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Architecture Design Journal

STUDIO

AIR A D e s i g n Jo u r n a l b y He n d y Yu d h i s t i r a Student ID: 551486


My name is Hendy Yudhistira. I’m a second year architecture student in The University of Melbourne. I grew up in Bekasi, a town in Jakarta’s Greater Region. I moved to Melbourne in 2010, in order to finish a degree in architecture. I did virtual environments in my first year of university. Studying Rhino was really helpful for my previous design studios. I was able to express my ideas in a whole different way using computer programs. I consider my study in Virtual Environment unsuccessful, because I did not end up with a very satisfying model, even though I could pass the subject. Therefore, I aim to develop my skills and have a better understanding of computer architecture by doing design studio air.


ta b l e o f c o nt e nt s

03 Architecture As Discourse

18 Learning Outcomes

21 Tesselation

07

25

Computational Architecture

Case Study 1.0

11

29

Parametric Modelling

Case Study 2.0

15

33

Algorithmic Explorations

The Matrix

17

35

Conclusions

Prototype


39 Technique Proposal

41 Learning objective and outcome


Part 1

CASE FOR INNOVATION


WEEK 1

ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE In recent years, architecture is not only seen as an individualistic form of art, but also a complex form that relates to the complex environment surrounding it. According to Williams (2005), there are a number of different ways to approach architecture: architecture as a form of art, architecture as a symbolic realm, and architecture as spatial experience. Defining architecture as a form of art, according to Williams (2005), is misleading. Architecture, unlike any other form of art, goes through lengthy and complex designing process to be created. Take painting as an example. A painter is given a blank page, a paint, and all the freedom he can get to express his ideas. Architecture, in terms of design space, has a lot of limitations, including size of space, the function and the form of its surrounding environments. In other words, it is essential for an architecture to relate to its environment. Moreover, unlike a painting, architecture involves a lot of experts, including the architect him / herself, a geotechnical engineer, structural engineer, etc. Viewing architecture as art is a very narrow paradigm. In fact, there are kinds of building that is not intended as art (Williams 2005), which broadens the approach, and allows various types of interpretations. This kind of approach is called architecture as sign. Another important approach in architecture is relating to its surrounding environments. Frank Gehry (2005) explained that a building“interacts� with its surrounding building in different ways. It can be passive, stoic, or it could be a passionate player. The interaction is what makes architecture different from paintings and other form of art. It has a broader meaning beyond the aesthetics of the building. A building can accomodate social and political aspects of a city. This is when a building becomes a passionate player. Most importantly, it needs to be open to interpretation, question, and use. The complex interaction behind a design process and its openess to interpretation and discussion is what makes architecture, a discourse. One of the aims of creating the gateway project is to create a spatial experience that contributes to the urban landscape. It also needs to communicate an idea to the users. These following precedent projects are a few examples of architectural designs, which reflects those principles.

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KEBONY KREOD SCULPTURE Location : Peninsula Square, England Architect : Pavilion Architecture Completion : 2013 Kebony KREOD structure is an award winning piece designed by Pavilion Architecture. As the name suggests, the material used for this project is Kebony. It is a sustainable alternative to tropical hardwood (Bustler 2013). Sustainability is one of the aims of this project. Using parametric design tools, the designers were able to create a structure, which is not only functional, but also eye-catching. With the unique structural design, the architect is trying to enourage sustainable and forward thinking, in terms of building method, in this digital era (Bustler 2013). Despite the fact that this is not a permanent building, the main ideas that it’s trying to convey will challenge and inspire other designers to move forward in terms of design methods to create sustainable architecture. As previously discussed, the architect should think beyond the aesthetics of the building. Architecture should have a significant impact, and in this project, the impact would be preserving the environment. The fact that materials are scarce and will be depleted, Sustainability is a factor that should be taken into account in today’s architecture. Like Kebony KREOD structure, the Gateway Project should convey a meaningful idea to its users. Of course, It should be able to stimulate a conversation and interpretation. 3D modelling softwares, such as Rhino and Grasshopper, will be able to help designers, to achieve these aims. Kebony KREOD structure inspires me to create a design, which structure is eye-catching and functional at the same time. It delivers a unique spatial experience, which gives a positive atmosphere to an area. These concepts will be significant for the designing process of The Gateway Project.

