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THE 4th ANNUAL

YOUTH-NEX CONFERENCE October 16 & 17, 2014

Let’s Talk After-School After-School Programs for Children and Adolescents

YOUTH-NEX Curry School of Education


Table of Contents

“VERY INTENTIONAL work slowly chips away at negative influences.” - Gregg Croteau, UTEC

Introduction p. 2 - 3 Opening Panel Why Does After-School Matter from a Positive Youth Development Perspective? p. 4 - 15 Milbrey McLaughlin, Ed.D. Dru Tomlin, Ph.D. Karen Pittman Panel 1 Evaluating Outcomes of Effective After-School Programs p. 16 - 23 Jennifer Fredricks, Ph.D. Neil Naftzger Charles Smith, Ph.D. Allison Riley, Ph.D., M.S.W.

Prepared by Ellen Daniels and Patrick Tolan

YOUTH-NEX Curry School of Education

Prepared by Ellen Daniels, Patrick Tolan, and Art Weltman with the assistance of the conference presenters.

Panel 2 What Makes The Magic Happen? Key Components of Effective After-School Programs p. 24 - 29 Stanley Pollack Nickki Pearce Dawes, Ph.D. Reed Larson, Ph.D.

Panel 4 Views from the Field: What Staff, Youth, and Evaluators Say about Best Practices p. 40 - 45 Georgia Hall, Ph.D. Brenda Abanavas, Melissa Gonzales-Maguiña Barton J. Hirsch, Ph.D. Keynote p. 46 - 47 Developing and Transforming Youth Khary Lazarre-White, J.D. Wrap-Up Panel p. 48 - 55 Janet Kelley Dale A. Blyth, Ph.D. Richard M. Lerner, Ph.D. Patrick H. Tolan, Ph.D. Conference Presenters p. 56 - 57 Resources p. 58 - 59 Image Credits p. 60

Panel 3 Specialized Programs p. 30 - 39 Edith “Winx” Lawrence, Ph.D., London Short Sarah Hernholm, Daniela Montes, Jovanna Sanchez Beth Panilaitis, M.S.W., Elena Michaels Gregg Croteau, M.S.W., Alexie Febres

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Nancy Deutsch, Ph.D.

Conference Chair

Nancy Deutsch is an Associate Professor, in Educational Leadership and Foundations, at the University of Virginia. She works in the Curry School of Education’s research, statistics & evaluation and applied developmental science areas and is a faculty member with Youth-Nex.

“If we don’t invest in the hours between 3 and 6, we’re both missing opportunity and increasing risk.” - Nancy Deutsch, Wall Street Journal 10/16/14

Y

outh-Nex gathered scholars, youth, educators, practitioners and policy-makers from around the continent to focus on after school programming in the context of Positive Youth Development. We heard a wide range of research on how after-school programs support the healthy development of children and adolescents. We featured break-out sessions with young people, and workshops co-facilitated by researchers, practitioners, and youth.

Resources Youth-Nex - www.curry.virginia.edu/youth-nex Wall Street Journal Article - “Group Calls for Increased Investment in After-School Programming” - http://wapo.st/1vnTtQ7html

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OPENING PANEL

MILBREY MCLAUGHLIN, ED.D.

David Jacks Professor, Education & Public Policy, Emerita, Stanford University

Breaking the Cycle: A 30 Year Retrospective on the Contribution of a Community-Based Youth Program

CABRINI GREEN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

Resource

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John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities - http://gardnercenter.stanford.edu

Cabrini Green Stats

WHY DOES AFTER-SCHOOL MATTER FROM A POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE?

• 20,000 residents, 100% African American • 65% of youth drop out of school, 50% of youth are unemployed • 84% of families are on public aid • 50% of adults read below a 6th grade reading level • Heavy gang involvement, violence, and incarceration—“every family has a wounded warrior”


CYCLE: Community Youth Creative Learning Experience

25 years post-intervention, participant assets:

> Cycle provided academic support, leadership development, and

1. Stable family relationships, civic engagement, long-term friendships, and satisfying careers

THE INTERVENTION

career awareness for youth in kindergarten–college graduation

> Programs included tutoring, scholarships for education, leadership

development, adult education, and involved consistent volunteer involvement

2. Many CYCLE participants went to college and most have sustained successful careers 3. The attitudes and behaviors developed at CYCLE carried on into the future, into other contexts, and into the lives of participants’ children CYCLE participants noted 3 features that mattered most to their personal and professional success: Exposure to new places and possibilities — “You can’t be what you can’t see”

A Cabrini-Green History: www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/199.html www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabrini%E2%80%93Green_Homes

Leadership development and authentic responsibilities Mentoring starting in the early years

How CYCLE is distinctive from other Cabrini-Green youth programs: > It offered more than academic support providing: organized outings, leadership opportunities, a spiritual center, a family-like atmosphere > There are scheduled activities seven days a week, including evenings > It is age inclusive

The opportunity to be paid as CYCLE junior staff really mattered to kids.

