charged to deliver the messages to the monarchs of other countries. The Greek city sates further developed communications, mainly in the 4th and 5th centuries BC, by using clay tablets and a cipher system for the protection of their messages. Messages in clay tablets are said to have been imported from Mesopotamia and were used for several centuries. Then in the Middle Ages (5th to the 15th centuries AC) the Papal diplomacy introduced parchments for diplomatic communication. The system of using parchments went on well into the Renaissance period, when the first resident diplomatic missions were established in Europe (first in the Principalities of Northern Italy and afterwards in other European countries). However, with the invention of the Guttenberg printing press (1450) the parchment was gradually replaced by printed documents, a system that is still in use today. Mainly since the Renaissance, diplomatic messages have been sent in sealed diplomatic bags (pouches) from one country to another. An important step in the modernisation of diplomatic communications came in the 19th century (mainly after 1835) with

the invention of the electric telegraph. It was a communication system that transmitted electric signals from location to location which translated into a message. By the end of the century it was possible to send messages from one continent to another (from the USA to Great Britain in Europe, for example). In a matter of decades, electrical telegraph networks allowed people and traders to transmit messages across continents and oceans almost instantly, with widespread social and economic impacts. The electric telegraph had also a major impact in the world of diplomacy. Foreign Ministries and Diplomatic Missions were connected to telegraph systems and could easily communicate between them (mainly via cryptic messages). Instructions could be sent rapidly and regularly by capitals to their Embassies around the world. Ambassadors could consult with their superiors and were not any more forced to take decisions on important matters on their own without having government approval. Key Embassies started to receive daily briefs from home, making it possible for diplomats there to swiftly convey messages to the officials in the countries in which they were posted. It was possible also for the first time for Ministries of Foreign Affairs to contact each other directly in cases of urgent need. The impact of the telegraph was therefore of major importance for diplomacy and it marked the beginning of what some historians call the system of modern diplomatic communication.

diplomaticPOUCH After the telegraph, the telephone, which was introduced in the later part of the 19th century, helped to further improve communications between countries and diplomatic envoys, thus adding to the speed and precision of communications. Then followed the fax system, especially after 1980. Fax, which means in fact facsimile and can also be called telecopying or telefax, is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed materials (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer. The receiving fax machine interprets the tones and reconstructs the original image by printing it on a paper copy. The fax system was, before the internet arrived, a revolution in itself. The fact that it allowed for the transmission of documents and images from one part of the world to the other in a question of minutes, helped greatly to strengthen communication in the diplomatic world. For example, it become possible for a French Ambassador in Tokyo to sign a Treaty with the Japanese authorities and for the French Foreign Minister to receive a copy of it by telefax in Paris

missions to provide a faster and more reliable service to their citizens abroad. However, the best was still to come. And the best was the internet, which was introduced more than 20 years ago, especially after 1990. As all people know, the internet is, simply put, a global network connecting billions of people through computers. Better saying, it is a system of interconnected computer networks that use what is called “the internet standard protocol suite (or TPC/IP)” to link several billion devices worldwide. Diplomatic services everywhere have followed the trend and are now linked to the internet and rely on it for a variety of services (the most important being the e-mail) for their daily work. The importance of the internet and other new communication technologies (mobile phones, video-conferences, i-pads and i-pods…) is that they have overcome (more than other systems) the barriers of communication which include time and distance. E-mails facilitate instantaneous forwarding of even the most bulky documents and besides there is no waiting period for a person to receive the information sent to him. Moreover, their

‘Experts say that communication is the essence of diplomacy.’ less than ten minutes later! Originals of important documents (briefs, minutes of meetings, legislation, speeches, official notes, treaties, protocols, verbal notes, press releases, cabinet memos, letters, reports of all sorts….) started to circulate by fax everywhere in diplomatic missions. Foreign Ministries in capitals made sure, using the fax, that embassies in the five corners of the world received regularly (daily in many cases) updated information about the activities of the ministries and the main decisions of the government. Indeed, the fax allowed ambassadors to be informed promptly about any issue of importance for their work and to know the point of view of their governments on all issues of importance for their countries. Consular services also availed themselves of the fax system to receive copies of important documents from their capitals (birth and marriage certificates, passports and visas…), thus allowing those diplomatic

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use allows for documents to be stocked easily in systems for future reference and use. And more than the fax, the internet has important research systems that allow for practically any matter in the world to be researched. The use of cell phones also aids instant consultations when in need of support during international negotiations. The wide scope of engagement in contemporary diplomacy and limited staff numbers of diplomatic missions has forced foreign ministries to use those ICT technologies to keep pace with new communication requirements. Besides, they allow for diplomatic resources to be pooled together, increases efficiency and capture economies of scale. Diplomats now use the internet to collect information and disseminate it, to report speedily to capitals, to send documents, to inform and engage the public and so forth (namely social networks like “Facebook” and “Twitter”). It must be remembered that the new

technologies of communication are cost effective in the long run, especially when compared to other traditional means of communication such as air travel, fuel, snail mail and the logistical requirements of organising traditional meetings. If diplomacy is essentially about communication – as I mentioned at the beginning of this paper – it is also very much about negotiations. In fact, negotiations are another area which lies in the heart of diplomacy. Diplomats are constantly negotiating something (both bilaterally and internationally) on a growing number of subjects: from the laws of the sea to immigration, from scientific and cultural cooperation to trade, tourism and technology transfers, from the environment to food security, from security to police cooperation, from medicine security to improved health services, from research to academic cooperation, from poverty to economic development, from children to women rights, etc. Often many of these negotiations take place simultaneously making it difficult for countries to send people to follow them. This is particularly true for small countries, which have limited means especially in terms of human resources and cannot pay for all the travelling costs associated with them. The internet, through Skype and the system of video-conferences, allows countries to overcome these problems and to follow far way conferences and seminars from capitals, making it possible also for the officials of those countries to intervene in them and to make their opinions known. On this issue, an example showing the importance of video-conferences is the one of a regional summit that was held in Africa in 2000 with the aim to solve the crisis in Burundi and Rwanda. President Bill Clinton could not travel to Africa at that time to attend that meeting, but he attended it from Washington with the aid of video-conference instruments, intervening in it and making his view points clearly known. He ended contributing decisively to the solution of the problems being discussed without having been physically in the conference hall in Africa. This is a major breakthrough which proves that virtual diplomacy is a reality in the world of today and can be used with efficiency.


diplomaticPOUCH When talking about the internet there are two matters linked to it that must not be forgotten to be mentioned here: security and e-governance. The internet has led nations to build security systems allowing for the confidentiality of the information materials transmitted. Also the internet systems used in diplomatic missions are part of wider efforts by governments in terms of e-governance. For sheer lack of space, we cannot analyse in detail these two matters. What we can say is that the internet offers today a high level of security, as good as any other systems with secure encryption techniques. What happened for example with the information leaked through “Wikeleaks” has nothing to do with internet security as it was a failure of the US authorities to monitor the use of confidential information by the officials who had access to it. It was due to no failure of secure internet communications. By e-governance (or electronic governance) we mean in simple terms the employment of the internet and other electronic technologies to deliver official information and services to citizens and the general public. Its purpose is to provide government services online in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. According to the UN, more than 100 countries in the world have adapted their working systems to the new electronic technologies and use e-governance to improve public services and their delivery. Diplomatic services have followed this trend and everywhere in the world diplomatic missions provide today efficient services online. In fact, most missions now have websites which provide information on travel (including immunisation information, common diseases, risky areas and contacts in case of medical emergency), visa application procedures and forms, etc. on their sites. A number of countries carry out online visa applications (including Canada, the UK and the United States of America), while others like Australia, Singapore, Cambodia and Kuwait even issue e-visas which has not only eased the process of visa processing but increased visits to such countries. The same happens with trade and investment matters and procedures. The use of the web as a source of information has also reduced substantially the number of people that visit embassies and consulates worldwide. This is an important change in terms of diplomatic working cultures as compared to the past.



We have tried to describe in this paper that a new era in diplomacy has developed in the recent past as a result of electronic means of communication. Digital diplomacy has opened a new world of cross-cultural communication and information that is more open and transparent than in the past and essentially based on soft power. In fact, ICTs have practically turned information into a source of power and influence. Whereas the methods of work of foreign ministries and diplomatic missions have essentially remained the same, the internet transformed communication from the traditional methods of information to the use of modern methods associated with instantaneous communication. Not the least, it has stimulated the missing part of an old dream that men always had: the access to information at anytime from anywhere. Diplomatic services have therefore explored the potentials of these new technologies (like the internet) for their own empowerment, in order to preserve their pivotal role in international relations. Through a well planned and well organised use of information technologies in a foreign ministry, a country —especially if it is a small state— can cope with a great number of challenges and stay informed of developments and emerging trends in modern diplomacy. Only a century and a half ago, windpowered sailing vessels served as the means of diplomatic communication. They were followed by steamships. Then communications evolved with the arrival of the telegraph, the telephone and air mail as the main systems of diplomatic correspondence. Nowadays the great revolution in diplomatic communication is due to the computer and to electronic means of communication, which allow for such communication to be more rapid, sure and efficient. Many things which once required a physical presence are now possible to exist in a virtual fashion. Diplomacy is not an exception. The impact of the new information and communication technologies on modern diplomacy has been profound and with deep repercussions. The main areas within diplomacy in which technology has had a major influence and impact are diplomatic missions, negotiations and communication, as this paper clearly shows. Virtual diplomacy has improved the traditional diplomatic functions

of missions, which are representation, negotiation, reporting, facilitation and coordination. It merges foreign and domestic policies and publics and allows diplomacy to occur through the media and information technologies. Virtual diplomacy is therefore a reality and it can be said that it has thus become a field of diplomacy in its own right.