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Burnham pavilLion Location : Chicago, USA Architect : Zaha Hadid Architects Completion : 2009 Same as Kebony KREOD, Zaha Hadid’s Burnham Pavilion is a temporary structure. It was exhibited in Chicago in 2009. The aim of creating this urban sculpture is to encourage exploration and so that the users would consider the future of Chicago (Zaha Hadid Architects, as cited in Design Boom 2009). Again, the idea of moving forward is embodied in this design. However, rather than conveying the idea of sustainability, this project is focusing more on the idea of form. The structure is mainly made up of non-euclidean geometry, shaped like a topography map, which could be the representation of Chicago’s topological map. It’s trying to encourage the useof fluid forms, by fully

utilising digital technology that is available in this era. With the aid of computer technology, we can move forward from rigid, platonic solids, to fluid form such as this one, because the current technology allows us to do so. This is the representation of Daniel Burnham’s visionary plan of Chicago: “reinvention and improvement on an urban scale and welcoming the future with innovative ideas and technologies” (Design Boom 2009). The idea of fluid form is very important in the Gateway Project, specifically, the idea that it contains. The design will sysmbolise the vision of Wyndham City to keep moving forward.

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WEEK 2

COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE Many argues that computation has brought us one step further in the world of architecture. This section will elaborate the use of digital technology in contemporary architecture, its possible advantages and disadvantages for the Gateway Design Project, and architecture in general. Arguments will be supported by citing from relevant sources as well as examining relevant precedent projects. It is argued that advances in computer technology have influenced building designs and construction practices, by allowing architects and builders to construct very complex forms that were difficult to achieve using traditional construction technologies (Kolarevic 2003). The physical form of architectural design is always changing from an era to the other. The renaissance is known for its astounding façade, pillars, and arches, modern architecture for its platonic solids and monumental buildings. The form of architecture changes as more efficient construction & design methods are invented. The introduction of CAD technology influences the form of recent architectural designs, as well as the process of designing. One of the most prominent features of computeraided architecture is the ability to generate forms and alter them until a desirable outcome is achieved. Today, The process of describing and constructing a design can be more direct and more complex, due to the greater facility and speed to extract, exchange, and utilise information, with the help of computer technology (Kolarevic 2003). Therefore, it expands the possibility to experiment. It is even argued that to7 ADS 3 //CASE FOR INNOVATION

-day’s architectural design process is emphasising on “finding the form” instead of “making the form” (Kolarevic 2003). Today, the technology allows architects to move on from platonic solids to undulating curves, which in turn, allows new ways to express an idea. In addition to the features previously explained, computers are capable of generating a four-dimensional model that contains all qualitative and quantitative dimensional information necessary for design, analysis, fabrication, and construction, and also time-based information needed for the sequences of assembly (Kolarevic 2003). One example of building that utilises this feature is Walt Disney Concert Hall, which will be examined in this journal as well. In addition to the capability of generating models, computer architecture allows architects to fabricate virtual model into physical 1:1 scale building, for example, Frank Gehry’s Nationale Nederlanden Building in Prague, Czech Republic. The glass panels on the building were cut using digitally driven cutting machines, which translate the information directly from digital software.


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walt disney concert hall Location : Los Angeles, CA Architect : Frank Gehry Completion : 2003 Walt Disney Concert Hall, located in Los Angeles, California, is an assembly of undulating smaller pieces that forms into one complex form. The complexity of the design is Frank Gehry’s rejection to modern architecture, where “less is more” and “form follows function”. It is an expression of freedom and creativity by breaking acceptable social norms. Of course, freedom and creativity could also be related to the purpose of this building as a musical concert hall and the home of Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra. One of the key elements in Walt Disney Concert Hall is how it responds to its surrounding environments. The building stands amongst other iconic structure with cultural values. Gehry decided to break down the scale into smaller pieces in order to respect the iconic buildings. Yet, the building still stands out with its sophistication and lustrous exterior. The presence of the building gives more opportunities for social interactions and intimacy. It gives new life to a district of private places and conventional architecture. 9 ADS 3 //CASE FOR INNOVATION

