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SELF INTRODUCTION Greetings, my name is Yoshihiko and you can call me Yoshi. I was born and raised in Singapore, a dense concrete jungle with countless hidden architectural gems. I gained an interest in architecture and design from young, as I look up at skyscrapers and shopping malls, inspired by the different qualities of space offered by each and every one of them. My time at Singapore Polytechnic gave me an insight about the beauty and potential of architecture- its ability to change and influence our everyday lives. I learned through coursework and internships that there are still countless limitations met by designers everyday, be it budget wise or feasibility, and I hope that I will be able to learn how to balance design with the limitations better with my time in the University of Melbourne. I confess that I have difficulty adapting to the abstractness of the subject, as my architectural education in Singapore was practical in general, always having to approach design thinking about fire and accessibility codes. I have interned in two architectural firms, EZRA Architects and TANGE Associates, both whose designs were greatly practical and rationalized. It was always about the buildability and the intricate details, and design concepts was always reversed engineered, which in a way inhibited my ability of thinking abstractly. The time I spent in the corporate world taught me that architecture still has a lot to be improved. Generative design definitely has its roots in the current market and I look forward to explore its potentials. For now, I hope to be able to experiment as much as possible, to educate and equip myself with as much knowledge to be able to express my ideas in the best ways possible.


” The best way to predict the future is by designing it.” – Buckminster Fuller



Fry’s statement on Design Futuring discusses several issues faced by the designers of our time, such as the media focusing on the damage to the environments being mainly changes in global temperatures, weather patterns, and the melting of polar ice caps, while the more important focus should be on the damage done to the biodiversity, human settlement patterns, agricultural systems and human health. It emphasizes on the importance of considering the implementations of a design before the design itself, as well as the responsibilities of the designer to recognize the relationship between creation and destruction, where it will be catastrophic if the resources used are not renewable[1]. Many of the designs we encounter today are just a temporary fix to the problems faced today, almost like a ‘band-aid.’ Examples include electric cars, which are able to reduce the amount of energy used from burning fossil

fuels, but is unable to prevent the burning of fossil fuel itself. It is important to focus on the redirection of the design process. New systems that first indicates the errors of following existing design pathways have to be established, and these systems have to further direct the attention to new forms of knowledge and action that are sustainable. The only way to overcome the overuse of temporarily fixing problems would be to change the values, beliefes, attitudes and behaviour of the people[2]. It requires the effort of the designer and the people the building designed for. To me Fry is implying that the designer’s job is not simply to design a building, but a whole system where the population works together with the environment to create a sustainable future.

1. Fry, Tony (2009) , Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg.2009), p8 2. Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything, Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming, p3


PRECEDENT 01 Hy-Fi, The Living

Geodesic Dome, Buckminster Fuller 6

Hy-Fi by The Living was a temporary structure that hosted the MoMA PsI’s summer’s events in 2014. It was commended for its creative use of organic, biodegradable bricks that is grown from a combination of discarded corn stalks and a specially developed living root-like structure from mushrooms. The scale of its construction makes it a pioneer of ‘mushroom brick technology’. The spatial qualities of the Hy-Fi share many similarities to the Geodesic Dome designed by Buckminster Fuller. As their structural elements are all on the periphery, they are able to support themselves without needing internal columns or interior load-bearing walls, allowing for a completely free flowing interior space. Both projects are able to naturally ventilate the interior space; the Dome’s concave interior creates a natural airflow that allows the hot or cool air to flow evenly throughout the dome with the help of return air ducts[1], and the Hy-Fi’s chute-like form with gaps in the brick façade induces the stack effect, drawing cool air from the bottom and pushing out hot air from the top. Both projects endow their interior spaces with sunlight; the Hy-Fi is coated with a light-reflecting film at the top which bounces light down inside, and some variations of the opaque Dome has an oculus, which acts like a type of giant down-pointing headlight reflector and reflects and concentrates interior heat. This also helps prevent radiant heat loss. The spatial qualities achieved by these two projects through only their form is laudable, and should be what projects in the future seeking sustainability are looking for.