Jönsson, C. and Hall, M. “Essence of Diplomacy” (Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005).


Dr. Luis Ritto – Former EU Ambassador to the Holy See and the Order of Malta and Former EU Permanent Representative to the United Nations Organisations. ISPD Emeritus Professor and expert on diplomacy, diplomatic protocol and world affairs.

Sources Jönsson, C. and Hall, M. “Communication: Essential Aspect of Diplomacy” (Lund: Lund University, 2002). Rana, Kishan S. “21st Diplomacy: A Practitioner’s Guide” (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011). Jönsson, C. and Hall, M. “Essence of Diplomacy” (Hapshire: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005). Nye, Joseph S. “Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics” (New York: Public Affairs, 2004). Black, Jeremy “A History of Diplomacy” (London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2011). Reus-Smit, C. and Snidal, Duncan “The Oxford Handbook of International Relations” (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). Berridge, G. “Diplomacy: Theory and Practice” (Hertforshire, Prentice Hall, 1995). Burton, J.W, “Systems, States, Diplomacy and Rules” (Cambdrige: Cambridge University Press, 1998).


Tribute to

my father By Guillaume Kavaruganda, Minister Counsellor, Embassy of the Republic of Rwanda.

On April 7, 1994 my father was killed. Twenty years have passed and it is as if it was yesterday. My father was among the first victims of the genocide that happened in Rwanda 1994. At that time I was concluding my law studies in Italy in the City of Perugia. In early morning, I got a phone call from my sister, Juliette, who was at the time studying Political Science in Belgium. She was the one who told me the sad news. From then all my life changed drastically. My father left behind a wife and five children. We had never overcome his passing away in an unusual manner.

Photography: Sharon Reyes

Since the world was created, death has been part of the human beings. Few human beings have succeeded to accept death, especially the one of their loved ones. We celebrate when a child is born and yet we forget that one day he will depart as he had just come into existence. My grandmother, (on my mother side), died at 105 years old of old age/natural causes. For an African lady lasting that long is indeed exceptional. Life expectancy in Rwanda is less than 60 years of age for women. It is even much less for men. When I came home, I was unaware of the passing away of my grandmother. I found my mother crying. I asked her what has happened. With lots of tears in her eyes, she told me the fate of my grandmother. I was then a young man, and I asked her tactlessly how come one can be so sad for the one who passed away at 105 years. I did not wait her answer to notice how imprudent I was with my observation. Quite often young age goes alongside with stupidity! A passing away of a human being is always a sad event no matter what age the deceased had. If we agree with the principle, we have also to agree that it is more difficult to accept the death of a human caused by the killing of other humans. The suffering of the people close to the one killed is beyond imagination.

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Who was my father? My father was born in May 1, 1935 at 40 kilometers from the Capital of Rwanda named Kigali. He saw the sun on the hill called “Va’’ and in suburbs of ‘‘Ruganda’’. He was named Kavaruganda which means, in our mother language, the one who came from Ruganda. His first name was Joseph. He studied law and finished his PhD in Belgium in 1966; worked in the Rwanda Ministry of Foreign Affairs for 3 years; became a CEO of the Caisse d’Epargne du Rwanda for one year; Headed the National Prosecution Office of the Republic of Rwanda for 7 years; and became the President of Constitutional Law and Court of Cassation in the Supreme Court for 13 years until his assassination on April 7, 1994. He was 59 years old. My life was somehow an imitation of my father’s life. Both of us studied law, even though he obtained a PhD and I limited myself to a master degree in International Law and European Union laws from Louvain la Neuve University, in Belgium; both of us worked in our Ministry of Foreign Affairs even though he had different jobs as I mentioned above; I only worked in foreign services for the last 15 years in Washington DC, Geneva, as the Head of Protocol in Foreign Affairs and as First Counsellor and then Minister Counsellor in the Netherlands, a position that I still hold now. The choice of diplomacy was not a coincidence for me; my father told me in one of the many discussions we used to have, how the profession of diplomacy, if well done, can be an added value for the person who is exercising it. He was indeed right. I took from him the love of books even though I read mostly in English languages, contrary to him who used to read in French. My country shifted from French to English in 1998. Even though I am of the view that we have to live our life as we personally intend it to be, I quite happen to wonder (if in case my father was still alive), if he would be proud of me now as a human being and of my achievements. Of course I do not know the answer. He would be the one to know. Who knows? Maybe!!! Dear Father, May God Welcome you among his own!



A Diplomat’s Home Away from Home… Carlton Ambassador, The Hague By Aldo Rodriguez. Photography: Bastiaan van Musscher.

Situated in the heart of The Hague’s Embassy District, the Carlton Ambassador has long enjoyed visits from a variety of dignitaries, such as guests of the Royal Palace, members of the diplomatic community, heads of state, and Hollywood royalty, like Catherine Zeta-Jones. The property sits on the picturesque, chestnut-treelined Sophialaan, in the city centre and is where the royal horse-drawn carriages have departed from with many Ambassadors on their way to meet H.E. King Willem Alexander upon offering their credentials. It has also served as host to the The elegant boutique hotel is managed by Arwin Paulides, in entrepreneur-style, as the Carlton Hotel Collection does not have a head office, so they operate autonomously with the individual guest in mind, which sets them apart from chain hotels. Mr. Paulides has been with the Collection for about 15 years, six of which have been as General Manager of this property, and he previously also served as General Manager of the Banks Mansion Amsterdam. In true successful entrepreneur spirit he rose through the ranks and now enjoys managing a highly diverse team of 60 staff members, who offer multi-lingual support to their guests, when needed. His background in food & beverage is evident in the culinary excellence of the hotel’s restaurants and its superb service. The Carlton Ambassador aspires to be a “local hero” and is known for its


celebration of numerous National Days and other official events in partnership with its neighboring Embassies. In close cooperation with Diplomat Magazine it also hosts the successful monthly Diplomat Meet & Greet events, which offer an informal venue for members of the diplomatic corps to engage with one another and other attendees. The Diplomatic Card will be the proud sponsor of these events in the coming year.

classic charm and character, perfectly balanced with modern day convenience and personalized service. The property’s recently renovated Signature Rooms are now being complemented by an additional eight gorgeously spacious Ambassador Residences & Suites, for which a meticulous expansion is now underway. With the development of these residential suites the boutique hotel will be 88-rooms strong by the end of the year. They are perfect for diplomats in need of interim housing &/or the business traveler expecting a longer stay in the City of Peace and Justice. The contemporary Ambassador Residences & Suites, in an adjoining monumental building, are a graceful addition to the mansion-like boutique hotel, as they offer a private entrance, private parking, private meeting/dinning space, and are decorated in rich Dutchstyle and color – preserving the historic

charm of the rooms, while accentuating them with modern technology features and luxurious bathrooms. The World Luxury Hotel Award’s (WLHA), known to be the pinnacle of achievement for Luxury Hotels worldwide, will once again bestow one of its prestigious awards to the Carlton Ambassador in Johannesburg later this year. While the WLHA nominates the hotels in 14 different categories, the winners are determined by guests’ votes – a true testament to their achievement in service excellence. In 2013 the Carlton Ambassador set the benchmark by winning the WLHA’s Continent Awards for Europe’s Best Luxury Hotel category. Mr. Paulides and his team genuinely thank all the readers and guests for their votes and support, as they proudly anticipate the news of which category they excelled most in for the 2014 awards.


Preventing Conflict Escalation Lecture by Professor Jan Pronk on Preventing Conflict Escalation.

In UPEACE The Hague’s Lecture Series “Peace building in Progress”, Professor Jan Pronk, Chair in the Theory and Practice of International Development at the International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam, gave a lecture on: Preventing Conflict Escalation. Hearts & Minds. Boots & Brains The lecture was held at the Academy Building of the Peace Palace in The Hague. It was attended by some 50 people, young and old, from various backgrounds. Based on his long experience in international development Prof. Pronk raised the question to which extent peace operations could be improved in the field: Can we learn from experience and formulate some general guidelines, based on the insights gained in development policy and conflict management? A summary of the guidelines offered by Prof. Pronk for improvement of peace operations in the field:


There are no general guidelines, uniformly applicable in all situations. Just as with development policy or adjustment policy there is no fit for all, such policies should be tailor made.


Peace building is a bottom up endeavour, just like development, with people and by people themselves. Peace building and peacekeeping ought to be mutually integrated and take place at the same time.


Give the highest priority to multilateral prevention of escalation of conflicts within countries. Strengthen the capacity of the UN system to this end, build up a strong knowledge base regarding individual countries, far in advance of a possible peace intervention.


When it has been decided to launch a peacekeeping operation, this should be done on the basis of the principle of the Responsibility to Protect “R2P”. The acceptance of R2P in 2005 as a norm justifying international intervention in situations of mass atrocity, genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing was a major step forward.

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The so called DDD approach for international peace operations should imply more than carrying out diplomatic, defence and development activities at the same time. They should also serve the same purpose: ensuring human rights, together with human security and human development.


Once a peacekeeping operation has started the utmost should be done in order not to harm peace building, for instance if carried out as a narrow exercise, a military intervention only, or when it results in many civilian casualties, rape or sexual misconduct, causing loss of credibility.