Frank Gehry utilises computer program to contain all quantitative and qualitative required in the whole project. In addition to using computer program as a designing tool, Frank Gehry utilises the program to communicate the project information to all participants of the project including architects, engineers, general contractor, subcontractor, and the owner (Stanford University 2001). Stanford University research (2001) has shown that 4D model is useful to visualise the project, refine the interior and exterior scaffolding strategy, installation of the complex ceiling of the concert hall, analysis of construction, and communication of ideas. In the designing process, Rhino was actually used to import NURBS based geometry from CATIA, add names to the geometry, break up the geometry, and finally, convert the geometries to VRML (Stanford University 2001). Even though the software used in this project is more complex, the idea of visualising the project, refining the design, and communicating will be useful for the benefit of The Gateway project.


kaohsiung port terminal As the name suggests, Kaohsiung Port Terminal is a place, which main purpose is to dock ships and board people onto the ship. However, the design intent has a deeper meaning than that. Designed by Reiser + Umamoto architecture, this building is scheduled to complete by 2014. The building is located in Kaohsiung’s harbour district in Taiwan, and it is intended to revitalise the area by transforming it from an utilitarian industrial zone to a place of recreational use (World Architecture News 2010). Another essential element in Kaohsiung Port is how it connects to the surrounding environment. The existing pedestrian pathway is amplified by creating a continuous elevated public esplanade along the waterfront (World Architecture News 2010). The boardwalk in the waterfront space connects the new pop music centre, the arts centre, and the shopping districts. The place will be a very important landmark in Kaohsiung Port Terminal by giving a new life to the city.

Location : Kaohsiung, Taiwan Architect : Reiser Umamoto Completion : 2013

The utilisation of complex non-eucleidan geometry in Kaohsiung Port Terminal is an evidence that it was designed using computer program. Reiser + Umamoto Architecture proposed a “dynamic 3 dimensional urbanism” (Bustler 2013). The undulating shapes of the building is a result of manipulating shapes in digital programs. Using 2D media to create this building would have been very difficult, in terms of precision, because the building consists of angled and complex forms. Here, computer program is used to refine the form of the building, and then, all information is translated back to 2D media as floor plans for the builders. It is not clear whether Reiser + Umamoto utilises the same complex 4D modelling tools as Frank Gehry’s Walt Disney Concert Hall, but it is very clear that digital software is proved useful, in terms of communicating an idea to the people involved in this project including experts and the stakeholders.

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WEEK 3

PArametric modelling Parametric design tool is a part of computater architecture. This section will explain the definition of parametricism in architecture, the advantages and disadvantages sof using Parametric design tools, and how parametric modelling changed the process of designing in the world of architecture. The previous section discussed about the benefits of computation in general. However, in computational architecture, there are two types of design tools: conventional design tools and parametric design tools. Parametric design, as the name suggests, utilises parameters to create a form. In conventional design tools, changing the form of an object is very difficult, especially when the object is complex, because changing one element of the object could require adjusting other parts of the object (Woodbury 2010). 11 ADS 3 //CASE FOR INNOVATION

This obstacle could limit the possibility of exploration. Therefore, to overcome the limitations, one needs to utilise parametric design tools. What differs parametric design tools to its conventional counterpart is, instead of creating design solution by manipulating the model directly, designers establishes relationships of parts, build a design, and edits the relationship (Woodbury 2010). One of the advantages of using parametric design tool is the system’s ability to keep the design consistent with the relation-


relationship (Woodbury 2010). With parametric design, a designer is able to modify a form by changing the parameters of that form. Parametric design could become the unified style of the 21st century. Unified, in this context, does not necessarily mean lacking variety. Patrik Schumacher (2010) argues that unified style means consistency of principles, ambition, and values. In terms of principles, there are a certain positive & negative principles, which can be used as a guideline for parametric design. Modernist architecture is known for its segregative functional zoning. This is typical to Louis Kahn’s buildings, such as Esherick House and Kimbell Art Museum, which he referred to as served and servant spaces. Segregation of spaces using zones is something that should be avoided in parametrisicm, along with rigid forms, simple repetition, lack of order, and rigid functional stereotypes (Schumacher 2010). On the other hand, the positive principles include: “all forms must be soft, all systems must be differentiated and interdependent, all functions are parametric activity scenarios, and all activities communicate with each other.� (Schumacher 2010). For the benefit of this project, the utilisation of parametric software allows more time and freedom to experiment. As previously said, in conventional design tools, if one element is changed, other parts of the object will need adjusting. Because Grasshopper is able to overcome those limitations, it means that less time will be needed to do the same amount of work, which gives the designer more time and flexibility to keep refining the model until a satisfying result is achieved. Using the Grasshopper plug in will provide a better capability to create a form that is hard to achieve using Rhino or any other conventional computer-aided designing tool. The principles explained above will also be taken into account for the development of this project. These following precedent projects are examples of designs created using parametric methods and principles. 12 ADS 3 //CASE FOR INNOVATION