Fig 2. Layers of performance and air flow Source:

Fig 1. Production cycle involving no waste and no energy Source:

However, both of these projects’ unique spatial qualities and construction methods may be more suitable for public spaces than for housing. Both projects’ curvy facades make it difficult to plan a comfortable living space, as they lack the modularity provided by rectilinear forms. The Hy-Fi’s chute form can be quite claustrophobic, and the gaps in the brick walls will take away the privacy a home needs. The Dome’s shape causes sounds, smells, and even reflected light tend to be conveyed through the entire structure. Hy-Fi offers shade, colour, light, views, and a futuristic experience that is refreshing, thought-provoking, and full of wonder and optimism[2], similar to the Geodesic Dome, but takes it a step further in the way that although both projects have the ability to be constructed rapidly, the HyFi is designed to be able to be demolished and regrown. This feature has a great potential for the future, where the demand for portable, temporary public spaces will be even higher. The fact that the Hy-Fi has no fixed form or shape allows countless reconfigurations, paving the way for a more sustainable future.

1. Geodesic Domes, Buckminster Fuller Instutute, retrieved March 1, 2018, 2. Tower of ‘grown’ bio-bricks by the Living opens at MoMA PS1, retrieved March 1, 2018,


PRECEDENT 02 The Dolphin Embassy, Ant Farm


The Dolphin Embassy was an unrealized project that attempted to study communication between humans and dolphins, providing social relations between the two As the author of Design Futuring suggests, good decisions require the people making them to be critically informed[1]. Doug Michels, the one who envisioned this project, spent one and a half years with both captive and wild dolphins[2], trying to study their behavior and understand their needs. He looked to design something for both humans and dolphins, which was novel in the time of the project’s conception. Evidence of his studies can be seen from some of the plans of the Embassy. Different types of ways to interact with dolphins can be seen from the plan, the cetacean pool, where humans can interact directly with the dolphins, the deck, for the shyer people who wish to simply observe from afar. The plan takes into consideration the dolphins as well as it is connected directly to the sea, which allows them to visit as and when they wish.

Fig 1. Spatial Planning of the Dolphin Embassy Source:

Similar to what Design Futuring suggests, people should have greater power in deciding the forms of environments in which they wish to live[3]. The design here bestows people an abundance of options for them to decide how they would like to interact and learn from the dolphins. Michels also explored the idea about how because the Embassy can be a incorporated into a floating city, which will not be bound by any national borders. People will be able to gather and discuss important issues of the day, without being bound by something as trivial as their sovereignty[4]. He was looking not simply at designing an education centre for humans and dolphins, but an entire ecosystem, with novel ways of living for the future.

Fig 2. Layers of performance and air flow Source:

Even though it was designed in the 1970s, where rapid urban developments were still going on, Michels already look to environmentally friendly ways of powering its systems using solar energy, and constructing it with asbestos cement, which is a long lasting material. Sustain-ability is a habit that must be fostered in future generations, that is by changing the way people experience the environment, and that will certainly be an outcome of this project if it is ever realized.

1. Fry, Tony (2009) , Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg.2009), p12 2. Cue the Dolphin Embassy, retrieved 1 March 2018, 3. Fry (2009), Design Futuring, p12 4. Dolphin Embassy, Hidden Architecture, retrieved 1 March 2018,