It is crucial that peacekeepers and development workers understand that they are guests, not new occupants of the house. They come and go, the locals stay. It is their country, their history, their culture, their future.


Peace-making, peacekeeping and peace building require talking and negotiations. It is not up to peacekeepers from abroad to decide who should be invited to sit at the negotiation table, and who not. Foreign powers acting as mediators should exercise restraint.



Peacekeeping based on R2P should leave space for relief workers, taking care of food and nutrition, health care and medication, and water and shelter.


Lasting peace requires justice, and justice requires ending impunity. In most cases peace-making requires talking, and talks require the cooperation of people in power. Atrocities should stop and the perpetrators should be held accountable. However, bringing them to court before concluding the talks will not bring peace close by.

Peace operations should use boots on the ground. Using a direct approach, person to person: listening to people, talking with them, seeing them in the eye, understanding body language, exchanging information and sharing insights.

A unified approach by all components of a peace operation in conjunction with each other is essential. This implies that all agencies, units and organizations declare having the same objective and obey the same boundary conditions set by those who carry the ultimate political responsibility for launching the operation.


www.upeace.nl | www.upeace.org



LIVE is a gift Interview with maja popova By Aldo Rodriguez. Photography: Kim Vermaat.

Prior to beginning her diplomatic career in 2003, upon marrying her husband, H.E. Igor Popov, Ambassador of the Republic of Macedonia to the Netherlands, Mrs. Maja Popova enjoyed an illustrious career that spanned over two decades in Metal Conservation Archeology, at a renown museum in Macedonia’s capitol city, Skopje – her hometown. She is a pharmacist by training and a philanthropist by experience. It was her passion for humanitarian work that brought her path to cross the Ambassador’s, when he attended a public park clean-up event hosted by Green Planet, an environmental protection nonprofit organization where she served as Executive Director, on a volunteer basis. As you may have noticed, Mrs. Popova’s name carries with it an extra “a” unlike the Ambassador’s name due to the grammatical gender of Macedonian – the “a” makes the name feminine because she is a woman. She seems to like her new found home and holds her new neighbors in high esteem, “Dutch people are like fighters, they don’t give up.” she says “Probably due to their struggles with the sea and the climate that has lasted for centuries.” Having just moved to the Netherlands in May 2014, Mrs. Popova, like any good parent, worked swiftly to help her family feel at home. She has two children, the first of which is Marco who is 11-yearsold and attends an international school, while her four-year-old daughter, Bisera, attends a local Dutch school. Little Bisera, she stated, takes after her father,


so she is very extraverted, has quickly adapted to the Netherlands and has already picked-up some Dutch. While young Marco, who is having a slightly harder time making friends at school, benefits from having his cousins in close proximity, as the Ambassador has family who immigrated to the Amsterdam-area some 25 years ago. This gives her family a distinct advantage over the typical expat community, she admits, as they have been able to frequent the Netherlands throughout the years due to family functions and holidays. She hopes the life experiences afforded by their modern

nomadic lifestyle will benefit Marco and Bisera later in life, giving them a different perspective on the world. Once the settling down phase is complete she plans to further explore the Netherlands – first up, she says, will be the Dutch Wadden Sea Islands, particularly Schiermonnikoog, thought to be one of the prettiest places in the country. Leiden, she says, is one of her favorite cities to visit thus far because of its charming beauty, traditional architecture and of course, its museums – which are of particular interest to her, due to her professional background. She intends to reengage her artifact conservation work to some degree in the coming year through new contacts she has made at museums in Leiden, once the kids have a routine set, that is. Now that the rainy days of winter have began she also looks forward to visiting museums like Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Corpus, and the newly reopened Mauritshuis, with her kids. Her embassy recently celebrated the Macedonian National Day, which is on September 8th, in collaboration with Diplomat Magazine. The event was well attended by the local diplomatic and Macedonian communities, alike.

diplomaticpouch Traditional treats and delicious wines were served. Macedonia is known for its rich and aromatic red wines and bountiful peppers, which are undoubtedly delicious byproducts of its sunny climate. Its abundant sunshine is even depicted on their flag “The New Sun of Liberty” and also referred to in the nation’s anthem. Despite her life-long love affair with adventure and travel, she confesses that nostalgia for her homeland, as is natural, does set-in from time-to-time. She longs for the general calm and helpful atmosphere of Macedonia and its kitchen, as she rarely gets to visit. “Of course I cook. Of course! Every day. I have two kids and a husband – so they all depend on my kitchen,” she chuckles, as we discuss where she shops for key ingredients. She quickly compliments the Dutch greenhouse industry for allowing her to find many of the “delicious, very hot, green peppers that Macedonians cannot live without,” despite our lack of sun here. When describing produce at the “beautiful, beautiful, beautiful”

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Haagse Markt her eyes light up. The local Moroccan and Turkish butchers also get high praise for having excellent meats. Mrs. Popova communicates with ease. She is a natural people-person and possesses vast professional experience, which the local nonprofit community will surely benefit from once she branches out to volunteer during her limited free time, until the right job opportunity presents

itself. In closing, she shares some of the life-lessons she has gained as a world citizen. In short, “Life is a gift,” she says, which has to be respected for what it is, while maintaining awareness and compassion for those living with less. “We have to be humble and be satisfied with what we have,” she concludes, that is her recipe for a happy life – one she is trying to impart on her microcosm which is her family.



2,000 princes crave the Saudi throne By Lieutenant Colonel Dr. Heino Matzken, M.Sc. Ph.D. Translated from the German version by: Baron Henri Estramant.

At the age 89, King Abdullah ibn Abdulaziz Al Saud is older than deposed Arab leaders such as Saleh, Gaddafi, Mubarak or Ben Ali. So far the “Arab Spring” has only claimed non-royal leaders; in stark contrast to the political stability enjoyed by the oil-rich monarchies such as Saudi Arabia. This kingdom is ruled since its foundation in 1932 by King Abdulaziz ibn Abdulrahman (Ibn Saud) of the House of Saud (Al Saud) with a rather complicated order of succession. More than 40 sons and about 2,000 potential heirs The country is literally ruled by the clan of Saud. Since the death in 1953 of the state-founder King Abdulaziz ibn Abdulrahman his sons have ascended the Saudi throne according to private arrangements made by them alone. With 22 wives (at different periods of his life), Ibn Saud begot about 40 sons and hence potential heirs for the kingdom does not follow the principle of primogeniture. About 15 of his children are still alive. Because Islam permits up to four wives at any given time to a man, the children’s ages differentiate widely. Adding grandchildren and great-grand-children makes about 2,000 technically eligible successors within the wider Al Saud which accounts for about 15,000 members. One year before his demise in 1952 Ibn Saud dictated a complicated line of succession excluding Al Saud members from aside his line, and leaving the throne to the “sons of his body”. Therefore he has since been succeeded by his sons Saud (1953-63), Faisal (1964-75), Khalid (1975-82), Fahd (1982-2005) and current Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Abdullah (2005-). The incumbent monarch has de facto ruled Saudi Arabia since 1995 after his brother King Fahd suffered a stroke. In a matter of a couple of years two “crown princes” have passed away. In October 2011, the former Minister of Defence and Crown Prince Sultan. The


nominated heir and Minister of Interior since 1975 Crown Prince Nayef passed away already in June 2012 from leukemia. The incumbent heir is since Crown Prince Salman (born 1935). King Abdullah had already appointed Prince Salman as Minister of Defence, a position normally given to the heir apparent. Crown Prince Salman is deemed to be loyal to Washington; something in fact quite common since the historic get-together of US President Roosevelt and Ibn Saud aboard of the USS Quincy in 1945. The late Crown Prince Nayef as well as the incumbent Salman belong to the “Sudairi 7”, that is, the sons of Ibn Saud with his favourite spouse Hassa Al Sudairi. This internal dynastic branch has held a lot of power which King Abdullah having a Syrianborn mother cannot enjoy. Albeit the monarch appoints the Crown Prince, King Abdullah created in 2006 a 33-members strong “Allegiance Council” to ensure the stability and transparency of a future heir after the children of Ibn Saud have been exhausted, or have declined the throne. The idea behind it is for The Ruler to present candidates in such a forum. Surely a good idea, however, this procedure is yet to be put into practice. The population has no say in the matter. Yet the time for a grandson to ascend the throne is nearing as the youngest still living son of Ibn Saud is over 70 years old, most of them are also somewhat ill. Notably a palace coup went unnoticed

in most of the Western media when in February 2014, King Abdullah appointed his half-brother Prince Muqrin ibn Abdulaziz Al Saud to be the second Deputy Prime Minister and “Deputy Crown Prince”. A rank created exclusively for him. The appointment officially makes the 70 years old Prince Muqrin second in line to the throne. He is a close adviser to the King, and does not belong to the “Sudairi 7”. However many analysts expect true certainty is to arrive in Saudi Arabia through a generation change, a rejuvenation on and around the throne. Pinning thus hope on the grand-children of Ibn Saud. Some are already wellposition. For instance, the new Minister of Interior, Prince Mohammed bin Nayef (born 1959), who took over the latter ministry from his late father Crown Prince Nayef in 2012. Prominently stationed is likewise the commander of the National Guard, and son of the incumbent monarch, Prince Mutaib bin Abdullah. The appointment of Prince Muqrin as second Deputy Prime Minister thus seems more a tactic of King Abdullah to gain more time for his generation. Only with a new generation at the helm new impulses could be felt in the oil kingdom. King Abdullah has been determined to push forward progressive yet shy reforms such as the first local elections held in 2005 along with the start of his reign. For women it is still not socially acceptable to drive, nevertheless, the monarch has encouraged female




image to small education and universities. His justice reform included the creation of courts of appeal, a novelty in the kingdom. The latter furthermore allows for more legal security, and the ability of foreign firms to fight judgments from Riyadh. Moreover the move buttressed up Saudi Arabia’s bid to join the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Until then the legal system was solely based upon the interpretation of the Qu’ran and the Hadith, Shariah law, which nevertheless remains the main source of jurisprudence. The country does not possess a criminal code nor a constitution, which gives a monopoly on the jurisprudence to the Wahhabi religious scholars. King Abdullah has also permitted male and female researchers to work side by side at universities. Regardless on who inherits the throne from the generation of Ibn Saud’s grandchildren, it is likely that the alliance with the USA shall remain imperative. Nonetheless it should be exciting to observe to which extent the Al Saud retains its alliance with the Wahhabi religious élite. Also to which extent the young population of Saudi Arabia will be allowed to partake in the governing of their country. Reality is that for the moment neither the “Arabellion” nor the Shi’ia minority in the Northern part of the kingdom menace the country’s immediate stability.