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At a time when only 1/3 of the boys and ~1/2 of the girls from Cabrini Green graduated from high school, CYCLE participants graduated at a rate of ~90%. 7


DRU TOMLIN, PH.D.

Director, Middle Level Services, Association for Middle Level Education (AMLE)

“ACHIEVEMENT is not simply cognitive or intellectual accomplishment.�

Triumphs, Challenges & the Bright Road Ahead: Young Adolescents, Effective Middle Schools, & OST

Adolescents: > Cannot be categorized with broad strokes > Need materials for growth > Seek guidance as they build > Look for consistency > Are always under construction

Robert Shelton, youth participant, with AMLE Director, Dru Tomlin. The Association for Middle Level Education is the leading organization advancing the education of all students ages 10 to 15, helping them succeed as learners and make positive contributions to their communities and to the world.

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Resources Association for Middle Level Education - www.amle.org/ This We Believe: Keys to Educating Young Adolescents - www.amle.org/Shop/ProductDetails.aspx?productid={B8E51055988B-4910-A3AC-97F70BDE4973} Chart - This We Believe - www.amle.org/portals/0/pdf/twb/TWB_colorchart_Oct2013.pdf

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KEYS TO EDUCATING ADOLESCENTS* CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION, AND ASSESSMENT Students and teachers are engaged in active, purposeful learning Curriculum is challenging, exploratory, integrative, and relevant Educators use multiple learning and teaching approaches

LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION A shared vision developed by all stakeholders guides every decision Leaders are committed to and knowledgeable about this age group, educational research, and best practices

KEYS Leaders demonstrate courage and collaboration

CULTURE AND COMMUNITY The school environment is inviting, safe, inclusive, and supportive of all

Every student’s academic and personal development is guided by an adult advocate

Health and wellness are supported in curricula, school-wide programs, and related policies

*For full list see: Keys to Educating Adolescents - www.amle.org/portals/0/pdf/twb/TWB_colorchart_Oct2013.pdf

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KAREN PITTMAN

President and CEO, Forum for Youth Investment

Why Does After-School Matter from a PYD Perspective?

Before the existence of after-school programs, community programs were youths’ source of support outside of the family. The advent of PYD began with these programs determining whether they were in place simply to prevent youths’ problems from happening or if they were to embrace a broader vision of supporting youth preparation and engagement.

Core PYD Tenets: 1 . Broaden the goals beyond prevention > Addressing youth problems is critical > But, problem-free is not fully-prepared > Better preparation is critical

2. Broaden the responses beyond services > Don’t simply try to treat the problem > Develop core supports and opportunities for youth to utilize program services around the problem

3. Broaden the actors beyond schools > Young people only spend 17–27% of their time in school > Don’t think of “after school” as simply a 3 hour time to focus on academic achievement and attainment; think of after- school programs more broadly to formally connect to the rest of youths’ context > Guide youth through the constant exploration of places to go, people to talk to, and possibilities to consider > Connect with families, volunteers, and community members

Karen Pittman and conference attendee

Resources

Resources

Forum for Youth Investment - www.forumfyi.org Report Brief - Community Programs to Promote Youth Development: www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2004/ Community-Programs-to-Promote-Youth-Development/FINALCommunityPrograms8Pager.pdf

Report - Finding Out What Matters for Youth: Testing Key Links in a Community Action Framework for Youth Development (Gambone, Connell, & Klem, 2002) - www.ydsi.org/YDSI/pdf/WhatMatters.pdf The Readiness Project - www.sparkaction.org/readiness

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Quality after-school programs are SAFE: Sequential Sequenced activities to teach relevant skills Active Active learning to practice skills Focused Focused time on skill development Explicit Explicit targeting of specific skills This leads to improved feelings and attitudes, behavioral adjustment, and school performance.

2002 National Research Council Report on Community Programs to Promote Youth Development: Served to provide validation of the connection between prevention and positive youth development, established official language to connect programmatic missions, and the ability to set very clear expectations for how quality is defined in a program. HIGHLIGHTS: >> Preventing problems are equally as important as promoting strengths >> Cognitive development is just one of the critical domains that predict adult success >> Effective youth programing requires attention to program quality and a commitment to linking infrastructure

After school programs are the best place for young people to practice and build the readiness skills viewed as critical by schools, prevention programs, employers, and juvenile justice and child welfare.

Resources SAFE - ARTICLE - “A Meta-analysis of After-school Programs that Seek to Promote Personal and Social skills in Children and Adolescents,� American Journal of Community Psychology. Durlak J.A., Weissberg R.P., Pachan M. www.flume.com.br/pdf/Durlak_A_meta-analysisof_after_school.pdf

Youth-Nex Graduate Student, Malachi Richardson

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PANEL ONE EVALUATING OUTCOMES OF EFFECTIVE AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS Professor, Connecticut College

Measuring Organized Activity Participation

Why measure engagement in after-school programs? > Engagement in program activities is associated with more positive academic outcomes > Large variations in engagement levels exist across contexts, within programs, and within individuals over times > It is a key aspect of program quality; important for recruiting and retaining youth

ENGAGEMENT MATTERS

Simple attendance numbers don’t matter— It is necessary, but not sufficient, for achieving positive outcomes... Longitudinal measurement of engagement is necessary to obtain an accurate understanding of program quality.