To understand the benefits of Computational Design one has to be familiar with Computerization. While both are similar in a way that they allow the generation of forms, there is a difference in how the forms are conceived. Computerization requires the form to have already been visualized in the designer’s mind, and allows them to be easily translated into a medium that will allow the designer to communicate with the clients and contractors. Computational Design on the other hand is more of the communication between the designer and the computer, with algorithms and parameters as the ‘language’. The designer would have a design goal in mind, which he inputs to the computer to achieve form. This type of design mimics nature’s evolutionary approach to design. As these forms are generated parametrically using cloud

computing, the software is capable of exploring all the possible permutations of a solution, quickly generating design alternatives through the parameters, such as materiality, building methodology and cost constraints [1]. They are able to conceive forms that the designer would have trouble visualizing in the first place. Fry’s writing talks about how our current conception of architecture is a ‘defuturing’ condition’[2], as the current building methodologies bring about negative impacts on the environment. However, Computational Design has the capability of redefining these methodologies. The growing capabilities for scripting the algorithms of a mediated variability that can be selectively studied for performative behaviours such as energy and structural performance offered by Computational Design[3] can very well symbolize the dawn of a new architectural movement.

1. Generative Design, retrieved March 8 2018, 2. Fry, Tony (2009) , Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg.2009), p16 3. Oxman, Rivka & Oxman, Robert, Theories of Digital Architecture (New York: Routledge, 2014), p7

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Fig 1. The Rubick’s Cube, an example of problem-solving behaviour vs The Venerable Tentagram puzzle, a form of puzzle-making design paradigm Source: Yehuda E. Kaley, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided-Design (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2004), p14-15

The traditional workflow of computerization resembles the paradigm of design of problem solving in Kalay’s work, where the desired effects of some intellectual endeavour are stated in the form of goals and constraints at the outset. The goal is clear from the beginning, and every move can be evaluated for its progress toward that state[4]. However, such a workflow often leads to the trap of the designer falling back on ‘compositional devices’, or styles which they are comfortable with, resulting in the original goal being downsized and easy to achieve. Computation falls under the category of puzzle making in Kalay’s statement. As the goals are not specified at the start, they must be broken up and developed at each stage of the design process. The additional information needed to complete the goals statement must either be invented as part of the search for the solution or adapted from general precedents[5]. This gives the designer the ability look back and reassess the generated results, allowing him to work towards an optimized decision in the end.










3. Yehuda E. Kaley, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided-Design (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2004), p14 4. Yehuda E. Kaley, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided-Design (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2004), p15


PRECEDENT 03 The Highway Studio, Kokkugia, Roland Snooks

The Highway Studio is a studio project by Roland Snooks of Kokkugia, with goals to explore the negotiation of excess and necessity. The studio shifts from the conventional way of bridge construction- thinking about the structure,


followed by the finishes and then aesthetic touches. Utilizing algorithmic design and digital fabrication techniques, an organic looking bridge is formed, seemingly grown out of the ground itself.

Fig 1. Section of the Highway Source:

The project showcases the potential of Design Computation and the impact it may have in the future. It encourages the notion of re-imagining of the current methods of construction, closing gaps in which we design and the way which objects are fabricated and assembled[1]. In this project, the three main components of a bridge the structure, finish and aesthetic touches, are fused into a single entity. The intricate geometries, patterns and organization that were generated by Design Computation resembles the roots of a tree, stretching across the landscape and providing connections throughout.

The designers further explored the functionalities of the form that is offered beyond structure, such as its potential to be a form of housing and shelter, or acoustic barriers from the sounds generated from the highway itself[2]. This constant reassessing of the values of the form generated by algorithms, coupled with the project’s nature and form which enables architects and designers to think evocatively and creatively about the way in which they engage with other disciplines, industries and professions, including robotics, construction, computer science, manufacturing, policy-making, and the material sciences[3], further exhibits the prospect of Design Computation being a driving force in future design.