yas hotel Location : Dubai Architect : Asymptote Completion : 2009 The aim of this project is to create a architectural landmark inspired by the aesthetics and forms associated with speed, movement and the artistry and geometries, which form the basis of ancient Islamic art and craft traditions (Mondo Architecture 2013). The design outcome is very fluid, which embodies the initial concepts of the project. One of the most prominent features of Yas Hotel is the tesselated form of its external cover. The curvilinear geometric gridshell has approximately 5,000 glass panels, which vary in size from about 450mm to approximately 3 metres in maximum dimension (Mondo Architecture 2013). Using parametric design tool, the multiplication of the pattern was done by the computer, while the architect controls the parameters. Using this method, the architect will be able to create tesselated surface that follows the flow of the form. Without the utilisation of parametric design software, creating structure of the glass panel would be difficult because the size of each panel is unique. 13 ADS 3 //CASE FOR INNOVATION

Another factor of parametric design that became an advantage in this project is the ability to make changes at one point without having to alter other parts of the model. There were a number of changes made in this project, especially with the lighting. The tesselation of the surface was tested against the response to the lighting effect (Mondo Architecture 2010). According to Brian Stacy, from Arup Lighting, which manages the lighting in this project, “As the project’s design evolved so did the luminaire design; and vice versa� (Mondo Architecture 2010). The evolution of the design was made possible by the versatility of parametric design tools to refine a model and also the 3D software that handles the lighting design. This shows that parametric design tool would be the most effective method of designing in the Gateway Project, because refinements occur constantly, and the time is very limited. Using parametric design will also help to create a form that is fluid and also add a certain characteristic on the surface. I have always been interested in buildings with tesselated surface such as the Yas Hotel.


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WEEK 4

Algorithmic explorations In order to get a better understanding on Parametric design tools, I made a number experiments on definitions that I found in the internet. This is an example of a form that utilises Tesselated surface. It actually reminds me of The glass panels on the external surface of Yas Hotel. The arrangement of nodes is actually pretty simple. There are three number sliders. The first one on the divide node works to increase the quantity of the patterns. The other two are connected to offset nodes. If the number sliders are tampered with, we can see that the angle of the curves changes. Here is the result of the experimentation: I multiplied the amount of geometric patterns and set the angle so that it resembles the shape of diamonds. The result is an organic form that resembles the fluidity of Yas Hotel’s external cover. This definition will be taken into account for the Gateway Project.

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C O N C LU S IO N S With the availability of computer technology, designers are able to take a step further in the world of architectural design. Computer technology is a new media that allows more freedom and creativity, in addition to the conventional two-dimensional media. Despite the fact that there are still a number of disadvantages, the advantages that it offers compensates for it. For the Gateway Project, using Computer program, especially Parametric Design Tool is the most effective way to create a modern piece of architecture, with the possibilities that it offers. In comparison to conventional computerised design tools and two-dimensional drawing space, It provides the designer the ability to do more exploration and refinement, because there are time constraints in this project, and parametric design tools is relatively more time efficient. In addition to time efficiency, using parametric design will allow the designer to create a fluid, organic form that delivers a sense of excitement and aesthetics that the project is trying to achieve. This is only achievable with the aid of parametric design tools. The gateway will be a modern piece of architecture that will have a huge impact on the image of Wyndham City.

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L E A R N I N G O U TC O M E At the start of this subject, I had a very minimal understanding on digital architecture, even though I took Virtual Environments in the first year of my studies. We learned the basics of Rhino and briefly discussed parametric modelling. However, my limitations in computer software became a hurdle during my semester. After doing this subject, I realised that there are so much more to do with with Digital modelling tools, especially with Grasshopper. Doing the readings and doing research on the relevant precedents have actually broadened my knowledge. I believe that parametric design tools would provide more advantages than disadvantages. It would give me more flexibility to experiment. Throughout the semester, I aim to develop my skills in computer software, which would be very useful for my career.