• Engagement in program activities is associated with more positive academic outcomes • Large variations in engagement levels exist across contexts, within programs, and within individuals over times • It is a key aspect of program quality; important for recruiting and retaining youth

Resource Report - Measuring Student Engagement in Upper Elementary through High School: A Description of 21 Instruments www.ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southeast/pdf/REL_2011098.pdf

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NEIL NAFTZGER, PH.D.

Principal Researcher, American Institutes for Research

Pathways to Supporting Positive Youth Outcomes in After-School Programs

70%

of children attending after-school

programs only participate for one year.

Because children spend such short amounts of time in after-school programs, academic achievement growth as a result of regular participation is very small.

However, participation in higherquality programs compared to lower-quality programs produces greater

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improvements in math and reading, achievement, and longer durations of attendance in after-school programming.

Resource

Resources

American Institutes for Research - www.air.org

American Institutes for Research: http://www.air.org

Continuous enrollment in high-quality after-school programs minimizes the achievement gap between low- and high-income students.

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CHARLES SMITH, PH.D.

SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LE ARNING CHALLENGE

Senior Vice President of Research, Forum for Youth Investment; Executive Director, David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality

SEL Skills at Scale: Positioning and Performance Improvement

Quality after-school programs cannot be expected to produce immediate improvement in school test scores. > Skill transfer is not automatic; it requires continuous practice > Focus should be on individual growth, not comparison to overall age-related norms > After-school programs provide a perfect opportunity for socio-emotional development

Socio-Emotional Developmental Indicators: • • • • •

Emotion management Empathy/teamwork Responsibility Initiative/grit Skills for action/agency

SCE is a social in vestment organiza tion that connects and innovation with talent market forces to dr ive social change. recently launched The Social and Emotio nal Learning Prog reimagines educat ra m ion as a broad an d rich ecosystem learning, anytime, for anywhere

We can measure behavior, but we need to focus on emotional cues that produce behavior. Resources

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The David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality - www.cypq.org Book - Flourishing Children: Defining and Testing Indicators of Positive Development - www.springer.com/us

Social Investment Organization SCE - www.scefdn.org


ALLISON RILEY, PH.D., M.S.W.

Transforming One Girl at a Time: ‘Girls on the Run’ Philosophy and Processes

Emphasis on

competence caring confidence connection character contribution Results in positive effects on girls’

GIRLS ON THE RUN MISSION:

To inspire girls to be joyful, healthy and confident using a fun, experience-based curriculum which creatively integrates running.

Resources

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Girls on the Run - www.girlsontherun.org Remarkable! blog - www.girlsontherun.org/remarkable

Extensive training for coaches and volunteers is necessary for them to feel confident enough to help youth and to deliver the intentionally designed curriculum.

Vice President, Quality and Evaluation, Girls on the Run International

self-esteem body image physical activity behavior Report - The Girls on the Run Program Evaluation - www.girlsontherun.org/What-We-Do/Evaluations

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PANEL TWO What Makes The Magic Happen? Key Components of Effective After-School Programs

the teen empowerment model Outcomes for the Community • Positive shift in youth culture, reductions in crime, violence, and drugs • Development of progressive youth policy and increased services • Increased economic activity, job opportunities, real estate values

STANLEY POLLACK

Executive Director and Founder, The Center for Teen Empowerment

Youth Leadership: Beliefs, Interaction, and Limit-Setting When you affect youth culture you create a context in which change is much more likely to happen.

But how do we do this? > Involve local youth in order to create this change

> Obtain perspectives of local youth of various age/gender/risk to gain a comprehensive perspective of the challenges of their communities > Provide youth with the training, resources, and confidence of their own power to enact change within their communities

Outcomes for Individual Youth Higher levels of self-esteem

Higher levels of employability

Higher levels of civic engagement

Lower levels of depression

Strategy • Dialogues between youth, police, community, and public officials • Community-building plays, conferences, talent shows, and parties • Informed youth participation in the civic dialogue

Youth Organizers Training Social Change

Planning, public speaking, performance skills

Interactive Methods

Behavior management system

There is a relationship between powerless and dysfunctional behavior • It is important to give adolescents from challenged backgrounds opportunities for legitimate power By allowing local youth roles in the program, staff are now able to: • Analyze adolescents’ community, determine priority issues, and develop strategies to address these issues with the goal to changing value and belief systems to have an impact on patterns of behavior It is just as important to work on youths’ context as it is to work on the individual. • Violence, drug abuse, sexuality are culturally embedded within high risk youths’ lives

Selecting Youth Organizers • Outreach to clearly defined area • Group and individual interviews • High, medium, and low risk youth representing targeted community

Belief System • When youth, especially high-risk youth, do not have access to legitimate power, many are drawn to destructive behaviors as a means of gaining power. • Serious youth-related problems of crime, gangs, violence, and drugs can’t be addressed effectively without the direct and meaningful involvement of youth, including high-risk youth, as working partners in efforts to change youth culture towards a positive direction.