Fig 2. Possible Spatial Configurations Source:

1. RMIT Highway Studio, Directed by Roland Snooks, retrieved March 8 2018, 2. RMIT Highway Studio, Directed by Roland Snooks, retrieved March 8 2018, 3. Design Computation Lab UCL, Philosophy, retrieved March 8 2018,


PRECEDENT 04 Fibonacci’s Mashrabiya, Nerri Oxman

The Fibonacci’s Mashrabiya is a great example of how Design Computation can be humanised in a way that the form conceived is not just generated using algorithms and parametrics, but with references to ancient cultures. In this case, the project takes inspiration from the Mashrabiya, a spiritual, decorative, and functional architectural element that merges the form and function of the Islamic window screen with a conventional jalousie, taking on the materiality of local culture. In its multicultural symbolism and formal references, the project performs as a multicultural signifier connecting multiple histories and geographies into a dynamic spatial experience[1]. The geometries of the ancient art is fused with some of nature’s patterns and proportions such as the Fibonacci Sequence, resulting in a futuristic, organic form that is

Fig 1. Fibonacci Shell Sketch Source:

visually relatable to the past. Design Computation in this case not only helps to shape the form, but pushes it to directly influence the environments the product sits in. By modulating the size, thickness, density and overall organization of the pattern, different environmental effects can be achieved such as controlling the orientation of light and the movement of air through the pores[2]. This innovative method of utlizing Generative Design while taking reference to a local context like the Fibonacci’s Mashrabiya can also be integrated into the Em(bee)sy, where the project will be aiming to foster the relationships between not just humans and bees, but the entirety of the site of Merri Creek. The ability to tweak and adjust various portions of the form to relate and respond to different users is paramount to the project’s integration to the site.

Fig 2. Traditional Mashrabiya Facade Configuration Source:

1. Azra Akšamija, Mashrabiya, 2013, retrieved Mar 8, 2018, 2. Fibonacci’s Mashbaiya, Neri Oxman, retrieved Mar 8, 2018,




Architects and designers seem to be in the middle of an ‘identity crisis’ now. They strive to design the most sustainable environments for the people, but the methods of doing so are dispersed infinitely and indefinitely between the spectrum of Computation and Computerization. Practices are actively looking for ways to integrate Computational Design into their works, such as large firms like Fosters + Partners having a team of Computational Consultants[1], or smaller firms hiring specialised Computational agencies to optimize their designs. Many people commented on how this is no different from hiring a model making or image rendering company to beautify a building, but I am convinced that this is simply a small step to the final goal of a truly sustainable future. Many of the readings discussed how parametric and algorithmic designs are able to adjust and provide the optimal environments for users when the parameters are input accurately for the computer to work its magic, and I feel that the limiting factor now is the method in which the parameters are abstracted, hence I agree with what many of the firms are doing now. They have to push the

of what parametricism has to offer, and integrate different types of technologies in order to realize its true potential. Of course, the ideal environment cannot exist with just the building. As Fry stated in Design Futuring about redirective practice for a sustainable future, it is not concensual, it is particupatory[2], it can take the energy from the existing momentum of a particular force and bring it to a means of change. The users have to actively contribute and provide performance feedback in order for the computer to generate the change to the environment. In a way, getting this ‘feedback’ is one of the parameters that is difficult to obtain and input for the computer to adapt. In this sense, the architect may have yet more roles to play in the future. When architects truly have mastery over parametricism, where the building itself relates to the users and the surroundings, and in return the users provides the building with feedbacks for it to adapt to changes, I believe we will truly have moved on from being ‘disc jockeys’, who simply choose what they feel is the best combination of ideas, to actual ‘composers’, who narrates and directs an entire orchestra.

1. Peters, Brady (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, p10 2. Fry, Tony (2009) , Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg.2009), p14


In the Arab World Institute by Jean Nouvel, the shutters on the facade respond to the amount light through sensors, which will expand or contract to provide the ideal lighting for the interiors. This project is one of the many examples of how architecture can be integrated with technology, with the clear definition of what the ‘parameters’ may be, in order for the end product to effectively respond to them. Fig 1. Facade of the Arab World Institute Source:

Centre Pompidou-Metz by Shigeru Ban is an interesting way of employing Computational Design. The roof structure is made entirely of a hexagonal grid of wood, which relates back as a symbol of France[3], similar to the Fibonacci’s Mashradiya, where it is restraining the parametric form from being too ‘alien’ to the site. The novel idea of using wood as structure in such a large scale was made possible with parametricism assessing its capabilities and pushing the material to its limits, which is vital to the development to this kind of design methodology. Fig 2. Overview of Centre Pompidou-Metz Source:

On a side note, there are some practices who utilize Computational Design simply as a way of generating new forms. They fall into a trap where they stop when they achieve a somewhat interesting form, and from there proceed to add ‘sustainable claddings’ such as rainwater harvesting systems and eco-friendly air conditioners. This I feel is not utilizing the potential of generative design, as this kind of ‘sustainability’ can be achieved without using parametric software. I feel that the buildings we design should respond further than simply aesthetics and a warped perception of sustainability. They have to integrate the entire environment and give back what it took from the Earth, either by innovative means of construction or a form that truly fosters the relationships among the occupants of the entire ecosystem around.

Fig 3. City of Dreams Hotel Source:

3. Centre Pompidou-Metz, Interview with Shigeru Ban, retrieved Mar 15,


PRECEDENT 05 Silk Pavilion, MIT Media Lab


Fig 1. Silkworm weaving composition under different stimulations Source:

The Silk Pavilion itself in my opinion felt very ‘sculptural’ in nature, as at first sight it is seens to simply take the behaviour of how silkworms spun their silk and translating it directly into panels. What was interesting and informative for me was the process where the silkworms were studied and the way they spun their threads. The silkworms were affected by spatial and environmental conditions including geometrical density as well as variation in natural light and heat[1], which affected the composition of the weaves. Oxman was able to control the material properties of the pavilion in much the same way an architect would specify a certain type of steel to use in a building[2]. This study relates back to the limitations of generative design, where the difficulty of obtaining the parameters to input into the computer inhibits its ability to generate the desired outcomes. But in this case, the parameters were concise, able to be generated and controlled at will, resulting in a comprehensive study of the resulting form.

I was hoping that they can further take the study of these patterns and run the patterns through different materials and under different surrounding conditions, such as timber/wood in relation to moisture and perhaps even sound, and also explore how the weaving pattern can be manually adjusted to adapt to said situations. Perhaps in an architectural context, the weaves can be the facade of a building, with its openings and configurations controlled by a machine, able to respond to the environmental changes the way silkworms do, and perhaps even receive some input parameters from the user himself, if he wants to adjust the facade to an environment according to his needs. In a way, the process itself felt very generative. What was meant to be a study of the silkworms’ movements led to the discovery of several behavioural patterns, which can further be translated as parameters and input to the computer, and in return these can lead to new innovations in parametric design.

1. Silk Pavilion, MIT Media Lab, retrieved Mar 15 2018, 2. A Mind-Blowing Dome Made by 6500 Computer-Guided Silkworms, Joseph Flaherty, retrieved Mar 15 2018,


A.4. CONCLUSION Over the course of a few decades, Computational Design has integrated itself in the design process. Computers, which were once tools which allowed designers to effectively represent their ideas, now stand alongside them to create new ideas. The precedent studies allocated discussed how human and computer together are able to create novelties which the outdated way of thinking will never be able to achieve. The architect, whose job used to be knowing a familiar set of ideas and applying them in the most suitable situation, now has to be well informed of the project requirements, site issues. He needs to have a clear goal in mind so that he can work together with the computer to generate the optimal results for a particular project. Computational Design allows the architect to move beyond the conventional ways of construction, to explore new ways of integrating the building into the surrounding environment, creating a symbiotic relationship between the design process and developing technologies[1], paving the way for a more sustainable future. As many of the methods of Computational Design that were discussed in lectures started by studying the characteristics of some forms of nature, it enables us to take a step further in understanding it, and perhaps even communicate with it in the near future. As we move on with the Em(bee)sy studio, I will try my best to incorporate all these ideas into the design, taking into account the ideas Design Futuring has stated. I will first need to study more about the site, getting as much information as possible not just about the site, but ways in which how the site can be improved and how the Em(bee)sy will be able to do that. These will act as the ‘parametric inputs’ for my design and hopefully generate a design that will contribute to the vibrancy of the site.