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Part 2

EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


D e sig n f o c u s

T E S S E L AT IO N In this project, we aim to create a gateway, which is not merely a gateway, but also a structural landmark, which embodies the message of development and moving forward in Wyndham City. Using the latest cutting edge designing and fabrication technology, it will become an icon of modernity of Wyndham City, as well as challenging fellow architects and designers to explore the possibilities offered in today’s world of architecture. In the previous part of this journal, I showed my interest in architecture projects that utilises method called tesselation. So what is tesselation? The dictionary definition of tesselation is arrangement of shapes losely fitted together, especially of polygons in a repeated pattern without gaps or overlapping. In this design project, instead of simply applying tesselated pattern on a form, we are trying to find the root concept of tesselation by examining a number of precedents, not only the modern ones, but also architectural landmarks with historical values. This kind of approach was undertaken because we feel somehow limited by the range of design choices offered by the tesselation approach. Before we start our design explorations, we started to write a number of preliminary arguments based on our current knowledge of tesselation. In terms of aesthetics, we believe that by applying tesselated pattern on a form, we will be able to emphasise and further define a form, so that it stands out in a bold way. Creating a form that stands out is one of the aims of the gateway project, but we believe that tesselation does much more than that. The repetitive nature of tesselation creates a dynamic form, which aesthetic is in its entirety, not the single elements. Therefore, it is perfect for viewing from vehicles travelling at high speed, because viewers would not have time to look at every single detail to read the aesthetic of the object, instead, they will read the sculpture as a bold, holistic form. In addition to repetition, we also considered a number of architectural effect that would make our structure unique and has a distinct characteristics. With a structure that reacts to the changing environments, the users can experience different experience in different times and perspectives.

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FORM The overall form will be the first component of the structure that the users will experience when approaching the gateway. By creating a dynamic form, the users will experience two different experiences upon leaving or entering Wyndham City. Light The interaction between the structure and natural light will give different shapes of shadows depending on the position of the sun, which therefore, will enhance the aesthetics of the structure. This effect will be achieved by creating openings Structure and material The form finding process will involve finding the most efficient structure. What I found really interesting in contemporary architecture is how the design paradigm has shifted from ornamental into structural. In contemprary structures, instead of adding ornamental elements as an enhancement to the structures, aesthetic is expressed using the structural elements of the building. By doing so, we will be able to create a structure with minimum material requirements, which would be economical, yet elegant. This is one of the considerations of our design process in order to create an effective structure, without decreasing its aesthetic value.

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suburb // melbourne low density // high density simple // complex

rigid // dynamic

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D e sig n f o c u s

g at e way a s a t r a n si t io n Traditionally, a gateway works a transition of two spaces, for example, transition between public and private spaces, between two regions, and so on. In other words, there are two contrasting space conditions and a gateway works as a mark / border between the two. In Wyndham City Project, the gateway will mark the transition from Melbourne to its suburbs, in particular, the ones under Wyndham City Council. I made a simple diagram describing the changes that occurs once an individual passes through the gateway. First, I picked density as my starting point. Density would be one of the most obvious changes that one could notice when travelling between the two areas. The city has a higher level of density in comparison to the suburban area. The suburb has a lower density. Thus, the pattern of activity is more complex in the city, whereas in the suburb, the pattern is relatively simple. The diagram below shows the pattern of activity occuring in both city and suburb in Melbourne. In the city, the graph shows a very significant rise in population because non-residents come into the Melbourne to work, which creates a dynamic graph. In the suburb, the movement is relatively stable because there is no significant change in population, even during the day, and most activities are concentrated at home. In other words, we can see a dynamic pattern of activity in the city and a rigid, stable pattern in the suburb. The gateway would be the mid point of the transition between the two contrasting conditions. Therefore, i’m trying to incorporate both into my design. This is one of the reasons why tesselation is the most appropriate technique to achieve the design because the repetition of rigid geometries create a dynamic form as a whole.