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By Richard T. Griffiths, Associate Editor Diplomat Magazine and Professor International Studies, LeidenUniversity.

In 1990 the American political economist Joseph Nye coined the term ‘soft power’ to describe the ability of a state to attain its goals through diplomacy and persuasion rather than coercion or bribery. The European political scientists have enthusiastically embraced this concept to analyse European foreign policy and the European Union, itself, has persistently employed the concept to describe and legitimise its approach to the rest of the World. For the European Union (as an institution and as a collection of separate states) the operationalization of this concept has rested on several supports and we will deal with three of them: - The preference for dialogue and diplomacy over force, - The ‘ownership’ of a successful integration model which inspires other nations, - The propagation of a set of values that promoted democracy and that eschews discrimination and the abuse of human rights. Over the past several months, I have spoken in three conferences dedicated to Europe – one in Macao and in Beijing, from where I am writing this contribution. Looking at Europe, and hearing others speaking of Europe, from a distance of thousands of kilometres lends a different perspective from that gathered from reading the (academic) literature. The decision by the EU to prefer for dialogue over force would indeed be respected in Asia had it been made by choice. However, the experience of the intervention in Libya and non-intervention in Syria has made manifest two things. First, that the EU is incapable of making a prompt and united response to crises on its doorstep and that when some countries did intervene militarily, as in the case of Libya, they were incapable of doing so without US strategic and logistical support. In fact the critical dependence on the United States calls into question the ability of the EU to mount an independent military campaign, even if it chose to do so. The integration model, whereby countries gradually together moved through trade integration to economic and monetary union, while pooling ever more areas of their sovereignty, has lost much of its gloss sincet the EU has lain in the grips of its currency crisis. The failure to take prompt and effective measures to solve the initial crisis and the deep divisions over longer-term policy have undermined the idea that Europeans controlled their own destiny.



About fear, terrorism a By Peter Knoope, Associate fellow ICCT – The Hague.

Traditionally one of the most powerful tools of terrorist organisations is the instrument of fear. Terrorism frightens us. It is meant to do that. Terrorists want to frighten their potential victims. Its powerful because terrorism impacts beyond its immediate action in terms of time, geographic space and direct victims. An act of terrorism in New York effects people far beyond the US and much longer than only the weeks after the 11th of September. Something happens here and now, but we will be frightened of it happening again long after and also in faraway places. That is how terrorist acts change the way we live and look at the world. It deliberately seeks to do that. In more general terms terrorist acts are a form of communication. Terrorist acts, at least also, sent a political message. Terrorists can use violence because they feel unheard, not listened to. It can in that sense be considered a loud message of those who feel politically excluded. Terrorism can be instrumental in communicating a specific political agenda. An act of violence seems to scream: listen to me I’ve something to tell you. It can bring a forgotten or excluded political position or group to the agenda. It can advocate that position and be considered an act of frustration and an instrument of the powerless that oppose the monopoly of the state to use violence. It can even be considered the ultimate instrument of those who feel excluded or suppressed to be heard. All those elements are found in old school terrorism like separatists movements of the nineties in the last century. It holds for those who fought colonial powers in the last half of the 20th century. It was found in the case of the Molucans in the seventies in the Netherlands, the ANC in South Africa, the IRA, the case of the ETA, and even the RAF in Germany. The question is, is IS representing a form of terrorism deviating from the old school elements? What, in the light of the above can we make of IS? Is what they do really new? How does IS exploit fear as a change agent and what is the message? The leadership of IS has a well-developed communication strategy. It makes calculated choices. It is frightening the West. Purposely and targeted. It is approaching and addressing the local population in (parts of) Iraq and Syria


with an underlying idea and plan. It is exploiting media in a calculated and advanced way. It controls the external communication of its support base. It has a targeted recruitment strategy. They developed a well-controlled and strategic message. It is seeking to change the way we live and look at the world. The message they have for the world seems to be “We are relevant”; “You will have to deal with us”. This message is meant not just for the so-called western world, but even more importantly for the audience in the Muslim Majority States. IS pictures itself as the representatives of

‘It is time that counter terrorism should mean building resilience in society to the fear factor.’ that same Muslim world with a distinct political agenda and, in that sense, the organisation presents itself as “ahead of the curve”. Their methods are such that it cannot but frighten, and leave a strong impression onto the world. They have purposely managed to be the talk of the town. And IS has a message for those who would under normal conditions do a reality check on their claims and acts: journalists and aid workers. The message to them is “stay away”. This is our territory and space. And last but not least there is a very strong message for the potential supporters “If you agree with us you are welcome”. If you have nowhere to go,

if you have no perspective in life, if you want to be a somebody, come and join us. We at IS offer comradeship and a reason to live and die for. IS seems to claim not only strength and commitment to a cause but also a readiness to die for it, which gives a sense of invincibility. IS has picked up the lessons from the Arab spring revolts and the strength of the use of social media, it is convinced of its support base in many western diaspora communities plus in Muslim Majority States and it is convinced of the potential of a military victory, based on the Afghanistan scenario, so it presents and considers itself the winner. Frightening the West and provoking a military response from the US and UK, is based in, and the result of, this conviction. They have the money, the support base, the enemy, a vision and the ideology to support the vision. They challenge the monopoly of the use of force and claim to represent the powerless. It seems to me that without a doubt IS exploits fear and sends messages, but the sophistication of the exploitation of fear by IS, as a political instrument, is unprecedented. The professionalism of the use of communication by IS is unheard of. IS is more apt and equipped to the new era of modern professional communication and media outreach, than any previous terrorists organisation has ever been before. There seems no escape. Not the elements of fear and messaging, but the way it is exploited to its full, is confrontationally new. Is this new development reflected in the response by the international community? Fact is that the counter


nd what is really new terrorism approach to IS employs old school methodology. Suppression and military response is the impulse. Inducing more fear in western societies by allowing a stage and repeating the images of atrocities and violence. Softly treading on the political element of the underlying issues and the motivational factors. But we hopelessly fail in mirroring the sophistication of the messaging. We seem to underestimate and unable to match the professionalism of the communication efforts. So we necessarily rely on the concept of the monopoly of the use of force. We even turn to old school methods

of empowering oppositional fractions. It is time that counter terrorism should mean building resilience in society to the fear factor. Societal actors should be empowered to identify underlying grievances. And not just identify the grievances but also address them and effectively deal with them. Soft power and communication should seriously become part of the toolbox of the Counter Terrorism world at large. Not just because fear is part of the instruments of terrorists, not just because terrorism holds a message for an audience, but also because terrorist organisations become more professional

and more aware of the state of the art of communication. That should represent the real and fundamental difference in the response mechanisms compared to that in earlier cases of political violence. The potential victims deserve a professionalised counter terrorism effort, one that matches the sophistication of the new agents of fear and intimidation. That change in counter terrorism approach should be the real news.

In private, from The Hague to Brussels and beyond By Dr Richard Blauwhoff, Legal counsel at the Internationaal Juridisch Instituut in The Hague, and by Prof.dr. Vesna Lazic, Asser Instituut, Utrecht University and Rijeka University.

Readers of Diplomat Magazine experience the international dimensions of personal and business relationships in a globalizing world daily. Private international law (PIL), also often known in English as the conflict of laws, provides rules on jurisdiction and the determination of the applicable law governing such relationships. It also deals with the recognition and enforcement of foreign judicial decisions. As the ‘legal capital of the world’, the position of The Hague in PIL receives less attention, but is also well established. At a global level, The Hague Conference on Private International Law in particular, has played a leading role in harmonizing and unifying PIL. Within the Netherlands, the Internationaal Juridisch Instituut (IJI) has been giving advice to diplomat magazine #1

courts and lawyers in cases with a PIL or foreign element since 1918, while the Asser Instituut, as a centre of academic research into international and European law, has its own PIL consultancy. The Hague Conference is currently addressing two disparate issues: regulation of surrogate motherhood and the creation of a global instrument for the recognition and enforcement of foreign judicial decisions. An overview of the work being done by the Conference in these two areas was given by Ms Marta Pertegás, First Secretary of the organisation, at an expert meeting held at the Asser Instituut. The ‘Europeanisation’ of PIL was recognized by all experts as a broad trend. Thus, in Europe, over the past decades many rules of PIL have come from ‘Brussels.’ This has spawned a regional regulatory framework which coexists – not always easily- with national and ‘Hague’ regulation of PIL. In some areas such as child abduction, parental responsibilities and maintenance, the EU and The Hague Conference have worked successfully together, so Ms Pertegás affirmed. She also highlighted the greater geographical reach of the organisation, as exemplified by the opening of regional

offices in Hong Kong and Buenos Aires in recent years. In Europe, the ‘recast’ of the EU Brussels II Regulation sparked the interest of scholars and practitioners alike. This regulation contains rules regarding the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and parental responsibilities, including child abduction within the EU. In preparing a ‘recast’, the Commission has welcomed the input from legal practitioners by means of an on-line consultation. Many PIL experts recognized that the current Brussels II Regulation contains some serious drawbacks. Professor Katharina Boele-Woelki (Utrecht University) foresaw a number of problems stemming from the apparent reticence of the Commission to tackle complex crossborder family relocation issues. Since the deadline for completing the survey, both staff from the IJI and Asser have made some practical recommendations. It is hoped that some of the expertise in PIL gathered in The Hague will find its way to Brussels.