Resource The Center for Teen Empowerment - www.teenempowerment.org

[ Resources ... Facilitative Leadership ... Interactive Methods ] 25


NICKKI PEARCE DAWES, PH.D.

Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts Boston

Youth Engagement in Organized Program Activities: Exploring the Impact of Peer Interactions

. . . . .

. . . . . .

. .

Engagement is being actively involved in cognitive and social endeavors that promote growth, not simply motivation to attend the program.

in youth programs facilitates learning, internalization of experiences, and achievement of developmental tasks. Engagement process:

1. Experiencing the context as welcoming reassures youths that they are in a “safe space” 2. Interacting with peers facilitates the formation of close interpersonal bonds 3. These friendships provide affordances: >> Youth begin to respond adaptively to interpersonal challenges that arise >> There is a positive affective climate in the program that helps to smooth youths’ everyday challenges >> Youth receive encouragement when experiencing self-doubt after failure

Resource

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Positive Youth Development Lab, University of Massachusetts Boston - www.umb.edu/dawes_lab

Close friendships within youth programs allow the building of a sense of community. Youth: >> Hold each other accountable for the work on group goals >> Exert influence and serve as role models to emulate >> Experience emotional safety >> Engagement does not occur automatically for all youth who join programs; it is often a process

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1.

REED LARSON, PH.D.

Expert Leaders:

Professor, University of Illinois, Urbana

The Balancing Acts of Effective Youth Practice

How can afterschool workers navigate the myriad of complex challenges the face while fostering youth development

??

“First...we need to

understand the problems practitioners address in their work.”

> Identified more considerations to solve the dilemma > Saw more complexities, covering a wider range of domains > Saw situations more deeply, including root causes and future impacts

2.

4 major findings

– Herbert Simon

Larson tracked the most difficult problems that afterschool staff faced in their programs. Those who handled the situations “expertly” (as identified by supervisors) responded creatively and molded the situations into experiential lessons for youth.

3.

Expert Leaders: > Responded to multiple considerations

Resources

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Expert Leaders: > Generated more possible responses > Had larger repertoires > Anticipated how situations might unfold

Youth Development Research Project - Research articles available: www.youthdev.illinois.edu Herbert Simon - www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1978/simon-bio.html

They balanced Individual and group needs; youth and adult worlds; and focused on process versus product

4.

Expert Leaders: > Had more youth-centered responses They engaged youth: turned dilemmas into opportunities for youth development

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PANEL THREE

It’s important for the adults to experience the benefits of YWLP is a mentoring program which matches the practice and to be able to college-student “big sisters” with middle school model what they are learning and teaching. — Sheri Rand,and M.Ed. focuses on vulnerable youth. “little sisters”

Specialized Programs Edith “Winx” Lawrence, PH.D.

Professor, University of Virginia; Director/ Co-Founder Young Women Leaders Program (YWLP)

London Short Youth YWLP Participant

Designed for Girls: The Young Women Leaders Program

Middle school girls need mentoring programs especially designed for them because complex

PHYSICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL COGNITIVE

Resource Young Women Leaders Program - www.ywlp.virginia.edu

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changes are occurring

AND

they need curricula designed to help them succeed as they are managing these changes.

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YWLP Program Effects*: Percentage of girls in YWLP that reported... ...improvement in dealing with problems:

82

...improved thoughts about their future:

76 Mentors Also Benefited

They Experienced: > decreases in depression > increases in confidence in abilities > improvement in appreciation of differences

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...improved thoughts about themselves:

66

*For more data see www.ywlp.virginia.edu

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Sarah Hernholm Founder/President - Whatever It Takes - (WIT) Daniela Montes & Jovanna Sanchez Youth Participants / Teen Social Entrepreneurs, WIT

Teen Social Entrepreneurs

teens say through

WIT they:

Experienced being taken seriously as a teen Had a space to use their voice to process thinking, foster ideas, and learn from others Broke through stereotypes and prejudices due to WIT’s emphasis on diverse environments

Whatever it Takes (WIT) is a 32-week college-credit program, which meets 2 hours after school, once per week. WIT works with high school teens to create the next generation of social entrepreneurs and leaders

...