1. Oxman, Rivka & Oxman, Robert, Theories of Digital Architecture (New York: Routledge, 2014), p5


A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES Before learning about Computational Design, I had the impression of parametricism and algorithmic design being very pretentious, trying to be different for the sake of being different, with computers generating forms trying to imitate natural patterns, which were no different than what Louis Sullivan’s style of studying and applying natural proportions into facades. However, after gaining insight into the current architectural political climate we are in, through some precedent studies, such as the way the RMIT Highway strives to break away from the conventional ways of building a bridge, employing parametrics to unify the structure, finishes and aesthetics while introducing new functions to a bridge, the notion of the Fibonacci’s Mashrabiya trying to relate itself back to traditional contexts while exploring the new, and the ability of the Silk Pavilion to ‘control’ the variables and achieve desirable outcomes, I learned that Computational Design still has a long way to go, and all of these precedent studies are small steps taken in the right direction to fully realizing the capabilities of Computational Design. I could have used parametric design in my final year project in Singapore Polytechnic. It involved designing a community hub for a neighbourhood. My concept focused on introducing modern elements to a historic site, while retaining some of its elements so the elderly residents can accept and adapt into it. As it was located between a bustling road and a quiet neighbourhood, pedestrian traffic had to be taken into consideration. I could have used parametric design here to study some of the patterns people used to walk on the site, and perhaps moulded an optimal form that was able to look more inviting, in contrast to the current sharp angles and planes.

Fig 1. Section Perspective of my year 3 project, showing how human traffic was channelled throughout the building


A.6. BIBLIOGRAPHY A1: - Fry, Tony (2009) , Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg.2009), p8-p12 - Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything, Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming, p3 - Geodesic Domes, Buckminster Fuller Instutute, retrieved March 1, 2018, - Tower of ‘grown’ bio-bricks by the Living opens at MoMA PS1, retrieved March 1, 2018, - Cue the Dolphin Embassy, retrieved 1 March 2018, - Dolphin Embassy, Hidden Architecture, retrieved 1 March 2018,

A1 Images

Cover Image (Hy-Fi) - Cover Image (Geodesic Dome) - Cover Image (The Dolphin Embassy) - Fig 1-2 - Fig 3-4 -


- Generative Design, retrieved March 8 2018, - Fry, Tony (2009) , Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg.2009), p16 - Oxman, Rivka & Oxman, Robert, Theories of Digital Architecture (New York: Routledge, 2014), p5 - Yehuda E. Kaley, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided-Design (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2004), p14 - Yehuda E. Kaley, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided-Design (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2004), p15 - RMIT Highway Studio, Directed by Roland Snooks, retrieved March 8 2018, - Design Computation Lab UCL, Philosophy, retrieved March 8 2018, - Azra Akšamija, Mashrabiya, 2013, retrieved Mar 8, 2018, - Fibonacci’s Mashbaiya, Neri Oxman, retrieved Mar 8, 2018,

A2 Images

Cover Image (RMIT Highway) - Cover Image (Fibonacci’s Mashrabiya - Figure 1 - Yehuda E. Kaley, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided-Design (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2004), p14-15 Figure 2 - Figure 3.1 - Figure 3.2 -


- Peters, Brady (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, p10 - Fry, Tony (2009) , Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg.2009), p14 - Centre Pompidou-Metz, Interview with Shigeru Ban, retrieved Mar 15, - Silk Pavilion, MIT Media Lab, retrieved Mar 15 2018, - A Mind-Blowing Dome Made by 6500 Computer-Guided Silkworms, Joseph Flaherty, retrieved Mar 15 2018, your-next-3-d-printer-might-be-filled-with-worms/