Distinguishing between developed and developing states in the realm of global eco-politics By Eugene Matos De Lara. Photography: Van Tran.

It has been noted that the level of priority environmental issues receive varies depending on one’s political education or culture. Needless to say, some drastic facts given to us by scientific studies suggest that we may well be on the verge of the collapse of human civilization. Undeniably, one of the main reasons for nature’s distress call is climate change and its green-house effect on our atmosphere. Modern human activities and heavy industrialization have dramatically changed the Earth’s natural course. These activities are contributing to the extremely excessive production of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and many other green house gases (GHG). Tackling ecological issues today has been at the forefront of many international relations debates. It is a global and common issue in which we all have a stake. Many environmentalists believe that to tackle this ambitious challenge, states should entrench global eco-politics in their international and national agenda. In addition, they should consult environmentalists and seek climate change mitigation in the international community to help the situation rather than it being solely a self-imposed precaution. I have always found it more accessible to dismantle an international issue by shedding light into variables that impedes international cooperation, in this case global eco-politics. Realist international relations theory questions the viability of such accords and explains the variation in state sensitivity to relative gains overlooked by other school of thoughts, and how that constrains international cooperation for GHG management. In this way, we highlight the notion of relative gain that is triggered by the scarcity of resources and the attempt of state security maximization. Consequently, states are inclined to be cautious before jumping into GHG management policies and/or treaty withdrawal (Mearsheimer 1994 12). Moreover, this economical pursuit can be seen when Vaclav Klaus, the President of the Czech Republic, gave a press conference in 2007 in favour of national readiness rather than helping international cooperation by stating: “if we accept global warming as a real phenomenon... instead of hopeless attempts to fight it, we should prepare ourselves for its consequences.” In doing so, …among others has suggested that the design of international accords relevant to environmental progress lacks the distinction between developed and developing states (Victor 2001). The corner stone Kyoto protocol established in 1997 by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) led to the Common But Differentiated Responsibility (CBDR) giving a flare of advantage to emerging economies. This principle has previously been used in the Convention on LongRange Trans-boundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), Geneva 1979, to send financial support to developing countries to assist them in reducing their emissions and successfully adapting to climate change. Today, the UN estimates between 67 and 130 billion


dollars per year must be dedicated to mitigation efforts and climate change in developing countries and emerging economies. In addition, the UN has ratified China as a non-annex “B” party with no binding targets in 2002, thus exempted from provisions. Article 4.2 of the UNFCCC commits industrialized countries to “[take] the lead” in reducing emissions, on the grounds that they have been historically responsible for the ongoing GHG levels. In doing so, it pressures the treaty secretariats to place a stronger emphasis on developing countries instead of developed economies, where the former face the added risks caused by poverty and population growth. It was observed in Victor (2001) that: “power is the first and foremost a function of emissions. China and the United States are the most powerful countries on global warming because they have the largest emissions and thus the greatest ability to inflict global harm and avoid harm through their actions.” The increased policies of fiscal stimulus lead us to believe that the financial crisis led by the United States, as a world financial leader, has other pressing worries eclipsing the environment on the national agenda. The rejection of the Kyoto protocol by the United States and the withdrawal of Canada are clear signs of a lack of recognition by the legislator and the misadministration of the economic burden these two states carry. Kyoto protocol is inequitable and outweighs the environmental benefits. I would posit the crisis of overconsumption and debt fuelled bingeing have interlinked both the global environment and economical degradation. Realist IR theory has demonstrated that states draw indisputable attention to their resiliency and vulnerability. Finding a balance between global development and global radical ecological change can be achieved by creating a distinction and recognition between developed, developing states, and the individual special circumstances to provide a flexible and adapted state-friendly strategy to attract participation and combat environmental degradation caused by green-house gasses.


International organizations in The Hague By Jhr. Mr. Alexander W. Beelaerts van Blokland, Justice (Judge) in the Court of Appeal and Special Advisor International Affairs of the Municipality of The Hague

Since the beginning of the Dutch Republic at the end of the 16th century (the Kingdom is only almost 200 years old), diplomats from other countries arrived and lived in The Hague. But apart from embassies a lot of other international organizations have been established here in the last 121 years. In 1893, The Hague Conference on Private International Law was the first one, but after the First Peace Conference in 1899 the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) was established in the same year and after the Second Peace Conference in 1907 the Peace Palace was built and a constantly growing number of international organizations started in and around The Hague, especially after World War II, such as the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 1946, the European Patent Office (EPO) in 1977,the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yougoslavia (ICTY) in 1993, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapens (OPCW) in 1997, the International Criminal Court (ICC ) in 2002 and many others.

Make the most of your stay here! By John Dunkelgrün.

All right, you’ve settled in the Netherlands for a few years. You found a place to live, know the way to the closest supermarket and figured out the advantages of the OV card. But now that you’re here, you might as well avail yourself of what our country has to offer apart from its fabulous museums and other attractions that advertise themselves so well. There really is more to the Netherlands than just Holland (the two western provinces). Do you like biking? There is no other country with such a fabulous network of bike trails. Go to the ANWB, that forbiddingly large building on the corner of the Wassenaarseweg and the Van Alkemadelaan and get a set of bike maps. There are great trails nearby, but take a train east and rent a bike (or take yours for a small fee on the train with you after diplomat magazine #1

Nowadays there are 115 embassies and consulats in The Hague, including new ones since 2010: from Afghanistan, Angola, Armenia, Burundi, Moldavia, Panama, Senegal and Tanzania. And there are also 14 organizations related to an embassy such as trade offices and tourist bureaus. Recently the number of other international organizations – IGO’s, NGO’s and others - in and around The Hague has grown immensly. In 2005 already 72 international organizations were here, in 2013 not less than 240: there are now 18 IGO/UNorganizations, 25 European, 128 NGO’s and 43 organizations in education and culture, as well as 26 expat service organizations. The importance for The Hague and surroundings in terms of economy (employment and purchasing power) is enormous. Embassies and organizations spent about 2,500 million euros per year. The direct employment in the region is almost 20.000; almost 60 percent of the jobs are performed by international employees who spent here 676 million euros per year. But the economic importance is much bigger, because all these international organizations and their employees created many thousands of jobs for the Dutch in The Hague as well. Add to all that the purchases of many international visitors and tourists of the International City of Peace and Justice year after year. a.beelaerts@planet.nl

9:00). Gelderland, Overijssel and Drente have magnificent biking and hiking trails. Drive to the “National Park De Hoge Veluwe”, leave your car at the entrance and grab a free bike to tour around and visit the Kröller-Müller museum. You can get even more information at the travel book specialist Stanley Livingstone in the Schoolstraat in down-town The Hague (www.stanley-livingstone.eu). Of course you can enjoy our country by car, bike and foot, but think HollandWaterland and go by boat. You can rent a small motorboat without license and tour the canals and lakes. Just Google “bootverhuur” and surf around. Rental places will give you maps (charts if you are particular about it) and give you the essential rules of the waterway. You can do this as close as Warmond (next to Leiden) or in most of the other provinces. There are also companies that will rent you a crewed boat for larger groups. Take a day to roam Utrecht and sample the bars and restaurants on its unique canal pavements. Visit the Hanseatic towns of Zutphen and Elburg, both beautifully preserved. Groningen and Leeuwarden

may seem far away, but here nothing is really far. Both cities have great museums and are worth a full day each. If you have kids and want something more special than a Six-Flags type money grabber? Take them to the Efteling in Brabant to enter a charming fairytale land or go to North-Holland and visit the Zuiderzee museum and the Zaanse Schans. They are living museums within an hour and a half by car that show aspects of Dutch life in days past. All three are a kid’s delight… and that of the parents too. Interested in books, those old fashioned paper ones? Both Deventer and the tiny city of Breedevoort have famous eye dropping book markets in summer. Be prepared for close to a thousand (!) book stands and crowds of book lovers. Take the train. Bredevoort is a book town with many little shops. Check for opening dates at www.boekenstad.com

‘You are only here for so long (actually that goes for most of us), so enjoy it to the max!’



The Matrimonial Diplomacy of the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg By Michael Duke of Mecklenburg. Photography: Luna Vieira.