...to answer one question:

“How would you like to make the world a better place” [so•cial en•tre•pre•neur ] n., 1. society’s change agent: pioneer of innovations that benefit humanity

Resource Whatever It Takes - www.doingwit.org

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Beth Panilaitis, M.S.W. Executive Director, ROSMY Elena Michaels Youth Participant, ROSMY ROSMY: A Model for Supporting LGBTQ Youth

LGBTQ youth are 4x more likely to attempt suicide than their peers; 200% more likely to engage in drug and alcohol abuse; and are much more likely to live on the streets.

ROSMY support groups are teen-led. It is critical to listen to youth needs and to create an open dialogue in formulating programs. Programs focus on the emerging needs of LGBTQ youth – the needs of today’s teens are vastly different than previous decades.

ROSMY focuses on building protective factors: > Peer connections > Coping skills and mechanisms > Family connectedness > Healthy relationships > Social and civic connectedness Resource

Sexuality is not merely a high school issue; it is very much a middle school issue as well. We must overcome the fear of addressing sexual orientation with younger adolescents. Pictured above: Elena Michaels, youth and ROSMY participant.

ROSMY - www.rosmy.org

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Gregg Croteau, M.S.W. Executive Director, UTEC Alexie Febres Youth Participant, UTEC Strategies for Working with Proven-Risk Youth

UTEC Center Participants Outreach:

Transformation:

Programs for proven-risk youth Programs have to actively recruit

UTEC helps youth to get their high school credential and obtain the job skills needed for stable employment

these youth.

at departure from the program.

Very intentional work slowly chips

UTEC activities embed principles of social justice and civic engagement.

cannot wait for youth to volunteer:

away at negative influences.

UTEC targets youth who are “proven-risk,”

Staff must prepare to be tested

particularly those who have criminal records.

Programs need not to be thought of

and know that it is part of the work.

Nationally, 66% of those who leave incarceration recidivate.

as a second-chance program–but rather a 9 chance or more program.

UTEC’s juvenile recidivist rate is approximately 14%.

Resource

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UTEC - www.utec-lowell.org

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PANEL FOUR Views from the Field: What Staff, Youth, and Evaluators Say about Best Practices Georgia Hall, PH.D. Senior Research Scientist, National Institute on Out-of-School Time, NIOST, Wellesley College

Summer Slide: Not Your Average Playground Summer experiences are a huge part of the cumulative achievement gap.

The achievement gap can appear as early as kindergarten and progressively widens. By the time youth get to high school, the gap is enormous and making up for lost ground is almost impossible.

Findings for quality summer learning program vs other programs: Students said they felt more challenged There was higher level of participation Research observed stronger organization of academic learning time 88% of teachers they feel more connected through participation in summer learning programs

86% report a better understanding

of students’ social-emotional needs and how to address these needs

93% report they feel they are better teachers due to their experiences with summer learning programs

There is evidence that the effect of program site on pre/post results was stronger than the effects of demographic factors such as race, gender, and program attendance.

Resource

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National Institute on Out-of-School Time - www.niost.org

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COMPUTER CLUBHOUSE

Brenda Abanavas

Program Manager, Geographic Liaison, Intel Computer Clubhouse Network, Boston Museum of Science

provides a creative and safe out-of-school learning environment where young people

Melissa Gonzales-Magui単a Youth Participant

from underserved communities work with

The Impact of Effective Mentor Relationships in Promoting Successful Integration of STEM Activities in After-School Informal Learning Environments

adult mentors to explore their own ideas, develop new skills, and build confidence in themselves through the use of technology.

97%

of alumni said the Computer Clubhouse was THE most important source of support for setting high goals and expectations for themselves.

95%

of Clubhouse members believe they will graduate from high school and

94% plan to continue their education. This in communities where school dropout rates are high and college participation is low.

Resource Computer Clubhouse Network - www.computerclubhouse.org

Over the past 22 years, communitybased Clubhouses around the world have provided over 25,000 youth per year with access to resources, skills, and experiences to help them succeed in their careers, contribute to their communities, and lead outstanding lives. 47


Barton J. Hirsch, PH.D.

Professor of Human Development and Social Policy, Northwestern University

A Randomized, Mixed Method Evaluation of After-School Matters

New Program: • Taught job interview skills to low-income, minority youth • Collaborated with schools

Hirsch conducted a three year study of the “After-School Matters” (ASM) Apprentice Program in Chicago, Illinois, created for high school youth. It emphasizes project-based learning in a wide variety of areas (e.g. sports, art, technology).

• Teachers in career and technical education provided the intervention • Structured exercises based on human resources guidelines • Extensive role-playing interview exercises with teachers

3 7 3 3 10

hundred apprenticeships, thousand youth each semester times per week, hours per day, weeks per semester

• Complimentary learning via brief reading and written exercises • Address misconceptions within interviews • Multi-class sessions

New Program Outcomes Did ASM apprenticeships result in improvements in positive youth development, marketable job skills, academic performance, and problem behavior?