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c a s e st u dy 1 . 0

V O LTA D O M Architect Location Finished

: Skylar Tibbits : Massachusetts Institute of Technology : 2012

One of the methodologies applied in this design project is by reverse-engineering a preexisting grasshopper definition. This was done in order to get a further knowledge of how a professional design was created on Grasshopper and explore the possible outcomes by applying the definitions on different types of pattern and also by changing the values of the parameters to get various unique results. The project that we chose was the VoltaDom by Skylar Tibbits. VoltaDom is a modern take on the groin vaults of historical cathedrals. The complex object is created by the repetition of cones of various sizes, with each having its own oculus, which is also varies in size. The VoltaDom is created to transform the circulation experience in one of the connector pathways in MIT. Moreover, due to its dynamic form, one can experience it differently from different point of views. This connector pathway is enclosed with glass walls on

two sides. Thus, one can view the installation both from the inside and the outside. What’s more interesting is the self supportive nature of this installation. The smaller vaults are connected to each other and transfer the load from the top to the ground where it is standing on. The logic of this project is applying a shape, on a surface, and repeat that shape in order to create a certain pattern on that surface. In this case, the shape used as the pattern is cone with oculus on top. To create a repetitive pattern of the cone, a surface is lofted to match the size of the hallway and put inside a box that bounds it. The box works as a mock of the hallway’s 4 walls and ceiling. It is there to make sure that all of the elements match the size of the hallway. Then, points are created on the surface, and finally, cones are applied.

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c a s e st u dy 1 . 0

dragon skin pav i l l io n Architect : Emmi Keskisarja, Pekka Tynkkynen, Kristof Crolla (LEAD) and Sebastien Delagrange (LEAD) Location : Hong Kong Finished : 2012 This project is chosen as the second precedent because it has a similar design logic as the Voltadom. The form consists of rectangles of the same size, which is bent to mimic dragon scales and put together to form a curved surface. It means that the project also coincides with the “rigid to dynamic” logic as pictured in the diagram below. Algorithmic procedure was scripted in order to precisely calculate each of the rectangular component’s slots for the sliding joints in a

gradually shifting positions in order to achieve the final curved form (ArchDaily 2012). The use of the sliding joints (or can also be called notches) is an effective way to create a self supporting structure. With notches, the structure can stand freely without having to add any extra structural element, because the aesthetic element is also structural. As previously stated, this kind of structural aesthetic is also what we would like to achieve.

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b e r l i n h o lo c a u st m e m o r i a l Architect Location Finished

: Peter Eisenmann : Berlin, Germany : 2005

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c a s e st u dy 2 . 0 This is a good example of how rigid shapes can create an undulating dynamic form when combined. Designed by Peter Eisenmann to commemorate the victims of the holocaust, the Berlin Holocaust Memorial shows how an arrangement of concrete stelae creates a forest of columns that form undulate in a wave-like pattern when it is viewed from a certain perspective. It can be seen from this architectural project that combining similar objects of different heights could result in a dynamic form, even though as a singular object, it is actually rigid and seemed lifeless. Therefore, the main emphasis of repetition is in the object as a holistic form, not the single elements. In regards to the Wyndham City project, the art installation is to be placed on a freeway, which will be mainly viewed by motorists. Our group believes that this approach tackles this issue, as motorists will not be able to look on the details of the installation, rather to translate it as a holistic form. Another element to look at is how the stelae help to define space through the interval and arrangement of them as well as the shadows that they cast. One interesting aspect of this project is how it tells stories and how it can stimulate thinking, as well as starting architectural conversations. This is a piece that is not merely a creative expression of the architect, but an architectural piece. In our Grasshopper exploration, we tried to imitate this shape by creating points on X and Y plane. Then, squares are applied on those points and extruded to an appropriate height. In order to apply the undulating effect of the objects, curve is used as an attractor, so an object nearest to the curve will have the lowest height.