To introduce the House of Mecklenburg (-Strelitz), one has to know that it is of Slavic decent; the only one amongst the formerly reigning German princely houses. The first time the name Mecklenburg is documented was on September 10th 995. In the 12th century at the time of tribal leader Niklot (100-1160), Prince of the Obotrites, the princely family and its tribe were Christianised by Heinrich the Lion (1129-1195), Duke of Saxony and Bavaria. Mecklenburg became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1170; it became a Dukedom in 1348. As time passed on (1621) the house was split into the branch of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Güstrow. The line of Mecklenburg-Güstrow died out in 1695 and the main ducal line Mecklenburg-Schwerin was split a last time into the branches of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and MecklenburgStrelitz in 1701. The line Mecklenburg-Strelitz had great difficulty to find its way, due to the burning down of their first castle in Strelitz in 1712, creating a great amount of debt. As it was a small state of approximately 3.000 square kilometres, it was not politically important and had only a little income. Nonetheless, at the end of the 18th century the situation changed dramatically. Duke Carl (1741-1816) became an influential prince of the Holy Roman Empire through par alliance. His sister, Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744-1818) married King George III. of Great Britain, Hannover and Ireland (17381820). Later his own daughters Luise (1776-1810) and Frederike (1778-1841) married the crown prince and later King Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia (1770-1840) and his brother Friedrich Ludwig. However, later Frederike married Ernst August (17711851), later King of Hannover. The Congress of Vienna raised the Mecklenburg-Strelitz monarch to the rank of Grand Duke on June 28th 1815. As Grand Duke Carl died in 1816, his son Georg (1779-1860) continued the line. The close family and diplomatic relations between Mecklenburg (-Strelitz) and Prussia made it possible for the Prussian Kingdom to build a railway through Mecklenburg-Strelitz on costs of the Prussian state. At the time, the latter helped MecklenburgStrelitz to decrease its debt and taxes as well as to industrialise. Grand Duke Georg’s children further enlarged the importance. His second son, Georg August (1824-1876) married into the Russia Imperial Family becoming son in law of Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich (1798-1849), brother of Emperor Nikolas I. of Russia (1796-1855). Georg August’s brother, the Hereditary


Grand Duke Friedrich Wilhelm (1819-1904) married the Princess Augusta of Cambridge (1822 –1916), granddaughter of the British monarch George III. – further deepening the ties between Britain and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. At that time, the family became well off becoming one of the top ten richest families in Europe. Duke Heinrich of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1876-1934) married Queen Wilhelmina (1880-1962) of the Netherlands in 1901, and thus became Prince Consort of the Netherlands; he is the Greatgrandfather of the present King of the Netherlands. Often the members of the Grand Ducal House went abroad for education. For instance, the last reigning Duke Gustav Adolph of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (1633-1695) was a student in Leiden approximately 1649/1650, Duke Georg August of MecklenburgStrelitz (1748-1785) was a student at Leiden University approximately 1764 (at which I am currently studying as well) before serving in the Royal Navy and the Austrian army. Grand duke Friedrich Wilhelm of Mecklenburg-Strelitz studied and became Doctor of civil law of the University of Cambridge. Duke Carl Michael of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1863-1934) studied and became Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Strasbourg. Additionally, Duchess Donata of Mecklenburg-Schwerin’s daughter Alix von Solodkoff studies in Maastricht. Studying the connections to other reigning houses gives an impression of the diplomatic relevance of the Mecklenburg House. The territorial sovereignty was lost party in 1871, completely in 1918. The Grand ducal family of both lines were exiled in Denmark and went back to Mecklenburg in the 1920s. In the period of the Third Reich (1933-1945) the Mecklenburg-Strelitz family endured great difficulties again as private property was intentionally burned down by Nazi sympathisers, or bombed during the war. The head of the house (my great-grandfather) was imprisoned in the Sachsenhausen-Concentration Camp (KZ) in 1944. His son was captured (my grandfather) by the Gestapo. Nonetheless, as the situation has cleared up, the family is again reinforcing old connections as well as making new ones.


Worldhotel Bel air The Hague celebrating DM’s 1st Anniversary Photography: Hester Dijkstra

In June, Diplomat Magazine celebrated its first anniversary as the very first official diplomatic magazine in Netherland’s history. Starting out small with only few volunteers, the publication by and for diplomats grew into the popular Online magazine (today with its glossy magazine announced since 2013) it is today over the course of few months attracting over 45,000 readers in the Netherlands and Europe. Located right in the middle of the Embassy district, Worldhotel Bel Air The Hague already has a strong relationship with the diplomatic community. Many National Day celebrations and other diplomatic events take place at our hotel. The success of Diplomat Magazine can be attributed to the dedication and enthusiasm of its team of diplomats and international high skilled volunteers. To thank them for their contribution to Diplomat Magazine, General Manager Stephan van der Meulen cordially invited them for an exquisite lunch in the Private Dining room at Worldhotel Bel Air The Hague.

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“Due to weather conditions, the event moved indoors instead of being held in our Garden Terrace. In the contemporary style decorated room, a delicious three course gourmet lunch was served to the team. It has been a privilege to organise this special event for all the volunteers of Diplomat Magazine. Everyone was in great spirits and the time between courses was utilised catching up with each other.” General Manager of the Worldhotel Bel Air The Hague, Mr. Stephan van der Meulen said. After a truly inspirational speech, members of the staff shared an orange birthday cake shaped in the letters “DM” to the accompaniment of the beautiful violin version of “Happy Birthday,” performed by Dr. Eugenio Matos, Honorary Associate Publisher and Minister Counselor of the Dominican Republic Embassy in The Hague. Mr. Matos is a former professional violinist of the Dominican National Symphony Orchestra having an array of solo concerts all over the world as guest violinist. He is one of the masterminds of Diplomat Magazine’s academic, cultural and events organizer concept, unique in the world.



Certificate of Merit to Parting Ambassadors By Roy Lie A Tjam Photography: Kim Vermaat

The Certificate of Merit is Diplomat Magazine’s official recognition to parting Ambassadors in appreciation for their outstanding contribution in enhancing the bilateral ties between their countries and The Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is also in gratitude for their support to the Diplomatic Community and Diplomat Magazine. It is presented during a short but touching ceremony at Carlton with the presence of ambassadors from different countries that


usually come to honor their peers. After the national anthems, a guest speaker takes the floor to make a eulogy about the career and achievements of each ambassador during their stay in The Netherlands. First presentation of the Certificate of Merit was held on July 2014 and parting Ambassadors from Hungary, Togo, France, Belgium, Albania, Ireland, South Africa, Panama, Georgia, Honduras, New Zealand, Guatemala, Saudi Arabia, Cuba, El Salvador and Angola already received it.



Africa Meet & Greet

Launch of the East Africa Tourist Visa By Ellen J. Brager. Photography: Kim Vermaat & Sharon Reyes.

After a brief summer break Diplomat Magazine has restarted its Meet & Greet evenings, an initiative that is ever growing in popularity since August, 2013. Luckily the weather was dry and the temperature was mild enough to use both the indoor reception area and the outdoor patio of the beautiful Carlton Ambassador Hotel to accommodate the many guests that came to celebrate the launch of the East Africa Tourist Visa. The single East African visa is the result of a strategic collaboration between the governments of the Republics of Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda, as was explained in their welcome remarks by the esteemed Ambassadors of those countries. H.E. Ms. Mirjam Blaak, Ambassador of the Republic of Uganda, explained how the idea of an East African Community already was established in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was officially revived 23 years later in July of 2000. The initial member countries were Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, while Burundi and Rwanda joined in 2009. The goal of the East African Community, which comprises 150 million people, is to create a common market, a common currency and eventually a full political federation, much like the European Union. “Karibuni” said H.E. Ms. Rose Makena Muchiri, Ambassador of the Republic of Kenya, which means welcome in Swahili, a language spoken in all five member countries. She praised the beauty of the East African region: the beaches of Mombasa, the Masai Mara and wild beast migration in Kenya, Lake Kivu in Rwanda, the safari parks in Uganda, the mountain gorillas in Uganda and Rwanda, and the night life in Kampala, she added with a wink. The new East Africa Tourist Visa now allows visitors to move freely between all those amazing attractions. It is expected that Tanzania and Burundi will join soon in this initiative to promote tourism in all five countries under the motto “Trade instead of Aid”. After extending a warm invitation to visit the region, all three Ambassadors joined their guests in a champagne toast as the flag of the East African Community was lifted to unveil a giant copy of the new visa. African delicacies, such as tasty meatballs from Rwanda, delicious fritters from Kenya, Chapati flatbread and a delicately spiced meat preparation were passed around while images of the region’s tourist attractions were projected on a large screen and displayed in a variety of magazines and folders. In addition every guest received a box of fragrant Kenyan or Ugandan tea bags to enjoy at home. The lively conversations went almost until mid-night, new contacts were made, business cards exchanged. It was a very pleasant and memorable evening for which we say “asantesana” to our three honorable hosts! A record of 273 diplomats and special guests attended this novel version of Diplomats Meet&Greet at the Carlton Ambassador Hotel.

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What is happening at the Peace Palace By Steven van Hoogstraten, General Director, Carnegie Foundation. Photographer: Jurjen Drenth.