The weakest findings were in ASM’s two highest priority areas: positive youth development and marketable job skills

• Nearly doubled the student hire rate (from 27% to 53%) • More comfort in communicating with adults, better elaborated upon their own strengths and skills Job programs need to highlight: • Building comfort in speaking with adults as authority figures and about their own job skills • Developing skills that lead to accomplishments • Focus on soft skills that lead to hard outcomes

There were gains in self-regulation and fewer problem behaviors, but no statistically significant differences between the groups for marketable job skills or academic outcomes.

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The weakest findings were in ASM’s two highest priority areas: positive youth development and marketable job skills

Resources After School Matters - www.afterschoolmatters.org Technical Report - www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/after-school/evaluations/Documents/ After-School-Programs-for-High-School-Students-An-Evaluation-of-After-School-Matters.pdf

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Keynote

Khary Lazarre-White, J.D.

Resource The Brotherhood/Sister Sol - www.brotherhood-sistersol.org

Executive Director & Co-Founder, The Brotherhood/Sister Sol

Developing and Transforming Youth Comprehensive after-school programming is essential due to the overwhelming negative conditions youth face in the bottom 20%. To know what a good education or after-school program looks like, simply visit a wealthy private school > There is constant exposure to the arts, athletics, literature, philosophy, and academically stimulating summer and after school programs.

> We need to voice the need for equal opportunities across racial and economic lines.

theory of change

> Provide young people with support, guidance, love, and education > Teach them discipline and self-order in their lives > Provide them with opportunities to develop access and agency

>> Small interventions keep youth on the right path into early adulthood

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“To truly have a broad effect on the lives of young people, it is not about replication of other programs, but rather changing the very policies that create the realities that make afterschool programs necessary.�

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WRAP-UP PANEL Shaping Policy and Practice for Effective After-School Programming Janet Kelley Principal, Kelley Collaborative by the time children reach the

Poorer children experience

sixth grade, middle class youth

3,060

have spent approximately

6,000 more hours learning than those born into poverty

Action items for after school programs:

• • • •

Emphasis of the power of youth voice Setting time aside to delve into after school research More collaboration and leveraging of resources among education and after school programs Remember that successful outcomes do not always equate to higher test scores

less hours involved in enriching after school activities and extracurricular programs

Higher income parents have spent

220

more hours reading to their children

Higher income children are

8x Children who attend preschool have

1,395

more hours of education than those who do not—most of whom are poorer children

more likely to enjoy summer learning opportunities than lower income children, affording them

1,085

hours of enrichment

Lower income children spend

245

less hours visiting museums, zoos, or similar institutions during summer breaks


Dale A. Blyth, PH.D.

Resource

Howland Endowed Chair in Youth Development Leadership, University of Minnesota

University of Minnesota - www.extension.umn.edu/youth/contact/dale-blyth/

POLICYMAKERS...

sometimes ask for solutions to adolescent problems without understanding that different problems have differing levels of complexity, which in turn require different methods to address them.

A program’s impact varies based on: ACCESS The youth’s ability to access the program PARTICIPATION The youth’s level of participation (intensity, breadth, duration) QUALITY The program’s design, intentionality, and delivery STAFF The expertise and competence of the professionals involved

WHAT WE WHATNEED WHAT WEWE NEEDWEWHAT NEED WE WE WEWEWHAT NEED WHAT WHAT NEED WE NEED: WEWE WHAT WHAT NEED NEED WE WE NEED STRONGER POLICIES and investments in development of youth AN EMPHASIS on more than fiscal resources A BROADER SENSE of success and readiness A STRONGER field that is both research- and practitioner-informed CLEARER TYPOLOGY OF PROGRAMS and outcomes INTERMEDIARIES AND SYSTEMS that support data use and track progress STRONGER PROFESSIONALS MORE EXPERTISE combined with competencies

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Richard M. Lerner, PH.D. Bergstrom Chair in Applied Developmental Science, Tufts University

w

Every child within an afterschool program needs to be understood as a distinct individual whose development occurs through unique experiences over time.

Resources Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development www.ase.tufts.edu/iaryd Richard M. Lerner www.ase.tufts.edu/iaryd/aboutPeopleLernerR.htm

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e need to understand the differences in conducting variable-centered (i.e., self-esteem) and person-centered analyses (i.e., changes in a child’s self-esteem over time). Over 90% of analyses in leading journals are variable-centered analyses. Are we really assessing youth development (intraindividual change) or just assessing interindividual difference and summarizing group data at multiple points in time? Group data are extremely limited: Constancy in sample mean levels or variances, or stability of correlations, provides no information about the intraindividual changes of the people in the sample. Looking at individual changes provides a more complete picture of how a program may affect its participants as a whole. Every youth has strength in their ability to change; it is the responsibility of after school programs to enhance the trajectory of that change.


Patrick Tolan, PH.D.

How do we produce healthy able citizens?