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t h e e s s e nc e

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Dynamic surface

+

Repetition of geometry

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1.a

1.b

1.c

2.a

2.b

2.c

3.a

3.b

3.c

4.a

4.b

4.c

5.a

5.b

5.c

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1.d

2.d

3.d

4.d

5.d

1.e

2.e

3.e

4.e

5.e

t h e m at r i x The essence of tesselation that we found in the two case studies became our parameters in our Grasshopper exploration, which is documented in this matrix. We tried to make as many outcomes as possible by applying different patterns on various shapes. This was done in order to see the different architectural effect created by applying different methods. Some of the outcomes are quite interesting. As seen in the first batch of outcomes, using curve attractors create rippled effect on a collection of circles on a 2D plane. Due to the different sizes of circles, the two dimensional objects look three dimensional when put together. I suppose this is one of the main features of the repetition of pattern. In the second and the third one, similar method was used. However, the objects are extruded, which creates a series of same sized 3 dimensional shape that resemble Peter Eisenmann’s Berlin Holocaust Memorial. The objects create a dynamic undulating forms when it is seen from a certain perspective. I personally like the fifth outcome where a dynamic undulating surface is formed by a collection of strips, connected by notches. The odd protrusion and assymmetricality create a dynamic form, which would deliver different experiences according to the point of views of the users.

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p r otot y p e

PRELIMINARY prototype Rather than being a representation of our final design, the model is intended as an exploration towards the most efficient technique to create the gateway. For us, creating a physical paper model draws inspiration, which later can be applied on Grasshopper when the final model is being created. We tried to create a model that follows the essence of tesselation that we found in the precedent project: curved / undulating surface + repetition of geometry. Thus, we tried to create a curved form using rigid geometry, in this case, a square. The one pictured follows the same logic as the Dragon Skin Pavillion. A piece of paper with adequate thickness is cut into small square parts. Then, four notches are cut to work as joints that links one part to the other. The difference between out model and the dragon skin pavillion is, instead of bending the material, we created a score line, which divide the square into two triangles. The result is a sharper looking object. What I personally like in this model is how it can support itself, without adding any extra structural elements. This model represents one of our aims to create an efficient model, that is stripped down to its core material requirements, but still retains the aesthetic values. At this point, we believe that notches are our solution to create an effective self supporting structure.

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p r otot y p e

second technique In our second exploration of technique, we decided to create a model, which embodies the essential concept of The Holocaust Memorial. The model is made up of same sized boxes, arranged in a gradually shifting positions so that it creates a curved object as a whole. It is elongated, which create a tunnel-like object. For this prototype, we paste the boxes together with glue. However, in real life construction, a reinforcing steel is needed to hold it together, due to safety concerns. Due to the shifting positions of the boxes, people will see protrusions of the element, which create a stalactite-like effect. I believe that this is one of the strongest advantages in this “artificial cave� technique. This is an object that is intended to be built as a largescaled object in real life, in order to create the desired effect. By doing so, we are also trying to convey a sense of monumentality to the users. I suppose the concern of this type of construction is the cost and material effectiveness, because more material is needed, including the reinforcing steel, which would increase the cost significantly.

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technique proposal The Essence of Tesselation One could think of this technique as simply applying a pattern on a form. It could be true, but it could be false, depends on how it is approached. We think that it is merely the essence of tesselation. Using it as a guideline, we did a lot of explorations and refinements to develop our technique. There are a number of advantages that our technique has to offer, including: Cost vs Aesthetics At this point we believe that the priority is creating an interesting experience and enriching the municipality. The second prototype offers a unique interior experience created by the protruding boxes, due to the shift in position. This is the strongest point of our prototyping, which is not offered by the other techniques. A sense of Monumentality One of the most important quality of this installation is its scale. The installation is intended to be built as a large scaled object, in order create a sense of monumentality. Creating a sense of monumentality will become a bold statement of identity of Wyndham City. The repetition of elements will be able to emphasise the monumental quality of the installation. Readable at high speed Tesselation focuses on the quality of an object as a whole, not the quality of the single elements. Therefore, this would be perfect for a highway installation because the users will be able to read the object as a whole without getting distracted by the single elements of the object. A sense of transition As previously explained, a gateway is the threshold between two contrasting spaces. The gateway is intended to create an effect of transition from one place to another. Passing through the artificial cave will create a transitional effect. The effect will be achieved when people travel from an enclosed isolated space to a wide open space. Wyndham City’s New Landmark The innovative design will enrich the landscape of the developing Wyndham City. It will be a welcoming statement from Wyndham City. The development of Wyndham City is also represented by the use of cutting edge designing technology and fabrication. 39 ADS 3 //EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