On 27 November 2014 the bi-annual peace prize of the Netherlands, the so called Carnegie-Wateler Peace Prize will be awarded to dr Lakhdar Brahimi from Algeria. Brahimi has been a top envoy and mediator for the United Nations. On 27 November 2014 the bi-annual peace prize of the Netherlands, the so called Carnegie-Wateler Peace Prize will be awarded to dr Lakhdar Brahimi from Algeria. Brahimi has been a top envoy and mediator for the United Nations in Iraq, Afghanistan and in Syria. He also was a Foreign Minister on his own country Algeria. He is known also for the influential Brahimi report. The Carnegie Wateler Prize goes back to 1930, when it was first awarded. Mr Johan Wateler was a rich and longstanding banker with the Oranje Nassau Bank in The Hague ( no longer in existence now). He left an important sum to the state in order for a peace prize to be adjudicated by the Tweede Kamer. This taks was however felt to be too political and onerous by our house of representatives, and they passed the task to the Carnegie Foundation. Our Foundation – which is the owner of the Peace palace - felt it an honour to determine the winner as from 1930, alternating between a dutch person or institution and a foreign person or institution. Recent winners were the organization War Child ( 2012), Peace One Day ( 2010), UN General Patrick Cammaert ( 2008), EU external coordinator Xavier Solana ( (2006), and human rights professor Theo van Boven ( 2004). On 27 november Lakhdar Brahimi will in the morning deliver a key note speech at the Euro-Arab dialogue, organized by the Lutfia Rabbani Foundation in the Academy Hall of the Peace Palace. The Carnegie Foundation is very happy to work together with the Rabbani Foundation on this important day, which we hope will generate some positive press coverage. Lakhdar Brahimi provided us with the following quote “Peace is as fragile as it is precious. You need to work hard to re-establish it. You must work as hard to reinforce and protect it”. I would like to put some emphasis for the audience of Diplomatic magazine, that this prize is the only real peace prize awarded in this country. In a way, the person of Wateler can be compared to Alfred Nobel. The element of Carnegie in the name of the prize comes from the great American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, who financed the Peace Palace and made a point of giving his wealth away to good causes. International peace and arbitration were at the forefront of his efforts. He gave the money for the Peace Palace only when he was satisfied that international arbitration was an effective instrument to settle international disputes. He explained in his writings that he had great faith in the Permanent Court of Arbitration and was devastated by the outbreak of the first World War.


Orchestre pour la Paix

The well known Orchestra for Peace from the Middle East, composed of musicians of jewish, muslim, and christian background, will come to The Hague from 30 november to 5 december. This orchestra, founded in 1988, has the aim of bringing nations an cultures closer to each other. It will perform a concert in the Peace Palace for an invited (CD/CDJ) audience on 3 December but it will also give a public concert in the Kloosterkerk on Thursday 4 december ( 20.00 hours). The argentine pianist Miguel- Angel Estrella – who happens to

diplomaticnews be the ambassador for his country at the Unesco in Paris - will perform a piano concert with this orchestra ( Johan Sebastian Bach’s piano concert in F minor), which is conducted by the Egyptian Nader Abassi. The orchestra will also play the 4th symphony ”Italienne” by Felix Mendelssohn. The opening part of the concert will consist of famous work of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, notably the vocal duets from the Noces de Figaro, La Flute Enchanté, and Don Giovanni. This whole event is sponsored by a number of institutions, including inter alia the embassies of Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Argentina and France, the City of The Hague, the Residentie Orkest and the Carnegie Foundation. A broadly composed Comité d’Initiatives has been working hard to make it all possible. You can read more about this rather special concert on the website of the Peace Palace, and if you want to buy tickets at 20 euro ( 15,- for students) you only have to click the button “activiteiten” and you come to the relevant page which allows you to buy tickets via the internet. After having played in The Hague, city of Peace and Justice, the

Orchestra for Peace will continue its European tour to Paris, before returning to the Middle East. Let us give them a great experience in The Hague!

Commemoration First World War

A lot more is happening in the Peace Palace, apart from the daily menu of cases of international arbitration or adjudication. You can take part in a tour of the Peace Palace in weekends, and the Peace Palace Library is organizing from 14 november 3 december a special program devoted to commemoration of the First World War, with an exhibit of posters from that era, historic reviews about the concept of neutrality and a display of the original letters of a French soldier, which were discovered by chance by a member of Alliance Francaise. This event also includes the showing of the film “Joyeux Noel”, in the presence of the ambassador of Germany. When you are interested, go to the website of the Peace Palace, where you will find information how to participate.

1st Annual Diplomatic

BBQ By Johann P. Gies, Junior Editor.

The end of a warm and pleasant summer has been celebrated on the evening of Wednesday September 17th with the 1st Diplomatic BBQ organised by Crowne Plaza Hotel Den Haag – Promenade in collaboration with Diplomat Magazine.

All in all this was a brilliant start for this new annual diplomatic event. The guests and friends are looking forward to next year’s diplomatic BBQ at CrownePlaza hotel, which will be as sun-kissed as this years debut.

Under the initially intense summer sun, which in the course of the evening became more gentle, the sponsors, friends and guests of our Magazine enjoyed a carefully selected and well grilled variation of precious meats, healthy salads, refreshing drinks and sweet deserts in a comfortable and outstanding atmosphere. The evening was finalised by a private piano concert by Diplomat Magazine’s pianist Joris van Goudoever.

On the beautiful terrace of the hotel, over twenty five ambassadors, diplomats and embassy staff attend this great event. Vincent Pahlplatz, General Manager of the hotel welcomed back all diplomats in The Hague and together with his team he allowed the diplomats to share their summer experiences with colleagues and friends, while enjoying the great BBQ food, cocktails, drinks and appetizers.

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Do the Dutch have bad manners?

The rather grotesque ‘Day of the Princes’ should be seen as the exception that confirms the rule: The Dutch society is remarkably informal, liberal and non hierarchical. Equality is highly valued. The overall social standards seems to be ‘less is more’, be modest, do not think you are better than someone else. That is why you can see politicians appear in television shows informally dressed, no tie and avoiding every impression of tall talk.


By Dr Bob van den Bos, a former MP and MEP and now director of The Hague Political Academy.

Each year every third Tuesday in September The Dutch King, accompanied by the Queen, makes his way in a golden carriage to the Binnenhof (Inner Court), escorted by lakey’s and a military escort of honour. In the Hall of Knights, during a ceremonial meeting of the Parliament, the King delivers ’his speech of the throne’, announcing the governments main plans for the year ahead. Foreign ambassadors are also invited to attend this solemn opening of the Parliament and can easily obtain the wrong impression of the character of the Dutch society.

Equality is everywhere. Much to the surprise or displeasure of foreign residents Dutch people go to the theater casually dressed. Highly placed persons may come to your official reception in leisure wear. It even occurs that mourning relatives at a funeral are dressed as if they attend their favourite hangout. Dressing formally is perceived as a sign of status with the intention to impress other people. The informality is often also practised in shops where the customer is not king. The servant is not asking ‘what can I do for you’, but ‘tell (me) what you want’. Nor should one be be surprised when the waitress in a restaurant welcomes you with ‘hi’, suggesting you are old friends. Even in the better restaurants you can find children running around the tables. Children come first in many Dutch households, parents are generally reluctant in saying no to them.

In conversations Dutch people like to express their opinion straightforward, not waisting time with empty phrases of courtesy. The Dutch habits can easily be misunderstood. The directness of the Dutch is not a question of lack of respect, but a lack of awareness of sensitivities of other cultures. The informal way of dressing and the frequent use of first names are not seen as an absence of sophistication, but as a sign of equality. Many Dutchmen consider their own manners as a matter of course and think that their honesty and clearness is well appreciated. And, please, do not forget the other side of the coin: Dutch people are generally perceived by expats as very friendly, well organised and helpful. That is also part of our culture.


Andrew Carnegie

the dreamer By Willem Post.

They called him a dreamer. The Scottish-American Andrew Carnegie built his way up from humble origins to becoming a steel magnate. The American Dream in a nutshell. But for Carnegie it was not a dream about materialism. The richest man on earth, the Bill Gates of his era, gave away a fortune to build libraries and other useful institutes, in order to educate people about world peace. He funded the building of the PeacePalace in The Hague. In utopian way Carnegie called the new building ‘The Temple of Peace’. He was convinced that the dedication on the 28th of August 1913 was one of the most important events in world history.

destruction of almost a generation in several countries. And an enormous waste of money and capital goods in the newly industrialized world. In Carnegie’s days the consensus in diplomatic circles was to talk about peace after a war. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles can be placed in this tradition.

But was he naive? A year later the First World War broke out, creating misery on an immense scale. My answer to the question is ‘NO’ with capital letters. This so called ‘first modern war’ was from a moral and realistic perspective a disaster. Literally the

Willem Post is a senior fellow on international affairs at the Clingendael Institute in The Hague and a commentator for several European, American and Australian media

In our times there is a vivid, intelectual discussion, influenced also by the withdrawal of the military from Iraq and Afganistan, to implement the principles of ‘Responsibility to Protect’ as adopted by the United Nations in 2005. One of the key principles of this very human doctrine is that we have to invest more in averting war. So the PeacePalace with its courts is a very modern phenomenon. The peaceful settlement of disputes, the core ‘business’ of the Palace is nowadays more important than ever.

WELCOME TO THE HAGUE PHILHARMONIC Residentie Orkest (The Hague Philharmonic) welcomes all the readers of Diplomat Magazine to enjoy their magnificient concerts. The internationally proclaimed Orchestra sees to inspire and surprise you! Come and enjoy some of the most famous classical masterpieces.

Friday December 12th


Friday December 19th


Friday Februari 6th




You can order either of these 3 concerts at the special price of €25 instead of €43 at: residentieorkest.nl, boxoffice 070-388 00 333. Please mention ‘diplomat’ when you order. All concerts in Dr Anton Philipszaal, The Hague.