Director, Youth-Nex; Professor, Curry School of Education and Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia

We need to attend to the development of individual capability and emphasize the social component that accompanies differing social classes. Researchers must question their own data and theories to find more accurate answers and better solutions to social problems. Researchers, practitioners, and program evaluators need to collaborate to answer the following questions: • How do we distribute resources? • How do we address realistic program and staff quality? • How do we decide if programming is actually helping youth? Resources Youth-Nex - www.curry.virginia.edu/youth-nex Patrick H. Tolan - www.curry.virginia.edu/about/directory/patrick-h.-tolan

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Conference Presenters

Alexie Febres

Janet Kelley

James Pierce, M.Ed.

Plenary Remarks

Jennifer Fredricks

Reed Larson, Ph.D.

Karen Pittman

Carol Easterlin Freeman, M.Ed.

Edith “Winx” Lawrence, Ph.D.

Stanley Pollack

Valerie Futch Ehrlich, Ph.D.

Khary Lazarre-White, J.D.

Melissa Gonzales-Maguiña

Richard M. Lerner, Ph.D.

Nancy L. Deutsch, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, University of Virginia

Robert C. Pianta, Ph.D.

Dean, Novartis Professor of Education, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia

Speakers

Youth Participant, UTEC

Professor, Connecticut College

Department Chair, School Counselor, Charlottesville High School

Research Assistant Professor of Education, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia

Principal, Kelley Collaborative

Professor, University of Illinois, Urbana

Professor, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia

Executive Director and Co-Founder, The Brotherhood/Sister Sol

Brenda Abanavas

Program Manager, Geographic Liaison, Intel Computer Clubhouse Network, Boston Museum of Science

Dale A. Blyth, Ph.D.

Howland Endowed Chair in Youth Development Leadership, University of Minnesota

Catherine Bradshaw, Ph.D. (Moderator)

Associate Dean for Research and Faculty Development, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia

Youth Participant, Computer Clubhouse Alumna

Georgia Hall, Ph.D.

Bergstrom Chair in Applied Developmental Science, Tufts University

Executive Director, Boys & Girls Clubs of Central Virginia

President and CEO, Forum for Youth Investment

Executive Director and Founder, The Center for Teen Empowerment

Jean Rhodes, Ph.D.

Frank L. Boyden Professor of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Boston

Alison Riley, Ph.D., M.S.W.

Vice President, Quality and Evaluation, Girls on the Run International

Jovanna Sanchez

Senior Research Scientist, National Institute on Out-of-School Time (NIOST)

Ellen S. Markowitz, Ph.D.

Paul Harris, Ph.D.

Milbrey McLaughlin, Ed.D.

Youth Participant, Whatever It Takes (WIT)

President, SuperStarters Sports; Founder, PowerPlay NYC

Robert Shelton

Youth Participant, Music Resource Center

Assistant Professor, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia

David Jacks Professor, Education & Public Policy, Emerita, Stanford University

Executive Director, Big Brothers Big Sisters of the Central Blue Ridge

Sarah Hernholm

Elena Michaels

Founder/President Whatever It Takes (WIT)

Youth Participant, ROSMY

Senior Vice President of Research, Forum for Youth Investment; Executive Director, David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality

Gregg Croteau, M.S.W.

Barton J. Hirsch, Ph.D.

Daniela Montes

Kala Somerville

Ariana Morris

Patrick H. Tolan, Ph.D.

Jackie Bright

Executive Director, UTEC

Nickki Pearce Dawes, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts Boston

Rita DeBate, Ph.D., M.P.H., F.A.E.D., F.A.A.H.B.

Professor of Human Development & Social Policy, Northwestern University

Noelle Hurd, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology and Curry School of Education,University of Virginia

Professor, Associate Dean for Academic and Student Affairs, University of South Florida

Erica Jackson, M.S.W.

Kendell Dennis

Sibley Johns, M.Ed.

Youth Participant, Charlottesville High School, Men Passionately Pursuing Purpose (MP3)

56

Youth Participant, Computers4Kids

Executive Director, Music Resource Center

Youth Participant, Whatever It Takes (WIT)

Youth Participant, Boys & Girls Clubs of Central Virginia

Charles Smith, Ph.D.

Executive Director, Computers4Kids (C4K)

Principal Researcher, American Institutes for Research

Director, Youth-Nex; Professor, Curry School of Education, and Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Virginia

Gil Noam, Ph.D., Ed.D.

Dru Tomlin, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Harvard University and McLean Hospital

Director, Middle Level Services, Association for Middle Level Education (AMLE)

Beth Panilaitis, M.S.W.