A3 Images:

Cover Image (Silk Pavilion) - Cover Image (Close up of joints) - Cover Image (Silkworms at work) - Figure 1.2 - Figure 1.3 - Figure 2.1 -


- Oxman, Rivka & Oxman, Robert, Theories of Digital Architecture (New York: Routledge, 2014), p5















Task 1.2 | Families and Iterations





Task 1.3 | 2D Triangulation POLLINATION BEHAVIOUR









Task 1.4 | 3D Triangulation TWIST


Proximity 3D

Delaunay Mesh

Delaunay Edges




Proximity 3D

Delaunay Mesh

Delaunay Edges




Proximity 3D

Delaunay Mesh

Delaunay Edges


Interesting to see how the pipes seem to converge and point upwards in general



Proximity 3D

Delaunay Mesh

Delaunay Edges

Cascading geometries give off a visual similar to bee hives, could have more potential of the geometries are more controlled

Pointed meshes intersecting where the curves should be. Resembles grass more than bees.

Stacking geometries structurally stable





Similar to previous one, but the piped curves create an interesting formation similar to mountains


Task 2 | Morph and BoxMorph CAVE

Waved Surface

Twisted Surface

Blob Surface


Testing to see how the modules are stretched and bent

Studying stretching and bending of the module at a gradient. Similar to the waved surface, but the openings point to the direction where the blob ends 32

Studying what happens when many modules clash and twist at a point. Quite messy as there was too much twisting on the surface, causing the modules to overlap

Interesting to see how the ‘cave’ focuses in the center when pointing inward and expands its view when pointing outward


Waved Surface

Twisted Surface

Mirrored Curve


The narrow top opening and wide bottom opening have opposite reactions when sitting on a curve; the narrow openings dilate at the top while the wide openings become narrower

Interesting to see how the cones lose their intended shape towards the middle where they converge and twist

Studying the space in the middle where all modules are facing

The twisting of the surface causes cones facing both ways to be occupying the same space



Waved Surface

Blob Surface

Twisting Surface


Not much change to the modules other than stretching. Shape seems uniform overall

Similar to the Blob Surface, but this has slightly better proportions


The modules converge together when the surface caves in, however they overlap one another, making it quite messy

It was interesting to see the modules converge at a center point, making them seem all connected together unlike the previous iterations, where each branch module is by itself


Task 3.1 | Leaf Venation, Koch Curve, Rep-tile


Continuous downscaling and fractalling of the veins until they form areolas, then apply kill distance


Continuous multiplication of amount, but division of length of original shape



Initial module. Rep-4 geometry: Triangle, Rectangle, Square, Parallelogram, Rhombus Rep-5 geometry: Right angle triangle with side lengths 1:2

Divide inidial module according to reps

Inflate along sides

Divide inflated module

Inflate until happy with amount


Task 3.2 | Fractal Pattern Sketching


Clusters: 3

Clusters: 4

PFrames: 1

PFrames: 1

Angle of

Angle of

Rotation: 0

Rotation: 0

Angle of

Angle of

Rotation: 1.57

Rotation: 1.89

Angle of

Angle of

Rotation: 2.6

Rotation: 3.7

Angle of

Angle of

Rotation: 6.29

Rotation: 3.125

Clusters: 2

Clusters: 2

PFrames: 3

Angle of Rotation: 0

Angle of Rotation: 0

Pframes: 3

Angle of Rotation: 4.8

Pframes: 4

Angle of Rotation: 9.3

Pframes: 3

Angle of Rotation: 10 Pframes: 10

Pframes: 4 39

Task 3.3 | Rep-Tile Recursion



Task 3.4 | Obscuring Voronoi

Nurb Pipes

Nurb Caps

Middle Point to Offset Points Pipes

Middle Point to Offset Points Extrude


Studio Air Journal  
Studio Air Journal