Public Diplomacy

a Collaborative Effort Interview Mayelinne De Lara By Aldo Rodriguez Photography: Kim Vermaat & Sharon Rayes.

A career in diplomacy is one with a vast many points of entry. Dr. Mayelinne De Lara, for one, says her first career in medicine came almost instinctively since she was surrounded by it her entire life due to the fact that her father was a pediatric surgeon. Naturally, her experiences in her father’s practice contributed to her desire to enter medicine herself, however, it was her dedication to service that would ultimately lead her to her true calling in public diplomacy.

Being a true embodiment of brains and beauty, Dr. De Lara was a virtual child prodigy – graduating high school at the age when most are just enrolling, then starting her university career early and completing medical school shortly thereafter, all before the age of 23. She simultaneously represented her home country as Miss Dominican Republic, reigning on a vaccine campaign platform that ultimately led her to several collaborative charity projects with her nation’s presidential office. It was through her charity work as a young public figure that she eventually garnered a position as Counsel General for the presidency and learned the positive impact that public diplomacy could have in one’s diplomatic prowess. As luck would have it, what was supposed to be a temporary governmental assignment while deciding which medical field to specialize in, ended up being a lasting career move due to the multiple contract extensions and promotions that quickly began molding her career in diplomacy. To better balance her

medical knowledge with her diplomatic experience in her newfound career objectives, she did her post-graduate work in Contemporary Diplomacy and Security, complemented with studies in Marketing and Public Relations. The latter three areas of studies have directly impacted her work throughout the years and now greatly benefit her volunteer role in side-projects like Diplomat Magazine – The Netherland’s sole diplomat publication, by diplomats, for diplomats. A tool she hopes her peers will harness for its public diplomacy potential. Diplomat Magazine objective has always been to help create opportunities for the diplomatic community in the City of Peace & Justice to share their voice with one another, their stakeholders and the Dutch community at large.

work. Diplomat Magazine at its core is a communal effort to help all diplomatic missions achieve their goals by publicizing their events and sharing their uncensored points of views. It aims to be a space for interchange between the academic, official, and business sectors of the Netherlands and the diplomatic corps.

In a time of lightening-fast communications and social media, Diplomat Magazine,

The possibilities are quite limitless. Members of the diplomatic corps are invited to join their many colleagues who have already voluntarily contributed articles to help foster linkages among themselves and outside parties. As it moves into its sophomore year, Diplomat Magazine welcomes its first printed edition, and hopes to continue coordinating the collaboration efforts among and between the diplomatic corps and Dutch institutions, by continuing to be a champion of public diplomacy. “In the end,” says Mrs. De Lara, “one career is like the other,” referring to medicine and diplomacy, as both aim to help and serve others. The only difference is that now she has her finger on a different kind of pulse through her volunteer work with Diplomat Magazine.

'Members of the diplomatic corps are invited to joink' a nonprofit volunteer organization, serves as a vehicle for Public Diplomacy for all to leverage. In its one year of existence, electronically, the publication has enjoyed great success helping bridge the gap of communication that once existed between the diplomatic community and the local communities in the Netherlands. This cross-cultural interchange helps strengthen the ties between the diplomats and their host country, while bringing new light to the plight of a diplomat’s


“Mutually beneficial opportunities for economic development, for example, through commerce and tourism exist between nations large or small, and the necessary links can begin to be created through publications like this one,” says Mrs. De Lara. Countries of similar economic development levels may also benefit from it by identifying efforts to work collectively on, for greater impact and opportunity.


Diplomats Meet & Greet

Venezuelan style By Roy Lie A Tjam.

H.E. Ms Haifa Aissami Madah can look back on a splendid Venezuelan evening at the Carlton Ambassador Hotel. The special event attracted ambassadors and diplomats amongst others attendees. Diplomats Meet & Greet – edition Venezuela came hot on the heels of the opening of the exhibition Remembering Caracas April 2002 at the Embassy of Venezuela featuring images by journalist&photographer Wendy Olivo. The magnificent duo of Venezuelan musicians formed by singer Elena Gil and virtuoso of cuatro, typical instrument of Venezuela similar to a small guitar, Luis Pino, stole the hearts of the audience with some guests, unable to resist the temptation of the beautiful music, taking to the floor to dance. The repertoire consisted of popular Venezuelan and international songs. A powerful video presentation on Venezuela also contributed to the successful evening. Congratulations to Ambassador Haifa Aissami Madah and her team for organizing an unforgettable event.

Power and splendor Carthage National Museum of Antiquities ,

The Museum of Antiquities in Leiden 'Carthage', present a unique exhibition about the Phoenicians Holy City of Carthage, one of the most legendary port cities of antiquity. Over 250 archaeological pieces from leading Tunisian museums, the Louvre and the British Museum. The impressive marble and bronze sculptures, colorful mosaics, exquisite jewellery and valuables turned up evidence of the archaeological wealth of this once rich and powerful city on the coast of present-day Tunisia. It is the first time it shows a large exhibition on Carthage in the Netherlands. The exhibition 'Carthago' brings the ancient Carthaginian objects together in a backdrop of images of the ancient city and the characteristic round port. Historical and mythical personages as Queen Dido and the Trojan hero Aeneas, warlord Hannibal, the Roman consul Cato, Augustus and church father

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Augustine take visitors along the eventful history of the city. The story is divided into two exhibition halls, each going to one of the great flowering periods. The first room is about the founding by the Phoenicians in the ninth century BC. and the development of Carthage to rich trading town. Gods and goddesses, daily life, rituals surrounding death and the great competition with Rome are discussed here. The second room is about the destruction by the Romans (146 BC.) And the subsequent second heyday of the city, as new Roman metropolis. The exhibition runs story in this hall through Christian and Byzantine Carthage until the seventh century, and the city slowly fell into oblivion. In addition, attention is paid to the rediscovery of Carthage's ruins from the early nineteenth century, when the Museum of Antiquities itself also played a role.

'Carthage' is open until 10 May 2015. More information is available at www.rmo.nl/carthago Thanks to the Embassy of Tunisia in the Netherlands.



Protocol is the modern currency of relationships By Jean Paul Wyers, director of the Institute of Protocol The Hague

The Dutch and protocol; it is an ambiguous relationship. For many, protocol stands for unnecessary formalities but in my view protocol holds the future. Leaders and managers can only survive with a good network and by knowing the right people. In The Grant Study researchers came to a similar conclusion; “It is the capacity for relationships that predicted flourishing. Culture has become more attuned to the power of relationships.” The need for a good network has created the need for good network management, or protocol management as we call it. A State Visit is much more than a meeting of two Heads of State. At all levels meaningful meetings are planned and protocol is used to structure all this. The private sector has the same need for meaningful meetings and thus for protocol management.

There is another reason why protocol has a future. Time has become a luxury. Personal time is the greatest good we can give to someone. It is the modern currency of relationships. For example Banks divide their personal attention into several groups of customers: retail, preferred banking, private banking and private wealth management. The more interesting you are to the bank, the more personal attention is given to you. Modern protocol management offers an efficient and effective way of managing a network. It optimises those few moments of personal contact and maximises the added value that personalised attention can bring. Modern protocol officers are vital to the successful management of a network. The classic protocol officers will cease to exist, because they put the rules of protocol first. A modern protocol officer

understands the greater picture, the goal of the meeting and even the strategy of the organisation. He or she is an expert in translating this into a different protocol every time. Modern protocol management is not only about protocol rules; it is about analysing, translating and finally applying. At the Institute of Protocol The Hague this has always been our vision and it has made us successful. The ambiguous relationship the Dutch have with protocol has provided us with some challenges, but it also resulted in a modern view on protocol.

Unique exhibition at Bahrain National Museum By Baron Henri Estramant.

An exciting and unique art exhibition opened at the Bahrain National Museum in Manama. At the behest of Bahrain’s Minister of Culture, HE Sheikha Mai bint Mohammed bin Ebrahim Al Khalifa, about twenty percent of the items belonging to the private collection of Her Royal Highness Princess Jawaher bint Majid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia are now on display for the very first time outside of Jeddah, and exclusively not in the Saudi kingdom, but in neighbouring Bahrain. The vernissage which also took place at the Bahrain National Museum was honoured with the present of several Saudi and Bahraini artists, members of the ruling houses of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, Bahrain’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, HE Sheikh Khalid bin Ahmed bin Mohammed Al Khalifa, and a few remarkable royal guests. The Al Mansouria Foundation was created by Princess Jawaher bint Majid to finance and promote the artistic talent of Saudi citizens. The actual collection is housed at the princess’ residence in the City of Jeddah wherein her brother


HRH Prince Misha’al bin Majid is governor. In the words of the founder Princess Jawaher “for many decades Saudi art remained essentially unknown. I saw a wealth of talent struggling to be heard, so I created the Al-Mansouria Foundation for Culture and Creativity to mentor and support Saudi artists”. The collection is composed not merely paintings but sculptures, calligraphy, and video art. The Al Mansouria Collection “Modern and Contemporary Saudi Art” is on display at the Bahrain National Museum from 6 November 2014 to 6 March 2015. Bahrain has an embassy in Brussels responsible for Belgium, Luxemburg and the EU whereas The Netherlands are handled by the royal mission in London headed by HE Ambassador Alice Thomas Samaan who is yet to present her credentials to the Dutch monarch. Al Mansouria Foundation: www.almansouria.org Bahrain National Museum: www.moc.gov.bh/en/visitingbahrain/destinations/BahrainNationalMuseum


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