40 ADS 3 //EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


41 ADS 3 //EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


learning objective and outcomes In the mid semester presentation, we received a lot of helpful feedback that would help us to further develop our design. The jury said that one our strongest points is in our second model. By using the model, we were able to represent our “rigid to dynamic� concept and convey it to the juries. There are a number of components that we could improve for our final presentation. First, the use of light could be improved by creating openings on the surface. By doing so, the users can get a glimpse of what is around them, especially with the speed they are travelling at in the highway, flashes of light would create a unique experience to the users. The experience will also be different depending on the the time and weather. Calming light in the morning, flashes of strong sunlight in the afternoon, and a glimpse of the sunset in the afternoon. This kind of interactivity would create a much more interesting installation. Without any interactive element, the installation would look like a huge lifeless object. We are also recommended to create an interactivity with the landscape. The box can be arranged to slowly decrease and scatter it in places even after a certain distance to create an effect of decomposing. After doing a brief research, I found a project that reflect this principle. Corrugated Cardboard Pavilion by Miguel Arraiz Garcia and David Moreno Terron uses a similar technique as our proposed technique. What I found really interesting in this pavillion is how the boxes are arranged in a way, so that it looks like stalactites and stagmites protruding from the ceiling and the floor. I personally like how the openings at the top can create a cave-like atmosphere. This precedent project would be further investigated for the next steps.

42 ADS 3 //EXPRESSION OF INTEREST


BI B L IO G R A P H Y ArchDaily 2012, viewed !st May 2013, < http://www.archdaily.com/215249/dragonskin-pavilion-emmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead/>. Bustler 2010, viewed 1st April 2013, < http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/kaohsiung_port_terminal_by_reiser_umemoto>. Bustler 2013, viewed 1st April 2013, < http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/surface_design_award_winner_kebony_kreod_sculpture/>. Design Boom 2009, viewed 1st April 2013, < http://www.designboom.com/architecture/zaha-hadid-architects-burnham-pavilion-chicago/>. Haymaker, J & Fischer, M 2001, Challenges and Benefits of 4D Modelling on the Walt Disney Concert Hall Project, Stanford University, Stanford, viewed 1st April 2013, < http://cife.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/WP064.pdf>. Kolarevic, B 2003, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London. Mondo Arc 2009, viewed 1st April 2013, < http://www.mondoarc.com/projects/Architectural/378800/yas_hotel_abu_dhabi_uae.html>. Schumacer, P 2010, viewed 1st April 2013, < http://www.nzarchitecture.com/blog/index.php/2010/09/25/patrik-schumacher-parametricism/>. Williams, R 2005, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Matthew Rampley (ed), Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Scotland., pp. 102 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 116. Woodbury, R 2010, Elements of Parametric Design, Routledge, London. World Architecture News 2010, viewed 1st April 2013, <http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln.projectview&upload_id=15490>.


I m a g e s o u rc e s Page 3: http://archinect.com/news/article/68055732/surface-design-award-winner-kebonykreod-sculpture Page 5: http://openbuildings.com/buildings/kreod-profile-44754 Page 6: http://www.designboom.com/architecture/zaha-hadid-architects-burnham-pavilion-chicago/ Page 8: http://archikey.com/picture/read/1192/The-Walt-Disney-Concert-Hall.jpg Page 11: http://www.siat.sfu.ca/images/267.png Page 12: http://paulmccollam.com/wp-content/uploads/hilly.jpg Page 14: http://housevariety.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/yas-hotel-interiors-by-jestico-whiles.html Page 21, 22: http://camreading.blogspot.com.au/2007/11/patterns.html page 24: http://www.veac.vic.gov.au/reports/VEAC%20demographics%20report%20Final%20 14.7.09.pdf Page 25: http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html Page 27, 28: http://www.archdaily.com/215249/dragon-skin-pavilion-emmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead/ Page 29, 30: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_nrqVpxpdFI4/TLwuIsUdWLI/AAAAAAAAA9g/ JC8BL6Qbw_U/s1600/berlin_holocaust_memorial_4.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Berlin_Holocaust_Memorial.jpg http://www.parametriccamp.com/en/what-is-parametric-design/ Page 41: http://archinect.com/news/article/72697942/corrugated-cardboard-pavilion-by-miguelarraiz-garc-a-david-moreno-terr-n


EXPRESSION OF INTEREST (PART 2)