Joanna Lee Williams, Ph.D. (Moderator)

Neil Naftzger

Executive Director, ROSMY

Associate Professor, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia

57


Resources Video of All Presentations HTTP://BIT.LY/YN_ASCONF

Plenary Presentations

Panel 2

Youth-Nex - www.curry.virginia.edu/youth-nex The Wall Street Journal - “Group Calls for Increased Investment in After-School Programming” - http://wapo.st/1vnTtQ7html

The Center for Teen Empowerment - www.teenempowerment.org Positive Youth Development Lab, University of Massachusetts Boston - www.umb.edu/dawes_lab Youth Development Research Project - Research articles available - www.youthdev.illinois.edu Herbert Simon - www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1978/simon-bio.html

Opening Panel John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities http://gardnercenter.stanford.edu

Association for Middle Level Education - www.amle.org This We Believe: Keys to Educating Young Adolescents -

Panel 3

Chart: This We Believe -

Young Women Leaders Program - www.ywlp.virginia.edu Whatever It Takes - www.doingwit.org ROSMY - www.rosmy.org UTEC - www.utec-lowell.org

The Forum for Youth Investment - www.forumfyi.org

Panel 4

www.amle.org/Shop/ProductDetails.aspx?productid={B8E51055-988B-4910-A3AC-97F70BDE4973} www.amle.org/portals/0/pdf/twb/TWB_colorchart_Oct2013.pdf

Report Brief: Community Programs to Promote Youth Development:

www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2004/Community-Programs-to-Promote-Youth-Development/ FINALCommunityPrograms8Pager.pdf

Report: Finding Out What Matters for Youth: Testing Key Links in a Community

National Institute on Out-of-School Time - www.niost.org Computer Clubhouse Network - www.computerclubhouse.org After School Matters - www.afterschoolmatters.org Technical Report: After-School Programs for High School Students: An Evaluation of After School Matters -

Action Framework for Youth Development (Gambone, Connell, & Klem, 2002) www.ydsi.org/YDSI/pdf/WhatMatters.pdf

www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/after-school/evaluations/Documents/After-SchoolPrograms-for-High-School-Students-An-Evaluation-of-After-School-Matters.pdf

The Readiness Project - www.sparkaction.org/readiness

Keynote

Article: “A Meta-analysis of After-school Programs that Seek to Promote Personal and Social skills in Children and Adolescents,”

The Brotherhood/Sister Sol - www.brotherhood-sistersol.org

American Journal of Community Psychology. Durlak J.A., Weissberg R.P., Pachan M. www.flume.com.br/pdf/Durlak_A_meta-analysisof_after_school.pdf

Wrap-Up Panel

Panel 1 Report: Measuring Student Engagement in Upper Elementary through High School: A Description of 21 Instruments www.ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southeast/pdf/REL_2011098.pdf

American Institutes for Research - www.air.org The David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality - www.cypq.org Book: Flourishing Children: Defining and Testing Indicators of Positive Development - www.springer.com/us/book/9789401786065 SCE - www.scefdn.org Girls on the Run International - www.girlsontherun.org Remarkable! Blog - www.girlsontherun.org/remarkable Report: The Girls on the Run Program Evaluation - www.girlsontherun.org/What-We-Do/Evaluations

58

University of Minnesota - www.extension.umn.edu/youth/contact/dale-blyth/ Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development - www.ase.tufts.edu/iaryd Richard M. Lerner - www.ase.tufts.edu/iaryd/aboutPeopleLernerR.htm Youth-Nex - www.curry.virginia.edu/youth-nex Patrick H. Tolan - www.curry.virginia.edu/about/directory/patrick-h.-tolan


Image Credits PAGES: Front Cover - Stacey Evans Inside Cover - Ryan McGuire 2, 8, 12, 14-15, 19, 20, 35, 37-39, 42-43, 45, 47, 52 (photo of Richard M. Lerner, Ph.D.), 54-55, 60 - Stacey Evans 4-5 - “3 TOWERS FROM PARK W” by Dirsmith1 - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File:3_TOWERS_FROM_PARK_W.jpg#/media/File:3_TOWERS_FROM_PARK_W.jpg 6 - By Dirsmith1 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons 9 - By English: Lance Cpl. Manuel F. Guerrero [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons 10 - Jane Haley/U.Va. University Communications 16 - By Sgt. Kevin Stabinsky (https://www.dvidshub.net/image/67155) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons 17 - pixabay.com 18 - “Cerebral lobes” by derivative work of this - Gutenberg Encyclopedia. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cerebral_lobes.png#/media/File:Cerebral_lobes.png 22, 29 - Courtesy of Girls on the Run International 27 - By moetaz attalla (Water Polo - Lake Macquarie ICG 2014) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons 31, 32 - Courtesy of YWLP 36 - By Murrur (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons 40 - pixabay.com 48-49; 50, 52-53 (photo of plant) - Unsplash - CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0)

A workshop session focusing on sports-based after-school programs.

61


This Youth-Nex conference was supported by a grant from Philip Morris USA, an Altria Company. We gratefully acknowledge this important support. The work of Youth-Nex is solely determined by itself and Youth-Nex does not represent the official views of the sponsor.

CURRY SCHOOL of EDUCATION

Let's Talk After-School Conference  

Book on the Youth-Nex Conference on After School Contexts for Children & Adolescents. MORE HERE: http://bit.ly/YN_ASConf

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